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Sample records for trace profiler based

  1. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 212-223 (2010)). The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  2. Portable long trace profiler: Concept and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter; Sostero, Giovanni; Cocco, Daniele

    2001-08-01

    Since the early development of the penta-prism long trace profiler (LTP) and the in situ LTP, and following the completion of the first in situ distortion profile measurements at Sincrotrone Trieste (ELETTRA) in Italy in 1995, a concept was developed for a compact, portable LTP with the following characteristics: easily installed on synchrotron radiation beam lines, easily carried to different laboratories around the world for measurements and calibration, convenient for use in evaluating the LTP as an in-process tool in the optical workshop, and convenient for use in temporarily installation as required by other special applications. The initial design of a compact LTP optical head was made at ELETTRA in 1995. Since 1997 further efforts to reduce the optical head size and weight, and to improve measurement stability have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This article introduces the following solutions and accomplishments for the portable LTP: (1) a new design for a compact and very stable optical head, (2) the use of a small detector connected to a laptop computer directly via an enhanced parallel port, and there is no extra frame grabber interface and control box, (3) a customized small mechanical slide that uses a compact motor with a connector-sized motor controller, and (4) the use of a laptop computer system. These solutions make the portable LTP able to be packed into two laptop-size cases: one for the computer and one for the rest of the system.

  3. Portable long trace profiler: Concept and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter; Sostero, Giovanni; Cocco, Daniele

    2001-01-01

    Since the early development of the penta-prism long trace profiler (LTP) and the in situ LTP, and following the completion of the first in situ distortion profile measurements at Sincrotrone Trieste (ELETTRA) in Italy in 1995, a concept was developed for a compact, portable LTP with the following characteristics: easily installed on synchrotron radiation beam lines, easily carried to different laboratories around the world for measurements and calibration, convenient for use in evaluating the LTP as an in-process tool in the optical workshop, and convenient for use in temporarily installation as required by other special applications. The initial design of a compact LTP optical head was made at ELETTRA in 1995. Since 1997 further efforts to reduce the optical head size and weight, and to improve measurement stability have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This article introduces the following solutions and accomplishments for the portable LTP: (1) a new design for a compact and very stable optical head, (2) the use of a small detector connected to a laptop computer directly via an enhanced parallel port, and there is no extra frame grabber interface and control box, (3) a customized small mechanical slide that uses a compact motor with a connector-sized motor controller, and (4) the use of a laptop computer system. These solutions make the portable LTP able to be packed into two laptop-size cases: one for the computer and one for the rest of the system

  4. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  5. Conditioning of traced rock section for diffusion profile analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewonck, S.; Auriere, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The French National Agency for radioactive waste management investigates for a high-level radioactive waste repository in deep geological formation. The Andra's disposal concept is based notably on the impermeable properties of the host rock barrier (the Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone of the Eastern Paris Basin). Diffusion is assumed to be the main transport mechanism governing radionuclide migration through argillite. Diffusion properties were measured in situ, in the constrained rock, by experiments taken place at the Andra's Underground Research Laboratory. The diffusion experiments consist in injecting a traced solution as pulse, in a packed-off borehole interval, at a pressure similar of the hydraulic pressure of the rock. After several months of circulation, the traced solution is purged and the downhole equipment is dismantled. With a drilling machine, the overcoring of the rock section around the injection interval is performed to analyze the repartition of the radionuclides in the clay section. Totally new technical developments were necessary to make these tasks possible. This contribution reports on: - the method developed to going up the over-core from the gallery to the surface without damaging the traced clay section and avoiding any contamination of the underground installation by dust particles, - the specific room created to sampling the rock section in diffusion profiles with respect of radioprotection laws. In gallery, the over-core is extracted from the core barrel directly to a metallic box especially built to transport the clay section to the surface. This box is a good confining device avoiding all radioactive contamination of the galleries and the shaft. Moreover, this box made in iron decrease the dose equivalent rate and consecutively it's not necessary to have safety classification to transport the core. When the over-core is in the radioactive cutting room, technicians have

  6. A nonlinear multi-proxy model based on manifold learning to reconstruct water temperature from high resolution trace element profiles in biogenic carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bauwens

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A long standing problem in paleoceanography concerns the reconstruction of water temperature from δ18O carbonate. It is problematic in the case of freshwater influenced environments because the δ18O isotopic composition of the ambient water (related to salinity needs to be known. In this paper we argue for the use of a nonlinear multi-proxy method called Weight Determination by Manifold Regularization (WDMR to develop a temperature reconstruction model that is less sensitive to salinity variations. The motivation for using this type of model is twofold: firstly, observed nonlinear relations between specific proxies and water temperature motivate the use of nonlinear models. Secondly, the use of multi-proxy models enables salinity related variations of a given temperature proxy to be explained by salinity-related information carried by a separate proxy. Our findings confirm that Mg/Ca is a powerful paleothermometer and highlight that reconstruction performance based on this proxy is improved significantly by combining its information with the information for other trace elements in multi-proxy models. Although the models presented here are black-box models that do not use any prior knowledge about the proxies, the comparison of model reconstruction performances based on different proxy combinations do yield useful information about proxy characteristics. Using Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Pb/Ca the WDMR model enables a temperature reconstruction with a root mean squared error of ± 2.19 °C for a salinity range between 15 and 32.

  7. Long-trace profiler for neutron focusing mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Ice, Gene E.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    A long-trace profiler (LTP) optimized for measuring the shape of large neutron supermirrors has been designed and built. This LTP can measure 1.6 m long mirrors in both vertically and horizontally deflecting geometries, which is essential to achieve best performance from bendable mirrors. The LTP suppresses the influence of angular deviations of the linear-stage carriage during translation with a pentaprism and a cylindrical lens. The stationary optical head and the carriage-mounted pentaprism are precisely aligned to rotate about the optical axis between the two components. This feature allows measurements to be made on mirrors mounted vertically, horizontally or at any angle in between. The LTP software allows for rapid optimization of parameters for dynamically bent elliptical mirrors. Here we describe the motivation for the LTP, the design, and a first application of the LTP to study the effect of gravity on a bent microfocusing neutron supermirror.

  8. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  9. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  10. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Chen Yuwei; Gunn, John M.; Dixit, Sushil S.

    2004-01-01

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (C p ) and surface (C s ) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  11. The spatial profile of visual attention in mental curve tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, H. S.; Spekreijse, H.; Roelfsema, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    In a curve-tracing task, subjects have to judge whether items are located on a single, continuous curve. Spatially separate segments of such a curve are related to each other through grouping criteria, like collinearity and connectedness. These grouping cues need to be exploited during curve

  12. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  13. The Survey of Serum Trace Element Profiles in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological, endocrinological, haematological and neurological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down's syndrome (DS. Zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and manganese (Mn are elements that act in the maintenance of normal function of these systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of these elements on DS symptoms. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done from April to October 2011. Serum trace elements including Zn, Cu, Se and Mn were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 56 patients with DS and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu and Se between two groups (p>0.05. While, Zn and Mn levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with DS compared to the control group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate zinc and manganese deficiency in more than 60% of DS patients. Some of the problems experienced by people with DS may be due to changed level of these trace elements.

  14. New schemes in the adjustment of bendable, elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rah, S.

    1997-08-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), an instrument for measuring the slope profile of long X-ray mirrors, has been used for adjusting bendable mirrors. Often an elliptical profile is desired for the mirror surface, since many synchrotron applications involve imaging a point source to a point image. Several techniques have been used in the past for adjusting the profile measured in height or slope of a bendable mirror. Underwood et al. have used collimated X-rays for achieving desired surface shape for bent glass optics. Non linear curve fitting using the simplex algorithm was later used to determine the best fit ellipse to the surface under test. A more recent method uses a combination of least squares polynomial fitting to the measured slope function in order to enable rapid adjustment to the desired shape. The mirror has mechanical adjustments corresponding to the first and second order terms of the desired slope polynomial, which correspond to defocus and coma, respectively. The higher order terms are realized by shaping the width of the mirror to produce the optimal elliptical surface when bent. The difference between desired and measured surface slope profiles allows us to make methodical adjustments to the bendable mirror based on changes in the signs and magnitudes of the polynomial coefficients. This technique gives rapid convergence to the desired shape of the measured surface, even when we have no information about the bender, other than the desired shape of the optical surface. Nonlinear curve fitting can be used at the end of the process for fine adjustments, and to determine the over all best fit parameters of the surface. This technique could be generalized to other shapes such as toroids

  15. Trace-based post-silicon validation for VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    This book first provides a comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art validation solutions based on real-time signal tracing to guarantee the correctness of VLSI circuits.  The authors discuss several key challenges in post-silicon validation and provide automated solutions that are systematic and cost-effective.  A series of automatic tracing solutions and innovative design for debug (DfD) techniques are described, including techniques for trace signal selection for enhancing visibility of functional errors, a multiplexed signal tracing strategy for improving functional error detection, a tracing solution for debugging electrical errors, an interconnection fabric for increasing data bandwidth and supporting multi-core debug, an interconnection fabric design and optimization technique to increase transfer flexibility and a DfD design and associated tracing solution for improving debug efficiency and expanding tracing window. The solutions presented in this book improve the validation quality of VLSI circuit...

  16. Real time ray tracing based on shader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, JiangHeng; Li, Min

    2017-07-01

    Ray tracing is a rendering algorithm for generating an image through tracing lights into an image plane, it can simulate complicate optical phenomenon like refraction, depth of field and motion blur. Compared with rasterization, ray tracing can achieve more realistic rendering result, however with greater computational cost, simple scene rendering can consume tons of time. With the GPU's performance improvement and the advent of programmable rendering pipeline, complicated algorithm can also be implemented directly on shader. So, this paper proposes a new method that implement ray tracing directly on fragment shader, mainly include: surface intersection, importance sampling and progressive rendering. With the help of GPU's powerful throughput capability, it can implement real time rendering of simple scene.

  17. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is routinely involved in the forensic investigation of CBCs in the Netherlands. Reliable DNA profiles were frequently obtained from CBCs and used to match suspects, victims, or other crime scene-related DNA traces. In this paper, we describe the sensitive method developed by us to extract DNA from CBCs. Using PCR-based genotyping of autosomal short tandem repeats, we were able to obtain reliable and reproducible DNA profiles in 163 out of 616 criminal cases (26.5%) and in 283 out of 4,085 individual CBC items (6.9%) during the period January 2003-December 2009. We discuss practical aspects of the method and the sometimes unexpected effects of using cell lysis buffer on the subsequent investigation of striation patterns on CBCs.

  18. Synchrotron radiation and precision mirror metrology with a long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1997-08-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at several synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories throughout the world and by a number of manufacturers who specialize in making grazing incidence mirrors for SR customers. Recent improvements in the design and operation of the LTP system have reduced the slope profile error bar to the level of 0.3 microradians RMS over measurement lengths of 0.5 meter. This corresponds to a height error bar on the order of 20 nanometers. This level of performance allows one to measure with confidence the shape of large cylinders and spheres that have kilometer radii of curvature in the axial direction. The LTP is versatile enough to make measurements of a mirror in the face up, sideways, and face down configurations. The authors will illustrate the versatility of the current version of the instrument, the LTP II, and present results from two new versions of the instrument: the in-situ LTP (ISLTP) and the Vertical Scan LTP (VSLTP). Both of them are based on the penta-prism LTP (ppLTP) principle with a stationary optical head and moving penta-prism. The ISLTP is designed to measure the distortion of high heat load mirrors during actual operation in SR beam lines. The VSLTP is designed to measure the complete 3-dimensional shape of x-ray telescope cylinder mirrors and mandrels in a vertical configuration. Scans are done both in the axial direction and in the azimuthal direction

  19. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  20. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  1. New twist in the optical schematic of surface slope measuring long trace profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Lacey, Ian; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The advents of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited synchrotron storage ring sources of x-rays are catalyzing the development of new, ultra-high accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit the potential of these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with sub-nanometer height accuracy. Currently, the two most prevalent slope measuring instruments used for characterization of x-ray optics are the auto-collimator based nanometer optical measuring device (NOM) and the long trace profiler (LTP) using pencil beam interferometry (PBI). These devices have been consistently improved upon by the x-ray optics metrology community, but appear to be approaching their metrological limits. Here, we revise the traditional optical schematic of the LTP. We experimentally show that, for the level of accuracy desired for metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics, the Dove prism in the LTP reference channel appears to be one of the major sources of instrumental error. Therefore, we suggest returning back to the original PBI LTP schematics with no Dove prism in the reference channel. In this case, the optimal scanning strategies [Yashchuk, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)] used to suppress the instrumental drift error have to be used to suppress a possible drift error associated with laser beam pointing instability. We experimentally and by numerical simulation demonstrate the usefulness of the suggested approach for measurements with x-ray optics with both face up and face down orientations.

  2. Rapid Chemometric X-Ray Fluorescence approaches for spectral Diagnostics of Cancer utilizing Tissue Trace Metals and Speciation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonda, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy is an analytical method for identification and quantification of elements in materials by measurement of their spectral energy and intensity. EDXRFS spectroscopic technique involves simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of both fluorescence and scatter spectra from samples for quantitative determination of trace elemental content in complex matrix materials. The objective is develop a chemometric-aided EDXRFS method for rapid diagnosis of cancer and its severity (staging) based on analysis of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mn), their speciation and multivariate alterations of the elements in cancerous body tissue samples as cancer biomarkers. The quest for early diagnosis of cancer is based on the fact that early intervention translates to higher survival rate and better quality of life. Chemometric aided EDXRFS cancer diagnostic model has been evaluated as a direct and rapid superior alternative for the traditional quantitative methods used in XRF such as FP method. PCA results of cultured samples indicate that it is possible to characterize cancer at early and late stage of development based on trace elemental profiles

  3. Statistically sound evaluation of trace element depth profiles by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.; Toussaint, U. von

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the underlying physics and statistical models that are used in the newly developed program NRADC for fully automated deconvolution of trace level impurity depth profiles from ion beam data. The program applies Bayesian statistics to find the most probable depth profile given ion beam data measured at different energies and angles for a single sample. Limiting the analysis to % level amounts of material allows one to linearize the forward calculation of ion beam data which greatly improves the computation speed. This allows for the first time to apply the maximum likelihood approach to both the fitting of the experimental data and the determination of confidence intervals of the depth profiles for real world applications. The different steps during the automated deconvolution will be exemplified by applying the program to artificial and real experimental data.

  4. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  5. A simple way of characterizing X-ray downwards-deflecting mirror-bender assemblies using the long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Her, P.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device composed of a modular double-pentaprism system that enables the long trace profiler (LTP) to measure mirrors in nonconventional ways, i.e., in the vertical-downward and sideways positions, has been devised and implemented in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) long trace profiler (LTP II). The systems is very useful in calibrating mirror-bender assemblies. This paper describes the system and gives results of measurements performed with it on a mirror used at the APS

  6. Determination of trace metals in coastal seawater around Okinawa and its multielement profiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Ishigaki, Teruyuki; Arakaki, Teruo; Yamada, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Mami; Kabe, Noriko

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, trace metals in coastal surface seawater around Okinawa were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with chelating disk preconcentration. As a result, the concentrations of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U were obtained in the range from 10 μgL -1 to 0.001 μgL -1 for 6 samples. In addition, multielement profiling analyses were carried out using analytical values obtained in order to elucidate the features of trace metals in each coastal sea area. For coastal surface seawater near an urban area, the analytical values for Zn, Cu, Mn, and Pb were higher by more than 10-fold the literature values for open-surface seawater, and those of Cd were also relatively high. Such a trend concerning the multi-element profile was almost similar to the literature values for coastal seawater of the main island of Japan. On the other hand, the analytical values of most elements for coastal surface seawater near a suburb area were in the range from 0.5 to 5 fold, compared to the literature values for open surface seawater. From multielement profiling analyses for nutrient type elements in marine chemistry, it was suggested that the concentrations of Zn and Cd in a coral sea area normalized to literature values for open surface-seawater were higher than those of Ni and Cu. (author)

  7. Fully automated laser ray tracing system to measure changes in the crystalline lens GRIN profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Kaipio, Jari; Donaldson, Paul; Vaghefi, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Measuring the lens gradient refractive index (GRIN) accurately and reliably has proven an extremely challenging technical problem. A fully automated laser ray tracing (LRT) system was built to address this issue. The LRT system captures images of multiple laser projections before and after traversing through an ex vivo lens. These LRT images, combined with accurate measurements of the lens geometry, are used to calculate the lens GRIN profile. Mathematically, this is an ill-conditioned problem; hence, it is essential to apply biologically relevant constraints to produce a feasible solution. The lens GRIN measurements were compared with previously published data. Our GRIN retrieval algorithm produces fast and accurate measurements of the lens GRIN profile. Experiments to study the optics of physiologically perturbed lenses are the future direction of this research.

  8. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( Pcomposition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  9. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R.K.; Ghugre, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@iuccal.ernet.insnc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue (P<0.001-0.005). Data reflect a definite correlation between elemental composition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  10. 3-D x-ray mirror metrology with a vertical scanning long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Grindel, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) was originally developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the specific purpose of measuring the surface figure of large cylindrical mirrors used at grazing incidence in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. In its original configuration, it could measure only along one line down the center of the cylinder. A single linear profile is often sufficient to gauge the quality of the optical surface on these kinds of mirrors. For some applications it is necessary to measure the topography of the entire surface, not just along one line but over a grid that covers the entire surface area. We have modified a standard LTP to enable measurement of the complete surface of Wolter telescope optics in a vertical configuration. The vertical scanning LTP (VSLTP) is capable of producing a complete 3-D map of the surface topography errors relative to the ideal desired surface on complete segments of paraboloids and hyperboloids. The instrument uses a penta prism assembly to scan the probe beam in the longitudinal direction parallel to the mirror symmetry axis and uses a precision rotary stage to provide scans in the azimuthal direction. A Risley prism pair and a dove prism are used to orient the probe beam in the proper direction for the azimuthal scans. The repeatability of the prototype instrument is better than 20 nm over trace lengths of 35 mm with a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Investigation on the trace elemental profile of sewage workers in Kolkata, an Indian megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi Basu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environmental pollution has become a global health risk. Exposure to pollutants at the work place, i.e. occupational exposure, is one of the areas that need immediate attention. The civic drainage workers are exposed to pollutants present in the wastewater they handle and most of them are toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such pollutants may be a health hazard, since it can lead to the imbalance in nutrient elements status.§Design and Methods. In the present study, profiling of trace elements in the blood of drainage worker population from an Indian megacity, Kolkata, was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF and compared with the control group population of the same area. Results. The elements detected by EDXRF spectrometry include P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb. By using ANOVA with 5% significance level, we observed significant alterations in the trace elements status, iron over loading, selenium deficiency, and in Cu-Zn ratio. Gender specific variations within the same population were also observed. Conclusions. The results indicate that the drainage workers have altered elemental profile in comparison to that of control population.

  12. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P camels in the TMB2 group. These data indicate that TMB supplementation has positive effects on the growth performance and trace mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry.

  13. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  14. Investigations of trace element profiles in e-waste by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Polumi; Kale, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) which means loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices is good source of toxins in atmosphere. Environmental groups claim that the informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. Activists claim that even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution, but that environmental dangers of unused electronics have been exaggerated by groups which benefit from increased regulation. To solve this debatable issue we have carried out EDXFR of e-waste for trace elemental profile investigations. E-waste from IT industry in the form of powder was analyzed by 109 Cd induced Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Elements such as Ca, Fe, Br, Sr and Zr were seen. The trace element significance of e-waste and its correlation to environmental toxicity is being looked into

  15. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sium, Mussie; Kareru, Patrick; Keriko, Joseph; Girmay, Berhane; Medhanie, Ghebrehiwet; Debretsion, Semere

    This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi , Meriandra dianthera , Lepidium sativum , Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa . These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs) and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different ( P < 0.05).

  16. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  17. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  18. Urban Intersection Recognition and Construction Based on Big Trace Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Luliang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intersection is an important part of the generation and renewal of urban traffic network. In this paper, a new method was proposed to detect urban intersections automatically from the spatiotemporal big trace data. Firstly, the turning point pairs were based on tracking the trace data collected by vehicles. Secondly, different types of turning point pairs were clustered by using spatial growing clustering method based on angle and distance differences, and the clustering methods of local connectivity was used to recognize the intersection. Finally, the intersection structure of multi-level road network was constructed with the range of the intersection and turning point pairs. Taking the taxi trajectory data in Wuhan city as an example, the experimental results showed that the method proposed in this paper can automatically detect and recognize the road intersection and its structure.

  19. Metrology of variable-line-spacing x-ray gratings using the APS Long Trace Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheung, Janet; Qian, Jun; Sullivan, Joseph; Thomasset, Muriel; Manton, Jonathan; Bean, Sunil; Takacs, Peter; Dvorak, Joseph; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-09-01

    As resolving power targets have increased with each generation of beamlines commissioned in synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide, diffraction gratings are quickly becoming crucial optical components for meeting performance targets. However, the metrology of variable-line-spacing (VLS) gratings for high resolution beamlines is not widespread; in particular, no metrology facility at any US DOE facility is currently equipped to fully characterize such gratings. To begin to address this issue, the Optics Group at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, in collaboration with SOLEIL and with support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), has developed an alternative beam path addition to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source. This significantly expands the functionality of the LTP not only to measure mirrors surface slope profile at normal incidence, but also to characterize the groove density of VLS diffraction gratings in the Littrow incidence up to 79°, which covers virtually all diffraction gratings used at synchrotrons in the first order. The LTP light source is a 20mW HeNe laser, which yields enough signal for diffraction measurements to be performed on low angle blazed gratings optimized for soft X-ray wavelengths. We will present the design of the beam path, technical requirements for the optomechanics, and our data analysis procedure. Finally, we discuss challenges still to be overcome and potential limitations with use of the LTP to perform metrology on diffraction gratings.

  20. Upgrade of long trace profiler for characterization of high-precision X-ray mirrors at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Y.; Kishimoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Zeschke, T.; Siewert, F.; Goto, S.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) at SPring-8 has been upgraded to improve stability and resolution of slope measurement. The performances of the upgraded LTP at SPring-8 are presented by cross-checking measurements on a flat mirror with data obtained using Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II.

  1. Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, A.R.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

  2. A trace-based model for multiparty contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom; Klaedtke, Felix; Zălinescu, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model for multiparty contracts in which contract conformance is defned abstractly as a property on traces. A key feature of our model is blame assignment, which means that for a given contract, every breach is attributed to a set of parties. We show that blame...... assignment is compositional by de¿ning contract conjunction and contract disjunction. Moreover, to specify real-world contracts, we introduce the contract speci¿cation language CSL with an operational semantics. We show that each CSL contract has a counterpart in our trace-based model and from...... the operational semantics we derive a run-time monitor. CSL overcomes limitations of previously proposed formalisms for specifying contracts by supporting: (history sensitive and conditional) commitments, parametrised contract templates, relative and absolute temporal constraints, potentially in¿nite contracts...

  3. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  4. SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QIAN, S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately

  5. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  6. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  7. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  8. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  9. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  10. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from minimal traces: How low can we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Kloosterman, Ate D; Verschure, Pernette J

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of human DNA methylation (DNAm) can provide additional investigative leads in crime cases, e.g. the type of tissue or body fluid, the chronological age of an individual, and differentiation between identical twins. In contrast to the genetic profile, the DNAm level is not the same in every cell. At the single cell level, DNAm represents a binary event at a defined CpG site (methylated versus non-methylated). The DNAm level from a DNA extract however represents the average level of methylation of the CpG of interest of all molecules in the forensic sample. The variance of DNAm levels between replicates is often attributed to technological issues, i.e. degradation of DNA due to bisulfite treatment, preferential amplification of DNA, and amplification failure. On the other hand, we show that stochastic variations can lead to gross fluctuation in the analysis of methylation levels in samples with low DNA levels. This stochasticity in DNAm results is relevant since low DNA amounts (1pg - 1ng) is rather the norm than the exception when analyzing forensic DNA samples. This study describes a conceptual analysis of DNAm profiling and its dependence on the amount of input DNA. We took a close look at the variation of DNAm analysis due to DNA input and its consequences for different DNAm-based forensic applications. As can be expected, the 95%-confidence interval of measured DNAm becomes narrower with increasing amounts of DNA. We compared this aspect for two different DNAm-based forensic applications: body fluid identification and chronological age determination. Our study shows that DNA amount should be well considered when using DNAm for forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as teaching examples of how to improve the original TOPIST software.

  12. Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States. 2. Trace gas profiles and distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Winston T.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ryan, William F.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Nunnermacker, Linda J.

    1992-12-01

    Convective clouds and thunderstorms redistribute air pollutants vertically, and by altering the chemistry and radiative balance of the upper troposphere, these local actions can have global consequences. To study these effects, measurements of trace gases ozone, O3, carbon monoxide, CO, and odd nitrogen were made aboard the NCAR Sabreliner on 18 flights over the southern Great Plains during June 1985. To demonstrate chemical changes induced by vertical motions in the atmosphere and to facilitate comparison with computer model calculations, these data were categorized according to synoptic flow patterns. Part 1 of this two-part paper details the alternating pulses of polar and maritime air masses that dominate the vertical mixing in this region. In this paper, trace gas measurements are presented as altitude profiles (0-12 km) with statistical distributions of mixing ratios for each species in each flow pattern. The polar flow regime is characterized by northwesterly winds, subsiding air, and convective stability. Concentrations of CO and total odd nitrogen (NOy) are relatively high in the shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL) but decrease rapidly with altitude. Ozone, on the other hand, is uniformly distributed, suggesting limited photochemical production; in fact, nitric oxide, NO, mixing ratios fell below 10 ppt (parts per 1012 by volume) in the midtroposphere. The maritime regime is characterized by southerly surface winds, convective instability, and a deep PBL; uniformly high concentrations of trace gases were found up to 4 km on one flight. Severe storms occur in maritime flow, especially when capped by a dry layer, and they transport large amounts of CO, O3, and NOy into the upper troposphere. Median NO levels at high altitude exceeded 300 ppt. Lightning produces spikes of NO (but not CO) with mixing ratios sometimes exceeding 1000 ppt. This flow pattern tends to leave the midtroposphere relatively clean with concentrations of trace gases similar to those

  13. Network-based analysis of proteomic profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Limsoon

    2016-01-26

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a widely used and powerful tool for profiling systems-wide protein expression changes. It can be applied for various purposes, e.g. biomarker discovery in diseases and study of drug responses. Although RNA-based high-throughput methods have been useful in providing glimpses into the underlying molecular processes, the evidences they provide are indirect. Furthermore, RNA and corresponding protein levels have been known to have poor correlation. On the other hand, MS-based proteomics tend to have consistency issues (poor reproducibility and inter-sample agreement) and coverage issues (inability to detect the entire proteome) that need to be urgently addressed. In this talk, I will discuss how these issues can be addressed by proteomic profile analysis techniques that use biological networks (especially protein complexes) as the biological context. In particular, I will describe several techniques that we have been developing for network-based analysis of proteomics profile. And I will present evidence that these techniques are useful in identifying proteomics-profile analysis results that are more consistent, more reproducible, and more biologically coherent, and that these techniques allow expansion of the detected proteome to uncover and/or discover novel proteins.

  14. Logical Discrete Event Systems in a trace theory based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedinga, R.

    1993-01-01

    Discrete event systems can be modelled using a triple consisting of some alphabet (representing the events that might occur), and two trace sets (sets of possible strings) denoting the possible behaviour and the completed tasks of the system. Using this definition we are able to formulate and solve

  15. An automatic scaling method for obtaining the trace and parameters from oblique ionogram based on hybrid genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; Hu, Yaogai; Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zou, Xianjian

    2016-12-01

    Scaling oblique ionogram plays an important role in obtaining ionospheric structure at the midpoint of oblique sounding path. The paper proposed an automatic scaling method to extract the trace and parameters of oblique ionogram based on hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA). The extracted 10 parameters come from F2 layer and Es layer, such as maximum observation frequency, critical frequency, and virtual height. The method adopts quasi-parabolic (QP) model to describe F2 layer's electron density profile that is used to synthesize trace. And it utilizes secant theorem, Martyn's equivalent path theorem, image processing technology, and echoes' characteristics to determine seven parameters' best fit values, and three parameter's initial values in QP model to set up their searching spaces which are the needed input data of HGA. Then HGA searches the three parameters' best fit values from their searching spaces based on the fitness between the synthesized trace and the real trace. In order to verify the performance of the method, 240 oblique ionograms are scaled and their results are compared with manual scaling results and the inversion results of the corresponding vertical ionograms. The comparison results show that the scaling results are accurate or at least adequate 60-90% of the time.

  16. Antimicrobial activity, phyto chemical profile and trace minerals of black mulberry (morus nigra l.) fresh juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Fawad, S.A.; Ahmed, I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 mu g/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 mu g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 mu mol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10 mu mol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals. (author)

  17. Topographic Correction of GPR Profiles Based on Laser Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Zhong, Ruofei; Li, Jia Cun; Zeng, Fanyang

    2014-01-01

    Data obtained by GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) are displayed as a continuous cross-sectional profile. Surface, generally, is not flat. As a result, the image becomes distorted and the depth calculated from the surface no longer represents the true and exact position of electrically distinctive layers and objects in materials. In order to get real geologic cross section, GPR data must be corrected. This is paper discusses a new method using the color point cloud data obtained by a Vehicle-borne laser scanning system to compensate for elevation fluctuate. Elevation profile can be extracted from topographic data of survey site acquired using laser scanner, which can then be used to offset the error of GPR data. Through the discrete points in the survey line, each trace of the profile has its own elevation value showing a vertical difference from the reference profile with maximum elevation, then time shifts value of traces vertical offset versus the reference trace of profile can be obtained. At last, the results of topographic correction for radargrams that look extremely like the real geologic cross section are presented, which allows us to get a better profile interpretation and position of the objects and layers in the subsurface

  18. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Itupararanga Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Henrique, Heloise A.R., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Química Inorgânica; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for 2 sediment cores from the Itupararanga Reservoir are presented. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was also applied to the sediment samples to determine the total concentration of some metal, trace and rare earth elements. The results obtained were compared to the reference values NASC (North American Shale Composite). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. The EF calculated with the NASC values presented enrichment for As, Ce, Fe, La, Th and U in the two profiles Nd, Sm Hf and Tb, only present enrichment in the 2{sup nd} campaign. However, with respect to the base of the profile there was no element with enrichment. For semi metal As and for metals Cr and Zn the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). As and Cr presented values between TEL and PEL and Zn, values below TEL. The distribution pattern of light and heavy REEs was also verified in relation to the normatization of PAAS (Pos Archean Australian Shale). (author)

  19. Comparison of slope and height profiles for flat synchrotron x-ray mirrors measured with a long trace profiler and a Fizeau interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, J.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.

    2007-01-01

    Long trace profilers (LTPS) have been used at many synchrotron radiation laboratories worldwide for over a decade to measure surface slope profiles of long grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Phase measuring interferometers (PMIs) of the Fizeau type, on the other hand, are being used by most mirror manufacturers to accomplish the same task. However, large mirrors whose dimensions exceed the aperture of the Fizeau interferometer require measurements to be carried out at grazing incidence, and aspheric optics require the use of a null lens. While an LTP provides a direct measurement of ID slope profiles, PMIs measure area height profiles from which the slope can be obtained by a differentiation algorithm. Measurements of the two types of instruments have been found by us to be in good agreement, but to our knowledge there is no published work directly comparing the two instruments. This paper documents that comparison. We measured two different nominally flat mirrors with both the LTP in operation at the Advanced Photon Source (a type-II LTP) and a Fizeau-type PMI interferometer (Wyko model 6000). One mirror was 500 mm long and made of Zerodur, and the other mirror was 350 mm long and made of silicon. Slope error results with these instruments agree within nearly 100% (3.11 ± 0.15 (micro)rad for the LTP, and 3.11 ± 0.02 (micro)rad for the Fizeau PMI interferometer) for the medium quality Zerodur mirror with 3 (micro)rad rms nominal slope error. A significant difference was observed with the much higher quality silicon mirror. For the Si mirror, slope error data is 0.39 ± 0.08 (micro)rad from LTP measurements but it is 0.35 ± 0.01 (micro)rad from PMI interferometer measurements. The standard deviations show that the Fizeau PMI interferometer has much better measurement repeatability.

  20. A trace display and editing program for data from fluorescence based sequencing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T; Hillier, L

    1991-12-11

    'Ted' (Trace editor) is a graphical editor for sequence and trace data from automated fluorescence sequencing machines. It provides facilities for viewing sequence and trace data (in top or bottom strand orientation), for editing the base sequence, for automated or manual trimming of the head (vector) and tail (uncertain data) from the sequence, for vertical and horizontal trace scaling, for keeping a history of sequence editing, and for output of the edited sequence. Ted has been used extensively in the C.elegans genome sequencing project, both as a stand-alone program and integrated into the Staden sequence assembly package, and has greatly aided in the efficiency and accuracy of sequence editing. It runs in the X windows environment on Sun workstations and is available from the authors. Ted currently supports sequence and trace data from the ABI 373A and Pharmacia A.L.F. sequencers.

  1. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Spagnolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques.

  2. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  3. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benincasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  4. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-08-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  5. A New Curve Tracing Algorithm Based on Local Feature in the Vectorization of Paper Seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maofa Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available History paper seismograms are very important information for earthquake monitoring and prediction. The vectorization of paper seismograms is an import problem to be resolved. Auto tracing of waveform curves is a key technology for the vectorization of paper seismograms. It can transform an original scanning image into digital waveform data. Accurately tracing out all the key points of each curve in seismograms is the foundation for vectorization of paper seismograms. In the paper, we present a new curve tracing algorithm based on local feature, applying to auto extraction of earthquake waveform in paper seismograms.

  6. Profile Monitors Based on Residual Gas Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P; Giacomini, T; Peters, A

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of transverse beam profiles at high current hadron accelerators has to be performed non-interceptingly. Two methods will be discussed based on the excitation of the residual gas molecules by the beam particles: Firstly, by beam induced fluorescence (BIF) light is emitted from the residual gas molecules and is observed with an image intensified CCD camera. At most laboratories N2 gas is inserted, which has a large cross section for emission in the blue wave length region. Secondly, a larger signal strength is achieved by detecting the ionization products in an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). By applying an electric field all ionization products are accelerated toward a spatial resolving Micro-Channel Plate. The signal read-out can either be performed by observing the light from a phosphor screen behind the MCP or electronically by a wire array. Methods to achieve a high spatial resolution and a fast turn-by-turn readout capability are discussed. Even though various approaches at dif...

  7. Computer Profiling Based Model for Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Choudhary; Nikhil Kumar Singh; Parmalik Singh

    2011-01-01

    Computer profiling is used for computer forensic analysis, and proposes and elaborates on a novel model for use in computer profiling, the computer profiling object model. The computer profiling object model is an information model which models a computer as objects with various attributes and inter-relationships. These together provide the information necessary for a human investigator or an automated reasoning engine to make judgments as to the probable usage and evidentiary value of a comp...

  8. EpiContactTrace: an R-package for contact tracing during livestock disease outbreaks and for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2014-03-17

    During outbreak of livestock diseases, contact tracing can be an important part of disease control. Animal movements can also be of relevance for risk-based surveillance and sampling, i.e. both when assessing consequences of introduction or likelihood of introduction. In many countries, animal movement data are collected with one of the major objectives to enable contact tracing. However, often an analytical step is needed to retrieve appropriate information for contact tracing or surveillance. In this study, an open source tool was developed to structure livestock movement data to facilitate contact-tracing in real time during disease outbreaks and for input in risk-based surveillance and sampling. The tool, EpiContactTrace, was written in the R-language and uses the network parameters in-degree, out-degree, ingoing contact chain and outgoing contact chain (also called infection chain), which are relevant for forward and backward tracing respectively. The time-frames for backward and forward tracing can be specified independently and search can be done on one farm at a time or for all farms within the dataset. Different outputs are available; datasets with network measures, contacts visualised in a map and automatically generated reports for each farm either in HTML or PDF-format intended for the end-users, i.e. the veterinary authorities, regional disease control officers and field-veterinarians. EpiContactTrace is available as an R-package at the R-project website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/EpiContactTrace/). We believe this tool can help in disease control since it rapidly can structure essential contact information from large datasets. The reproducible reports make this tool robust and independent of manual compilation of data. The open source makes it accessible and easily adaptable for different needs.

  9. Efficiency and Privacy Enhancement for a Track and Trace System of RFID-Based Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is in supply chain management as it promises to provide real-time visibility based on the function of track and trace. However, such an RFID-based track and trace system raises new security and privacy challenges due to the restricted resource of tags. In this paper, we refine three privacy related models (i.e., the privacy, path unlinkability, and tag unlinkability of RFID-based track and trace systems, and clarify the relations among these privacy models. Specifically, we have proven that privacy is equivalent to path unlinkability and tag unlinkability implies privacy. Our results simplify the privacy concept and protocol design for RFID-based track and trace systems. Furthermore, we propose an efficient track and trace scheme, Tracker+, which allows for authentic and private identification of RFID-tagged objects in supply chains. In the Tracker+, no computational ability is required for tags, but only a few bytes of storage (such as EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags are needed to store the tag state. Indeed, Tracker+ reduces the memory requirements for each tag by one group element compared to the Tracker presented in other literature. Moreover, Tracker+ provides privacy against supply chain inside attacks.

  10. Neutron transport study based on assembly modular ray tracing MOC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chao; Zheng Youqi; Li Yunzhao; Li Shuo; Chai Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    It is difficulty for the MOC method based on Cell Modular Ray Tracing to deal with the irregular geometry such as the water gap between the PWR lattices. Hence, the neutron transport code NECP-Medlar based on Assembly Modular Ray Tracing is developed. CMFD method is used to accelerate the transport calculation. The numerical results of the 2D C5G7 benchmark and typical PWR lattice prove that NECP-Medlar has an excellent performance in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Besides, NECP-Medlar can describe clearly the flux distribution of the lattice with water gap. (authors)

  11. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  12. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  13. DNA Array-Based Gene Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Provenzano, Maurizio; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease in most respects, including its cellularity, different genetic alterations, and diverse clinical behaviors. Traditional molecular analyses are reductionist, assessing only 1 or a few genes at a time, thus working with a biologic model too specific and limited to confront a process whose clinical outcome is likely to be governed by the combined influence of many genes. The potential of functional genomics is enormous, because for each experiment, thousands of relevant observations can be made simultaneously. Accordingly, DNA array, like other high-throughput technologies, might catalyze and ultimately accelerate the development of knowledge in tumor cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of DNA array technology in cancer research has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to carcinogenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and sensitivity to antiblastic agents. Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of patients with cancer, principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling need to be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. In the present work, we discuss the technical features characterizing this powerful laboratory tool and review the applications so far described in the field of oncology. PMID:15621987

  14. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DGRN/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2015-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km{sup 2}. The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg{sup -1}), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg{sup -1}), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg{sup -1}). (author)

  15. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km 2 . The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg -1 ), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg -1 ), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg -1 ). (author)

  16. Generalised tally-based decoders for traitor tracing and group testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; de Groot, W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of score function for Tardos traitor tracing codes. It is related to the recently introduced tally-based score function, but it utilizes more of the information available to the decoder. It does this by keeping track of sequences of symbols in the distributed codewords instead

  17. High-efficiency photorealistic computer-generated holograms based on the backward ray-tracing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Zhidong; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Hui; Zhao, Linmin

    2018-03-01

    Holographic displays can provide the complete optical wave field of a three-dimensional (3D) scene, including the depth perception. However, it often takes a long computation time to produce traditional computer-generated holograms (CGHs) without more complex and photorealistic rendering. The backward ray-tracing technique is able to render photorealistic high-quality images, which noticeably reduce the computation time achieved from the high-degree parallelism. Here, a high-efficiency photorealistic computer-generated hologram method is presented based on the ray-tracing technique. Rays are parallelly launched and traced under different illuminations and circumstances. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the traditional point cloud CGH, the computation time is decreased to 24 s to reconstruct a 3D object of 100 ×100 rays with continuous depth change.

  18. Personalizing Web Search based on User Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Utage, Sharyu; Ahire, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Web Search engine is most widely used for information retrieval from World Wide Web. These Web Search engines help user to find most useful information. When different users Searches for same information, search engine provide same result without understanding who is submitted that query. Personalized web search it is search technique for proving useful result. This paper models preference of users as hierarchical user profiles. a framework is proposed called UPS. It generalizes profile and m...

  19. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  20. Evolution of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated River Sediments: Geochemical Variation Along River Linear and Vertical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, Hussein; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Losson, Benoit; Manceau, Luc; Bauer, Allan; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; El Samrani, Antoine; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Kazpard, Veronique; Villieras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Metal pollution in riverine systems poses a serious threat that jeopardizes water and sediment quality, and hence river dwelling biota. Since those metallic pollutants can be transported for long distances via river flow, river management has become a great necessity, especially in times where industrial activities and global climate change are causing metal release and spreading (by flooding events). These changes are able to modify river hydrodynamics, and as a consequence natural physico-chemical status of different aquatic system compartments, which in turn alter metal mobility, availability and speciation. Vertical profiles of sediments hold the archive of what has been deposited for several tenths of years, thus they are used as a tool to study what had been deposited in rivers beds. The studied area lies in the Orne river, northeastern France. This river had been strongly modified physically and affected by steelmaking industrial activities that had boosted in the middle of the last century. This study focuses on several sites along the linear of the Orne river, as well as vertical profiles of sediments. Sediment cores were collected at sites where sedimentation is favoured, and in particular upstream two dams, built in the second half of the XXth century for industrial purposes. Sediment cores were sliced into 2-5cm layers, according to suitability, and analysed for physical and physico-chemical properties, elemental content and mineralogy. Data of the vertical profile in a sediment core is important to show the evolution of sediments as a function of depth, and hence age, in terms of nature, size and constituents. The physical properties include particle size distribution (PSD) and water content. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, such as pH and oxido-reduction potential (ORP) of interstitial water from undisturbed cores were also detected. Total elemental content of sediment and available ones of extracted interstitial waters was detected using

  1. Educational Data Base and School Profile Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Eleanor Yin

    This report describes the development in 1986 of a management information system by the Sacramento City (California) Unified School District for use in high schools. A nine-page attachment, which comprises two-thirds of the report, offers profiles of selected schools drawn from the databases. Data sets of 200 information items, collected from all…

  2. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  3. Evidence-based medicine and hospital reform: tracing origins back to Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Maya; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    The use of reliable evidence to evaluate health care interventions has gained strong support within the medical community and in the field of plastic surgery in particular. Evidence-based medicine aims to improve health care and reduce costs through the use of sound clinical evidence in evaluating treatments, procedures, and outcomes. The field is hardly new, however, and most trace its origins back to the work of Cochrane in the 1970s and Sackett in the 1990s. Though she wouldn't know it, Florence Nightingale was applying the concepts of evidence-based reform to the medical profession more than a century before. She used medical statistics to reveal the nature of infection in hospitals and on the battlefield. Moreover, Nightingale marshaled data and evidence to establish guidelines for health care reform. Tracing the origins of evidence-based medicine back to Nightingale underscores how critical this movement is to improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care today.

  4. Combined adaptive multiple subtraction based on optimized event tracing and extended wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jinshan; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Mengxuan; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-06-01

    The surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) method is based on feedback formulation and has become one of the most preferred multiple suppression methods used. However, some differences are apparent between the predicted multiples and those in the source seismic records, which may result in conventional adaptive multiple subtraction methods being barely able to effectively suppress multiples in actual production. This paper introduces a combined adaptive multiple attenuation method based on the optimized event tracing technique and extended Wiener filtering. The method firstly uses multiple records predicted by SRME to generate a multiple velocity spectrum, then separates the original record to an approximate primary record and an approximate multiple record by applying the optimized event tracing method and short-time window FK filtering method. After applying the extended Wiener filtering method, residual multiples in the approximate primary record can then be eliminated and the damaged primary can be restored from the approximate multiple record. This method combines the advantages of multiple elimination based on the optimized event tracing method and the extended Wiener filtering technique. It is an ideal method for suppressing typical hyperbolic and other types of multiples, with the advantage of minimizing damage of the primary. Synthetic and field data tests show that this method produces better multiple elimination results than the traditional multi-channel Wiener filter method and is more suitable for multiple elimination in complicated geological areas.

  5. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei

    2011-03-01

    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  6. Use of World Wide Web-based directories for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M M; Rohan, T E

    2000-11-01

    The recent availability of World Wide Web-based directories has opened up a new approach for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies. The completeness of two World Wide Web-based directories (Canada411 and InfoSpace Canada) for subject tracing was evaluated by using a randomized crossover design for 346 adults randomly selected from respondents in an ongoing cohort study. About half (56.4%) of the subjects were successfully located by using either Canada411 or InfoSpace. Of the 43.6% of the subjects who could not be located using either directory, the majority (73.5%) were female. Overall, there was no clear advantage of one directory over the other. Although Canada411 could find significantly more subjects than InfoSpace, the number of potential matches returned by Canada411 was also higher, which meant that a longer list of potential matches had to be examined before a true match could be found. One strategy to minimize the number of potential matches per true match is to first search by InfoSpace with the last name and first name, then by Canada411 with the last name and first name, and finally by InfoSpace with the last name and first initial. Internet-based searches represent a potentially useful approach to tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  7. Classifying lipoproteins based on their polar profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Buhse, Thomas; Uversky, Vladimir N; Amkie, Rafael Zonana

    2016-01-01

    The lipoproteins are an important group of cargo proteins known for their unique capability to transport lipids. By applying the Polarity index algorithm, which has a metric that only considers the polar profile of the linear sequences of the lipoprotein group, we obtained an analytical and structural differentiation of all the lipoproteins found in UniProt Database. Also, the functional groups of lipoproteins, and particularly of the set of lipoproteins relevant to atherosclerosis, were analyzed with the same method to reveal their structural preference, and the results of Polarity index analysis were verified by an alternate test, the Cumulative Distribution Function algorithm, applied to the same groups of lipoproteins.

  8. Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

    2001-10-01

    Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

  9. Accelerator based nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in materials- calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction. (author)

  10. Do Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles Vary with the Type of Myopia? - An Illustration Using a Ray-Tracing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi C. Bakaraju

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has indicated that myopic eyes with primarily an axial component may have a greater risk of progression than their refractive counterparts albeit with the same degree of refractive error. This prediction emerges from the presented theoretical ray tracing model and, therefore, requires clinical confirmation.

  11. A comparison of the reproducibility of manual tracing and on-screen digitization for cephalometric profile variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dvortsin, D. P.; Sandham, John; Pruim, G. J.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyse and compare the reproducibility of manual cephalometric tracings with on-screen digitization using a soft tissue analysis. A random sample of 20 lateral cephalometric radiographs, in the natural head posture, was selected. On-screen digitization using

  12. Transparent Runtime Migration of Loop-Based Traces of Processor Instructions to Reconfigurable Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bispo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to map instructions running in a microprocessor to a reconfigurable processing unit (RPU, acting as a coprocessor, enables the runtime acceleration of applications and ensures code and possibly performance portability. In this work, we focus on the mapping of loop-based instruction traces (called Megablocks to RPUs. The proposed approach considers offline partitioning and mapping stages without ignoring their future runtime applicability. We present a toolchain that automatically extracts specific trace-based loops, called Megablocks, from MicroBlaze instruction traces and generates an RPU for executing those loops. Our hardware infrastructure is able to move loop execution from the microprocessor to the RPU transparently, at runtime, and without changing the executable binaries. The toolchain and the system are fully operational. Three FPGA implementations of the system, differing in the hardware interfaces used, were tested and evaluated with a set of 15 application kernels. Speedups ranging from 1.26 to 3.69 were achieved for the best alternative using a MicroBlaze processor with local memory.

  13. GRay: A MASSIVELY PARALLEL GPU-BASED CODE FOR RAY TRACING IN RELATIVISTIC SPACETIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  14. A Trace Data-Based Approach for an Accurate Estimation of Precise Utilization Maps in LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For network planning and optimization purposes, mobile operators make use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs, computed from Performance Measurements (PMs, to determine whether network performance needs to be improved. In current networks, PMs, and therefore KPIs, suffer from lack of precision due to an insufficient temporal and/or spatial granularity. In this work, an automatic method, based on data traces, is proposed to improve the accuracy of radio network utilization measurements collected in a Long-Term Evolution (LTE network. The method’s output is an accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution for the cell utilization ratio that can be extended to other indicators. The method can be used to improve automatic network planning and optimization algorithms in a centralized Self-Organizing Network (SON entity, since potential issues can be more precisely detected and located inside a cell thanks to temporal and spatial precision. The proposed method is tested with real connection traces gathered in a large geographical area of a live LTE network and considers overload problems due to trace file size limitations, which is a key consideration when analysing a large network. Results show how these distributions provide a very detailed information of network utilization, compared to cell based statistics.

  15. Determination of trace amount of formaldehyde base on a bromate-Malachite Green system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-25

    A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amount of formaldehyde (FA) has been established, based on catalytic effect of trace amount of FA on the oxidation of Malachite Green (MG) by potassium bromate in presence of sulfuric acid medium, and was reported for the first time. The method was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of MG at 617 nm and allowed a precise determination of FA in the range of 0.003-0.08 μg mL(-1), with a limit of detection down to 1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 1.63%. The method developed was approved to be sensitive, selective and accurate, and adopted to determinate free FA in samples directly with good accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical simulation and comparison of nonlinear self-focusing based on iteration and ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weiwei; Ruan, Wangchao; Zhang, Luwei; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2017-05-01

    Self-focusing is observed in nonlinear materials owing to the interaction between laser and matter when laser beam propagates. Some of numerical simulation strategies such as the beam propagation method (BPM) based on nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ray tracing method based on Fermat's principle have applied to simulate the self-focusing process. In this paper we present an iteration nonlinear ray tracing method in that the nonlinear material is also cut into massive slices just like the existing approaches, but instead of paraxial approximation and split-step Fourier transform, a large quantity of sampled real rays are traced step by step through the system with changing refractive index and laser intensity by iteration. In this process a smooth treatment is employed to generate a laser density distribution at each slice to decrease the error caused by the under-sampling. The characteristics of this method is that the nonlinear refractive indices of the points on current slice are calculated by iteration so as to solve the problem of unknown parameters in the material caused by the causal relationship between laser intensity and nonlinear refractive index. Compared with the beam propagation method, this algorithm is more suitable for engineering application with lower time complexity, and has the calculation capacity for numerical simulation of self-focusing process in the systems including both of linear and nonlinear optical media. If the sampled rays are traced with their complex amplitudes and light paths or phases, it will be possible to simulate the superposition effects of different beam. At the end of the paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm are discussed.

  17. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  18. Adaptive Sensing Based on Profiles for Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a profile-based sensing framework for adaptive sensor systems based on models that relate possibly heterogeneous sensor data and profiles generated by the models to detect events. With these concepts, three phases for building the sensor systems are extracted from two examples: a combustion control sensor system for an automobile engine, and a sensor system for home security. The three phases are: modeling, profiling, and managing trade-offs. Designing and building a sensor system involves mapping the signals to a model to achieve a given mission.

  19. Entropy-Based Privacy against Profiling of User Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rodriguez-Carrion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Location-based services (LBSs flood mobile phones nowadays, but their use poses an evident privacy risk. The locations accompanying the LBS queries can be exploited by the LBS provider to build the user profile of visited locations, which might disclose sensitive data, such as work or home locations. The classic concept of entropy is widely used to evaluate privacy in these scenarios, where the information is represented as a sequence of independent samples of categorized data. However, since the LBS queries might be sent very frequently, location profiles can be improved by adding temporal dependencies, thus becoming mobility profiles, where location samples are not independent anymore and might disclose the user’s mobility patterns. Since the time dimension is factored in, the classic entropy concept falls short of evaluating the real privacy level, which depends also on the time component. Therefore, we propose to extend the entropy-based privacy metric to the use of the entropy rate to evaluate mobility profiles. Then, two perturbative mechanisms are considered to preserve locations and mobility profiles under gradual utility constraints. We further use the proposed privacy metric and compare it to classic ones to evaluate both synthetic and real mobility profiles when the perturbative methods proposed are applied. The results prove the usefulness of the proposed metric for mobility profiles and the need for tailoring the perturbative methods to the features of mobility profiles in order to improve privacy without completely loosing utility.

  20. Release kinetics and mechanisms of trace heavy metals from cement based material; Cinetiques et mecanismes de relargage des metaux lourds presents en traces dans les matrices cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudilou, E.

    2002-12-15

    Chemical species contained in a solid matrix may be transferred to the environment through water leaching. Previous studies of trace metals released from building materials (particularly cement-based ones) highlight an important analytical difficulty. The aim of this study is to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms involved in the release of trace heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) from industrial cement pastes (usually ranging from 20 to 300 ppm). The development of a dynamic leaching system, named CTG-LEACHCRETE, (used at pH=5, 20 C) which permits the evaluation of the kinetics of trace heavy metals is presented in the first part. Also, innovative solid analysis techniques (ICP-MS-Laser Ablation, local and Grazing Incidence X-rays Diffraction (GIXD) technique) were used to characterise the cement-degraded layers formed during leaching experiments. These techniques enable to monitor the mineralogical evolution and the distribution of trace metals in these areas. The confrontation of these two approaches, kinetic and solid analysis, coupled with a thorough investigation of previously developed models, lead to proposals concerning the mechanisms of release of the trace heavy metals studied. In all the cement pastes studied (CPA-CEM I, CPJ-CEM II/A and CLC-CEM V/A), chromium is trapped in ettringite by substitution SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}(U)CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and its release is then controlled by the dissolution of this hydrate. The behaviour of copper, nickel and zinc in degraded areas and in leachates, are correlated to the silicon of the hydrated calcium silicate (CSH), which imply that they are localised there. Lead, was never detected in the leachates. But it is also correlated to the silicon in the degraded layers. (author)

  1. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...... method for tracing carbon flow is proposed. In a lossy network, matrices such as carbon losses, net carbon intensity (NCI) and footprint carbon intensity (FCI) are obtained with the proposed method and used to allocate carbon obligation at demand side. Case studies based on realistic distribution...... and transmission systems are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  2. A trace ratio maximization approach to multiple kernel-based dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenhao; Chung, Fu-lai

    2014-01-01

    Most dimensionality reduction techniques are based on one metric or one kernel, hence it is necessary to select an appropriate kernel for kernel-based dimensionality reduction. Multiple kernel learning for dimensionality reduction (MKL-DR) has been recently proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels which are seen as different descriptions of data. As MKL-DR does not involve regularization, it might be ill-posed under some conditions and consequently its applications are hindered. This paper proposes a multiple kernel learning framework for dimensionality reduction based on regularized trace ratio, termed as MKL-TR. Our method aims at learning a transformation into a space of lower dimension and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels among which some may not be suitable for the given data. The solutions for the proposed framework can be found based on trace ratio maximization. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in benchmark datasets, which include text, image and sound datasets, for supervised, unsupervised as well as semi-supervised settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vertex shading of the three-dimensional model based on ray-tracing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    Ray Tracing Algorithm is one of the research hotspots in Photorealistic Graphics. It is an important light and shadow technology in many industries with the three-dimensional (3D) structure, such as aerospace, game, video and so on. Unlike the traditional method of pixel shading based on ray tracing, a novel ray tracing algorithm is presented to color and render vertices of the 3D model directly. Rendering results are related to the degree of subdivision of the 3D model. A good light and shade effect is achieved by realizing the quad-tree data structure to get adaptive subdivision of a triangle according to the brightness difference of its vertices. The uniform grid algorithm is adopted to improve the rendering efficiency. Besides, the rendering time is independent of the screen resolution. In theory, as long as the subdivision of a model is adequate, cool effects as the same as the way of pixel shading will be obtained. Our practical application can be compromised between the efficiency and the effectiveness.

  4. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  5. Geochemical study of main elements and trace elements in soils of three profiles in the state of Santa Catarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santelli, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The total concentrations of the main components (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, Ti, Na and K) and of nine trace elements (Ba, Co, Cu, La, Li, Mo, Ni, V and Zn are measured. The elements are determined by several atomic absorption and emission spectroscopic methods. Some properties such as granulometry, mineralogy of the clay fraction, organic matter, etc, are studied. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. The role of multiple neuromodulators in reinforcement learning that is based on competition between eligibility traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Huertas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment, and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule. To address the first problem, synaptic eligibility traces were introduced, bridging the temporal gap between a stimulus and its reward. Although these were mere theoretical constructs, recent experiements have provided evidence of their existence. These experiments also reveal that the presence of specific neuromodulators converts the traces into changes in synaptic efficacy. A mechanistic implementation of the stopping rule usually assumes the inhibition of the reward nucleus; however, recent experimental results have shown that learning terminates at the appropriate network state even in setups where the reward cannot be inhibited. In an effort to describe a learning rule that solves the temporal credit assignment problem and implements a biologically plausible stopping rule, we proposed a model based on two separate synaptic eligibility traces, one for long-term potentiation (LTP and one for long-term depression (LTD, each obeying different dynamics and having different effective magnitudes. The model has been shown to successfully generate stable learning in recurrent networks. Although the model assumes the presence of a single neuromodulator, evidence indicates that there are different neuromodulators for expressing the different traces. What could be the role of different

  7. The Role of Multiple Neuromodulators in Reinforcement Learning That Is Based on Competition between Eligibility Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Schwettmann, Sarah E; Shouval, Harel Z

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL) refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment), and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule). To address the first problem synaptic eligibility traces were introduced, bridging the temporal gap between a stimulus and its reward. Although, these were mere theoretical constructs, recent experiments have provided evidence of their existence. These experiments also reveal that the presence of specific neuromodulators converts the traces into changes in synaptic efficacy. A mechanistic implementation of the stopping rule usually assumes the inhibition of the reward nucleus; however, recent experimental results have shown that learning terminates at the appropriate network state even in setups where the reward nucleus cannot be inhibited. In an effort to describe a learning rule that solves the temporal credit assignment problem and implements a biologically plausible stopping rule, we proposed a model based on two separate synaptic eligibility traces, one for long-term potentiation (LTP) and one for long-term depression (LTD), each obeying different dynamics and having different effective magnitudes. The model has been shown to successfully generate stable learning in recurrent networks. Although, the model assumes the presence of a single neuromodulator, evidence indicates that there are different neuromodulators for expressing the different traces. What could be the role of different neuromodulators for

  8. A new method to analyze copolymer based superplasticizer traces in cement leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérandel, Cyril; Vernex-Loset, Lionel; Krier, Gabriel; De Lanève, Michel; Guillot, Xavier; Pierre, Christian; Muller, Jean François

    2011-03-15

    Enhancing the flowing properties of fresh concrete is a crucial step for cement based materials users. This is done by adding polymeric admixtures. Such additives have enabled to improve final mechanicals properties and the development of new materials like high performance or self compacting concrete. Like this, the superplasticizers are used in almost cement based materials, in particular for concrete structures that can have a potential interaction with drinking water. It is then essential to have suitable detection techniques to assess whether these organic compounds are dissolved in water after a leaching process or not. The main constituent of the last generation superplasticizer is a PolyCarboxylate-Ester copolymer (PCE), in addition this organic admixture contains polyethylene oxide (free PEO) which constitutes a synthesis residue. Numerous analytical methods are available to characterize superplasticizer content. Although these techniques work well, they do not bring suitable detection threshold to analyze superplasticizer traces in solution with high mineral content such as leachates of hardened cement based materials formulated with superplasticizers. Moreover those techniques do not enable to distinguish free PEO from PCE in the superplasticizer. Here we discuss two highly sensitive analytical methods based on mass spectrometry suitable to perform a rapid detection of superplasticizer compounds traces in CEM I cement paste leachates: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, is used to determine the free PEO content in the leachate. However, industrial copolymers (such as PCE) are characterized by high molecular weight and polymolecular index. These two parameters lead to limitation concerning analysis of copolymers by MALDI-TOFMS. In this study, we demonstrate how pyrolysis and a Thermally assisted Hydrolysis/Methylation coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, provides good results for the detection of PCE copolymer traces in CEM I cement paste

  9. Network-based analysis of proteomic profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Limsoon

    2016-01-01

    -based high-throughput methods have been useful in providing glimpses into the underlying molecular processes, the evidences they provide are indirect. Furthermore, RNA and corresponding protein levels have been known to have poor correlation. On the other

  10. Combined visualization for noise mapping of industrial facilities based on ray-tracing and thin plate splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, Mikhail; Ovsiannikov, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the combined approach to noise mapping and visualizing of industrial facilities sound pollution using forward ray tracing method and thin-plate spline interpolation. It is suggested to cauterize industrial area in separate zones with similar sound levels. Equivalent local source is defined for range computation of sanitary zones based on ray tracing algorithm. Computation of sound pressure levels within clustered zones are based on two-dimension spline interpolation of measured data on perimeter and inside the zone.

  11. Fingerprint signatures based on nanomagnets as markers in materials for tracing and counterfeit protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Youssef, Amir; Sporn, Dieter; Mandel, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Identification and tracing of objects is a challenge of great current importance. Ideally, this can be achieved via small markers, which equip an object with a fingerprint identity. Herein, we communicate an approach that is based on structural arrangements of magnetic nano-entities to generate a kind of security key in an object. The nano-markers, which are applied as inks, can remotely be read out in a fast and simple way with a GMR sensor and yield an unmistakable signal pattern.Graphical abstract

  12. Fingerprint signatures based on nanomagnets as markers in materials for tracing and counterfeit protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Youssef, Amir [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP (Germany); Sporn, Dieter; Mandel, Karl, E-mail: karl-sebastian.mandel@isc.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Identification and tracing of objects is a challenge of great current importance. Ideally, this can be achieved via small markers, which equip an object with a fingerprint identity. Herein, we communicate an approach that is based on structural arrangements of magnetic nano-entities to generate a kind of security key in an object. The nano-markers, which are applied as inks, can remotely be read out in a fast and simple way with a GMR sensor and yield an unmistakable signal pattern.Graphical abstract.

  13. Study on method of characteristics based on cell modular ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chuntao; Zhang Shaohong

    2009-01-01

    To address the issue of accurately solving neutron transport problem in complex geometry, method of characteristics (MOC) is studied in this paper, and a quite effective and memory saving cell modular ray tracing (CMRT) method is developed and related angle discretization and boundary condition handling issues are discussed. A CMRT based MOC code-PEACH is developed and tested against C5G7 MOX benchmark problem. Numerical results demonstrate that PEACH can give excellent accuracy for both k eff and pin power distribution for neutron transport problem. (authors)

  14. Excimer laser beam profile recording based on electrochemical etched polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Jaleh, B.; Zangeneh, H.R.; Zamanipour, Z.; Davoud-Abadi, Gh.R.

    2008-01-01

    There is no polymeric detector used to register the beam profile of UV lasers. Here, a method is proposed for the measurement of intensive UV beam pattern of the excimer lasers based on the photoablated polycarbonate detector after coherent UV exposure and the subsequent electrochemical etching. UV laser induced defects in the form of self-microstructuring on polycarbonate are developed to replicate the spatial intensity distribution as a beam profiler

  15. Excimer laser beam profile recording based on electrochemical etched polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box 1165-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, H.R. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamanipour, Z. [Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box 1165-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoud-Abadi, Gh.R. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    There is no polymeric detector used to register the beam profile of UV lasers. Here, a method is proposed for the measurement of intensive UV beam pattern of the excimer lasers based on the photoablated polycarbonate detector after coherent UV exposure and the subsequent electrochemical etching. UV laser induced defects in the form of self-microstructuring on polycarbonate are developed to replicate the spatial intensity distribution as a beam profiler.

  16. Proteome Profiling Outperforms Transcriptome Profiling for Coexpression Based Gene Function Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zihao; Carr, Steven A.; Mertins, Philipp; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Townsend, R. Reid; Smith, Richard D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Chen, Xian; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Boja, Emily S.; Mesri, Mehdi; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-11-11

    Coexpression of mRNAs under multiple conditions is commonly used to infer cofunctionality of their gene products despite well-known limitations of this “guilt-by-association” (GBA) approach. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have enabled global expression profiling at the protein level; however, whether proteome profiling data can outperform transcriptome profiling data for coexpression based gene function prediction has not been systematically investigated. Here, we address this question by constructing and analyzing mRNA and protein coexpression networks for three cancer types with matched mRNA and protein profiling data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Our analyses revealed a marked difference in wiring between the mRNA and protein coexpression networks. Whereas protein coexpression was driven primarily by functional similarity between coexpressed genes, mRNA coexpression was driven by both cofunction and chromosomal colocalization of the genes. Functionally coherent mRNA modules were more likely to have their edges preserved in corresponding protein networks than functionally incoherent mRNA modules. Proteomic data strengthened the link between gene expression and function for at least 75% of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and 90% of KEGG pathways. A web application Gene2Net (http://cptac.gene2net.org) developed based on the three protein coexpression networks revealed novel gene-function relationships, such as linking ERBB2 (HER2) to lipid biosynthetic process in breast cancer, identifying PLG as a new gene involved in complement activation, and identifying AEBP1 as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. Our results demonstrate that proteome profiling outperforms transcriptome profiling for coexpression based gene function prediction. Proteomics should be integrated if not preferred in gene function and human disease studies

  17. Rhythmic patterns in ancient shells: Can we reconstruct sub-annual cyclicity in trace element and stable isotope profiles from rudist bivalves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, N.; Sinnesael, M.; Vansteenberge, S.; Goderis, S.; Snoeck, C.; Van Malderen, S. J. M.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Claeys, P.

    2017-12-01

    Well-preserved shells of Torreites rudists from the Late Campanian Saiwan Formation in Oman exhibit fine internal layering. These fine (±20 µm) laminae are rhythmically bundled (±400 µm) and subdivide the shells' larger scale annual lamination (±15 mm), suggesting the presence of several interfering cycles in shell growth rate. The aim of the present study is to determine the duration and chemical signature of these rhythmic variations in shell composition. To achieve this, a range of micro-analytical techniques is applied on cross sections through the shells. Firstly, microscopy-based layer counting and colorimetric analysis are carried out on thin sections of shell calcite. Secondly, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) mapping of cross sections of the shells reveal chemical and structural differences between laminae in 2D. Thirdly, high-resolution XRF (25 µm) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 10 µm) trace element profiles are used to quantify variations in chemical composition between shell laminae. Fourthly, annual chronology is established based on micro-sampled stable carbon and oxygen stable isotope measurements (250 µm) along the growth axis of the shells. Finally, spectral analysis routines are applied to extract rhythmic patterns matched to the shell laminae from the structural, chemical and colorimetric data. Combining these methods allows for a full evaluation of the structural and chemical characteristics as well as the timing of sub-annual lamination in rudist shells. The results of this study shed light on the external factors that influenced growth rates in rudist bivalves. A better understanding of the timing of deposition of these laminae allows them to be used to improve age models of geochemical records in rudist shells. Characterization of small scale variations in shell composition will characterize the uncertainties contained within lower resolution proxy records from

  18. The acid/base profile of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manallack, D T

    2017-08-01

    Drug-likeness has long been studied in the pursuit of finding new medicines. Similarly, in the agrochemical field there is value in exploring the properties of the chemicals involved. Patterns that emerge can potentially influence future discovery campaigns to improve the probability of commercial success. In this study we investigate the acid/base properties and physicochemical characteristics of three classes of compounds: fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. In comparison with FDA-approved drugs, it was noted that the pesticides were generally smaller, possessed a neutral charge state and were more lipophilic. The results are discussed in the light of their intended targets.

  19. Impact of nonlinearity on changing the a priori of trace gas profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP estimates of atmospheric profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES contains a priori information that may vary geographically, which is a confounding factor in the analysis and physical interpretation of an ensemble of profiles. One mitigation strategy is to transform profile estimates to a common prior using a linear operation thereby facilitating the interpretation of profile variability. However, this operation is dependent on the assumption of not worse than moderate non-linearity near the solution of the non-linear estimate. The robustness of this assumption is tested by comparing atmospheric retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer processed with a uniform prior with those processed with a variable prior and converted to a uniform prior following the non-linear retrieval. Linearly converting the prior following a non-linear retrieval is shown to have a minor effect on the results as compared to a non-linear retrieval using a uniform prior when compared to the expected total error, with less than 10% of the change in the prior ending up as unbiased fluctuations in the profile estimate results.

  20. Residential Consumption Scheduling Based on Dynamic User Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Federica; Pallotti, Emiliano; Del Vecchio, Paolo; Capodiferro, Licia

    Deployment of household appliances and of electric vehicles raises the electricity demand in the residential areas and the impact of the building's electrical power. The variations of electricity consumption across the day, may affect both the design of the electrical generation facilities and the electricity bill, mainly when a dynamic pricing is applied. This paper focuses on an energy management system able to control the day-ahead electricity demand in a residential area, taking into account both the variability of the energy production costs and the profiling of the users. The user's behavior is dynamically profiled on the basis of the tasks performed during the previous days and of the tasks foreseen for the current day. Depending on the size and on the flexibility in time of the user tasks, home inhabitants are grouped in, one over N, energy profiles, using a k-means algorithm. For a fixed energy generation cost, each energy profile is associated to a different hourly energy cost. The goal is to identify any bad user profile and to make it pay a highest bill. A bad profile example is when a user applies a lot of consumption tasks and low flexibility in task reallocation time. The proposed energy management system automatically schedules the tasks, solving a multi-objective optimization problem based on an MPSO strategy. The goals, when identifying bad users profiles, are to reduce the peak to average ratio in energy demand, and to minimize the energy costs, promoting virtuous behaviors.

  1. The Effectiveness of Trace DNA Profiling-A Comparison Between a U.S. and a U.K. Law Enforcement Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Weart, Jocelyn R

    2017-05-01

    Recovery, profiling, and speculative searching of trace DNA (not attributable to a body fluid/cell type) over a twelve-month period in a U.S. Crime Laboratory and U.K. police force are compared. Results show greater numbers of U.S. firearm-related items submitted for analysis compared with the U.K., where greatest numbers were submitted from burglary or vehicle offenses. U.S. multiple recovery techniques (double swabbing) occurred mainly during laboratory examination, whereas the majority of U.K. multiple recovery techniques occurred at the scene. No statistical difference was observed for useful profiles from single or multiple recovery. Database loading of interpretable profiles was most successful for U.K. items related to burglary or vehicle offenses. Database associations (matches) represented 7.0% of all U.S. items and 13.1% of all U.K. items. The U.K. strategy for burglary and vehicle examination demonstrated that careful selection of both items and sampling techniques is crucial to obtaining the observed results. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. A technique to stabilize record bases for Gothic arch tracings in patients with implant-retained complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigrodski, A J; Sadan, A; Carruth, P L

    1998-12-01

    Clinicians have long expressed concern about the accuracy of the Gothic arch tracing for recording centric relation in edentulous patients. With the use of dental implants to assist in retaining complete dentures, the problem of inaccurate recordings, made for patients without natural teeth, can be significantly reduced. This article presents a technique that uses healing abutments to stabilize the record bases so that an accurate Gothic arch tracing can be made.

  3. Exploring personalized searches using tag-based user profiles and resource profiles in folksonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Li, Qing; Xie, Haoran; Min, Huaqin

    2014-10-01

    With the increase in resource-sharing websites such as YouTube and Flickr, many shared resources have arisen on the Web. Personalized searches have become more important and challenging since users demand higher retrieval quality. To achieve this goal, personalized searches need to take users' personalized profiles and information needs into consideration. Collaborative tagging (also known as folksonomy) systems allow users to annotate resources with their own tags, which provides a simple but powerful way for organizing, retrieving and sharing different types of social resources. In this article, we examine the limitations of previous tag-based personalized searches. To handle these limitations, we propose a new method to model user profiles and resource profiles in collaborative tagging systems. We use a normalized term frequency to indicate the preference degree of a user on a tag. A novel search method using such profiles of users and resources is proposed to facilitate the desired personalization in resource searches. In our framework, instead of the keyword matching or similarity measurement used in previous works, the relevance measurement between a resource and a user query (termed the query relevance) is treated as a fuzzy satisfaction problem of a user's query requirements. We implement a prototype system called the Folksonomy-based Multimedia Retrieval System (FMRS). Experiments using the FMRS data set and the MovieLens data set show that our proposed method outperforms baseline methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual environment assessment for laser-based vision surface profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSoussi, Adnane; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2015-03-01

    Oil and gas businesses have been raising the demand from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement a reliable metrology method in assessing surface profiles of welds before and after grinding. This certainly mandates the deviation from the commonly used surface measurement gauges, which are not only operator dependent, but also limited to discrete measurements along the weld. Due to its potential accuracy and speed, the use of laser-based vision surface profiling systems have been progressively rising as part of manufacturing quality control. This effort presents a virtual environment that lends itself for developing and evaluating existing laser vision sensor (LVS) calibration and measurement techniques. A combination of two known calibration techniques is implemented to deliver a calibrated LVS system. System calibration is implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and 3D printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is inverted and compared with the input profiles to validate the virtual environment capability for LVS surface profiling and preliminary assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, this effort brings 3D scanning capability a step closer towards robust quality control applications in a manufacturing environment.

  5. A Photoluminescence-Based Field Method for Detection of Traces of Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a photoluminescence-based field method for detecting traces of explosives. In its standard version, the method utilizes a commercially available color spot test kit for treating explosive traces on filter paper after swabbing. The colored products are fluorescent under illumination with a laser that operates on three C-size flashlight batteries and delivers light at 532 nm. In the fluorescence detection mode, by visual inspection, the typical sensitivity gain is a factor of 100. The method is applicable to a wide variety of explosives. In its time-resolved version, intended for in situ work, explosives are tagged with europium complexes. Instrumentation-wise, the time-resolved detection, again visual, can be accomplished in facile fashion. The europium luminescence excitation utilizes a laser operating at 355 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of CdSe quantum dot sensitization of europium luminescence for time-resolved purposes. This would allow the use of the above 532 nm laser.

  6. Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Zafarabad iron deposit based on REE and trace elements of magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zafarabad iron deposit is located northwest of Divandareh, in the northern margin of Sanandaj-Sirjan plutonic-metamorphic zone. The deposit is in lentoid to tubular shape, within a shear zone and occrrued in host rocks of calc-schist and limestone. Magnetite with massive, cataclastic and replacement textures are the main phases, while pyrite and other sulfide minerals are found. Major and trace elements are measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Based on some ratios of trace elements in the ore samples and (Ti+V vs. Cal+Al+Mn and Ti+V vs. Ni/(Cr+Mn diagrams which are used for classification of iron deposit types, Zafarabad iron deposit fall in the range of skarn deposits. Spider diagrams show a steady decline from LREE to HREE elements with Eu (mean value of 0.06 ppm and Ce (mean value of 0.94 ppm negative anomalies. Comparing the distribution patterns of REE for the Zafarabad magnetites with those of various types of iron deposits shows that the REE pattern for Zafarabad is similar to these deposits. Analysis of calculated parameters for REE shows that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for mineralization are mainly of magmatic origin through fractionation and crystallization processes of a deep iron rich fluid phase and its emplacement within the carbonate rocks, forming iron skarn.

  7. Trace elements profile is associated with insulin resistance syndrome and oxidative damage in thyroid disorders: Manganese and selenium interest in Algerian participants with dysthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Meskine, Djamila; Alamir, Barkahoum; Koceir, Elhadj-Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between dysthyroidism and antioxidant trace elements (ATE) status is very subtle during oxidative stress (OS). This relationship is mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) disorder, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate ATE such as selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) status on thyroid dysfunction, and their interaction with antioxidant enzyme activities, mainly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), TH profile (TSH, T(3), T(4)) and IRS clusters. The study was undertaken on 220 Algerian adults (30-50 years), including 157 women and 63 men who were divided to 4 groups: subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 50), overt hypothyroidism (n = 60), Graves's disease hyperthyroidism (n = 60) and euthyroid controls (n = 50). The IRS was confirmed according to NCEP (National Cholesterol Education Program). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR model. Trace elements were determined by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The antioxidant enzymes activity and metabolic parameters were determined by biochemical methods. The TH profile and anti-Thyroperoxidase Antibodies (anti-TPO-Ab) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that the plasma manganese levels were significantly increased in all dysthyroidism groups (p ≤ 0.01). However, the plasma copper and zinc concentrations were maintained normal or not very disturbed vs control group. In contrast, the plasma selenium levels were highly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) and positively correlated with depletion of glutathione peroxidase activity; and associated both with anti-TPO-Ab overexpression and fulminant HS-CRP levels. This study confirms the oxidative stress-inflammation relationship in the dysthyroidism. The thyroid follicles antioxidant protection appears preserved in the cytosol (Cu/Zn-SOD), while it is altered in the mitochondria (Mn-SOD), which gives this cell organelle, a status of

  8. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Rhomboid Proteases in Liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, E. V.; Seybold, M.; Hadravová, Romana; Stříšovský, Kvido; Verhelst, S. H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2015), s. 1616-1621 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11206; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : activity-based protein profiling * chemical probes * inhibitors * intramembrane proteases * liposomes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2015

  9. Generic calibration procedures for nacelle-based profiling lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    In power performance testing, it has been demonstrated that the effects of wind speed and direction variations over the rotor disk can no longer be neglected for large wind turbines [1]. A new generation of commercial nacelle-based lidars is now available, offering wind profiling capabilities. De...

  10. Safety and Tolerability Profile of Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The WHO in 2001 advocated artemisinin- based antimalarial combination therapy (ACT), which was adopted by Nigeria in 2005. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety and tolerability profile of the ACTs in adult patients with uncomplicated malaria. A descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in the ...

  11. A simple data base for identification of risk profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munganahalli, D.

    1996-12-31

    Sedco Forex is a drilling contractor that operates approximately 80 rigs on land and offshore worldwide. The HSE management system developed by Sedco Forex is an effort to prevent accidents and minimize losses. An integral part of the HSE management system is establishing risk profiles and thereby minimizing risk and reducing loss exposures. Risk profiles are established based on accident reports, potential accident reports and other risk identification reports (RIR) like the Du Pont STOP system. A rig could fill in as many as 30 accident reports, 30 potential accident reports and 500 STOP cards each year. Statistics are important for an HSE management system, since they are indicators of success or failure of HSE systems. It is however difficult to establish risk profiles based on statistical information, unless tools are available at the rig site to aid with the analysis. Risk profiles are then used to identify important areas in the operation that may require specific attention to minimize the loss exposure. Programs to address the loss exposure can then be identified and implemented with either a local or corporate approach. In January 1995, Sedco Forex implemented a uniform HSE Database on all the rigs worldwide. In one year companywide, the HSE database would contain information on approximately 500 accident and potential accident reports, and 10,000 STOP cards. This paper demonstrates the salient features of the database and describes how it has helped in establishing key risk profiles. It also shows a recent example of how risk profiles have been established at the corporate level and used to identify the key contributing factors to hands and finger injuries. Based on this information, a campaign was launched to minimize the frequency of occurrence and associated loss attributed to hands and fingers accidents.

  12. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento MGB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Guimarães Boia do Nascimento,1,2 Sérgio Adriano Gomes,1 Márcio Rabelo Mota,1,2 Renata Aparecida,1 Gislane Ferreira de Melo21Physical Education Department, Universitary Center of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Physical Education Department, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil Abstract: The present study aimed to identify the psychological profiles of professional futsal players in terms of the gender schema and to evaluate the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and fatigue index of these athletes according to their gender profiles and relative to their positions on the court. The Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas was used to classify the sample into typological groups, and the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test was used to measure the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and the fatigue index. The study sample was composed of 64 male professional futsal players who competed in the National Indoor Soccer league in 2013; the subjects had an average weight of 76.00±6.7 kg. Among the athletes studied, 23 (35.9% were classified as heteroschematic female, 22 (34.4% as heteroschematic male, and 19 (29.7% as isoschematic. Regarding their positions on the court, eleven were goalkeepers (17.2%, 13 (20.3% were defenders, 28 (43.8% were midfielders, and 12 (18.8% were attackers. The players had similar weights even when belonging to different typological groups and having different positions in the court. However, it is worth noting that male heteroschematic players had a greater mean weight (77.11±5.93 kg and that the goalkeeper was, on average, the heaviest player (79.36±8.14 kg. The results of the physiological parameter analysis relative to typological group showed that, on average, high-level soccer players presented similar performance profiles in different rounds, as statistically significant differences were not found in any of the studied

  13. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  14. Determination of trace amounts of cerium in silicate rocks based on its candoluminescence in a calcium oxide based matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, R.; Nasser, T.A.K.; Polo-Diez, L.; Townshend, A.

    1977-01-01

    A very sensitive method for the determination of cerium (above 10 ng ml -1 ) has been developed (Belcher et al., Analyst;100:415(1975)), based on the measurement of the green candoluminescence produced by cerium in a calcium oxide-calcium sulphate matrix, with sulphuric acid as a coactivator, when the matrix is inserted into a hydrogen-nitrogen-air flame. This paper describes the application of this method to the determination of trace amounts of cerium in rocks. It involves the fusion of the sample with lithium metaborate, and does not require the isolation of cerium from other components of the rock, before measuring the candoluminescence intensity of the cerium. (author)

  15. Optimizing Python-based ROOT I/O with PyPy's Tracing JIT

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Python programming language allows objects and classes to respond dynamically to the execution environment. Most of this, however, is made possible through language hooks which by definition can not be optimized and thus tend to be slow. The PyPy implementation of Python includes a tracing just in time compiler (JIT), which allows similar dynamic responses but at the interpreter-, rather than the application-level. Therefore, it is possible to fully remove the hooks, leaving only the dynamic response, in the optimization stage for hot loops, if the types of interest are opened up to the JIT. A general opening up of types to the JIT, based on reflection information, has already been developed (cppyy). The work described in this paper takes it one step further by customizing access to ROOT I/O to the JIT, allowing for automatic selective reading, judicious caching, and buffer tuning.

  16. Analysis of preparation of Chinese traditional medicine based on the fiber fingerprint drop trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Wang, Jialu; Sun, Weimin; Yan, Qi

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the fiber micro-drop analyzing technique is to measure the characteristics of liquids using optical methods. The fiber fingerprint drop trace (FFDT) is a curve of light intensity vs. time. This curve indicates the forming, growing and dripping processes of the liquid drops. A pair of fibers was used to monitor the dripping process. The FFDTs are acquired and analyzed by a computer. Different liquid samples of many kinds of preparation of Chinese traditional medicines were tested by using the fiber micro-drop sensor in the experiments. The FFDTs of preparation of Chinese traditional medicines with different concentrations were analyzed in different ways. Considering the characters of the FFDTs, a novel method is proposed to measure the different preparation of Chinese traditional medicines and its concentration based on the corresponding relationship of FFDTs and the physical and chemical parameters of the liquids.

  17. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Yu, Guang; Zhang, Jingbo; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2015-03-27

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  18. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based Trace Gas Sensors Using Different Quartz Tuning Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW, distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs with a resonant frequency (f0 of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  19. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236 U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ( 236 U)/( 238 U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10 -9 was demonstrated.

  20. Parametric Jominy profiles predictor based on neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentini, R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the prediction of the Jominy hardness profiles of steels for microalloyed Boron steel which is based on neural networks. The Jominy profile has been parameterized and the parameters, which are a sort of "compact representation" of the profile itself, are linked to the steel chemical composition through a neural network. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

    El trabajo presenta un método de estimación de perfiles de dureza Jominy para aceros microaleados al boro basado en redes neuronales. Los parámetros de perfil Jominy, que constituyen una especie de "representación compacta" del perfil mismo, son determinados y puestos en relación con la composición química del acero mediante una red neuronal. Los resultados numéricos son expuestos y discutidos.

  1. Use of ground-based wind profiles in mesoscale forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent uses of ground-based wind profile data in mesoscale forecasting. Some of the applications are in real time, and some are after the fact. Not all of the work mentioned here has been published yet, but references are given wherever possible. As Gage and Balsley (1978) point out, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to examine tropospheric wind profiles since the 1970's. It was not until the early 1980's, however, that the potential contribution of these instruments to operational forecasting and numerical weather prediction became apparent. Profiler winds and radiosonde winds compare favorably, usually within a few m/s in speed and 10 degrees in direction (see Hogg et al., 1983), but the obvious advantage of the profiler is its frequent (hourly or more often) sampling of the same volume. The rawinsonde balloon is launched only twice a day and drifts with the wind. In this paper, I will: (1) mention two operational uses of data from a wind profiling system developed jointly by the Wave Propagation and Aeronomy Laboratories of NOAA; (2) describe a number of displays of these same data on a workstation for mesoscale forecasting developed by the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS); and (3) explain some interesting diagnostic calculations performed by meteorologists of the Wave Propagation Laboratory.

  2. Knowledge rule base for the beam optics program TRACE 3-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Van Staagen, P.K.; Hill, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system type of knowledge rule base has been developed for the input parameters used by the particle beam transport program TRACE 3-D. The goal has been to provide the program's user with adequate on-screen information to allow him to initially set up a problem with minimal open-quotes off-lineclose quotes calculations. The focus of this work has been in developing rules for the parameters which define the beam line transport elements. Ten global parameters, the particle mass and charge, beam energy, etc., are used to provide open-quotes expertclose quotes estimates of lower and upper limits for each of the transport element parameters. For example, the limits for the field strength of the quadrupole element are based on a water-cooled, iron-core electromagnet with dimensions derived from practical engineering constraints, and the upper limit for the effective length is scaled with the particle momenta so that initially parallel trajectories do not cross the axis inside the magnet. Limits for the quadrupole doublet and triplet parameters incorporate these rules and additional rules based on stable FODO lattices and bidirectional focusing requirements. The structure of the rule base is outlined and examples for the quadrupole singlet, doublet and triplet are described. The rule base has been implemented within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) graphical user interface (GUI)

  3. Global Calibration of Multi-Cameras Based on Refractive Projection and Ray Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchi Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-camera systems are widely applied in the three dimensional (3D computer vision, especially when multiple cameras are distributed on both sides of the measured object. The calibration methods of multi-camera systems are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement and the key is to find an appropriate calibration target. In this paper, a high-precision camera calibration method for multi-camera systems based on transparent glass checkerboards and ray tracing is described, and is used to calibrate multiple cameras distributed on both sides of the glass checkerboard. Firstly, the intrinsic parameters of each camera are obtained by Zhang’s calibration method. Then, multiple cameras capture several images from the front and back of the glass checkerboard with different orientations, and all images contain distinct grid corners. As the cameras on one side are not affected by the refraction of glass checkerboard, extrinsic parameters can be directly calculated. However, the cameras on the other side are influenced by the refraction of glass checkerboard, and the direct use of projection model will produce a calibration error. A multi-camera calibration method using refractive projection model and ray tracing is developed to eliminate this error. Furthermore, both synthetic and real data are employed to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results of refractive calibration show that the error of the 3D reconstruction is smaller than 0.2 mm, the relative errors of both rotation and translation are less than 0.014%, and the mean and standard deviation of reprojection error of the four-camera system are 0.00007 and 0.4543 pixels, respectively. The proposed method is flexible, highly accurate, and simple to carry out.

  4. Mass-produced lonophore-based fluorescent microspheres for trace level determination of lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telting-Diaz, Martin; Bakker, Eric

    2002-10-15

    The development and characterization of small, uniform, and mass-produced plasticized PVC-based sensing microspheres in view of rapid trace level analysis of lead ions is reported. Micrometer-sized particles obtained via an automated casting process were rendered selective for lead ions by doping them with highly selective components in a manner analogous to traditional optode sensing films. Single particles that contained the lipophilic ionophore N,N,N',N'-tetradodecyl-3-6-dioxaoctane-1-thio-8-oxodiamide (ETH 5493), the chromoionophore ETH 5418 together with a lipophilized indocarbocyanine derivative as internal reference dye (DiIC18), and lipophilic ion-exchanger sites sodium tetrakis[3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl]borate, yielded measurable lead responses at the low nanomolar level in pH buffered solutions. The detection limit for single particles was 3 x 10(-9) M at pH 5.7. The microspheres were fabricated via a reproducible formation of polymer droplets within a flowing aqueous phase followed by collection of spherical particles of approximately 13 microm in size. The particles were immobilized and assayed individually in a microflow cell via fluorescence microscopy. Selectivity patterns found were in agreement with those reported earlier for the lead-selective ligand ETH 5493, and all response functions were fully described by theory. In contrast to optode films that necessitated very long equilibration times and large sample volumes in diluted samples of analyte, particles exhibited extremely enhanced equilibrium response times. Thus, for lead sample concentrations at and above 5 x 10(-8) M, response times were approximately 3 min, whereas at the detection limit, complete equilibrium was recorded after just 15 min, with required sample volumes on the order of 1 mL This new class of microspheres appears to be suitable for rapid and sensitive ion detection at trace levels in environmental and biological applications.

  5. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  6. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  8. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  9. Relationship between serum selenium, sociodemographic variables, other trace elements and lipid profile in an adult Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Palazón-Bru, Irene; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Trasobares, Elena; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Fuentes, Manuel; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between selenium status and cardiovascular health, although epidemiologic evidence yielded by the randomized trials did not find a beneficial effect of selenium administration. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum selenium levels and lipid profile adjusted by age, sex and other associated factors among a general adult population in Spain. We recruited 372 hospital employee volunteers (60 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 47 (SD: 10.9), whom were given a standardized questionnaire. Serum selenium concentration was measured by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean of serum selenium was 79.5μg/L (SD: 11.7) with no sex-dependent differences. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, the associated factors with the mean levels of selenium were: age (β=0.223; CI 95%: 0.101-0.345), pselenium≥79.5μg/L were 1.98 (OR=1.98; CI 95% 1.17-3.35; p=0.011) and 2.04 times (OR=2.04; CI 95% 1.06-3.97; p=0.034) more likely to have cholesterol ≥200mg/dL and LDL-c ≥100mg/dL respectively than those with serum selenium selenium was positively associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol but not with HDL-c and triglycerides. More studies are needed in order to confirm the lower serum selenium findings in widows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  11. The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, R.; Connor, B.J.; Kreher, K.; Johnston, P.V.; Rodgers, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to retrieve altitude information at different diurnal stages for trace gas species by combining direct-sun and zenith-sky UV-visible differential slant column density (DSCD) measurements. DSCDs are derived here using differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Combining the complementary zenith-sky measurements (sensitive to the stratosphere) with direct-sun measurements (sensitive to the troposphere) allows this vertical distinction. Trace gas species such as BrO and NO 2 have vertical profiles with strong diurnal dependence. Information about the diurnal variation is simultaneously retrieved with the altitude distribution of the trace gas. The retrieval is a formal optimal estimation profile retrieval, allowing a complete assessment of information content and errors

  12. Tracing based congestion management and impact of TCPS in competitive power market using MINLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Chanana, S.

    2006-01-01

    Efficient, fair and secure operation of the competitive power markets are key factors in managing the challenges associated with congestion management. For the system operator, the selection of generators to reschedule their output for effective management of congestion is an important task. This study used a real power flow tracing based approach for selecting the most appropriate generators to reschedule the real power output based on real power flow contribution on a congested line. These generators can be effectively used to reschedule their generation for managing congestion. Using a mixed integer non-linear programming approach for reducing the transmission congestion cost in the system, the impact of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) was also investigated and their optimal placement was obtained. The study was carried out on a 39-bus New England system for pool and mix of pool with bilateral and multilateral transactions and their impact on congestion cost. The paper presented the detailed mathematical formulation and modeling process used. It was concluded that for some transactions, the reduction in congestion cost is not very significant. Therefore, system operators should avoid such transactions during congestion to increase market efficiency. 26 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. Fiber-ring laser-based intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jun; Ren, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a novel trace gas sensing method based on fiber-ring laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique is a merging of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) with a fiber-ring cavity for sensitive and all-fiber gas detection. A transmission-type PAS gas cell (resonant frequency f0=2.68  kHz) was placed inside the fiber-ring laser to fully utilize the intracavity laser power. The PAS signal was excited by modulating the laser wavelength at f0/2 using a custom-made fiber Bragg grating-based modulator. We used this spectroscopic technique to detect acetylene (C2H2) at 1531.6 nm as a proof of principle. With a low Q-factor (4.9) of the PAS cell, our sensor achieved a good linear response (R2=0.996) to C2H2 concentration and a minimum detection limit of 390 ppbv at 2-s response time.

  14. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  15. GALAXY CLUSTERING AND PROJECTED DENSITY PROFILES AS TRACED BY SATELLITES IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: METHODOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY DEPENDENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenting; Jing, Y. P.; Li Cheng; Okumura, Teppei; Han Jiaxin

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new method which measures the projected density distribution w p (r p )n of photometric galaxies surrounding a set of spectroscopically identified galaxies and simultaneously the projected cross-correlation function w p (r p ) between the two populations. In this method, we are able to divide the photometric galaxies into subsamples in luminosity intervals even when redshift information is unavailable, enabling us to measure w p (r p )n and w p (r p ) as a function of not only the luminosity of the spectroscopic galaxy, but also that of the photometric galaxy. Extensive tests show that our method can measure w p (r p ) in a statistically unbiased way. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the validity of the assumption inherent to the method that the foreground/background galaxies are randomly distributed and are thus uncorrelated with those galaxies of interest. Therefore, our method can be applied to the cases where foreground/background galaxies are distributed in large volumes, which is usually valid in real observations. We have applied our method to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including a sample of 10 5 luminous red galaxies at z ∼ 0.4 and a sample of about half a million galaxies at z ∼ 0.1, both of which are cross-correlated with a deep photometric sample drawn from the SDSS. On large scales, the relative bias factor of galaxies measured from w p (r p ) at z ∼ 0.4 depends on luminosity in a manner similar to what is found for those at z ∼ 0.1, which are usually probed by autocorrelations of spectroscopic samples in previous studies. On scales smaller than a few Mpc and at both z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.1, the photometric galaxies of different luminosities exhibit similar density profiles around spectroscopic galaxies at fixed luminosity and redshift. This provides clear observational support for the assumption commonly adopted in halo occupation distribution models that satellite galaxies of different luminosities are

  16. Tracing the Base: A Topographic Test for Collusive Basing-Point Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Iwan; Schinkel, Maarten Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  17. Tracing the base: A topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Schinkel, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  18. Methods Research about Accuracy Loss Tracing of Dynamic Measurement System Based on WNN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S-W; Fei, Y T; Jiang, M L; Tsai, C-Y; Cheng Hsinyu

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method of achieving accuracy loss of the dynamic measurement system according to change of errors on different period of the system. WNN, used to trace the accuracy loss of dynamic measurement system, traces the total precision loss during a certain period to every part of the system, and the accuracy loss of every part can be get, so retaining the accuracy and optimum design of the system is possible. Take tracing the accuracy loss of a simulated system for an example to testify the method

  19. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model approval....

  1. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2017-12-01

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  2. An information transfer based novel framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxi; Gao, Xu; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong; Kang, Jiani

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most important approaches for analyzing the mechanism of fault pervasion, fault root cause tracing is a powerful and useful tool for detecting the fundamental causes of faults so as to prevent any further propagation and amplification. Focused on the problems arising from the lack of systematic and comprehensive integration, an information transfer-based novel data-driven framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry was proposed, taking into consideration the experience and qualitative analysis of conventional fault root cause tracing methods. Firstly, an improved symbolic transfer entropy method was presented to construct a directed-weighted information model for a specific complex electromechanical system based on the information flow. Secondly, considering the feedback mechanisms in the complex electromechanical systems, a method for determining the threshold values of weights was developed to explore the disciplines of fault propagation. Lastly, an iterative method was introduced to identify the fault development process. The fault root cause was traced by analyzing the changes in information transfer between the nodes along with the fault propagation pathway. An actual fault root cause tracing application of a complex electromechanical system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. A unique fault root cause is obtained regardless of the choice of the initial variable. Thus, the proposed framework can be flexibly and effectively used in fault root cause tracing for complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry, and formulate the foundation of system vulnerability analysis and condition prediction, as well as other engineering applications.

  3. Comparison of three sensory profiling methods based on consumer perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Letícia Machado

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares three profiling methods based on consumer perceptions in their ability to discriminate and describe eight beers. Consumers (N=135) evaluated eight different beers using Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) methodology in two variations, with (n=63) and without (n=73) rating...... the intensity of the checked descriptors. With CATA, consumers rated 38 descriptors grouped in 7 overall categories (berries, floral, hoppy, nutty, roasted, spicy/herbal and woody). Additionally 40 of the consumers evaluated the same samples by partial Napping® followed by Ultra Flash Profiling (UFP). ANOVA...... comparisons the RV coefficients varied between 0.90 and 0.97, indicating a very high similarity between all three methods. These results show that the precision and reproducibility of sensory information obtained by consumers by CATA is comparable to that of Napping. The choice of methodology for consumer...

  4. Innovative design method of automobile profile based on Fourier descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyong; Fu, Chaoxing; Xia, Fan; Shen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the innovation of the contours of automobile side, this paper presents an innovative design method of vehicle side profile based on Fourier descriptor. The design flow of this design method is: pre-processing, coordinate extraction, standardization, discrete Fourier transform, simplified Fourier descriptor, exchange descriptor innovation, inverse Fourier transform to get the outline of innovative design. Innovative concepts of the innovative methods of gene exchange among species and the innovative methods of gene exchange among different species are presented, and the contours of the innovative design are obtained separately. A three-dimensional model of a car is obtained by referring to the profile curve which is obtained by exchanging xenogeneic genes. The feasibility of the method proposed in this paper is verified by various aspects.

  5. A Simplified Multipath Component Modeling Approach for High-Speed Train Channel Based on Ray Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed train (HST communications at millimeter-wave (mmWave band have received a lot of attention due to their numerous high-data-rate applications enabling smart rail mobility. Accurate and effective channel models are always critical to the HST system design, assessment, and optimization. A distinctive feature of the mmWave HST channel is that it is rapidly time-varying. To depict this feature, a geometry-based multipath model is established for the dominant multipath behavior in delay and Doppler domains. Because of insufficient mmWave HST channel measurement with high mobility, the model is developed by a measurement-validated ray tracing (RT simulator. Different from conventional models, the temporal evolution of dominant multipath behavior is characterized by its geometry factor that represents the geometrical relationship of the dominant multipath component (MPC to HST environment. Actually, during each dominant multipath lifetime, its geometry factor is fixed. To statistically model the geometry factor and its lifetime, the dominant MPCs are extracted within each local wide-sense stationary (WSS region and are tracked over different WSS regions to identify its “birth” and “death” regions. Then, complex attenuation of dominant MPC is jointly modeled by its delay and Doppler shift both which are derived from its geometry factor. Finally, the model implementation is verified by comparison between RT simulated and modeled delay and Doppler spreads.

  6. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7.

  7. Tracing the Spatial-Temporal Evolution of Events Based on Social Media Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media data provide a great opportunity to investigate event flow in cities. Despite the advantages of social media data in these investigations, the data heterogeneity and big data size pose challenges to researchers seeking to identify useful information about events from the raw data. In addition, few studies have used social media posts to capture how events develop in space and time. This paper demonstrates an efficient approach based on machine learning and geovisualization to identify events and trace the development of these events in real-time. We conducted an empirical study to delineate the temporal and spatial evolution of a natural event (heavy precipitation and a social event (Pope Francis’ visit to the US in the New York City—Washington, DC regions. By investigating multiple features of Twitter data (message, author, time, and geographic location information, this paper demonstrates how voluntary local knowledge from tweets can be used to depict city dynamics, discover spatiotemporal characteristics of events, and convey real-time information.

  8. TRACE/PARCS validation for BWR stability based on OECD/NEA Oskarshamn-2 benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Roshan, S.; Lefvert, T.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.; Wysocki, A.; Ivanov, K.; Magedanz, J.; Hardgrove, M.; Netterbrant, C.; March-Leuba, J.; Hudson, N.; Sandervag, O.; Bergman, A.

    2011-01-01

    On February 25, 1999, the Oskarshamn-2 NPP experienced a stability event, which culminated in diverging power oscillations with decay ratio greater than 1.3. The event was successfully modeled by TRACE/PARCS coupled code system and the details of the modeling and solution are described in the paper. The obtained results show excellent agreement with the plant data, capturing the entire behavior of the transient including onset of instability, growth of oscillation (decay ratio) and the oscillation frequency. The event allows coupled code validation for BWR with a real, challenging stability event, which challenges accuracy of neutron kinetics (NK), thermal-hydraulics (TH) and TH/NK coupling. The success of this work has demonstrated the ability of 3-D coupled code systems to capture the complex behavior of BWR stability events. The problem is released as an international OECD/NEA benchmark, and it is the first benchmark based on measured plant data for a stability event with a DR greater than one. Interested participants are invited to contact authors for more information. (author)

  9. Tracing Technological Development Trajectories: A Genetic Knowledge Persistence-Based Main Path Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Park

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to identify main paths in a technological domain using patent citations. Previous approaches for using main path analysis have greatly improved our understanding of actual technological trajectories but nonetheless have some limitations. They have high potential to miss some dominant patents from the identified main paths; nonetheless, the high network complexity of their main paths makes qualitative tracing of trajectories problematic. The proposed method searches backward and forward paths from the high-persistence patents which are identified based on a standard genetic knowledge persistence algorithm. We tested the new method by applying it to the desalination and the solar photovoltaic domains and compared the results to output from the same domains using a prior method. The empirical results show that the proposed method can dramatically reduce network complexity without missing any dominantly important patents. The main paths identified by our approach for two test cases are almost 10x less complex than the main paths identified by the existing approach. The proposed approach identifies all dominantly important patents on the main paths, but the main paths identified by the existing approach miss about 20% of dominantly important patents.

  10. Driving profile modeling and recognition based on soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, Chai; Tan, Chin Keong; Takeda, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    Advancements in biometrics-based authentication have led to its increasing prominence and are being incorporated into everyday tasks. Existing vehicle security systems rely only on alarms or smart card as forms of protection. A biometric driver recognition system utilizing driving behaviors is a highly novel and personalized approach and could be incorporated into existing vehicle security system to form a multimodal identification system and offer a greater degree of multilevel protection. In this paper, detailed studies have been conducted to model individual driving behavior in order to identify features that may be efficiently and effectively used to profile each driver. Feature extraction techniques based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are proposed and implemented. Features extracted from the accelerator and brake pedal pressure were then used as inputs to a fuzzy neural network (FNN) system to ascertain the identity of the driver. Two fuzzy neural networks, namely, the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFuNN) and the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to demonstrate the viability of the two proposed feature extraction techniques. The performances were compared against an artificial neural network (NN) implementation using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network and a statistical method based on the GMM. Extensive testing was conducted and the results show great potential in the use of the FNN for real-time driver identification and verification. In addition, the profiling of driver behaviors has numerous other potential applications for use by law enforcement and companies dealing with buses and truck drivers.

  11. Mapping of Trace Elements in Coal and Ash Research Based on a Bibliometric Analysis Method Spanning 1971–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most important fossil energy used in China. The environmental impact of trace elements released in coal combustion has become one of the hottest issues in recent years. Based on a software named CiteSpace, and social network analysis (SNA, a bibliometric analysis of research into trace elements in coal and ash field during 1971–2017 is presented with the information of authors, countries, institutions, journals, hot issues and research trends in the present study. The study results indicate that: (1 Shifeng Dai, Robert B Finkelman, Guijian Liu and James C Hower have a large number of publications with great influence. (2 China (29.8% and USA (22.2% have high productivity in total publications. China and the USA correlate closely in the cooperative web system. (3 China University of Mining and Technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences take the leading position in the quantity of publications among all research institutions. (4 Energy and fuels, engineering and environmental science are three disciplines with the most studies in this field. (5 International Journal of Coal Geology, Fuel, Energy and Fuels and Fuel Processing Technology are the top four journals with the most publications in this field. (6 The enrichment origin and modes of occurrence of trace elements are the mainstream research related to trace elements in coal and ash. The environmental problems caused by coal combustion have promoted the development of trace elements in coal research, and human health is getting more and more popular in recent years. The study findings provide a better understanding of features of trace elements in coal and ash research, which could be taken as a reference for future studies in this field.

  12. A new 3-D ray tracing method based on LTI using successive partitioning of cell interfaces and traveltime gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Yan; Hu, Ying; Qin, Qian-Qing

    2013-05-01

    We present a new method of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic ray tracing, based on an improvement to the linear traveltime interpolation (LTI) ray tracing algorithm. This new technique involves two separate steps. The first involves a forward calculation based on the LTI method and the dynamic successive partitioning scheme, which is applied to calculate traveltimes on cell boundaries and assumes a wavefront that expands from the source to all grid nodes in the computational domain. We locate several dynamic successive partition points on a cell's surface, the traveltimes of which can be calculated by linear interpolation between the vertices of the cell's boundary. The second is a backward step that uses Fermat's principle and the fact that the ray path is always perpendicular to the wavefront and follows the negative traveltime gradient. In this process, the first-arriving ray path can be traced from the receiver to the source along the negative traveltime gradient, which can be calculated by reconstructing the continuous traveltime field with cubic B-spline interpolation. This new 3-D ray tracing method is compared with the LTI method and the shortest path method (SPM) through a number of numerical experiments. These comparisons show obvious improvements to computed traveltimes and ray paths, both in precision and computational efficiency.

  13. An improved phase-locked loop method for automatic resonance frequency tracing based on static capacitance broadband compensation for a high-power ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui-juan; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wu, Han-fu

    2012-02-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) method is widely used for automatic resonance frequency tracing (ARFT) of high-power ultrasonic transducers, which are usually vibrating systems with high mechanical quality factor (Qm). However, a heavily-loaded transducer usually has a low Qm because the load has a large mechanical loss. In this paper, a series of theoretical analyses is carried out to detail why the traditional PLL method could cause serious frequency tracing problems, including loss of lock, antiresonance frequency tracing, and large tracing errors. The authors propose an improved ARFT method based on static capacitance broadband compensation (SCBC), which is able to address these problems. Experiments using a generator based on the novel method were carried out using crude oil as the transducer load. The results obtained have demonstrated the effectiveness of the novel method, compared with the conventional PLL method, in terms of improved tracing accuracy (±9 Hz) and immunity to antiresonance frequency tracing and loss of lock.

  14. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  15. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic (TRACE-A) conducted in September/October 1992. The broad objectives of TRACE-A were to study chemical processes and long-range transport associated with South American and African continental outflow during periods of widespread vegetation burning, and to understand the ozone enhancements observed from satellite data measured over the southern tropical Atlantic Ocean during the September/October time period. Flight experiments were conducted from Brazil, South Africa, Namibia, and the Ascension Island. This document provides a representation of aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data format of time series and altitude profile plots is not intended to support original analyses, but to assist the reader in identifying data that are of interest. This compendium is for only the NASA aircraft data. The DAAC data base includes numerous supporting data-meteorological products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and data from sonde releases.

  16. Web-based communication tools in a European research project: the example of the TRACE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeten V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-disciplinary and international nature of large European projects requires powerful managerial and communicative tools to ensure the transmission of information to the end-users. One such project is TRACE entitled “Tracing Food Commodities in Europe”. One of its objectives is to provide a communication system dedicated to be the central source of information on food authenticity and traceability in Europe. This paper explores the web tools used and communication vehicles offered to scientists involved in the TRACE project to communicate internally as well as to the public. Two main tools have been built: an Intranet and a public website. The TRACE website can be accessed at http://www.trace.eu.org. A particular emphasis was placed on the efficiency, the relevance and the accessibility of the information, the publicity of the website as well as the use of the collaborative utilities. The rationale of web space design as well as integration of proprietary software solutions are presented. Perspectives on the using of web tools in the research projects are discussed.

  17. Comparison of lists of genes based on functional profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salicrú Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How to compare studies on the basis of their biological significance is a problem of central importance in high-throughput genomics. Many methods for performing such comparisons are based on the information in databases of functional annotation, such as those that form the Gene Ontology (GO. Typically, they consist of analyzing gene annotation frequencies in some pre-specified GO classes, in a class-by-class way, followed by p-value adjustment for multiple testing. Enrichment analysis, where a list of genes is compared against a wider universe of genes, is the most common example. Results A new global testing procedure and a method incorporating it are presented. Instead of testing separately for each GO class, a single global test for all classes under consideration is performed. The test is based on the distance between the functional profiles, defined as the joint frequencies of annotation in a given set of GO classes. These classes may be chosen at one or more GO levels. The new global test is more powerful and accurate with respect to type I errors than the usual class-by-class approach. When applied to some real datasets, the results suggest that the method may also provide useful information that complements the tests performed using a class-by-class approach if gene counts are sparse in some classes. An R library, goProfiles, implements these methods and is available from Bioconductor, http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/goProfiles.html. Conclusions The method provides an inferential basis for deciding whether two lists are functionally different. For global comparisons it is preferable to the global chi-square test of homogeneity. Furthermore, it may provide additional information if used in conjunction with class-by-class methods.

  18. Profile-based adaptive anomaly detection for network security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengchu C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Durgin, Nancy Ann

    2005-11-01

    As information systems become increasingly complex and pervasive, they become inextricably intertwined with the critical infrastructure of national, public, and private organizations. The problem of recognizing and evaluating threats against these complex, heterogeneous networks of cyber and physical components is a difficult one, yet a solution is vital to ensuring security. In this paper we investigate profile-based anomaly detection techniques that can be used to address this problem. We focus primarily on the area of network anomaly detection, but the approach could be extended to other problem domains. We investigate using several data analysis techniques to create profiles of network hosts and perform anomaly detection using those profiles. The ''profiles'' reduce multi-dimensional vectors representing ''normal behavior'' into fewer dimensions, thus allowing pattern and cluster discovery. New events are compared against the profiles, producing a quantitative measure of how ''anomalous'' the event is. Most network intrusion detection systems (IDSs) detect malicious behavior by searching for known patterns in the network traffic. This approach suffers from several weaknesses, including a lack of generalizability, an inability to detect stealthy or novel attacks, and lack of flexibility regarding alarm thresholds. Our research focuses on enhancing current IDS capabilities by addressing some of these shortcomings. We identify and evaluate promising techniques for data mining and machine-learning. The algorithms are ''trained'' by providing them with a series of data-points from ''normal'' network traffic. A successful algorithm can be trained automatically and efficiently, will have a low error rate (low false alarm and miss rates), and will be able to identify anomalies in ''pseudo real-time'' (i.e., while the intrusion is still in progress

  19. Dynamic Load Balancing Based on Constrained K-D Tree Decomposition for Parallel Particle Tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru; Hong, Fan; Peterka, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Particle tracing is a fundamental technique in flow field data visualization. In this work, we present a novel dynamic load balancing method for parallel particle tracing. Specifically, we employ a constrained k-d tree decomposition approach to dynamically redistribute tasks among processes. Each process is initially assigned a regularly partitioned block along with duplicated ghost layer under the memory limit. During particle tracing, the k-d tree decomposition is dynamically performed by constraining the cutting planes in the overlap range of duplicated data. This ensures that each process is reassigned particles as even as possible, and on the other hand the new assigned particles for a process always locate in its block. Result shows good load balance and high efficiency of our method.

  20. Measurement-based performance profiles and dynamics of UDT over dedicated connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2016-11-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing and big data scenarios are increasingly being carried over dedicated network connections that provide high capacities at low loss rates. UDP-based transport protocols are expected to be particularly well-suited for such transfers but their performance is relatively unexplored over a wide range of connection lengths, compared to TCP over shared connections. We present extensive throughput measurements of UDP-based Data Transfer (UDT) over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections. In sharp contrast to current UDT analytical models, these measurements indicate much more complex throughput dynamics that are sensitive to the connection modality, protocol parameters, and round-trip times. Lyapunov exponents estimated from the Poincare maps of UDT traces clearly indicate regions of instability and complex dynamics. We propose a simple model based on the ramp-up and sustainment regimes of a generic transport protocol, which qualitatively illustrates the dominant monotonicity and concavity properties of throughput profiles and relates them to Lyapunov exponents. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to comprehensively evaluate UDT performance and select parameters to achieve high throughput, and they also provide guidelines for designing effective transport protocols for dedicated connections.

  1. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damastuti, E.; Syahfitri, W.Y.N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  2. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  3. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  4. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km 2 and drains an area of 320 km 2 . It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  5. Stratospheric NO2 vertical profile retrieved from ground-based Zenith-Sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric NO2 destroys ozone and acts as a buffer against halogen-catalyzed ozone loss through the formation of reservoir species (ClONO2, BrONO2). Since the importance of both mechanisms depends on the altitude, the investigation of stratospheric NO2 vertical distribution can provide more insight into the role of nitrogen compounds in the destruction of ozone. Here we present stratospheric NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from twilight ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) covering 1997 - 2013 periods. This instrument observes zenith scattered sunlight. The sensitivity for stratospheric trace gases is highest during twilight due to the maximum altitude of the scattering profile and the light path through the stratosphere, which vary with the solar zenith angle. The profiling algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation Method, has been developed by IASB-BIRA and successfully applied at other stations (Hendrick et al., 2004). The basic principle behind this profiling approach is that during twilight, the mean Rayleigh scattering altitude scans the stratosphere rapidly, providing height-resolved information on the absorption by stratospheric NO2. In this study, the long-term evolution of the stratospheric NO2 profile at polar latitude will be investigated. Hendrick, F., B. Barret, M. Van Roozendael, H. Boesch, A. Butz, M. De Mazière, F. Goutail, C. Hermans, J.-C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and J.-P. Pommereau, Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: Validation of the technique through correlative comparisons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 2091-2106, 2004

  6. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  7. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Mingrong [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wu, Huizhen [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Zhang, Zulin [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongzhi [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Lin, Hui [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Ma, Junwei, E-mail: majw@mail.zaas.ac.cn [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. - Graphical abstract: Occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers in Zhejiang province of China. The trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium; the targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The medium values of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound with the detection rate of 39.3% and the concentrations ranged from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizers might pose a high potential ecological risk after their application onto agriculture soil due to the presence of antibiotics. - Highlight: • Antibiotics and trace elements were investigated in manure-based fertilizers. • 64% of

  8. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Zulin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Lin, Hui; Ma, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg"−"1, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg·kg"−"1 to 4091 μg·kg"−"1. Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. - Graphical abstract: Occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers in Zhejiang province of China. The trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium; the targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The medium values of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg"−"1, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound with the detection rate of 39.3% and the concentrations ranged from 6.7 μg·kg"−"1 to 4091 μg·kg"−"1. Based on the referred loading rates, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizers might pose a high potential ecological risk after their application onto agriculture soil due to the presence of antibiotics. - Highlight: • Antibiotics and trace elements were investigated in manure-based fertilizers. • 64% of manure-based fertilizers

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Contact Tracing on Tuberculosis Outcomes in Saskatchewan Using Individual-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Osgood, Nathaniel D.; Al-Azem, Assaad; Hoeppner, Vernon H.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal disease spread by an airborne pathogen infecting approximately one third of the globe. For decades, contact tracing (CT) has served a key role in the control of TB and many other notifiable communicable diseases. Unfortunately, CT is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process and is often conducted by a…

  10. Interleaved Practice with Multiple Representations: Analyses with Knowledge Tracing Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.; Pardos, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use Knowledge Tracing to augment the results obtained from an experiment that investigated the effects of practice schedules using an intelligent tutoring system for fractions. Specifically, this experiment compared different practice schedules of multiple representations of fractions: representations were presented to…

  11. Ultrasensitive microchip based on smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Liu, Zhuang; Yu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Chuan; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-02-23

    Real-time online detection of trace threat analytes is critical for global sustainability, whereas the key challenge is how to efficiently convert and amplify analyte signals into simple readouts. Here we report an ultrasensitive microfluidic platform incorporated with smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes. The microgel can swell responding to specific stimulus in flowing solution, resulting in efficient conversion of the stimulus signal into significantly amplified signal of flow-rate change; thus highly sensitive, fast, and selective detection can be achieved. We demonstrate this by incorporating ion-recognizable microgel for detecting trace Pb(2+), and connecting our platform with pipelines of tap water and wastewater for real-time online Pb(2+) detection to achieve timely pollution warning and terminating. This work provides a generalizable platform for incorporating myriad stimuli-responsive microgels to achieve ever-better performance for real-time online detection of various trace threat molecules, and may expand the scope of applications of detection techniques.

  12. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  13. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-05-07

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.

  14. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  15. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccolo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.baccolo@mib.infn.it [Graduate School in Polar Sciences, University of Siena, Via Laterina 8, 53100, Siena (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Clemenza, Massimiliano [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Delmonte, Barbara [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); Maffezzoli, Niccolò [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej, 30, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea [LENA, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Maggi, Valter [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10{sup −13}–10{sup −6} g, improving previous results of 1–3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. - Highlights: • A new method based on neutron activation for the multi-elemental characterization of atmospheric dust entrapped in polar ice cores is proposed. • 37 elements were quantified in μg size dust samples with detection limits ranging from 10{sup −13} to 10{sup −6} g. • A low background approach and a clean analytical protocol improved INAA performances to unprecedented levels for multi-elemental analyses.

  16. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebowitz, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

  17. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sporea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  18. Determination of trace aluminum by fluorescence quenching method based on catalysis of potassium chlorate oxidizing alizarin red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-Qin, Lin; Xuan, Lin; Shi-Rong, Hu; Li-Qing, Zeng; Yan, Wang; Li, Chen; Jia-Ming, Liu; Long-Di, Li

    2005-11-01

    A new method for the determination of trace aluminum has been proposed. It is based on the fact that alizarin red can emit strong and stable fluorescence at 80 °C for 30 min and Al 3+ can effectively catalyze potassium chlorate oxidizing alizarin red to form non-fluorescence complex which cause the fluorescence quenching. The linear dynamic range of this method is 0.040-4.00 ng l -1 with a detection limit of 5.3 pg l -1. The regression equation can be expressed as Δ If = 8.731 + 21.73 c (ng l -1), with the correlation coefficient r = 0.9992 ( n = 6). This sensitive, rapid and accurate method has been applied to the determination of trace aluminum(III) in human hair and tea samples successfully. What is more, the mechanism of catalyzing potassium chlorate oxidizing alizarin red by the fluorescence quenching method is also discussed.

  19. How Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making are Colored by Gist-based Intuition: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Reyna, Valerie F; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2015-12-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory distinguishes verbatim (literal, exact) from gist (meaningful) representations, predicting that reliance on gist increases with experience and expertise. Thus, many judgment-and-decision-making biases increase with development, such that cognition is colored by context in ways that violate logical coherence and probability theories. Nevertheless, this increase in gist-based intuition is adaptive: Gist is stable, less sensitive to interference, and easier to manipulate. Moreover, gist captures the functionally significant essence of information, supporting healthier and more robust decision processes. We describe how fuzzy-trace theory accounts for judgment-and-decision making phenomena, predicting the paradoxical arc of these processes with the development of experience and expertise. We present data linking gist memory processes to gist processing in decision making and provide illustrations of gist reliance in medicine, public health, and intelligence analysis.

  20. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  1. A study based on trace elements of differentiated metabasic rocks from the Machado-MG region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, A.; Carvalho, S.G. de.

    1983-01-01

    Large metabasic intrusive bodies occur in the Precambrian gneiss-migmatite basement around Poco Fundo - Campestre - Machado Triangle, south Minas Gerais. Separate occurrences consisting in each case of pyroxenite, metagabbro and amphibolite seem to be related to each other as is evident from their mineralogy, texture and trends of trace element concentration when plotted against their mg number (Mg/MgO + FeO mol.). Furthermore, their trace elements indicate that these rocks belong to a differentiated sequence resulting from separation of pyroxenes in situ. In spite of their high large ion lithophile element contents comparable to calc-alcaline rocks, the metabasic rocks show close resemblance to present-day mid-ocean ridge basalts when these are plotted in relevant variation diagrams. The tectonic implication of the observations is, however, not yet clear. (Author) [pt

  2. Musculoskeletal model-based control interface mimics physiologic hand dynamics during path tracing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dustin L.; (Helen Huang, He

    2017-06-01

    Objective. We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. Approach. A two-degree-of-freedom computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5-10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given three attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand. Able-bodied subjects completed the task on two separate test days. Main results. Across subjects and test days, there was a significant linear relationship between log-transformed measures of accuracy and speed (Pearson’s r  =  0.25, p  bodied subjects in 8 of 10 trials. For able-bodied subjects, tracing accuracy was lower at the extremes of the model’s range of motion, though there was no apparent relationship between tracing accuracy and fingertip location for the amputee. Our result suggests that, unlike able-bodied subjects, the amputee’s motor control patterns were not accustomed to the multi-joint dynamics of the wrist and hand, possibly as a result of post-amputation cortical plasticity, disuse, or sensory deficits. Significance. To our knowledge, our study is one of very few that have demonstrated the real-time simultaneous control of multi-joint movements, especially wrist and finger movements, using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model, which differs from the many data-driven algorithms that dominate the literature on EMG-driven prosthesis control. Real-time control was achieved with very little training and simple, quick (~15 s) calibration. Thus, our model is potentially a practical and effective control platform for multifunctional myoelectric prostheses that could restore more life-like hand function for individuals with upper limb amputation.

  3. Using client-side event logging and path tracing to assess and improve the quality of web-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas M; Hauan, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Web-based data collection has considerable appeal. However, the quality of data collected using such instruments is often questionable. There can be systematic problems with the wording of the surveys, and/or the means with which they are deployed. In unsupervised data collection, there are also concerns about whether subjects understand the questions, and wehther they are answering honestly. This paper presents a schema for using client-side timestamps and traces of subjects' paths through instruments to detect problems with the definition of instruments and their deployment. We discuss two large, anonymous, web-based, medical surveys as examples of the utility of this approach.

  4. Determination of base-line levels of trace amounts in pulses and spices using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    It has been established that essential trace elements are vitally important for biochemical systems, whereas toxic elements if present in relatively higher amounts adversely affect these systems. Trace elements reach the human body mainly through foodstuffs. The different articles contain varying amount of toxic and essential elements. It is therefore necessary to asses the adequacy and safety of the diet by determining the base-line levels of these elements. In continuation of our previous work, some varieties of pulses and spices were analyzed using neutron activation technique. Among the four varieties of pulses lentil (lens esculenta) was found to contain higher amounts of essential elements and lower amounts of toxic elements. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pulses was estimated and compared with the suggested values. The estimated intake of essential elements is adequate and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limit. In spices cumin and caraway seeds were found to contain relatively higher amounts of essential as well as toxic elements. The studies showed that food spices were additional source of trace element intake. (author)

  5. Bioorthogonal chemistry: applications in activity-based protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Lianne I; van der Linden, Wouter A; Li, Nan; Li, Kah-Yee; Liu, Nora; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; van der Marel, Gijs A; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2011-09-20

    of chemical biology research include contributions from many areas of the multifaceted discipline of chemistry, and particularly from organic chemistry. Researchers apply knowledge inherent to organic chemistry, such as reactivity and selectivity, to the manipulation of specific biomolecules in biological samples (cell extracts, living cells, and sometimes even animal models) to gain insight into the biological phenomena in which these molecules participate. In this Account, we highlight some of the recent developments in chemical biology research driven by organic chemistry, with a focus on bioorthogonal chemistry in relation to activity-based protein profiling. The rigorous demands of bioorthogonality have not yet been realized in a truly bioorthogonal reagent pair, but remarkable progress has afforded a range of tangible contributions to chemical biology research. Activity-based protein profiling, which aims to obtain information on the workings of a protein (or protein family) within the larger context of the full biological system, has in particular benefited from these advances. Both activity-based protein profiling and bioorthogonal chemistry have been around for approximately 15 years, and about 8 years ago the two fields very profitably intersected. We expect that each discipline, both separately and in concert, will continue to make important contributions to chemical biology research. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  7. Student Competency Profile Chart: A Competency Based Vocational Education Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, John L.

    This document defines, describes usage of, and provides samples of student competency profiles being used in 17 vocational programs at Rutland Area Vocational-Technical Center in Rutland, Vermont. The profiles cover the following programs: auto body, auto mechanics, business/data processing, cabinetmaking, carpentry/masonry, culinary arts,…

  8. Personality perception based on LinkedIn profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Niels; Bogaert, Aniek; Serlie, Alec; Brandt, Mark; Denissen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Job-related social networking websites (e.g., LinkedIn) are often used in the recruitment process because the profiles contain valuable information such as education level and work experience. We investigated whether people can accurately infer a profile owner’s self-rated personality

  9. Fatty acid profile as a tool to trace the origin of beef in pasture- and grain-fed young bulls of Retinta breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horcada, A.; López, A.; Polvillo, O.; Pino, R.; Cubiles-de-la-Vega, D.; Tejerina, D.; García-Torres, S.

    2017-07-01

    This research explores the possibility of using the fatty acid profiles of intramuscular fat to authenticate the origin of Retinta breed meat according to different feeding regimes based on the combined use of concentrate and grass or forage (GP, grass pasture; MC, medium concentrate; HC, high concentrate). Young bulls from GP (n=30) were reared on grass pasture and supplement with concentrate in controlled feeders; MC (n=30) and HC (n=15) were reared in farm buildings using 40 and 80% concentrate of total dry matter from diet, respectively. The stepclass function in R was used to perform a stepwise linear discriminant analysis including thirty fatty acids from intramuscular fat. Two fatty acids, 9c18:1 and 22:5 n-3 were selected as discriminators of the meat origin. Meat from the GP and MC was characterized by higher 22:5 n-3 (p<0.05), while HC meat showed higher 9c18:1 (p<0.05). The use of 9c18:1 and 22:5 n-3 fatty acids from intramuscular fat resulted in a correct assignation of 100% of beef samples to each of the feeding regimes. Therefore, in addition to serving as an effective tool for discriminating between feeding regimes in the origin of the beef, the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat could help companies to check the authenticity of the meat origin.

  10. Fatty acid profile as a tool to trace the origin of beef in pasture- and grain-fed young bulls of Retinta breed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horcada, A.; López, A.; Polvillo, O.; Pino, R.; Cubiles-de-la-Vega, D.; Tejerina, D.; García-Torres, S.

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of using the fatty acid profiles of intramuscular fat to authenticate the origin of Retinta breed meat according to different feeding regimes based on the combined use of concentrate and grass or forage (GP, grass pasture; MC, medium concentrate; HC, high concentrate). Young bulls from GP (n=30) were reared on grass pasture and supplement with concentrate in controlled feeders; MC (n=30) and HC (n=15) were reared in farm buildings using 40 and 80% concentrate of total dry matter from diet, respectively. The stepclass function in R was used to perform a stepwise linear discriminant analysis including thirty fatty acids from intramuscular fat. Two fatty acids, 9c18:1 and 22:5 n-3 were selected as discriminators of the meat origin. Meat from the GP and MC was characterized by higher 22:5 n-3 (p<0.05), while HC meat showed higher 9c18:1 (p<0.05). The use of 9c18:1 and 22:5 n-3 fatty acids from intramuscular fat resulted in a correct assignation of 100% of beef samples to each of the feeding regimes. Therefore, in addition to serving as an effective tool for discriminating between feeding regimes in the origin of the beef, the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat could help companies to check the authenticity of the meat origin.

  11. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Crack diagnosis of metallic profiles based on structural damage indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, A; Schröder, K-U; Steenbock, C

    2015-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) faces several challenges before large-scale industrial application. First of all damage diagnosis has to be reliable. Therefore, common SHM approaches use highly advanced sensor techniques to monitor the whole structure on all possible failures. This results in an enormous amount of data gathered during service. The general effort can be drastically reduced, if the knowledge achieved during the sizing process is used. During sizing, potential failure modes and critical locations, so called hot spots, are already evaluated. A very sensitive SHM system can be developed, when the monitoring effort shifts from the damage to its impact on the structural behaviour and the so called damage indicators. These are the two main components of the SmartSHM approach, which reduces the monitoring effort significantly. Not only the amount of data is minimized, but also reliability and robustness are ensured by the SmartSHM approach.This contribution demonstrates the SmartSHM approach by a cracked four point bending beam. To show general applicability a parametric study considering different profiles (bar, box, I, C, T, L, Z), crack positions and lengths has been performed. Questions of sensitivity and minimum size of the sensor network are discussed based on the results of the parametric study. (paper)

  13. Increasing user value through professional identity profiles, profile-based connection agents and games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert; Sereno, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Encouraging users of online communities to complete, maintain and improve their electronic profiles is a challenging task. Only if users see real value for themselves will they invest their time and energy in this activity, and become active contributing members of the online community. In this

  14. Web User Profiling Based on Browsing Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan , Xiao-Xi; Chow , Kam-Pui; Xu , Fei

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Internet Crime Investigations; International audience; Determining the source of criminal activity requires a reliable means to estimate a criminal’s identity. One way to do this is to use web browsing history to build a profile of an anonymous user. Since an individual’s web use is unique, matching the web use profile to known samples provides a means to identify an unknown user. This paper describes a model for web user profiling and identification. Two aspects of browsing behavior ...

  15. Toxicity of 35 trace elements in coal to freshwater biota: a data base with automated retrieval capabilities. [313 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Strand, R. H.; Anderson, R. M.

    1977-06-01

    Data are tabulated on the toxicity to freshwater biota of 35 trace elements with the potential for release to the environment from coal conversion effluents. The entire data base is presented on a microfiche appended to the document, in the interest of portability and accessibility. The data were gathered from a variety of research papers, compendia, and reviews. Details of water chemistry and test conditions are presented when available from the documents consulted. The data base may be used by referring directly to the tabulated data as they appear on the microfiche, or, with appropriate computer facilities, by manipulation (sorting, subsetting, or merging) of the data to meet the particular needs of the investigator. The data may be used as they appear in the data base, or the data base may be used to index the cited original papers.

  16. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  17. Rapid simulation of X-ray transmission imaging for baggage inspection via GPU-based ray-tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Coccarelli, David S.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Vera, Esteban; Gehm, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a pipeline that rapidly simulates X-ray transmission imaging for arbitrary system architectures using GPU-based ray-tracing techniques. The purpose of the pipeline is to enable statistical analysis of threat detection in the context of airline baggage inspection. As a faster alternative to Monte Carlo methods, we adopt a deterministic approach for simulating photoelectric absorption-based imaging. The highly-optimized NVIDIA OptiX API is used to implement ray-tracing, greatly speeding code execution. In addition, we implement the first hierarchical representation structure to determine the interaction path length of rays traversing heterogeneous media described by layered polygons. The accuracy of the pipeline has been validated by comparing simulated data with experimental data collected using a heterogenous phantom and a laboratory X-ray imaging system. On a single computer, our approach allows us to generate over 400 2D transmission projections (125 × 125 pixels per frame) per hour for a bag packed with hundreds of everyday objects. By implementing our approach on cloud-based GPU computing platforms, we find that the same 2D projections of approximately 3.9 million bags can be obtained in a single day using 400 GPU instances, at a cost of only 0.001 per bag.

  18. SPECIEUROPE: The European data base for PM source profiles

    OpenAIRE

    PERNIGOTTI DENISE; BELIS CLAUDIO; SPANO' LUCA

    2015-01-01

    A database of atmospheric particulate matter emission source profiles in Europe (SPECIEUROPE) was developed by the Joint Research Center in the framework of the Forum for air quality modeling in Europe (FAIRMODE, Working Group 3). It contains the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emission sources reported in the scientific literature and reports drafted by competent authorities. The first release of SPECIEUROPE consists of 151 measured profiles (original), 13 composite (merging ...

  19. R-LODs: fast LOD-based ray tracing of massive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-Eui; Lauterbach, Christian; Manocha, Dinesh

    2006-08-25

    We present a novel LOD (level-of-detail) algorithm to accelerate ray tracing of massive models. Our approach computes drastic simplifications of the model and the LODs are well integrated with the kd-tree data structure. We introduce a simple and efficient LOD metric to bound the error for primary and secondary rays. The LOD representation has small runtime overhead and our algorithm can be combined with ray coherence techniques and cache-coherent layouts to improve the performance. In practice, the use of LODs can alleviate aliasing artifacts and improve memory coherence. We implement our algorithm on both 32bit and 64bit machines and able to achieve up to 2.20 times improvement in frame rate of rendering models consisting of tens or hundreds of millions of triangles with little loss in image quality.

  20. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  1. A proposal for transmission pricing methodology in Thailand based on electricity tracing and long-run average incremental cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpasuwan, T.; Bialek, J.W.; Ongsakul, W.; Limmeechokchai, B.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is no universally accepted methodology for restructuring of electricity supply industry, the transformations often involve separation of generation and transmission. Such separation results in a need for a transmission service charge to be levied on the system users. The National Energy Policy Office (NEPO) of Thailand has commissioned PricewaterhouseCooper (PwC) to propose a transmission service charge that is to be used during the market reform for the transmission business unit of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). Although the PwCs transmission use of system charge (TUOS) based on the long-run average incremental cost (LRAIC) and average transmission loss can satisfy the financial requirements, the charge allocations are not economically efficient since they do not provide any locational signal which could reflect costs imposed on the system by locating a system user in a particular geographical location. This paper describes the TUOS methodology suggested by PwC and makes a comparison with a transmission pricing method based on combination of the electricity tracing and LRAIC. The results indicate that, with electricity tracing, the charge allocations are improved in terms of fairness, as the charge reflects the geographical location and system conditions

  2. Simulating polarized light scattering in terrestrial snow based on bicontinuous random medium and Monte Carlo ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Chuan; Shi, Jiancheng

    2014-01-01

    To date, the light scattering models of snow consider very little about the real snow microstructures. The ideal spherical or other single shaped particle assumptions in previous snow light scattering models can cause error in light scattering modeling of snow and further cause errors in remote sensing inversion algorithms. This paper tries to build up a snow polarized reflectance model based on bicontinuous medium, with which the real snow microstructure is considered. The accurate specific surface area of bicontinuous medium can be analytically derived. The polarized Monte Carlo ray tracing technique is applied to the computer generated bicontinuous medium. With proper algorithms, the snow surface albedo, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and polarized BRDF can be simulated. The validation of model predicted spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) using experiment data shows good results. The relationship between snow surface albedo and snow specific surface area (SSA) were predicted, and this relationship can be used for future improvement of snow specific surface area (SSA) inversion algorithms. The model predicted polarized reflectance is validated and proved accurate, which can be further applied in polarized remote sensing. -- Highlights: • Bicontinuous random medium were used for real snow microstructure modeling. • Photon tracing technique with polarization status tracking ability was applied. • SSA–albedo relationship of snow is close to that of sphere based medium. • Validation of albedo and BRDF showed good results. • Validation of polarized reflectance showed good agreement with experiment data

  3. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  4. Transmission cost allocation based on power flow tracing considering reliability benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leepreechanon, N.; Singharerg, S.; Padungwech, W.; Nakawiro, W.; Eua-Arporn, B.; David, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Power transmission networks must be able to accommodate the continuously growing demand for reliable and economical electricity. This paper presented a method to allocate transmission use and reliability cost to both generators and end-consumers. Although transmission cost allocation methods change depending on the local context of the electric power industry, there is a common principle that transmission line capacity should be properly allocated to accommodate actual power delivery with an adequate reliability margin. The method proposed in this paper allocates transmission embedded cost to both generators and loads in an equitable manner, incorporating probability indices to allocate transmission reliability margin among users in both supply and demand sides. The application of the proposed method was illustrated using Bialek's tracing method on a multiple-circuit, six-bus transmission system. Probabilistic indices known as the transmission internal reliability margin (TIRM) and transmission external reliability margin (TERM) decomposed from the transmission reliability margin (TRM) were introduced, making true cost of using overall transmission facilities. 6 refs., 11 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  6. An RFID-Based Tracing and Tracking System for the Fresh Vegetables Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mainetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative gapless traceability system able to improve the main business processes of the fresh vegetables supply chain. The performed analysis highlighted some critical aspects in the management of the whole supply chain, from the land to the table of the end consumer, and allowed us to reengineer the most important processes. In particular, the first steps of the supply chain, which include cultivation in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables, were analyzed. The re-engineered model was designed by exploiting the potentialities derived from the combined use of innovative Radio Frequency technologies, such as RFID and NFC, and important international standards, such as EPCglobal. The proposed tracing and tracking system allows the end consumer to know the complete history of the purchased product. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the potential benefits of the reengineered processes in a real supply chain, a pilot project was implemented in an Italian food company, which produces ready-to-eat vegetables, known as IV gamma products. Finally, some important metrics have been chosen to carry out the analysis of the potential benefits derived from the use of the re-engineered model.

  7. Lab-on-fiber electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic device based on a microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-15

    We report an in-fiber integrated electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic optical fiber sensor based on a specially designed optical fiber. In this design, rapid in situ separation and simultaneous detection of mixed analytes can be realized under electro-osmotic flow in the microstructured optical fiber. To visually display the in-fiber separating and detecting process, two common fluorescent indicators are adopted as the optofluidic analytes in the optical fiber. Results show that a trace amount of the mixture (0.15 μL) can be completely separated within 3.5 min under a high voltage of 5 kV. Simultaneously, the distributed information of the separated analytes in the optical fiber can be clearly obtained by scanning along the optical fiber using a 355 nm laser. The emission from the analytes can be efficiently coupled into the inner core and guides to the remote end of the optical fiber. In addition, the thin cladding around the inner core in the optical fiber can prevent the fluorescent cross talk between the analytes in this design. Compared to previous optical fiber optofluidic devices, this device first realizes simultaneously separating treatment and the detection of the mixed samples in an optical fiber. Significantly, such an in-fiber integrated separating and detecting optofluidic device can find wide applications in various analysis fields involves mixed samples, such as biology, chemistry, and environment.

  8. Detection of trace fluoride in serum and urine by online membrane-based distillation coupled with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chaoyan; Guo, Dandan; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2017-06-02

    An online membrane-based distillation (MBD) coupled with ion chromatography (IC) method was proposed for automatic detection of trace fluoride (F - ) in serum and urine samples. The system consisted of a sample vessel, a lab-made membrane module and an ion chromatograph. Hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane was used in MBD which was directly performed in serum and urine samples to eliminate the matrix interferences and enrich fluoride, while enabling automation. The determination of fluoride in biological samples was carried out by IC with suppressed conductometric detection. The proposed method feasibly determined trace fluoride in serum and urine matrices with the optimized parameters, such as acid concentration, distillation temperature, and distillation time, etc. Fluoride exhibited satisfactory linearity in the range of 0.01-5.0mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 0.78μg/L and 2.61μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak area and peak height were all less than 5.15%. The developed method was validated for the determination of fluoride in serum and urine with good spiked recoveries ranging between 97.1-101.9%. This method also can be proposed as a suitable alternative for the analysis of fluoride in other complex biological samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. Q.; Shu, J. N.; Zhang, P.; Li, Z.; Li, N. N.; Liang, M.; Yang, B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS) in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ) of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  10. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...

  11. Personality perception based on LinkedIn profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van de Ven (Niels); A. Bogaerts (Aniek); A.W. Serlie (Alec); M.J. Brandt (Mark); J.A. Denissen (Jaap)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Purpose:__ Job-related social networking websites (e.g. LinkedIn) are often used in the recruitment process because the profiles contain valuable information such as education level and work experience. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether people can accurately infer

  12. A Profile-Based Framework for Factorial Similarity and the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Anselma G; Furr, R Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuitive components: general saturation similarity, differential saturation similarity, and configural similarity. We then articulate the congruence coefficient in terms of these components, along with 2 additional profile-based components, and we explain how these components resolve ambiguities that can be-and are-found when using the congruence coefficient. Finally, we present secondary analyses revealing that profile-based components of factorial are indeed linked to experts' actual evaluations of factorial similarity. Overall, the profile-based approach we present offers new insights into the ways in which researchers can examine factor similarity and holds the potential to enhance researchers' ability to understand the congruence coefficient.

  13. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  14. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  15. Wavelet based methods for improved wind profiler signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply wavelet thresholding for removing automatically ground and intermittent clutter (airplane echoes from wind profiler radar data. Using the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which allow us to identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and to suppress them in order to obtain filtered reconstructions.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  16. Domain-oriented functional analysis based on expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-regulation of genes may imply involvement in similar biological processes or related function. Many clusters of co-regulated genes have been identified using microarray experiments. In this study, we examined co-regulated gene families using large-scale cDNA microarray experiments on the human transcriptome. Results We present a simple model, which, for each probe pair, distills expression changes into binary digits and summarizes the expression of multiple members of a gene family as the Family Regulation Ratio. The set of Family Regulation Ratios for each protein family across multiple experiments is called a Family Regulation Profile. We analyzed these Family Regulation Profiles using Pearson Correlation Coefficients and derived a network diagram portraying relationships between the Family Regulation Profiles of gene families that are well represented on the microarrays. Our strategy was cross-validated with two randomly chosen data subsets and was proven to be a reliable approach. Conclusion This work will help us to understand and identify the functional relationships between gene families and the regulatory pathways in which each family is involved. Concepts presented here may be useful for objective clustering of protein functions and deriving a comprehensive protein interaction map. Functional genomic approaches such as this may also be applicable to the elucidation of complex genetic regulatory networks.

  17. The catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace formaldehyde (FA) base on a bromate-eosin Y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Yang, Qiongqiong; Hu, Tao; Cai, Changqun

    A new simple and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace amount of FA in food sample has been established. The method was based on the catalytic effect of FA on the oxidation of eosin Y by potassium bromate in present of phosphoric acid. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of eosin Y at 518 nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the developed method allowed the determination of FA in the range of 0.03-0.6 μg mL-1 with a good precision, and the limit of detection was down to 0.00988 μg mL-1. The relative standard deviation of five replicate measurements for the determination of FA in concentration 0.12 μg mL-1 was 1.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FA in food directly and satisfactory results were obtained.

  18. Study of the trace tritium content in deuterium plasmas of the JET tokamak based on neutron emission spectroscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringmar, David

    2001-02-01

    This thesis describes a study of the evolution of the trace tritium content in the JET tokamak. The study is based on measurements of the neutron emission, which were performed with the magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer. Data analysis procedures used to extract the results are described in some detail. The thesis also describes a simplified theoretical model to calculate the absolute tritium concentration with a comparison to the experimental results. The present study covers the time period 1996-2000 and the evolution of neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) results are compared with information from related diagnostic sources, and used to discuss the important issue of how tritium is retained in the JET tokamak.

  19. Optimizing python-based ROOT I/O with PyPy's tracing just-in-time compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlp Lavrijsen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The Python programming language allows objects and classes to respond dynamically to the execution environment. Most of this, however, is made possible through language hooks which by definition can not be optimized and thus tend to be slow. The PyPy implementation of Python includes a tracing just in time compiler (JIT), which allows similar dynamic responses but at the interpreter-, rather than the application-level. Therefore, it is possible to fully remove the hooks, leaving only the dynamic response, in the optimization stage for hot loops, if the types of interest are opened up to the JIT. A general opening up of types to the JIT, based on reflection information, has already been developed (cppyy). The work described in this paper takes it one step further by customizing access to ROOT I/O to the JIT, allowing for fully automatic optimizations.

  20. Study of the trace tritium content in deuterium plasmas of the JET tokamak based on neutron emission spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringmar, David

    2001-02-01

    This thesis describes a study of the evolution of the trace tritium content in the JET tokamak. The study is based on measurements of the neutron emission, which were performed with the magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer. Data analysis procedures used to extract the results are described in some detail. The thesis also describes a simplified theoretical model to calculate the absolute tritium concentration with a comparison to the experimental results. The present study covers the time period 1996-2000 and the evolution of neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) results are compared with information from related diagnostic sources, and used to discuss the important issue of how tritium is retained in the JET tokamak

  1. Optimizing python-based ROOT I/O with PyPy's tracing just-in-time compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, Wim TLP

    2012-01-01

    The Python programming language allows objects and classes to respond dynamically to the execution environment. Most of this, however, is made possible through language hooks which by definition can not be optimized and thus tend to be slow. The PyPy implementation of Python includes a tracing just in time compiler (JIT), which allows similar dynamic responses but at the interpreter-, rather than the application-level. Therefore, it is possible to fully remove the hooks, leaving only the dynamic response, in the optimization stage for hot loops, if the types of interest are opened up to the JIT. A general opening up of types to the JIT, based on reflection information, has already been developed (cppyy). The work described in this paper takes it one step further by customizing access to ROOT I/O to the JIT, allowing for fully automatic optimizations.

  2. A new method to identify the foot of continental slope based on an integrated profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Jiabiao; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Jin, Xiaobin

    2017-06-01

    A new method is proposed to identify automatically the foot of the continental slope (FOS) based on the integrated analysis of topographic profiles. Based on the extremum points of the second derivative and the Douglas-Peucker algorithm, it simplifies the topographic profiles, then calculates the second derivative of the original profiles and the D-P profiles. Seven steps are proposed to simplify the original profiles. Meanwhile, multiple identification methods are proposed to determine the FOS points, including gradient, water depth and second derivative values of data points, as well as the concave and convex, continuity and segmentation of the topographic profiles. This method can comprehensively and intelligently analyze the topographic profiles and their derived slopes, second derivatives and D-P profiles, based on which, it is capable to analyze the essential properties of every single data point in the profile. Furthermore, it is proposed to remove the concave points of the curve and in addition, to implement six FOS judgment criteria.

  3. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: finite ray tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2014-11-17

    The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable power-law profile, which provides additional flexibility of the model. An analytical method for layer-by-layer finite ray tracing through the GIGL model is developed and used to calculate aberrations of the GIGL model. The result of the finite ray tracing aberrations of the GIGL model are compared to those obtained with paraxial ray tracing. The derived analytical expression for the refractive index distribution can be employed in the reconstruction processes of the eye using the conventional ray tracing methods. The layer-by-layer finite ray tracing approach would be an asset in ray tracing through a modified GIGL model, where the refractive index distribution cannot be described analytically. Using the layer-by-layer finite ray-tracing method, the potential of the GIGL model in representing continuous as well as shell-like layered structures is illustrated and the results for both cases are presented and analysed.

  4. Dopant profiling based on scanning electron and helium ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Augustus K.W., E-mail: kwac2@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Boden, Stuart A. [University of Southampton, Electronics and Computer Science, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we evaluate and compare doping contrast generated inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning helium ion microscope (SHIM). Specialised energy-filtering techniques are often required to produce strong doping contrast to map donor distributions using the secondary electron (SE) signal in the SEM. However, strong doping contrast can be obtained from n-type regions in the SHIM, even without energy-filtering. This SHIM technique is more sensitive than the SEM to donor density changes above its sensitivity threshold, i.e. of the order of 10{sup 16} or 10{sup 17} donors cm{sup −3} respectively on specimens with or without a p–n junction; its sensitivity limit is well above 2×10{sup 17} acceptors cm{sup −3} on specimens with or without a p–n junction. Good correlation is found between the widths and slopes of experimentally measured doping contrast profiles of thin p-layers and the calculated widths and slopes of the potential energy distributions across these layers, at a depth of 1 to 3 nm and 5 to 10 nm below the surface in the SHIM and the SEM respectively. This is consistent with the mean escape depth of SEs in silicon being about 1.8 nm and 7 nm in the SHIM and SEM respectively, and we conclude that short escape depth, low energy SE signals are most suitable for donor profiling. - Highlights: • Strong doping contrast from n-type regions in the SHIM without energy-filtering. • Sensitivity limits are established of the SHIM and SEM techniques. • We discuss the impact of SHIM imaging conditions on quantitative dopant profiling. • Doping contrast stems from different surface layer thicknesses in the SHIM and SEM.

  5. A paper recommender system based on user's profile in big data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These systems present a personalized proposal to users who seek to find a special kind of relevant data or their priorities through the big number of data. Recommendersystem based on personalization uses the user profile and in view of the fact that the user profile encompass information pertaining to the user priorities; ...

  6. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...

  7. Can scientific journals be classified based on their citation profiles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Amir Marashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification of scientific publications is of great importance in biomedical research evaluation. However, accurate classification of research publications is challenging and normally is performed in a rather subjective way. In the present paper, we propose to classify biomedical publications into superfamilies, by analysing their citation profiles, i.e. the location of citations in the structure of citing articles. Such a classification may help authors to find the appropriate biomedical journal for publication, may make journal comparisons more rational, and may even help planners to better track the consequences of their policies on biomedical research.

  8. Profile catalogue for airfoil sections based on 3D computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue [1] which objective was, firstly to provide a database of aerodynamic characteristics for a wide range of airfoil profiles aimed at wind turbine applications, and secondly to test thetwo-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D...... and the actual fluid flow, and thereby the incorrect prediction of airfoil characteristics. In addition, other features of the flow solver, such astransition and turbulence modelling, and their influence onto the numerical results are investigated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the evaluation of airfoil...

  9. Detecting and classifying method based on similarity matching of Android malware behavior with profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Wook; Yun, Jaesung; Mohaisen, Aziz; Woo, Jiyoung; Kim, Huy Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mass-market mobile security threats have increased recently due to the growth of mobile technologies and the popularity of mobile devices. Accordingly, techniques have been introduced for identifying, classifying, and defending against mobile threats utilizing static, dynamic, on-device, and off-device techniques. Static techniques are easy to evade, while dynamic techniques are expensive. On-device techniques are evasion, while off-device techniques need being always online. To address some of those shortcomings, we introduce Andro-profiler, a hybrid behavior based analysis and classification system for mobile malware. Andro-profiler main goals are efficiency, scalability, and accuracy. For that, Andro-profiler classifies malware by exploiting the behavior profiling extracted from the integrated system logs including system calls. Andro-profiler executes a malicious application on an emulator in order to generate the integrated system logs, and creates human-readable behavior profiles by analyzing the integrated system logs. By comparing the behavior profile of malicious application with representative behavior profile for each malware family using a weighted similarity matching technique, Andro-profiler detects and classifies it into malware families. The experiment results demonstrate that Andro-profiler is scalable, performs well in detecting and classifying malware with accuracy greater than 98 %, outperforms the existing state-of-the-art work, and is capable of identifying 0-day mobile malware samples.

  10. Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, S; Capodeanu-Nägler, A; Gershman, S N; Weddle, C B; Rapkin, J; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2015-12-01

    Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and nonadditive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence female mate choice in a number of species and offer a way for females to assess genetic similarity of prospective mates. Here, we determine whether female mate choice in decorated crickets is based on male CHCs and whether it is influenced by females' own CHC profiles. We used multivariate selection analysis to estimate the strength and form of selection acting on male CHCs through female mate choice, and employed different measures of multivariate dissimilarity to determine whether a female's preference for male CHCs is based on similarity to her own CHC profile. Female mating preferences were significantly influenced by CHC profiles of males. Male CHC attractiveness was not, however, contingent on the CHC profile of the choosing female, as certain male CHC phenotypes were equally attractive to most females, evidenced by significant linear and stabilizing selection gradients. These results suggest that additive genetic benefits, rather than nonadditive genetic benefits, accrue to female mate choice, in support of earlier work showing that CHC expression of males, but not females, is condition dependent. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Microlith-based Structured Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide, Humidity, and Trace Contaminant Control in Manned Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, SUbir; Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.

    2011-01-01

    To support continued manned space exploration, the development of atmosphere revitalization systems that are lightweight, compact, durable, and power efficient is a key challenge. The systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of habitats and should offer operational functionality to either expel removed constituents or capture them for closedloop recovery. As mission durations increase and exploration goals reach beyond low earth orbit, the need for regenerable adsorption processes for continuous removal of CO2 and trace contaminants from cabin air becomes critical. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA Marshall (MSFC) have been developing an Engineered Structured Sorbents (ESS) approach based on PCI s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future, extended human spaceflight explorations. This technology offers the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other sorbents with greater structural integrity, regenerability, and process control, thereby providing potential durability and efficiency improvements over current state-of-the-art systems. The major advantages of the ESS explored in this study are realized through the use of metal substrates to provide structural integrity (i.e., less partition of sorbents) and enhanced thermal control during the sorption process. The Microlith technology also offers a unique internal resistive heating capability that shows potential for short regeneration time and reduced power requirement compared to conventional systems. This paper presents the design, development, and performance results of the integrated adsorber modules for removing CO2, water vapor, and trace chemical contaminants. A related effort that utilizes the adsorber modules for sorption of toxic industrial chemicals is also discussed. Finally, the development of a 4-person two-leg ESS system for continuous CO2 removal is also presented.

  12. Cloud point extraction-fluorimetric combined methodology for the determination of trace warfarin based on the sensitization effect of supramolecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zheng [Department of Applied Chemistry of College of Science, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, 229 North Taibai Road, Xi' an 710069 (China); Yan Hongtao, E-mail: cz610@163.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, 229 North Taibai Road, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Compared to the fluorescence spectra of warfarin in pure ethanol and in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-7 after cloud point extraction (CPE), it can be seen that the fluorescence emission peak underwent an obvious red shift and the fluorescence intensity of warfarin was significantly increased in the presence of Tergitol 15-S-7. In order to confirm Tergitol 15-S-7-induced supramolecular effects, the investigations on the fluorescence quantum yields of warfarin in the micellar medium and pure ethanol were performed. The experimental results showed that the supramolecular interactions between Tergitol 15-S-7 and the warfarin excimers played a key role for improving the warfarin fluorescence properties. Based on these facts, a simple fluorometric method combined with CPE for the determination of trace warfarin was developed for the first time. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear concentration range for warfarin was 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 1.0{sup -9}-1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} and the detection limit was 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1}. And, the proposed method was approved to be appropriate for monitoring warfarin in actual pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluid samples by recovery test, in comparison with other reported methods being satisfactory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A CPE fluorescence method for trace warfarin was developed for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Supramolecule effects play a key role for improving the fluorescence property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notion presents an opportunity so far neglected area of CPE investigation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without previous treatment, urine species after CPE had no significant interference.

  13. Cloud point extraction-fluorimetric combined methodology for the determination of trace warfarin based on the sensitization effect of supramolecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zheng; Yan Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the fluorescence spectra of warfarin in pure ethanol and in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-7 after cloud point extraction (CPE), it can be seen that the fluorescence emission peak underwent an obvious red shift and the fluorescence intensity of warfarin was significantly increased in the presence of Tergitol 15-S-7. In order to confirm Tergitol 15-S-7-induced supramolecular effects, the investigations on the fluorescence quantum yields of warfarin in the micellar medium and pure ethanol were performed. The experimental results showed that the supramolecular interactions between Tergitol 15-S-7 and the warfarin excimers played a key role for improving the warfarin fluorescence properties. Based on these facts, a simple fluorometric method combined with CPE for the determination of trace warfarin was developed for the first time. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear concentration range for warfarin was 3.0×1.0 −9 –1.0×10 −6 mol L −1 and the detection limit was 3.3×10 −10 mol L −1 . And, the proposed method was approved to be appropriate for monitoring warfarin in actual pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluid samples by recovery test, in comparison with other reported methods being satisfactory. - Highlights: ► A CPE fluorescence method for trace warfarin was developed for the first time. ► Supramolecule effects play a key role for improving the fluorescence property. ► Notion presents an opportunity so far neglected area of CPE investigation. ► Without previous treatment, urine species after CPE had no significant interference.

  14. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  15. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 1. Production and macronutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product-based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydroxy rather than sulfate trace minerals would have greater fiber digestibility, but the effect may depend on source of fiber. Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source (sulfates or hydroxy; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) source (forage diet = 26% NDF vs. by-product = 36%) on total-tract nutrient digestibility. During the entire experiment (56 d) cows remained on the same fiber treatment, but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period so that all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each of the two 28-d periods, cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn from either sulfates or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total dietary concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 mg/kg for the by-product diets, respectively. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Milk fatty acid profiles were altered by fiber source, mineral source, and their interaction. Cows fed the by-product diets had lower dry matter (65.9 vs. 70.2%), organic matter (67.4 vs. 71.7%), and crude protein digestibility (58.8 vs. 62.1%) but greater starch (97.5 vs. 96.3%) and NDF digestibility (50.5 vs. 44.4%) compared with cows fed the

  16. Trace analysis of acids and bases by conductometric titration with multiparametric non-linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Lúcia H G; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2006-03-15

    A chemometric method for analysis of conductometric titration data was introduced to extend its applicability to lower concentrations and more complex acid-base systems. Auxiliary pH measurements were made during the titration to assist the calculation of the distribution of protonable species on base of known or guessed equilibrium constants. Conductivity values of each ionized or ionizable species possibly present in the sample were introduced in a general equation where the only unknown parameters were the total concentrations of (conjugated) bases and of strong electrolytes not involved in acid-base equilibria. All these concentrations were adjusted by a multiparametric nonlinear regression (NLR) method, based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This first conductometric titration method with NLR analysis (CT-NLR) was successfully applied to simulated conductometric titration data and to synthetic samples with multiple components at concentrations as low as those found in rainwater (approximately 10 micromol L(-1)). It was possible to resolve and quantify mixtures containing a strong acid, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium ion, bicarbonate and inert electrolyte with accuracy of 5% or better.

  17. Automatic Approach for Lung Segmentation with Juxta-Pleural Nodules from Thoracic CT Based on Contour Tracing and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully automatic framework for lung segmentation, in which juxta-pleural nodule problem is brought into strong focus. The proposed scheme consists of three phases: skin boundary detection, rough segmentation of lung contour, and pulmonary parenchyma refinement. Firstly, chest skin boundary is extracted through image aligning, morphology operation, and connective region analysis. Secondly, diagonal-based border tracing is implemented for lung contour segmentation, with maximum cost path algorithm used for separating the left and right lungs. Finally, by arc-based border smoothing and concave-based border correction, the refined pulmonary parenchyma is obtained. The proposed scheme is evaluated on 45 volumes of chest scans, with volume difference (VD 11.15±69.63 cm3, volume overlap error (VOE 3.5057±1.3719%, average surface distance (ASD 0.7917±0.2741 mm, root mean square distance (RMSD 1.6957±0.6568 mm, maximum symmetric absolute surface distance (MSD 21.3430±8.1743 mm, and average time-cost 2 seconds per image. The preliminary results on accuracy and complexity prove that our scheme is a promising tool for lung segmentation with juxta-pleural nodules.

  18. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  19. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair eNeuman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various charateristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by six school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/priorization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology.

  20. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi.

  1. Profile catalogue for airfoil sections based on 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2006-12-15

    This report is a continuation of the Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue which objective was, firstly to provide a database of aerodynamic characteristics for a wide range of airfoil profiles aimed at wind turbine applications, and secondly to test the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D by comparing its results with experimental data. In the present work, the original two-dimensional results are compared with three-dimensional calculations as it was surmised that the two-dimensional assumption might be in some cases responsible for discrepancies between the numerical flow solution and the actual fluid flow, and thereby the incorrect prediction of airfoil characteristics. In addition, other features of the flow solver, such as transition and turbulence modelling, and their influence onto the numerical results are investigated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the evaluation of airfoil aerodynamic characteristics, as well as the use of the Navier-Stokes solver for fluid flow calculations in general. (au)

  2. An assessment of 10-year NOAA aircraft-based tropospheric ozone profiling in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mark; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Lin, Meiyun; McClure-Begley, Audra; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David

    2017-06-01

    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network Aircraft Program at NOAA has sampled ozone and other atmospheric trace constituents in North America for over a decade (2005-present). The method to derive tropospheric ozone climatology from the light aircraft measurements equipped with the 2B Technology instruments is described in this paper. Since ozone instruments at most of aircraft locations are flown once a month, this raises the question of whether the sampling frequency allows for deriving a climatology that can adequately represent ozone seasonal and vertical variability over various locations. Here we interpret the representativeness of the tropospheric ozone climatology derived from these under-sampled observations using hindcast simulations conducted with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3). We first focus on ozone measurements from monthly aircraft profiles over the Front Range of Colorado and weekly ozonesondes launched in Boulder, Colorado. The climatology is presented as monthly values separated in 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th percentiles, and averaged at three vertical layers: lower (1.6-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and upper (6-8 km) troposphere. The aircraft-based climatology is compared to the climatology derived from the nearest located ozonesondes launched from Boulder, Colorado, from GFDL-AM3 co-sampled in time with in-situ observations, and from GFDL-AM3 continuous 3-h samples. Based on these analyses, we recommend the sampling frequency to obtain adequate representation of ozone climatology in the free troposphere. The 3-h sampled AM3 model is used as a benchmark reference for the under-sampled time series. We find that the minimal number of soundings required per month for the all altitude bins (1.6-3, 3-6, and 6-8 km) to sufficiently match the 95% confidence level of the fully sampled monthly ozone means vary between 3 and 5 sounding per month, except in August with a minimum of 6 soundings per month. The

  3. Treatment Algorithms Based on Tumor Molecular Profiling: The Essence of Precision Medicine Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria; Bedard, Philippe; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Rouleau, Etienne; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Servant, Nicolas; Alt, Marie; Rouzier, Roman; Paoletti, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier; Bièche, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of high-throughput molecular technologies, several precision medicine (PM) studies are currently ongoing that include molecular screening programs and PM clinical trials. Molecular profiling programs establish the molecular profile of patients' tumors with the aim to guide therapy based on identified molecular alterations. The aim of prospective PM clinical trials is to assess the clinical utility of tumor molecular profiling and to determine whether treatment selection based on molecular alterations produces superior outcomes compared with unselected treatment. These trials use treatment algorithms to assign patients to specific targeted therapies based on tumor molecular alterations. These algorithms should be governed by fixed rules to ensure standardization and reproducibility. Here, we summarize key molecular, biological, and technical criteria that, in our view, should be addressed when establishing treatment algorithms based on tumor molecular profiling for PM trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Integrated pathway-based transcription regulation network mining and visualization based on gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibinge, Nelson; Ono, Naoaki; Horie, Masafumi; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Saito, Akira; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    Conventionally, workflows examining transcription regulation networks from gene expression data involve distinct analytical steps. There is a need for pipelines that unify data mining and inference deduction into a singular framework to enhance interpretation and hypotheses generation. We propose a workflow that merges network construction with gene expression data mining focusing on regulation processes in the context of transcription factor driven gene regulation. The pipeline implements pathway-based modularization of expression profiles into functional units to improve biological interpretation. The integrated workflow was implemented as a web application software (TransReguloNet) with functions that enable pathway visualization and comparison of transcription factor activity between sample conditions defined in the experimental design. The pipeline merges differential expression, network construction, pathway-based abstraction, clustering and visualization. The framework was applied in analysis of actual expression datasets related to lung, breast and prostrate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistence of Trace Organic Contaminants from a Commercial Biosolids-Based Fertilizer in Aerobic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Banet, Travis A; Kim, Jihyun R; Mashtare, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are recycled as agricultural fertilizers. Recent studies have raised concerns due to the presence of emerging contaminants in municipal biosolids. Previous research suggests that these contaminants have the potential to reside in biosolids-based fertilizers that are commercially distributed. Use of these products in urban/suburban areas may provide a pathway for these contaminants to enter ecosystems and impact human and environmental health. Soils from Purdue University’s...

  6. The contribution of process tracing to theory-based evaluations of complex aid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Schmitt, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    studies in demanding settings. For the specific task of evaluating the governance effectiveness of budget support interventions, we developed a more fine-grained causal mechanism for a subset of the comprehensive program theory of budget support. Moreover, based on the informal use of Bayesian logic, we...... remedy some of the problems at hand in much case-study research and increase the inferential leverage in complex within-case evaluation studies....

  7. Sub-basalt Imaging of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mesozoic Sediments Using Ray-Trace Inversion of First-Arrival Seismic Data and Elastic Finite-Difference Full-Wave Modeling Along Sinor-Valod Profile of Deccan Syneclise, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Karabi; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2018-03-01

    Imaging below the basalt for hydrocarbon exploration is a global problem because of poor penetration and significant loss of seismic energy due to scattering, attenuation, absorption and mode-conversion when the seismic waves encounter a highly heterogeneous and rugose basalt layer. The conventional (short offset) seismic data acquisition, processing and modeling techniques adopted by the oil industry generally fails to image hydrocarbon-bearing sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments hidden below the basalt and is considered as a serious problem for hydrocarbon exploration in the world. To overcome this difficulty of sub-basalt imaging, we have generated dense synthetic seismic data with the help of elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling using staggered-grid scheme for the model derived from ray-trace inversion using sparse wide-angle seismic data acquired along Sinor-Valod profile in the Deccan Volcanic Province of India. The full-wave synthetic seismic data generated have been processed and imaged using conventional seismic data processing technique with Kirchhoff pre-stack time and depth migrations. The seismic image obtained correlates with all the structural features of the model obtained through ray-trace inversion of wide-angle seismic data, validating the effectiveness of robust elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling approach for imaging below thick basalts. Using the full-wave modeling also allows us to decipher small-scale heterogeneities imposed in the model as a measure of the rugose basalt interfaces, which could not be dealt with ray-trace inversion. Furthermore, we were able to accurately image thin low-velocity hydrocarbon-bearing Mesozoic sediments sandwiched between and hidden below two thick sequences of high-velocity basalt layers lying above the basement.

  8. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  9. Sensitivity of molecular marker-based CMB models to biomass burning source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Zheng, Mei; Wang, Bo

    To assess the contribution of sources to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) at four sites in North Carolina, USA, a molecular marker chemical mass balance model (MM-CMB) was used to quantify seasonal contributions for 2 years. The biomass burning contribution at these sites was found to be 30-50% of the annual OC concentration. In order to provide a better understanding of the uncertainty in MM-CMB model results, a biomass burning profile sensitivity test was performed on the 18 seasonal composites. The results using reconstructed emission profiles based on published profiles compared well, while model results using a single source test profile resulted in biomass burning contributions that were more variable. The biomass burning contribution calculated using an average regional profile of fireplace emissions from five southeastern tree species also compared well with an average profile of open burning of pine-dominated forest from Georgia. The standard deviation of the results using different source profiles was a little over 30% of the annual average biomass contributions. Because the biomass burning contribution accounted for 30-50% of the OC at these sites, the choice of profile also impacted the motor vehicle source attribution due to the common emission of elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total mobile organic carbon contribution was less effected by the biomass burning profile than the relative contributions from gasoline and diesel engines.

  10. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling as diagnostic tool in oncology: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis has been heralded as a novel tool for identifying new and specific biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and monitoring of various disease states. Recent years have brought a number of proteomics profiling technologies. Although proteomics profiling has resulted in the detection of disease-associated differences and modification of proteins, current proteomics technologies display certain limitations that are hampering the introduction of these new technologies into clinical laboratory diagnostics and routine applications. In this review, we summarize current advances in mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery. The promises and challenges of this new technology are discussed with particular emphasis on diagnostic perspectives of mass-spectrometry based proteomics profiling for malignant diseases.

  11. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A.; Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B.; Edelmann, Mariola J.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a reproducible tissue-lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different tissue lysis methods of bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue and focused ultrasonication had also the fastest pr...

  12. Trace detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor using a carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yijiang; Meyyappan, M; Li, Jing

    2011-06-20

    The sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide in the vapor phase is achieved using a nanochemical sensor consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes as the sensing material. The interdigitated electrode-based sensor is constructed using a simple and standard microfabrication approach. The test results indicate a sensing capability of 25 ppm and response and recovery times in seconds. The sensor array consisting of 32 sensor elements with variations in sensing materials is capable of discriminating hydrogen peroxide from water and methanol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. PIXE-based quantification of health-proactive trace elements in genetically transformed roots of a multi-medicinal plant, Sida acuta Burm.f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanatha Jena; Lopamudra Sahu; Chand, P.K.; Ray, D.K.; Mishra, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic element composition of genetically transformed hairy root cultures (HRCs) of a medicinal plant, Sida acuta was determined using PIXE technique. HRCs had a higher accumulation of pro-health trace elements compared to natural roots. It was estimated that < 160 g d.wt. of a selected rhizoclone could suffice to provide nearly all tested essential elements catering to per diem requirement of the human body. The ideal multi-elemental profile ushers a new possibility of integrating hairy root extracts in modern therapeutics ('rhizotherapy') as complementary medicine or a dietary nutraceutical supplement. (author)

  14. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F; Bruening, D; Grobler, E S; Koppmann, R; Kraus, A B; Schrimpf, W; Weber, M; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  15. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Koppmann, R.; Kraus, A.B.; Schrimpf, W.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  16. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to a Paper-Based Technique for Trace Copper Detection in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey W; Cate, David M; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D; Reilly, Thomas; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2018-03-20

    Metal contamination of natural and drinking water systems poses hazards to public and environmental health. Quantifying metal concentrations in water typically requires sample collection in the field followed by expensive laboratory analysis that can take days to weeks to obtain results. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, field-deployable method to quantify trace levels of copper in drinking water by coupling solid-phase extraction/preconcentration with a microfluidic paper-based analytical device. This method has the advantages of being hand-powered (instrument-free) and using a simple "read by eye" quantification motif (based on color distance). Tap water samples collected across Fort Collins, CO, were tested with this method and validated against ICP-MS. We demonstrate the ability to quantify the copper content of tap water within 30% of a reference technique at levels ranging from 20 to 500 000 ppb. The application of this technology, which should be sufficient as a rapid screening tool, can lead to faster, more cost-effective detection of soluble metals in water systems.

  18. Ray Tracing for Dispersive Tsunamis and Source Amplitude Estimation Based on Green's Law: Application to the 2015 Volcanic Tsunami Earthquake Near Torishima, South of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanbata, Osamu; Watada, Shingo; Satake, Kenji; Fukao, Yoshio; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shiobara, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    Ray tracing, which has been widely used for seismic waves, was also applied to tsunamis to examine the bathymetry effects during propagation, but it was limited to linear shallow-water waves. Green's law, which is based on the conservation of energy flux, has been used to estimate tsunami amplitude on ray paths. In this study, we first propose a new ray tracing method extended to dispersive tsunamis. By using an iterative algorithm to map two-dimensional tsunami velocity fields at different frequencies, ray paths at each frequency can be traced. We then show that Green's law is valid only outside the source region and that extension of Green's law is needed for source amplitude estimation. As an application example, we analyzed tsunami waves generated by an earthquake that occurred at a submarine volcano, Smith Caldera, near Torishima, Japan, in 2015. The ray-tracing results reveal that the ray paths are very dependent on its frequency, particularly at deep oceans. The validity of our frequency-dependent ray tracing is confirmed by the comparison of arrival angles and travel times with those of observed tsunami waveforms at an array of ocean bottom pressure gauges. The tsunami amplitude at the source is nearly twice or more of that just outside the source estimated from the array tsunami data by Green's law.

  19. Kinetic method of ruthenium ion traces determination, basing on the reaction of oxidation of direct blue 6B, by means of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwinska, T.; Gregorowicz, A.; Matysek-Majewska, D.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method of determination of ruthenium ion traces (1.10 - 3 μg/cm 3 ) has been worked out. The method is based on oxidation of direct blue 6B by hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions at pH = 0,8 - 1,2 in the presence of ruthenium ions as catalyst. The method has been applied for determination of ruthenium traces in Pt, PdCl 2 , PtCl 4 and RhCl 3 .n H 2 O. In these materials ruthenium has been determined within the range of 1,10 - 2 % - 5,10 - 4 %. (author)

  20. Tracing common origins of Genomic Islands in prokaryotes based on genome signature analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Passel, Mark Wj

    2011-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer constitutes a powerful and innovative force in evolution, but often little is known about the actual origins of transferred genes. Sequence alignments are generally of limited use in tracking the original donor, since still only a small fraction of the total genetic diversity is thought to be uncovered. Alternatively, approaches based on similarities in the genome specific relative oligonucleotide frequencies do not require alignments. Even though the exact origins of horizontally transferred genes may still not be established using these compositional analyses, it does suggest that compositionally very similar regions are likely to have had a common origin. These analyses have shown that up to a third of large acquired gene clusters that reside in the same genome are compositionally very similar, indicative of a shared origin. This brings us closer to uncovering the original donors of horizontally transferred genes, and could help in elucidating possible regulatory interactions between previously unlinked sequences.

  1. A systematic profile/feature-based intelligence for spectral sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been creating a special-purpose software-engineering tool to support research and development of spectrum-output-type [chemical] sensors. The modular software system is called SAGE, the Sensor Algorithm Generation Environment and includes general-purpose signal conditioning algorithms (GP/SAGE) as well as intelligent classifiers, pattern recognizes, response accelerators, and sensitivity analyzers. GP/SAGE is an implementation of an approach for delivering a level of encapsulated intelligence to a wide range of sensors and instruments. It capitalizes on the genene classification and analysis needed to process most profile-type data. The GP/SAGE native data format is a generalized one-dimensional vector, signature, or spectrum. GP/SAGE modules form a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) workbench where users can experiment with various conditioning, filtering, and pattern recognition stages, then automatically generate final algorithm source code for data acquisition and analysis systems. SAGE was designed to free the [chemical] sensor developer from the signal processing allowing them to focus on understanding and improving the basic sensing mechanisms. The SAGE system's strength is its creative application of advanced neural computing techniques to response-vector and response-surface data, affording new insight and perspectives with regard to phenomena being studied for sensor development

  2. Studies on the determination of trace amounts of nitrogen along with alkali and alkaline earth elements in uranium based samples by ion-chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, R.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2006-12-01

    Present report describes an ion chromatography (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection for the determination of traces of nitrogen along with alkali and alkaline earth elements in uranium based nuclear fuels. Method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH 4 + along with alkali and alkaline earth cations by IC using a cation exchange column. (author)

  3. The influence of intestine-based treatment using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang on the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that “treating from the intestine” using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang and its modified formulae can regulate the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats. This may be one of the mechanisms for intestine-based treatment for COPD.

  4. Trace Pair Filtering for Separation of Upgoing and Downgoing Waves in Vsp (Vertical Seismic Profile) Filtrage à deux canaux pour la séparation des ondes montantes et descendantes en PSV (Profil Sismique Vertical)

    OpenAIRE

    Glangeaud F.; Durand P.; Mari J. L.; Coppens F.

    2006-01-01

    Most multichannel algorithms used for separation of upgoing and downgoing waves in VSPs assume depth-stationarity of the signal on all the traces used in the separation filter. However, if the depth-window of the filters becomes too large (100-200 m) signal stationarity cannot be assumed. On the other hand, stationarity is a physically reasonable assumption for two neighbouring probe locations (5-20 m). A comparison is made of three algorithms used for the separation of upgoing and downgoing ...

  5. Determination of trace elements in some Nigerian vegetable based oils by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, A.L.; Jonah, S.A.; Umar, I.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of some essential micronutrient elements leading to short-lived activation products in four Nigerian vegetable based oils (palm oil, palm kernel oil, sheabutter and groundnut oil) have been determined by neutron activation analysis using a small research reactor. One sample of each material was analysed and presented as an introduction for further investigations. Results indicate that the concentration range of the elements are 19.4-44.0 μg/g for Al; 30.0-81.0 μg/g for Ca; 11.9-60.4 μg/g for Cl; 1.43-5.96 μg/g for Cu; 7.3-28.1 μg/g for Mg; 0.47-1.69 μg/g for Mn; 17.5-72.8 μg/g for Na and 0.04-0.07 μg/g for V. The experimental procedure is suitable for routine determination of micronutrient element in foods for control and monitoring purposes. (author)

  6. Simple and highly discriminatory VNTR-based multiplex PCR for tracing sources of Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is second only to A. fumigatus in causing invasive aspergillosis and it is the major agent responsible for fungal sinusitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis in many countries in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. Despite the growing challenge due to A. flavus, data on the molecular epidemiology of this fungus remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to develop a new typing method based on the detection of VNTR (Variable number tandem repeat markers. Eight VNTR markers located on 6 different chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of A. flavus were selected, combined by pairs for multiplex amplifications and tested on 30 unrelated isolates and six reference strains. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.398 to 0.818. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.998. The MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis technique proved to be specific and reproducible. In a second time, a total of 55 isolates from Chinese avian farms and from a Tunisian hospital have been evaluated. One major cluster of genotypes could be defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree. This cluster comprised most of the isolates collected in an avian farm in southern China. The MLVA technique should be considered as an excellent and cost-effective typing method that could be used in many laboratories without the need for sophisticated equipment.

  7. Trace Oxygen Sensitive Material Based on Two Porphyrin Derivatives in a Heterodimeric Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The successful preparation of a novel dimer complex formed between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-porphyrin Fe(III chloride and (5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinato dichlorophosphorus(V chloride using the well-known reactivity of the P–X bond is reported. The obtained complex was characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, fluorescence, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and 31P-NMR spectroscopic techniques and also by additional Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC experiments in order to correctly assign the NMR signals. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDX quantifications completed the characterizations. This novel porphyrin dimer complex demonstrated fluorescence sensing of H2O2 in water for low oxygen concentrations in the range of 40–90 µM proving medical relevance for early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and even cancer because higher concentrations of H2O2 than 50 μM are consideredcytotoxic for life. Due to its optical properties, this novel metalloporphyrin–porphyrin based complex is expected to show PDT and bactericidal activity under visible-light irradiation.

  8. Tracing Clues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    The past is all messiness and blurred relations. However, we tend to sort the messiness out through rigorous analytical studies leaving the messiness behind. Carlo Ginzburgs´ article Clues. Roots of an Evidential Paradigm from 1986 invigorates methodological elements of (historical) research, which...... central methodological elements will be further elaborated and discussed through a historical case study that traces how networks of philanthropic concepts and practices influenced the Danish welfare state in the period from the Danish constitution of 1849 until today. The overall aim of this paper...

  9. Functional protease profiling for laboratory based diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Bassel; Costina, Victor; Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients, because diagnostic criteria according to EORTC/MSG guidelines are often not met and have low sensitivity. Hence there is an urgent need to improve diagnostic procedures by developing novel approaches. In the present study, we present a proof of concept experiment for the monitoring of Aspergillus associated protease activity in serum specimens for diagnostic purpose. Synthetic peptides that are selectively cleaved by proteases secreted from Aspergillus species were selected from our own experiments and published data. These so called reporter peptides (RP, n=5) were added to serum specimens from healthy controls (HC, n=101) and patients with proven (IA, n=9) and possible (PIA, n=144) invasive aspergillosis. Spiked samples were incubated ex vivo under strictly standardized conditions. Proteolytic fragments were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Spiked specimens of IA patients had highest concentrations of RP-fragments followed by PIA and HC. The median signal intensity was 116.546 (SD, 53.063) for IA and 5.009 (SD, 8.432) for HC. A cut-off >36.910 was chosen that performed with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Patients with PIA had either values above [53% (76/144)] or below [47% (67/144)] this chosen cut-off. The detection of respective reporter peptide fragments can easily be performed by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. In this proof of concept study we were able to demonstrate that serum specimens of patients with IA have increased proteolytic activity towards selected reporter peptides. However, the diagnostic value of functional protease profiling has to be validated in further prospective studies. It is likely that a combination of existing and new methods will be required to achieve optimal performance for diagnosis of IA in the future.

  10. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  11. Laboratory Investigation of Trace Gas Emissions from Biomass Burning on DoD Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Johnson, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation representing fuels commonly managed with prescribed fires was collected from five DoD bases and burned under controlled conditions at the USFS Firelab in Missoula, MT. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation. Seventy-seven fires were conducted and the smoke composition data will improve DoD land managers’ ability to assess the impact of prescribed fires on local air quality. A key instrument used in the measurement of the gas phase species in smoke was an open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) spectrometer, built and operated by the Universities of Montana and Wollongong. The OP-FTIR has to date detected and quantified 20 gas phase species - CO2, CO, H2O, N2O, NO2, NO, HONO, NH3, HCl, SO2, CH4, CH3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, C2H2, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCN, propylene and furan. The spectra were analyzed using a non-linear least squares fitting routine that included reference spectra recently acquired at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. Preliminary results from the OP-FTIR analysis are reported here. Of particular interest, gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) was detected simultaneously by the OP-FTIR and negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization spectrometer (NI-PT-CIMS), with preliminary fire-integrated molar emission ratios (relative to NOx) ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, depending on the vegetation type. HONO is an important precursor in the production of OH, the primary oxidizing species in the atmosphere. There existed little previous data documenting HONO emissions from either wild or prescribed fires. The non-methane organic emissions were dominated by oxygenated species, which can be further oxidized and thus involved in secondary aerosol formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl were also detected in the smoke, with the amounts varying depending on location and vegetation type.

  12. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  13. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  14. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Josiane S., E-mail: josi.s@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuiM/IPT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica

    2017-07-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  15. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Josiane S.; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  16. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A; Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-12-15

    To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  18. Trace Analysis of Mutagenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Cigarette Smoke Condensate and its Base Fractions via Silylation-GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the more than 5000 chemicals reported in cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs are considered to be a contributor to observed biological activity. HAAs are non-volatile and are reported at ppb levels in CSC. A new method for HAA analysis at the trace level is reported here. N, O-Bis(trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane was employed to derivatize amino groups by heating the reagent containing a sample of CSC at 80 °C for 30 min followed by analysis employing gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM mode. This derivatization method afforded symmetrical peak shapes on a ZB-50 stationary phase and achieved instrumental limits of quantification (LOQ at 10:1 S/N from -1 ng/mL for AαC to120 ng/mL for Glu-P-1. The chemical identity of each derivative was confirmed by comparison of retention time and mass spectra of standards. The latter were characterized by the following ions: M·+ or [M-1]+, [M-15]+, and m/z 73 (i.e., trimethylsilyl. CSC and its base sub-fractions were studied using the GC-MS method. Ten HAAs were screened and five were quantified in cigarette smoke condensate, while 2-5 HAAs were quantified in each of three base sub-fractions. Values obtained with the new procedure agree well with values reported in the literature and with results obtained from a commercial laboratory via a different analytical method. The potential contribution of each HAA to the overall mutagenic activity observed for CSC and its base fractions is discussed. When considered together, HAAs account for only a small portion (-7.8% of the observed mutagenicity of the CSC.

  19. Error Correction of Measured Unstructured Road Profiles Based on Accelerometer and Gyroscope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a noncontact acquisition system composed of several time synchronized laser height sensors, accelerometers, gyroscope, and so forth in order to collect the road profiles of vehicle riding on the unstructured roads. A method of correcting road profiles based on the accelerometer and gyroscope data is proposed to eliminate the adverse impacts of vehicle vibration and attitudes change. Because the power spectral density (PSD of gyro attitudes concentrates in the low frequency band, a method called frequency division is presented to divide the road profiles into two parts: high frequency part and low frequency part. The vibration error of road profiles is corrected by displacement data obtained through two times integration of measured acceleration data. After building the mathematical model between gyro attitudes and road profiles, the gyro attitudes signals are separated from low frequency road profile by the method of sliding block overlap based on correlation analysis. The accuracy and limitations of the system have been analyzed, and its validity has been verified by implementing the system on wheeled equipment for road profiles’ measuring of vehicle testing ground. The paper offers an accurate and practical approach to obtaining unstructured road profiles for road simulation test.

  20. A Personalised Profile-Based Intelligent and Adaptive Energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... Increasing electronic waste has forced the mobile phone industry to move into a new era of energy ... Based on the information gathered, a mobile application, MoBateriE, was designed. ...... Thesis (PhD). Carnegie Mellon ...

  1. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  2. Long Term Association of Tropospheric Trace gases over Pakistan by exploiting satellite observations and development of Econometric Regression based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Khan, Saud Ahmed; Noreen, Asma; Murtaza, Rabbia

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is the expected key environmental issue of Pakistan as it is ranked among top polluted countries in the region. Ongoing rapid economic growth without any adequate measures is leading to worst air quality over time. The study aims to monitor long term atmospheric composition and association of trace gases over Pakistan. Tropospheric concentrations of CO, TOC, NO2 and HCHO derived from multiple satellite instruments are used for study from year 2005 to 2014. The study will provide first database for tropospheric trace gases over Pakistan. Spatio-temporal assessment identified hotspots and possible sources of trace gases over the Pakistan. High concentrations of trace gases are mainly observed over Punjab region, which may be attributed to its metropolitan importance. It is the major agricultural, industrialized and urbanized (nearly 60 % of the Pakistan's population) sector of the country. The expected sources are the agricultural fires, biomass/fossil fuel burning for heating purposes, urbanization, industrialization and meteorological variations. Seasonal variability is observed to explore seasonal patterns over the decade. Well defined seasonal cycles of trace gases are observed over the whole study period. The observed seasonal patterns also showed some noteworthy association among trace gases, which is further explored by different statistical tests. Seasonal Mann Kendall test is applied to test the significance of trend in series whereas correlation is carried out to measure the strength of association among trace gases. Strong correlation is observed for trace gases especially between CO and TOC. Partial Mann Kendall test is used to ideally identify the impact of each covariate on long term trend of CO and TOC by partialling out each correlating trace gas (covariate). It is observed that TOC, NO2 and HCHO has significant impact on long term trend of CO whereas, TOC critically depends on NO2 concentrations for long term increase over the region

  3. Tracing Africa’s progress towards implementing the Non-Communicable Diseases Global action plan 2013–2020: a synthesis of WHO country profile reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the estimated annual 28 million non-communicable diseases (NCDs deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are attributed to weak health systems. Current health policy responses to NCDs are fragmented and vertical particularly in the African region. The World Health Organization (WHO led NCDs Global action plan 2013–2020 has been recommended for reducing the NCD burden but it is unclear whether Africa is on track in its implementation. This paper synthesizes Africa’s progress towards WHO policy recommendations for reducing the NCD burden. Methods Data from the WHO 2011, 2014 and 2015 NCD reports were used for this analysis. We synthesized results by targets descriptions in the three reports and included indicators for which we could trace progress in at least two of the three reports. Results More than half of the African countries did not achieve the set targets for 2015 and slow progress had been made towards the 2016 targets as of December 2013. Some gains were made in implementing national public awareness programmes on diet and/or physical activity, however limited progress was made on guidelines for management of NCD and drug therapy and counselling. While all regions in Africa show waning trends in fully achieving the NCD indicators in general, the Southern African region appears to have made the least progress while the Northern African region appears to be the most progressive. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Africa is off track in achieving the NCDs indicators by the set deadlines. To make sustained public health gains, more effort and commitment is urgently needed from governments, partners and societies to implement these recommendations in a broader strategy. While donors need to suit NCD advocacy with funding, African institutions such as The African Union (AU and other sub-regional bodies such as West African Health Organization (WAHO and various country offices could potentially play

  4. Accessible user profile modeling for academic services based on MOOCs

    OpenAIRE

    Iniesto, Francisco; Rodrigo, Covadonga

    2015-01-01

    MOOCs are examples of the evolution of eLearning environments, it is a fact that the flexibility of the learning services allows students to learn at their own time, place and pace, enhances continuous communication and interaction between all participants in knowledge and community building, benefits people with disabilities and therefore can improve their level of employability and social inclusion. MOOCs are leading a revolutionary computer and mobile-based scenario along with social techn...

  5. Real-time profiling of organic trace gases in the planetary boundary layer by PTR-MS using a tethered balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnitzhofer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for real-time profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was developed combining the advantages of a tethered balloon as a research platform and of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS as an analytical technique for fast and highly sensitive VOC measurements. A 200 m Teflon tube was used to draw sampling air from a tethered aerodynamic balloon to the PTR-MS instrument. Positive and negative artefacts (i.e. formation and loss of VOCs in the tube were characterised in the laboratory and in the field by a set of 11 atmospherically relevant VOCs including both pure and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The only two compounds that increased or decreased when sampled through the tube were acetone (+7% and xylene (-6%. The method was successfully deployed during a winter field campaign to determine the small scale spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants under winter inversion conditions.

  6. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codée, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  7. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining beta-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  8. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T.C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.F.G.; Codée, Jeroen D.C.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  9. Construction of a carbon ionic liquid paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-synthesized Schiff base composite for trace electrochemical detection of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Bagheri, Hasan; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2014-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive and selective carbon nanocomposite electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of cadmium. This sensor was designed by incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a new synthesized Schiff base into the carbon paste ionic liquid electrode (CPE IL ) which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of Cd(II). The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.08 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) that is lower than the maximum contaminant level of Cd(II) allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in standard drinking waters. The proposed electrode exhibits good applicability for monitoring Cd(II) in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new nanocomposite was prepared and applied to the modification of CPE. • The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. • The electrode was used to the rapid and selective determination of Cd(II)

  10. A security approach based on honeypots: Protecting Online Social network from malicious profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatna Elmendili, Nisrine Maqran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the fast development and the exponential utilization of social networks have prompted an expansion of social Computing. In social networks users are interconnected by edges or links, where Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn are most popular social networks websites. Due to the growing popularity of these sites they serve as a target for cyber criminality and attacks. It is mostly based on how users are using these sites like Twitter and others. Attackers can easily access and gather personal and sensitive user’s information. Users are less aware and least concerned about the security setting. And they easily become victim of identity breach. To detect malicious users or fake profiles different techniques have been proposed like our approach which is based on the use of social honeypots to discover malicious profiles in it. Inspired by security researchers who used honeypots to observe and analyze malicious activity in the networks, this method uses social honeypots to trap malicious users. The two key elements of the approach are: (1 The deployment of social honeypots for harvesting information of malicious profiles. (2 Analysis of the characteristics of these malicious profiles and those of deployed honeypots for creating classifiers that allow to filter the existing profiles and monitor the new profiles.

  11. Automatic drawing of the geologic profile of an underground mine based on COMGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jingqiu; Qiu Xinfa; Li Anbo; Lu Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of building a prototype system of geologic profile auto-drawing. A .NET development platform and integrated environment was used along with a component based design, a B/S system model, and XML techniques. Knowledge rules for creating geologic profiles and generating virtual drilling data from existing bore data and expert, hand-drawn geologic profiles were acquired.Then a prototype system was established by utilizing the known knowledge rules, topological relationships, and semantic relationships among strata. This system has a friendly human-computer interface and can meet requirements of mutual queries between attribute and spatial data. The generated profile map is editable. This study provides a new powerful tool for underground mine work.

  12. Pulsed photothermal profiling of water-based samples using a spectrally composite reconstruction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majaron, B; Milanic, M

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed photothermal profiling involves reconstruction of temperature depth profile induced in a layered sample by single-pulse laser exposure, based on transient change in mid-infrared (IR) emission from its surface. Earlier studies have indicated that in watery tissues, featuring a pronounced spectral variation of mid-IR absorption coefficient, analysis of broadband radiometric signals within the customary monochromatic approximation adversely affects profiling accuracy. We present here an experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal profiling in layered agar gel samples utilizing a spectrally composite kernel matrix vs. the customary approach. By utilizing a custom reconstruction code, the augmented approach reduces broadening of individual temperature peaks to 14% of the absorber depth, in contrast to 21% obtained with the customary approach.

  13. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid-phase microextraction and fibre-optics-based cuvetteless CCD-array micro-spectrophotometry for trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nisha; Pillai, Aradhana K.K.V.; Pathak, Neeraj; Jain, Archana; Verma, Krishna K.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) has been investigated for trace analysis in the present work in conjunction with fibre-optic-based micro-spectrophotometry which accommodates sample volume of 1 μL placed between the two ends of optical fibres. Methods have been evolved for the determination of (i) 1-100 μM and 0.5-20 μM of thiols by single drop microextraction (SDME) and LPME in 25 μL of the organic solvent, respectively, involving their reaction with the Ellman reagent and ion pair microextraction of thiolate ion formed; (ii) 70 μg to 7 mg L -1 of chlorine/chlorine dioxide by headspace in-drop reaction with alternative reagents, viz., mixed phenylhydrazine-4-sulphonic acid and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, o-dianisidine, o-tolidine, and N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine; (iii) 0.2-4 mg L -1 of ammonia by reaction with 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene to give 2,4-dinitroaniline which was diazotized and coupled with 1-naphthylamine, the resulting dye was subjected to preconcentration by solid-phase extraction and LPME; and (iv) 25-750 μg L -1 of iodide/total iodine by oxidation of iodide by 2-iodosobenzoate, microextraction of iodine in organic solvent, and re-extraction into aqueous starch-iodide reagent drop held in the organic phase. LPME using 25-30 μL of organic solvent was found to produce more sensitive results than SDME. The cuvetteless spectrophotometry as used in combination with sample handling techniques produced limits of detection of analytes which were better than obtained by previously reported spectrophotometry.

  15. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted by prescribed fires in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Burling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have measured emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5 from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as conifer forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps to close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous observations that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured both the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform and the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions with our ground-based platform. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including high 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts for smoke that disperses at ground level. We also show that the often ignored unlofted emissions can significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence suggests large emissions of monoterpenes in the residual smoldering smoke. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar temperate ecosystems.

  16. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  17. A new intelligent algorithm to create a profile for user based on web interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab khademali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to classify the web user’s navigation patterns automatically. The proposed model of this paper classifies user’s navigation patterns and predicts his/her upcoming requirements. To create users’ profile, a new method is introduced by recording user’s settings active and user’s similarity measurement with neighboring users. The proposed model is capable of creating the profile implicitly. Besides, it updates the profile based on created changes. In fact, we try to improve the function of recommender engine using user’s navigation patterns and clustering. The method is based on user’s navigation patterns and is able to present the result of recommender engine based on user’s requirement and interest. In addition, this method has the ability to help customize websites, more efficiently.

  18. Evaluation and distribution of metals, trace elements and rare earths in sediments profiles of Promissão Reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Matheus; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of elements at two points in the reservoir (1 and 3) was evaluated. Two profiles of fractionated sediments were collected in the field every 2.5 cm, generating 14 and 20 fractions, respectively, according to their depths (35 and 50 cm). The concentrations of the elements: As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and the rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were determined using the technique of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The validation of the methodology was done through the analysis of certified reference materials. The values of the North American Shale Composite (NASC) were used as reference values for calculation of Enrichment Factor (FE) and Geoacumulation Index (IGeo), tools used to evaluate pollution levels. The concentration of the As, Cr and Zn elements was also compared with the Guideline values TEL (Treshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level), values that provide concentration ranges for these elements indicating the presence or not of probable effects in aquatic biota from these concentrations

  19. Compendium of NASA Data Base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P). Volume 1; DC-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission. The broad goal of TRACE-P was to characterize the transit and evolution of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific. Conducted from February 24 through April 10, 2001, TRACE-P integrated airborne, satellite- and ground-based observations, as well as forecasts from aerosol and chemistry models. The format of this compendium utilizes data plots (time series) of selected data acquired aboard the NASA/Dryden DC-8 (vol. 1) and NASA/Wallops P-3B (vol. 2) aircraft during TRACE-P. The purpose of this document is to provide a representation of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley s Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and through the GTE Project Office archive. The data format is not intended to support original research/analyses, but to assist the reader in identifying data that are of interest.

  20. Compendium of NASA Data Base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P). Volume 2; P-3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission. The broad goal of TRACE-P was to characterize the transit and evolution of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific. Conducted from February 24 through April 10, 2001, TRACE-P integrated airborne, satellite- and ground based observations, as well as forecasts from aerosol and chemistry models. The format of this compendium utilizes data plots (time series) of selected data acquired aboard the NASA/Dryden DC-8 (vol. 1) and NASA/Wallops P-3B (vol. 2) aircraft during TRACE-P. The purpose of this document is to provide a representation of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and through the GTE Project Office archive. The data format is not intended to support original research/analyses, but to assist the reader in identifying data that are of interest.

  1. Mission Profile Based Sizing of IGBT Chip Area for PV Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing the total energy generation is of importance for Photovoltaic (PV) plants. This paper proposes a method to optimize the IGBT chip area for PV inverters to minimize the annual energy loss of the active switches based on long-term operation conditions (i.e., mission profile). The design...... yearly mission profile. Simulation results are given to verify the thermal characteristics. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo based lifetime evaluation is presented to check the IGBT reliability. The proposed design method enables a reliability-oriented energy optimized sizing of active switches for PV inverter...

  2. Characteristics of nocturnal coastal boundary layer in Ahtopol based on averaged SODAR profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantiev, Damyan; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Novitzky, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The ground-based remote sensing instruments allow studying the wind regime and the turbulent characteristics of the atmosphere with height, achieving new knowledge and solving practical problems, such as air quality assessments, mesoscale models evaluation with high resolution data, characterization of the exchange processes between the surface and the atmosphere, the climate comfort conditions and the risk for extreme events, etc. Very important parameter in such studies is the height of the atmospheric boundary layer. Acoustic remote sensing data of the coastal atmospheric boundary layer were explored based on over 4-years continuous measurements at the meteorological observatory of Ahtopol (Bulgarian Southern Black Sea Coast) under Bulgarian - Russian scientific agreement. Profiles of 12 parameters from a mid-range acoustic sounding instrument type SCINTEC MFAS are derived and averaged up to about 600 m according filtering based on wind direction (land or sea type of night fowls). From the whole investigated period of 1454 days with 10-minute resolution SODAR data 2296 profiles represented night marine air masses and 1975 profiles represented the night flow from land during the months May to September. Graphics of averaged profiles of 12 SODAR output parameters with different availability of data in height are analyzed for both cases. A marine boundary-layer height of about 300 m is identified in the profiles of standard deviation of vertical wind speed (σw), Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) and eddy dissipation rate (EDR). A nocturnal boundary-layer height of about 420 m was identified from the profiles of the same parameters under flows from land condition. In addition, the Buoyancy Production (BP= σw3/z) profiles were calculated from the standard deviation of the vertical wind speed and the height z above ground.

  3. CP-ABE Based Privacy-Preserving User Profile Matching in Mobile Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Cui

    Full Text Available Privacy-preserving profile matching, a challenging task in mobile social networks, is getting more attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that is based on ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption to tackle this problem. In our scheme, a user can submit a preference-profile and search for users with matching-profile in decentralized mobile social networks. In this process, no participant's profile and the submitted preference-profile is exposed. Meanwhile, a secure communication channel can be established between the pair of successfully matched users. In contrast to existing related schemes which are mainly based on the secure multi-party computation, our scheme can provide verifiability (both the initiator and any unmatched user cannot cheat each other to pretend to be matched, and requires few interactions among users. We provide thorough security analysis and performance evaluation on our scheme, and show its advantages in terms of security, efficiency and usability over state-of-the-art schemes.

  4. CP-ABE Based Privacy-Preserving User Profile Matching in Mobile Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weirong; Du, Chenglie; Chen, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-preserving profile matching, a challenging task in mobile social networks, is getting more attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that is based on ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption to tackle this problem. In our scheme, a user can submit a preference-profile and search for users with matching-profile in decentralized mobile social networks. In this process, no participant's profile and the submitted preference-profile is exposed. Meanwhile, a secure communication channel can be established between the pair of successfully matched users. In contrast to existing related schemes which are mainly based on the secure multi-party computation, our scheme can provide verifiability (both the initiator and any unmatched user cannot cheat each other to pretend to be matched), and requires few interactions among users. We provide thorough security analysis and performance evaluation on our scheme, and show its advantages in terms of security, efficiency and usability over state-of-the-art schemes.

  5. 2-D Low Energy Electron Beam Profile Measurement Based on Computer Tomography Algorithm with Multi-Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Nengjie; Li Qing Feng; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Zheng, Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    A new method for low energy electron beam profile measurement is advanced, which presents a full 2-D beam profile distribution other than the traditional 2-D beam profile distribution given by 1-D vertical and horizontal beam profiles. The method is based on the CT (Computer Tomography) algorithm. Multi-sets of data about the 1-D beam profile projections are attained by rotating the multi-wire scanner. Then a 2-D beam profile is reconstructed from these projections with CT algorithm. The principle of this method is presented. The simulation and the experiment results are compared and analyzed in detail.

  6. A Novel Index for Online Voltage Stability Assessment Based on Correlation Characteristic of Voltage Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aghamohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage instability is a major threat for security of power systems. Preserving voltage security margin at a certain limit is a vital requirement for today’s power systems. Assessment of voltage security margin is a challenging task demanding sophisticated indices. In this paper, for the purpose of on line voltage security assessment a new index based on the correlation characteristic of network voltage profile is proposed. Voltage profile comprising all bus voltages contains the effect of network structure, load-generation patterns and reactive power compensation on the system behaviour and voltage security margin. Therefore, the proposed index is capable to clearly reveal the effect of system characteristics and events on the voltage security margin. The most attractive feature for this index is its fast and easy calculation from synchronously measured voltage profile without any need to system modelling and simulation and without any dependency on network size. At any instant of system operation by merely measuring network voltage profile and no further simulation calculation this index could be evaluated with respect to a specific reference profile. The results show that the behaviour of this index with respect to the change in system security is independent of the selected reference profile. The simplicity and easy calculation make this index very suitable for on line application. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on IEEE 39 bus test system with promising results showing its effectiveness and applicability.

  7. X-Ray Pulsar Profile Recovery Based on Tracking-Differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The profile recovery is an important work in X-ray pulsar-based navigation. It is a key step for the analysis on the pulsar signal’s characteristic and the computing of time of arrival (TOA. This paper makes an argument for an algorithm based on the tracking-differentiator (TD to recover the profile from the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR signals. In the method, a TD filter with cascade structure is designed which has very low phase delay and amplitude distortion. In the simulation experiment, two typical pulsars (PSR B0531+21 and PSR B1937+21 are used to verify the algorithm’s performance. The simulation results show that the method satisfies the application requirements in the aspects of SNR and profile fidelity. By processing the data collected by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE satellite in space, similar results can also be achieved.

  8. Profile-IQ: Web-based data query system for local health department infrastructure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H; Leep, Carolyn J; Alexander, Dayna

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of National Association of County & City Health Officials' Profile-IQ, a Web-based data query system, and how policy makers, researchers, the general public, and public health professionals can use the system to generate descriptive statistics on local health departments. This article is a descriptive account of an important health informatics tool based on information from the project charter for Profile-IQ and the authors' experience and knowledge in design and use of this query system. Profile-IQ is a Web-based data query system that is based on open-source software: MySQL 5.5, Google Web Toolkit 2.2.0, Apache Commons Math library, Google Chart API, and Tomcat 6.0 Web server deployed on an Amazon EC2 server. It supports dynamic queries of National Profile of Local Health Departments data on local health department finances, workforce, and activities. Profile-IQ's customizable queries provide a variety of statistics not available in published reports and support the growing information needs of users who do not wish to work directly with data files for lack of staff skills or time, or to avoid a data use agreement. Profile-IQ also meets the growing demand of public health practitioners and policy makers for data to support quality improvement, community health assessment, and other processes associated with voluntary public health accreditation. It represents a step forward in the recent health informatics movement of data liberation and use of open source information technology solutions to promote public health.

  9. Exploring student learning profiles in algebra-based studio physics: A person-centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Jarrad W. T.; Chini, Jacquelyn J.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we explore the strategic self-regulatory and motivational characteristics of students in studio-mode physics courses at three universities with varying student populations and varying levels of success in their studio-mode courses. We survey students using questions compiled from several existing questionnaires designed to measure students' study strategies, attitudes toward and motivations for learning physics, organization of scientific knowledge, experiences outside the classroom, and demographics. Using a person-centered approach, we utilize cluster analysis methods to group students into learning profiles based on their individual responses to better understand the strategies and motives of algebra-based studio physics students. Previous studies have identified five distinct learning profiles across several student populations using similar methods. We present results from first-semester and second-semester studio-mode introductory physics courses across three universities. We identify these five distinct learning profiles found in previous studies to be present within our population of introductory physics students. In addition, we investigate interactions between these learning profiles and student demographics. We find significant interactions between a student's learning profile and their experience with high school physics, major, gender, grade expectation, and institution. Ultimately, we aim to use this method of analysis to take the characteristics of students into account in the investigation of successful strategies for using studio methods of physics instruction within and across institutions.

  10. Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized for a...

  11. A scintillating fibre-based profiler for low intensity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Amato, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gu, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Raia, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Rovelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)

    1997-01-11

    In the framework of the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, now under development at LNS Catania, we have developed a new beam profile monitor based on a scintillating fibre and a photodetector. Its sensitivity allows the detection of single beam particles in pulse mode, thus representing a useful tool for diagnostics of low and very low intensity beams. (orig.).

  12. A scintillating fibre-based profiler for low intensity ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, P.; Amato, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Gu, M.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, now under development at LNS Catania, we have developed a new beam profile monitor based on a scintillating fibre and a photodetector. Its sensitivity allows the detection of single beam particles in pulse mode, thus representing a useful tool for diagnostics of low and very low intensity beams. (orig.)

  13. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first

  14. Profiling Consumers Based on Their Beverage Consumption Patterns. A Cross-Cultural Study by Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan van Berkel; Ana Pertejo; Martin de Boer; Alexandra Kenyon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research we undertook for this Conference Paper was to investigate whether marketing campaigns for specific types of drinks could be directed towards age cohorts rather than towards intercultural differences between countries. We developed consumer profiles based on drinking

  15. Ray-tracing techniques to assess the electromagnetic field radiated by radio base stations: Application and experimental validation in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, S.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.; Mantovan, M.; Menegolli, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a ray-tracing model for electromagnetic field calculation, which is used in urban environments to predict irradiation from radio base stations for population exposure evaluation. Validation was carried out through a measurement campaign by choosing measurement points in order to test different propagation environments and analysing broadcast control channels through narrow band measurements. Comparison of the calculated and measured fields indicates that the ray-tracing model used calculates electric field with good accuracy, in spite of the fact that the propagation environment is not described in detail, because of difficulties in modelling the geometrical and electrical characteristics of urban areas. Differences between the calculated and measured results remain below 1.5 dB, with a mean value of 1 dB. (authors)

  16. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  17. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides with sorbents based on spherical polyurethane membrane systems in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper the importance of preconcentration and a permanent need for efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. The increased attention is devoted to the foamed polyurethane sorbents as a novel advance in the separation chemistry. The paper has two main aims. The first is to present a survey of recent applications of unloaded and reagent loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams to the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples. The second is to show the newest results in the use of these foams for the preconcentration and determination of traces of some mainly inorganic species in environmental samples by radioanalytical techniques. Some future possibilities of the use of polyurethane foams in trace elemental determinations in environmental analysis are also outlined. (author)

  18. DS-ARP: a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks based on routing trace for ubiquitous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Su; Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hwa-Young; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system.

  19. Development of an Origin Trace Method based on Bayesian Inference and Artificial Neural Network for Missing or Stolen Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Yim Ho; Min, Lee Seung; Min, Kim Kyung; Jeong, Hong Yoon; Kim, Jae Kwang [Nuclear Security Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Thus, 'to put nuclear materials under control' is an important issue for prosperity mankind. Unfortunately, numbers of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials have been increased for decades. Consequently, security of nuclear materials is recently spotlighted. After the 2{sup nd} Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012, the president of Korea had showed his devotion to nuclear security. One of the main responses for nuclear security related interest of Korea was to develop a national nuclear forensic support system. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the document of Nuclear Security Series No.2 'Nuclear Forensics Support' in 2006 to encourage international cooperation of all IAEA member states for tracking nuclear attributions. There are two main questions related to nuclear forensics to answer in the document. The first question is 'what type of material is it?', and the second one is 'where did the material come from?' Korea Nuclear Forensic Library (K-NFL) and mathematical methods to trace origins of missing or stolen nuclear materials (MSNMs) are being developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC) to answer those questions. Although the K-NFL has been designed to perform many functions, K-NFL is being developed to effectively trace the origin of MSNMs and tested to validate suitability of trace methods. New fuels and spent fuels need each trace method because of the different nature of data acquisition. An inductive logic was found to be appropriate for new fuels, which had values as well as a bistable property. On the other hand, machine learning was suitable for spent fuels, which were unable to measure, and thus needed simulation.

  20. Translation, cross-cultural adaption and measurement properties of the evidence-based practice profile

    OpenAIRE

    Titlestad, Kristine Berg; Snibsoer, Anne Kristin; Stromme, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Background The evidence-based practice profile (EBP2) questionnaire assesses students? self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP2 into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version. Methods EBP2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bache...

  1. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  2. Hepatic fatty acid profile of rats fed a triheptanoin-based ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meloi, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Ataidei, Terezinha da Rocha; Oliveirai, Suzana Lima de; Bezerra Buenoi, Nassib; Freitasi, Johnnatan Duarte de; Sant'Anai, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. Methods: three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methy...

  3. NESmapper: accurate prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals using activity-based profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Kosugi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear export of proteins is regulated largely through the exportin/CRM1 pathway, which involves the specific recognition of leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs in the cargo proteins, and modulates nuclear-cytoplasmic protein shuttling by antagonizing the nuclear import activity mediated by importins and the nuclear import signal (NLS. Although the prediction of NESs can help to define proteins that undergo regulated nuclear export, current methods of predicting NESs, including computational tools and consensus-sequence-based searches, have limited accuracy, especially in terms of their specificity. We found that each residue within an NES largely contributes independently and additively to the entire nuclear export activity. We created activity-based profiles of all classes of NESs with a comprehensive mutational analysis in mammalian cells. The profiles highlight a number of specific activity-affecting residues not only at the conserved hydrophobic positions but also in the linker and flanking regions. We then developed a computational tool, NESmapper, to predict NESs by using profiles that had been further optimized by training and combining the amino acid properties of the NES-flanking regions. This tool successfully reduced the considerable number of false positives, and the overall prediction accuracy was higher than that of other methods, including NESsential and Wregex. This profile-based prediction strategy is a reliable way to identify functional protein motifs. NESmapper is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nesmapper.

  4. Real field mission profile oriented design of a SiC-based PV-inverter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a real field mission profile oriented design tool for the new generation of grid connected PV-inverters applications based on SiC-devices. The proposed design tool consists of a grid connected PV-inverter model, an ElectroThermal model, a converter safe operating area (SOA...... Zth_H in order to perform in a safe mode for the whole operating range. Furthermore, the proposed design tool considers the mission profile (the measured solar irradiance and ambient temperature) from the real field where the converter will operate. Thus, a realistic loading of the converter devices......) model, a mission profile model and an the evaluation block. The PV-system model involves a three level bipolar switch neutral point clamped (3L-BS NPC) inverter connected to the three phase grid through a LCL-filter. Moreover, the SOA model calculates the required converter heatsink thermal impedance...

  5. Fen+ beam profile diagnostics based on Al2O3: Cr scintillating screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Tie; Lei Jiarong; Liu Meng; An Li; Wang Xinhua; Zheng Pu

    2013-01-01

    Some techniques of beam profile measurements such as wire rotating scan, Faraday cups array and infrared imaging were investigated. A measurement device was built based on scintillating screen to cater for the demand of accelerator beam profile diagnostics. The device was bombarded under several tens to hundred nanoampere Fe n+ (n=5-12) ion beam. The Fe n+ ion beam experiment shows that the imaging saturation is mainly caused by light intensity rather than scintillating screen. A way to solve the saturation problem with a specially developed lens was mentioned. The grayscale of beam profile imaging is approximately linear with respect to the beam intensity, and the reason for formation of this relationship was analyzed. (authors)

  6. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-04-27

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  7. Lyapunov-based distributed control of the safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Witrant, Emmanuel; Prieur, Christophe; Brémond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Rémy; Artaud, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    A real-time model-based controller is developed for the tracking of the distributed safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma. Using relevant physical models and simplifying assumptions, theoretical stability and robustness guarantees were obtained using a Lyapunov function. This approach considers the couplings between the poloidal flux diffusion equation, the time-varying temperature profiles and an independent total plasma current control. The actuator chosen for the safety-factor profile tracking is the lower hybrid current drive, although the results presented can be easily extended to any non-inductive current source. The performance and robustness of the proposed control law is evaluated with a physics-oriented simulation code on Tore Supra experimental test cases. (paper)

  8. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  9. Successful Treatment of Advanced Metastatic Prostate Cancer following Chemotherapy Based on Molecular Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Myers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After Taxotere fails, treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer are limited. The three drugs with FDA approval in this setting, Jevtana, Provenge and Zytiga, are associated with median survivals of less than 2 years. In part, the impact on survival is the result of low response rates, indicating a significant proportion of patients exhibiting de novo resistance to these agents. An alternate approach is to let treatment selection be governed by gene expression profiling so that the treatment is tailored to the specific patient. Here, we report a case of metastatic prostate cancer with a dramatic response to treatment selected based on molecular profiling. This patient had failed LHRH agonist, bicalutamide, Taxotere, and doxorubicin. Molecular profiling showed overexpression of the androgen receptor and he had a dramatic response of measurable disease to second-line hormonal therapy with ketoconazole, estrogen and Leukine.

  10. HPLC based activity profiling for 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in Isatis tinctoria leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, C; Jäggi, R; Hamburger, M

    2005-06-01

    In the pursuit of the anti-inflammatory constituents in lipophilic woad extracts, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activity was investigated by HPLC-based activity profiling. In a low-resolution profiling, two time windows with peaks of activity were found. The first coincided with tryptanthrin, a known dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-LOX, whereas the major inhibitory fraction was towards the end of the HPLC run. The active fractions were profiled in a peak-resolved manner, and the compounds analyzed by LC-MS, GC and TLC. The activity in the lipophilic fractions of the Isatis extract could be linked to an unsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid.

  11. Mission-profile-based stress analysis of bond-wires in SiC power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mission-profile-based reliability analysis approach for stress on bond wires in Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET power modules using statistics and thermo-mechanical FEM analysis. In the proposed approach, both the operational and environmental thermal stresses are taken...... into account. The approach uses a two-dimension statistical analysis of the operating conditions in a real one-year mission profile sampled at time frames 5 minutes long. For every statistical bin corresponding to a given operating condition, the junction temperature evolution is estimated by a thermal network...... and the mechanical stress on bond wires is consequently extracted by finite-element simulations. In the final step, the considered mission profile is translated in a stress sequence to be used for Rainflow counting calculation and lifetime estimation....

  12. A UML profile for code generation of component based distributed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiozzi, G.; Karban, R.; Andolfato, L.; Tejeda, A.

    2012-01-01

    A consistent and unambiguous implementation of code generation (model to text transformation) from UML (must rely on a well defined UML (Unified Modelling Language) profile, customizing UML for a particular application domain. Such a profile must have a solid foundation in a formally correct ontology, formalizing the concepts and their relations in the specific domain, in order to avoid a maze or set of wildly created stereotypes. The paper describes a generic profile for the code generation of component based distributed systems for control applications, the process to distill the ontology and define the profile, and the strategy followed to implement the code generator. The main steps that take place iteratively include: defining the terms and relations with an ontology, mapping the ontology to the appropriate UML meta-classes, testing the profile by creating modelling examples, and generating the code. This has allowed us to work on the modelling of E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) control system and instrumentation without knowing what infrastructure will be finally used

  13. Accurate and robust phylogeny estimation based on profile distances: a study of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmann Sven

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.

  14. A fast and efficient adaptive parallel ray tracing based model for thermally coupled surface radiation in casting and heat treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, J; Schaefer, W

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for heat exchange between thermally coupled diffusely radiating interfaces is presented, which can be applied for closed and half open transparent radiating cavities. Interfaces between opaque and transparent materials are automatically detected and subdivided into elementary radiation surfaces named tiles. Contrary to the classical view factor method, the fixed unit sphere area subdivision oriented along the normal tile direction is projected onto the surrounding radiation mesh and not vice versa. Then, the total incident radiating flux of the receiver is approximated as a direct sum of radiation intensities of representative “senders” with the same weight factor. A hierarchical scheme for the space angle subdivision is selected in order to minimize the total memory and the computational demands during thermal calculations. Direct visibility is tested by means of a voxel-based ray tracing method accelerated by means of the anisotropic Chebyshev distance method, which reuses the computational grid as a Chebyshev one. The ray tracing algorithm is fully parallelized using MPI and takes advantage of the balanced distribution of all available tiles among all CPU's. This approach allows tracing of each particular ray without any communication. The algorithm has been implemented in a commercial casting process simulation software. The accuracy and computational performance of the new radiation model for heat treatment, investment and ingot casting applications is illustrated using industrial examples. (paper)

  15. PanFP: pangenome-based functional profiles for microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Robeson, Michael S; Hauser, Loren J; Schadt, Christopher W; Gorin, Andrey A

    2015-09-26

    For decades there has been increasing interest in understanding the relationships between microbial communities and ecosystem functions. Current DNA sequencing technologies allows for the exploration of microbial communities in two principle ways: targeted rRNA gene surveys and shotgun metagenomics. For large study designs, it is often still prohibitively expensive to sequence metagenomes at both the breadth and depth necessary to statistically capture the true functional diversity of a community. Although rRNA gene surveys provide no direct evidence of function, they do provide a reasonable estimation of microbial diversity, while being a very cost-effective way to screen samples of interest for later shotgun metagenomic analyses. However, there is a great deal of 16S rRNA gene survey data currently available from diverse environments, and thus a need for tools to infer functional composition of environmental samples based on 16S rRNA gene survey data. We present a computational method called pangenome-based functional profiles (PanFP), which infers functional profiles of microbial communities from 16S rRNA gene survey data for Bacteria and Archaea. PanFP is based on pangenome reconstruction of a 16S rRNA gene operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from known genes and genomes pooled from the OTU's taxonomic lineage. From this lineage, we derive an OTU functional profile by weighting a pangenome's functional profile with the OTUs abundance observed in a given sample. We validated our method by comparing PanFP to the functional profiles obtained from the direct shotgun metagenomic measurement of 65 diverse communities via Spearman correlation coefficients. These correlations improved with increasing sequencing depth, within the range of 0.8-0.9 for the most deeply sequenced Human Microbiome Project mock community samples. PanFP is very similar in performance to another recently released tool, PICRUSt, for almost all of survey data analysed here. But, our method is unique

  16. Magnetic beads-based DNAzyme recognition and AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification for visual detection of trace uranyl ion in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Ruan, Yajuan; Wu, Yongning; Lin, Minggui; He, Ye; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-15

    We herein developed a novel biosensor for the visual detection of trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity by using DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) for UO2(2+) recognition and gold nano-particles (AuNPs)-based enzymatic catalysis oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) for signal generation. The utilization of MBs facilitates the magnetic separation and collection of sensing system from complex sample solution, which leads to more convenient experimental operation and more strong resistibility of the biosensor to the matrix of sample, and the utilization of AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification greatly improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Compared with the previous DNAzyme-based UO2(2+) sensors, the proposed biosensor has outstanding advantages such as relative high sensitivity and specificity, operation convenience, low cost and more strong resistibility to the matrix of sample. It can be used to detect as low as 0.02 ppb (74 pM) of UO2(2+) in aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation and 1.89 ppt (7.0 pM) of UO2(2+) by UV-visible spectrophotometer with a recovery of 93-99% and a RSD ≤ 5.0% (n=6) within 3h. Especially, the visual detection limit of 0.02 ppb (74 pM) is much lower than the maximum allowable level of UO2(2+) (130 nM) in the drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that our method meets the requirement of rapid and on-site detection of UO2(2+) in the aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Farrahi

    Full Text Available Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  18. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  19. Aerosol Extinction Profile Mapping with Lognormal Distribution Based on MPL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. H.; Lee, T. T.; Chang, K. E.; Lien, W. H.; Liu, G. R.; Liu, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study intends to challenge the profile mapping of aerosol vertical distribution by mathematical function. With the similarity in distribution pattern, lognormal distribution is examined for mapping the aerosol extinction profile based on MPL (Micro Pulse LiDAR) in situ measurements. The variables of lognormal distribution are log mean (μ) and log standard deviation (σ), which will be correlated with the parameters of aerosol optical depht (AOD) and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) associated with the altitude of extinction peak (Mode) defined in this study. On the base of 10 years MPL data with single peak, the mapping results showed that the mean error of Mode and σ retrievals are 16.1% and 25.3%, respectively. The mean error of σ retrieval can be reduced to 16.5% under the cases of larger distance between PBLH and Mode. The proposed method is further applied to MODIS AOD product in mapping extinction profile for the retrieval of PM2.5 in terms of satellite observations. The results indicated well agreement between retrievals and ground measurements when aerosols under 525 meters are well-mixed. The feasibility of proposed method to satellite remote sensing is also suggested by the case study. Keyword: Aerosol extinction profile, Lognormal distribution, MPL, Planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Mode

  20. Towards precise classification of cancers based on robust gene functional expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jing

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of robust and efficient methods for analyzing and interpreting high dimension gene expression profiles continues to be a focus in computational biology. The accumulated experiment evidence supports the assumption that genes express and perform their functions in modular fashions in cells. Therefore, there is an open space for development of the timely and relevant computational algorithms that use robust functional expression profiles towards precise classification of complex human diseases at the modular level. Results Inspired by the insight that genes act as a module to carry out a highly integrated cellular function, we thus define a low dimension functional expression profile for data reduction. After annotating each individual gene to functional categories defined in a proper gene function classification system such as Gene Ontology applied in this study, we identify those functional categories enriched with differentially expressed genes. For each functional category or functional module, we compute a summary measure (s for the raw expression values of the annotated genes to capture the overall activity level of the module. In this way, we can treat the gene expressions within a functional module as an integrative data point to replace the multiple values of individual genes. We compare the classification performance of decision trees based on functional expression profiles with the conventional gene expression profiles using four publicly available datasets, which indicates that precise classification of tumour types and improved interpretation can be achieved with the reduced functional expression profiles. Conclusion This modular approach is demonstrated to be a powerful alternative approach to analyzing high dimension microarray data and is robust to high measurement noise and intrinsic biological variance inherent in microarray data. Furthermore, efficient integration with current biological knowledge

  1. Tracing contacts of TB patients in Malaysia: costs and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ali, Irfhan; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and chest X-ray are the conventional methods used for tracing suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The purpose of the study was to calculate the cost incurred by Penang General Hospital on performing one contact tracing procedure using an activity based costing approach. Contact tracing records (including the demographic profile of contacts and outcome of the contact tracing procedure) from March 2010 until February 2011 were retrospectively obtained from the TB contact tracing record book. The human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent (in minutes) by employees doing a specific activity by their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables, Purified Protein Derivative vials and clinical equipment were obtained from the procurement section of the Pharmacy and Radiology Departments. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the facility with the unit cost of the public building department. Straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for the calculation of equivalent annual costs for the building and machines. Out of 1024 contact tracing procedures, TST was positive (≥10 mm) in 38 suspects. However, chemoprophylaxis was started in none. Yield of contact tracing (active tuberculosis) was as low as 0.5%. The total unit cost of chest X-ray and TST was MYR 9.23 (2.90 USD) & MYR 11.80 (USD 3.70), respectively. The total cost incurred on a single contact tracing procedure was MYR 21.03 (USD 6.60). Our findings suggest that the yield of contact tracing was very low which may be attributed to an inappropriate prioritization process. TST may be replaced with more accurate and specific methods (interferon gamma release assay) in highly prioritized contacts; or TST-positive contacts should be administered 6H therapy (provided that the chest radiography excludes TB) in accordance with standard protocols. The unit cost of contact tracing can be significantly

  2. Integrated HPTLC-based Methodology for the Tracing of Bioactive Compounds in Herbal Extracts Employing Multivariate Chemometrics. A Case Study on Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaita, Eliza; Gikas, Evagelos; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2017-03-01

    In drug discovery, bioassay-guided isolation is a well-established procedure, and still the basic approach for the discovery of natural products with desired biological properties. However, in these procedures, the most laborious and time-consuming step is the isolation of the bioactive constituents. A prior identification of the compounds that contribute to the demonstrated activity of the fractions would enable the selection of proper chromatographic techniques and lead to targeted isolation. The development of an integrated HPTLC-based methodology for the rapid tracing of the bioactive compounds during bioassay-guided processes, using multivariate statistics. Materials and Methods - The methanol extract of Morus alba was fractionated employing CPC. Subsequently, fractions were assayed for tyrosinase inhibition and analyzed with HPTLC. PLS-R algorithm was performed in order to correlate the analytical data with the biological response of the fractions and identify the compounds with the highest contribution. Two methodologies were developed for the generation of the dataset; one based on manual peak picking and the second based on chromatogram binning. Results and Discussion - Both methodologies afforded comparable results and were able to trace the bioactive constituents (e.g. oxyresveratrol, trans-dihydromorin, 2,4,3'-trihydroxydihydrostilbene). The suggested compounds were compared in terms of R f values and UV spectra with compounds isolated from M. alba using typical bioassay-guided process. Chemometric tools supported the development of a novel HPTLC-based methodology for the tracing of tyrosinase inhibitors in M. alba extract. All steps of the experimental procedure implemented techniques that afford essential key elements for application in high-throughput screening procedures for drug discovery purposes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Profile of Pre-Service Science Teachers Based on STEM Career Interest Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarno, N.; Widodo, A.; Rusdiana, D.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Afifah, R. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Career Interest Survey. The study uses descriptive survey method as the research design. Samples collected from 66 preservice science teachers in a university located in Bandung, Indonesia. The results of the study are the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM Career Interest Survey shows that the average number of career interest in the field of technology is 4.08, in science 3.80, mathematics 3.39 and engineering 3.30. Pre-service science teachers are found to have interests in the STEM career fields. This research is necessary as there are many instances of people choosing majors or studies that are not in accordance with their interests and talents. The recommendation of this study is to develop learning in pre-service science teachers by using STEM approach.

  6. Patterns of trading profiles at the Nordic Stock Exchange. A correlation-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musciotto, Federico; Marotta, Luca; Miccichè, Salvatore; Piilo, Jyrki; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the trading behavior of Finnish individual investors trading the stocks selected to compute the OMXH25 index in 2003 by tracking the individual daily investment decisions. We verify that the set of investors is a highly heterogeneous system under many aspects. We introduce a correlation based method that is able to detect a hierarchical structure of the trading profiles of heterogeneous individual investors. We verify that the detected hierarchical structure is highly overlapping with the cluster structure obtained with the approach of statistically validated networks when an appropriate threshold of the hierarchical trees is used. We also show that the combination of the correlation based method and of the statistically validated method provides a way to expand the information about the clusters of investors with similar trading profiles in a robust and reliable way.

  7. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  8. Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    A sensor technique is described that captures analyte species on a preconcentrating minicolumn containing a selective solid phase sorbent. In this approach, the sample is pumped through the column until the sorbent phase is fully equilibrated with the sample concentration, and the exit concentration equals the inlet concentration. On-column detection of the captured analytes using radiometric and spectroscopic methods are demonstrated. In trace level detection applications, this sensor provides a steady state signal that is proportional to sample analyte concentration and is reversible. The method is demonstrated for the detection of Tc-99 using anion exchange beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; Sr-90 using SuperLig 620 beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; and hexavalent chromium detection using anion exchange beads with spectroscopic detection. Theory has been developed to describe the signal at equilibration, and to describe analyte uptake as a function of volume and concentration, using parameters and concepts from frontal chromatography. It is shown that experimental sensor behavior closely matches theoretical predictions and that effective sensors can be prepared using low plate number columns. This sensor modality has many desirable characteristics for in situ sensors for trace-level contaminant long-term monitoring where the use of consumable reagents for sensor regeneration would be undesirable. Initial experiments in groundwater matrixes demonstrated the detection of Tc-99 at drinking water level standards (activity of 0.033 Bq/mL) and detection of hexavalent chromium to levels below drinking water standards of 50 ppb

  9. Effective Enrichment and Detection of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food Samples based on Magnetic Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Hu, Na; Fan, Guangsen; Li, Xiuting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng; Suo, Yourui; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-04-04

    The present study reported a facile, sensitive, and efficient method for enrichment and determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples by employing new core-shell nanostructure magnetic covalent organic framework hybrid microspheres (Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD)) as the sorbent followed by HPLC-DAD. Under mild synthetic conditions, the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) were prepared with the retention of colloidal nanosize, larger specific surface area, higher porosity, uniform morphology, and supermagnetism. The as-prepared materials showed an excellent adsorption ability for PAHs, and the enrichment efficiency of the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) could reach 99.95%. The obtained materials also had fast adsorption kinetics and realized adsorption equilibrium within 12 min. The eluent was further analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and good linearity was observed in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with the linear correlation being above 0.9990. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for 15 PAHs were in the range of 0.83-11.7 ng/L and 2.76-39.0 ng/L, respectively. For the application, the obtained materials were employed for the enrichment of trace PAHs in food samples and exhibited superior enrichment capacity and excellent applicability.

  10. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  11. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM ...

  12. A self-calibrating ion beam profiler based on a CsI scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, P. E-mail: finocchiaro@lns.infn.it; Ciavola, G.; Cosentino, L.; Gu, M.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A

    1999-11-21

    We report on the test results obtained with a prototype beam profiler based on a thin slit and a CsI scintillator, read out by means of a compact photomultiplier. Such a device has proven to be suitable to perform ion beam diagnostics at low and very low intensities. In particular, our device is suitable for being used in the energy and intensity ranges expected at the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, that is currently under development at LNS Catania.

  13. A self-calibrating ion beam profiler based on a CsI scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, P.; Ciavola, G.; Cosentino, L.; Gu, M.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the test results obtained with a prototype beam profiler based on a thin slit and a CsI scintillator, read out by means of a compact photomultiplier. Such a device has proven to be suitable to perform ion beam diagnostics at low and very low intensities. In particular, our device is suitable for being used in the energy and intensity ranges expected at the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, that is currently under development at LNS Catania

  14. A Profile-Based Identification of Standby and Useless Electricity Consumption in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    De Koster, Rien; Van Roy, Juan; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Useless electricity consumption is the electricity consumption of an electric appliance or system that is not performing its primary function or that is performing its primary function without being useful. So, useless electricity consumption does not only consist of standby losses. To identify the useless electricity consumption in a building, a profile-based approach is developed. This approach is used to investigate the useless electricity consumption in five buildings of the University of...

  15. Design and application of natural product derived probes for activity based protein profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Battenberg, Oliver Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial protein targets by activity based protein profiling (ABPP) is an important approach to face the increasing emergence of resistant bacteria. The scope of this work focuses on three new strategies for the labeling of antibacterial protein-targets with natural product derived ABPP-probes: A.) Evaluation of the intrinsic photo-reactivity of α-pyrones and pyrimidones for use as photo-crosslinkers. B.) Synthesis of a benzophenone-tag that combines photo-cross...

  16. Profiles of sedentary and non-sedentary young men ? a population-based MOPO study

    OpenAIRE

    Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ik?heimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; M?ntysaari, Matti; J?ms?, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...

  17. Image-based compound profiling reveals a dual inhibitor of tyrosine kinase and microtubule polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule compounds are widely used as biological research tools and therapeutic drugs. Therefore, uncovering novel targets of these compounds should provide insights that are valuable in both basic and clinical studies. I developed a method for image-based compound profiling by quantitating the effects of compounds on signal transduction and vesicle trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Using six signal transduction molecules and two markers of vesicle trafficking, 570...

  18. Device- and service profiles for integrated or systems based on open standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildner Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated OR systems nowadays are closed and proprietary, so that the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with high time and cost effort. An integrated operating theatre with open interfaces, giving clinical operators the opportunity to choose individual medical devices from different manufacturers, is currently being developed in the framework of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research funded project OR.NET [1]. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and accreditation process do not cope with the requirements for modular integration based on an open standard. Therefore, strategies as well as service and device profiles to enable a procedure for risk management and certifiability are in the focus of the project work. Amongst others, a concept for User Interface Profiles (UI-Profiles has been conceived in order to describe medical device functions and the entire user interface regarding Human-Machine-Interaction (HMI characteristics with the aim to identify human-induced risks of central user interfaces. The use of standardized device and service profiles shall allow the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices in the OR.NET network, without disclosing the medical devices’ risk analysis and related confidential knowledge or proprietary information.

  19. Controlled release profiles of dipyridamole from biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB designed for controlled release of antithrombotic drug, namely dipyridamole (DPD, have been kinetically studied. The profiles of release from the microspheres with different diameters 4, 9, 63, and 92 µm present the progression of nonlinear and linear stages. Diffusionkinetic equation describing both linear (PHB hydrolysis and nonlinear (diffusion stages of the DPD release profiles from the spherical subjects has been written down as the sum of two terms: desorption from the homogeneous sphere in accordance with diffusion mechanism and the zero-order release. In contrast to the diffusivity dependence on microsphere size, the constant characteristics (k of linearity are scarcely affected by the diameter of PHB microparticles. The view of the kinetic profiles as well as the low rate of DPD release are in satisfactory agreement with kinetics of weight loss measured in vitro for the PHB films. Taking into account kinetic results, we suppose that the degradation of both films and PHB microspheres is responsible for the linear stage of DPD release profiles. In the nearest future, combination of biodegradable PHB and DPD as a representative of proliferation cell inhibitors will give possibility to elaborate the novel injectable therapeutic system for a local, long-term, antiproliferative action.

  20. STEM-based science learning implementation to identify student’s personal intelligences profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, B. J. P. K.; Suwarma, I. R.; Liliawati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Science and technology are rapidly developing needs to be balanced with the human resources that have the qualified ability. Not only cognitive ability, but also have the soft skills that support 21st century skills. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education is a solution to improve the quality of learning and prepare students may be able to trained 21st century skills. This study aims to analyse the implementation of STEM-based science learning on Newton’s law of motion by identifying the personal intelligences profile junior high school students. The method used in this research is pre experiment with the design of the study one group pre-test post-test. Samples in this study were 26 junior high school students taken using Convenience Sampling. Students personal intelligences profile after learning STEM-based science uses two instruments, self-assessment and peer assessment. Intrapersonal intelligence profile based self-assessment and peer assessment are respectively 69.38; and 64.08. As for interpersonal intelligence for self-assessment instrument is 73 and the peer assessment is 60.23.

  1. Input-profile-based software failure probability quantification for safety signal generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The approaches for software failure probability estimation are mainly based on the results of testing. Test cases represent the inputs, which are encountered in an actual use. The test inputs for the safety-critical application such as a reactor protection system (RPS) of a nuclear power plant are the inputs which cause the activation of protective action such as a reactor trip. A digital system treats inputs from instrumentation sensors as discrete digital values by using an analog-to-digital converter. Input profile must be determined in consideration of these characteristics for effective software failure probability quantification. Another important characteristic of software testing is that we do not have to repeat the test for the same input value since the software response is deterministic for each specific digital input. With these considerations, we propose an effective software testing method for quantifying the failure probability. As an example application, the input profile of the digital RPS is developed based on the typical plant data. The proposed method in this study is expected to provide a simple but realistic mean to quantify the software failure probability based on input profile and system dynamics.

  2. Aerosol characteristics inversion based on the improved lidar ratio profile with the ground-based rotational Raman-Mie lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongzhu; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2018-06-01

    An iterative method, based on a derived inverse relationship between atmospheric backscatter coefficient and aerosol lidar ratio, is proposed to invert the lidar ratio profile and aerosol extinction coefficient. The feasibility of this method is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Simulation results show the inversion accuracy of aerosol optical properties for iterative method can be improved in the near-surface aerosol layer and the optical thick layer. Experimentally, as a result of the reduced insufficiency error and incoherence error, the aerosol optical properties with higher accuracy can be obtained in the near-surface region and the region of numerical derivative distortion. In addition, the particle component can be distinguished roughly based on this improved lidar ratio profile.

  3. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  4. Beware of Selfies: The Impact of Photo Type on Impression Formation Based on Social Networking Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Nicole C; Feurstein, Markus; Kluck, Jan P; Meier, Yannic; Rother, Marius; Winter, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Users of social networking sites such as Facebook frequently post self-portraits on their profiles. While research has begun to analyze the motivations for posting such pictures, less is known about how selfies are evaluated by recipients. Although producers of selfies typically aim to create a positive impression, selfies may also be regarded as narcissistic and therefore fail to achieve the intended goal. The aim of this study is to examine the potentially ambivalent reception of selfies compared to photos taken by others based on the Brunswik lens model Brunswik (1956). In a between-subjects online experiment ( N = 297), Facebook profile mockups were shown which differed with regard to picture type (selfie vs. photo taken by others), gender of the profile owner (female vs. male), and number of individuals within a picture (single person vs. group). Results revealed that selfies were indeed evaluated more negatively than photos taken by others. Persons in selfies were rated as less trustworthy, less socially attractive, less open to new experiences, more narcissistic and more extroverted than the same persons in photos taken by others. In addition, gender differences were observed in the perception of pictures. Male profile owners were rated as more narcissistic and less trustworthy than female profile owners, but there was no significant interaction effect of type of picture and gender. Moreover, a mediation analysis of presumed motives for posting selfies revealed that negative evaluations of selfie posting individuals were mainly driven by the perceived motivation of impression management. Findings suggest that selfies are likely to be evaluated less positively than producers of selfies might suppose.

  5. Carbon profiles of remote Australian Indigenous communities: A base for opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.; Anda, M.; Harper, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A decision-making model was constructed to assist remote Australian Indigenous communities select appropriate climate change mitigation programs. The Resilient Community and Livelihood Asset Integration Model (ReCLAIM) comprises six steps that focus on community assets and aspirations. The second of these steps is to determine the baseline carbon profiles of communities based on six sources of carbon emissions: materials, construction processes, stationary energy, transport, water systems and waste. The methodology employed an annualised lifecycle analysis of housing materials and construction, and an annual inventory of other emission sources. Profiles were calculated for two remote communities and compared to the Australian average and also average electricity consumption by remote communities in the Northern Territory. The results, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO_2-e), showed that average household carbon profiles of the two communities (6.3 and 4.1 tCO_2-e/capita/yr) were generally lower than the Australian average (7.3 tCO_2-e/capita/yr). The stationary energy results revealed that infrastructure and building design could raise fuel consumption and costs, and therefore carbon emissions, despite modest lifestyles. The carbon emission categories differed between the two communities highlighting the need for an individualised approach to understanding the drivers of carbon emissions and mitigation responses. - Highlights: •We model carbon profiles of two remote Aboriginal communities. •Community carbon profiles were lower than the Australian average. •We compare stationary energy with a 72-community sample average. •Low-carbon communities are possible with renewable energy systems. •Building design and energy source can impact significantly on emissions.

  6. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    anisotropic ray tracing. x. Chapter 4 presents the data reduction of the P matrix of a crystal waveplate. The diattenuation is embedded in the singular values of P. The retardance is divided into two parts: (A) The physical retardance induced by OPLs and surface interactions, and (B) the geometrical transformation induced by geometry of a ray path, which is calculated by the geometrical transform Q matrix. The Q matrix of an anisotropic intercept is derived from the generalization of s- and p-bases at the anisotropic intercept; the p basis is not confined to the plane of incidence due to the anisotropic refraction or reflection. Chapter 5 shows how the multiple P matrices associated with the eigenmodes resulting from propagation through multiple anisotropic surfaces can be combined into one P matrix when the multiple modes interfere in their overlapping regions. The resultant P matrix contains diattenuation induced at each surface interaction as well as the retardance due to ray propagation and total internal reflections. The polarization aberrations of crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers are studied in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. A wavefront simulated by a grid of rays is traced through the anisotropic system and the resultant grid of rays is analyzed. The analysis is complicated by the ray doubling effects and the partially overlapping eigen-wavefronts propagating in various directions. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of each eigenmode can be evaluated from the electric field distributions. The overall polarization at the plane of interest or the image quality at the image plane are affected by each of these eigen-wavefronts. Isotropic materials become anisotropic due to stress, strain, or applied electric or magnetic fields. In Chapter 8, the P matrix for anisotropic materials is extended to ray tracing in stress birefringent materials which are treated as spatially varying anisotropic materials. Such simulations can predict the spatial retardance variation

  7. Towards modeling of random lasing in dye doped bio-organic based systems: ray-tracing and cellular automaton analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitus, A. C.; Stopa, P.; Zaklukiewicz, W.; Pawlik, G.; Mysliwiec, J.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.

    2015-08-01

    One of many photonic applications of biopolymers as functional materials is random lasing resulting from an incorporation of highly luminescent dyes into biopolymeric matrix, which leads to a random but coherent light scattering in amplifying medium. In spite of numerous theoretical and experimental studies the origin of the coherence is still not clear and various scenarios are discussed. In particular, inhomogeneity of biopolymeric layers can hypothetically promote the feedback in the scattering of the emitted light resulting in coherent and incoherent random lasing. In this paper we analyze the light scattering in a model system of scattering centers of circular shapes and various dimensions using ray-tracing techniques. In the second part, which has mostly a tutorial character, we present the approach to the study of random lasing using a cellular automaton model of Wiersma et al.

  8. Trace gas composition in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone: a case study based on aircraft observations and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschaldt, Klaus-D.; Schlager, Hans; Baumann, Robert; Bozem, Heiko; Eyring, Veronika; Hoor, Peter; Jöckel, Patrick; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2017-05-01

    We present in situ measurements of the trace gas composition of the upper tropospheric (UT) Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) performed with the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) in the frame of the Earth System Model Validation (ESMVal) campaign. Air masses with enhanced O3 mixing ratios were encountered after entering the ASMA at its southern edge at about 150 hPa on 18 September 2012. This is in contrast to the presumption that the anticyclone's interior is dominated by recently uplifted air with low O3 in the monsoon season. We also observed enhanced CO and HCl in the ASMA, which are tracers for boundary layer pollution and tropopause layer (TL) air or stratospheric in-mixing respectively. In addition, reactive nitrogen was enhanced in the ASMA. Along the HALO flight track across the ASMA boundary, strong gradients of these tracers separate anticyclonic from outside air. Lagrangian trajectory calculations using HYSPLIT show that HALO sampled a filament of UT air three times, which included air masses uplifted from the lower or mid-troposphere north of the Bay of Bengal. The trace gas gradients between UT and uplifted air masses were preserved during transport within a belt of streamlines fringing the central part of the anticyclone (fringe), but are smaller than the gradients across the ASMA boundary. Our data represent the first in situ observations across the southern part and downstream of the eastern ASMA flank. Back-trajectories starting at the flight track furthermore indicate that HALO transected the ASMA where it was just splitting into a Tibetan and an Iranian part. The O3-rich filament is diverted from the fringe towards the interior of the original anticyclone, and is at least partially bound to become part of the new Iranian eddy. A simulation with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model is found to reproduce the observations reasonably well. It shows that O3-rich air is entrained by the outer streamlines of the

  9. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  10. Detecting Malicious Nodes in Medical Smartphone Networks Through Euclidean Distance-Based Behavioral Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    and healthcare personnel. The underlying network architecture to support such devices is also referred to as medical smartphone networks (MSNs). Similar to other networks, MSNs also suffer from various attacks like insider attacks (e.g., leakage of sensitive patient information by a malicious insider......). In this work, we focus on MSNs and design a trust-based intrusion detection approach through Euclidean distance-based behavioral profiling to detect malicious devices (or called nodes). In the evaluation, we collaborate with healthcare organizations and implement our approach in a real simulated MSN...

  11. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  12. Real Mission Profile Based Lifetime Estimation of Fuel-cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    . This paper describes a lifetime prediction method for the power semiconductors used in the power conditioning of a fuel cell based backup system, considering both the long-term standby mode and active operation mode. The annual ambient temperature profile is taken into account to estimate its impact...... on the degradation of MOSFETs during the standby mode. At the presence of power outages, the backup system is activated into the operation mode and the MOSFETs withstand additional thermal stresses due to power losses. A study case of a 1 kW backup system is presented with two annual mission profiles in Denmark...... and India, respectively. The ambient temperature, occurrence frequency of power outages, active operation time and power levels are considered for the lifetime prediction of the applied MOSFETs. Comparisons of the accumulated lifetime consumptions are performed between standby mode and operation mode...

  13. Different commercial yeast strains affecting the volatile and sensory profile of cava base wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Jordi; Urpí, Pilar; Riu-Aumatell, Montserrat; Vichi, Stefania; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2008-05-10

    36 semi-industrial fermentations were carried out with 6 different yeast strains in order to assess differences in the wines' chemical and volatile profile. Two of the tested strains (Y3 and Y6) showed the fastest fermentation rates throughout 3 harvests and on 2 grape varieties. The wines fermented by three of the tested strains (Y5, Y3 and Y4) stand out for their high amounts of esters and possessed the highest fruity character. Wines from strains producing low amounts of esters and high concentrations of medium chain fatty acids, higher alcohols and six-carbon alcohols were the least appreciated at the sensory analysis. The data obtained in the present study show how the yeast strain quantitatively affects the final chemical and volatile composition of cava base wines and have repercussions on their sensory profile, independently of must variety and harvest year.

  14. HMMBinder: DNA-Binding Protein Prediction Using HMM Profile Based Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rianon; Chowdhury, Shahana Yasmin; Rashid, Mahmood A; Sharma, Alok; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Shatabda, Swakkhar

    2017-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins often play important role in various processes within the cell. Over the last decade, a wide range of classification algorithms and feature extraction techniques have been used to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel DNA-binding protein prediction method called HMMBinder. HMMBinder uses monogram and bigram features extracted from the HMM profiles of the protein sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of HMM profile based features for the DNA-binding protein prediction problem. We applied Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a classification technique in HMMBinder. Our method was tested on standard benchmark datasets. We experimentally show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods found in the literature.

  15. HMMBinder: DNA-Binding Protein Prediction Using HMM Profile Based Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianon Zaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins often play important role in various processes within the cell. Over the last decade, a wide range of classification algorithms and feature extraction techniques have been used to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel DNA-binding protein prediction method called HMMBinder. HMMBinder uses monogram and bigram features extracted from the HMM profiles of the protein sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of HMM profile based features for the DNA-binding protein prediction problem. We applied Support Vector Machines (SVM as a classification technique in HMMBinder. Our method was tested on standard benchmark datasets. We experimentally show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods found in the literature.

  16. A laser-based beam profile monitor for the SLC/SLD interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, R.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Colocho, W.; Frisch, J.; Horton-Smith, S.; Inman, W.; Jobe, K.; Kotseroglou, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Scheeff, M.; Wagner, S.; Ross, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beam size estimates made using beam-beam deflections are used for optimization of the Stanford linear collider (SLC) electron-positron beam sizes. Typical beam sizes and intensities expected for 1996 operations are 2.1 x 0.6 μm (x, y) at 4.0.10 10 particles per pulse. Conventional profile monitors, such as scanning wires, fail at charge densities well below this. The laser-based profile monitor uses a finely-focused 350-nm wavelength tripled YLF laser pulse that traverses the particle beam path about 29 cm away from the e + /e - IP. Compton scattered photons and degraded e + /e - are detected as the beam is steered across the laser pulse. The laser pulse has a transverse size of 380 nm and a Rayleigh range of about 5 μm. (orig.)

  17. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  18. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 2. Apparent absorption and retention of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of source of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn (sulfates or hydroxy) on apparent absorption of minerals when fed in either a forage- or by-product-based diet. The by-product diets were formulated to have greater concentrations of NDF and lesser concentrations of starch, and specific ingredients were chosen because they were good sources of soluble fiber and β-glucans, which bind trace minerals in nonruminants. We hypothesized that hydroxy trace minerals would interact less with digesta and have greater apparent absorption compared with sulfate minerals, and the difference in apparent absorption would be greater for the by-product diet compared with the forage-based diet. During the 56-d experiment, cows remained on the same fiber treatment but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period; thus, all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each period cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d, followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental minerals from either sulfate or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total Cu, Zn, and Mn dietary concentrations, respectively, were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 for the by-product diets. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Cows consuming the by-product diets had greater Zn (1,863 vs. 1,453 mg/d) and Mn (1,790 vs. 1,588 mg/d) intake compared with cows fed forage diets, but apparent Zn absorption was similar between treatments. Manganese apparent absorption was greater for the by-product diets compared with the forage diets (16 vs. 11%). A fiber by mineral interaction was observed for Cu apparent absorption, as cows fed

  19. Fluorescence turn-on sensing of trace cadmium ions based on EDTA-etched CdTe@CdS quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Li, Xin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2018-05-01

    Cadmium-caused environmental pollution and diseases have always been worldwide problems. Thus it is extremely urgent to establish a cheap, rapid, simple and selective detection method for trace cadmium in drinking water. In this study, a fluorescence "turn-on" method based on ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-etched CdTe@CdS quantum dots (QDs) was designed to detect Cd 2+ . High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized for chemical and structural characterization of the as-prepared QDs. Based on chemical etching of EDTA on the surface of CdTe@CdS QDs, specific Cd 2+ recognition sites were produced, and then results in fluorescence quenching. The introduction of Cd 2+ could identify these sites and restore the fluorescence of the EDTA-QDs system. Under the optimum conditions, the nanoprobe shows a linear response range from 0.05 to 9 μM with a very low detection limit of 0.032 μM. In addition, the reported fluorescence probe in this work displays a good selectivity for trace Cd 2+ over other metal ions and an admirable practicability in real water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  1. Full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics based on a new prototype non-contact profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Sun, Ze-Qing; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-06-01

    A new prototype non-contact profiler based on surface tracking has been specially developed. Surface tracking is carried out by a specially designed dual stage probe system with the aid of a four-Degree Of Freedom high-precision motion platform. The dual stage probe system keeps a short-range optical probe constantly tracking the surface by a self-developed voice coil motor servo, by which a wide measuring range of up to 10 mm is realized. The system performance evaluation including resolution, repeatability, and scanning speed proved the good capability of the new prototype non-contact profiler. To realize a full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics within one scanning procedure, a signal intensity monitor integrated in the surface tracking controller is specially developed. In the experiment, a snip-single-corner-rectangular-shaped freeform surface was successfully measured over full area by the new non-contact profiler. This work provides an effective solution for 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optical surfaces over full reflecting area. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measuring system is of great significance in quality evaluation of optical surfaces.

  2. 3D profile-based approach to proteome-wide discovery of novel human chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Tomczak

    Full Text Available Chemokines are small secreted proteins with important roles in immune responses. They consist of a conserved three-dimensional (3D structure, so-called IL8-like chemokine fold, which is supported by disulfide bridges characteristic of this protein family. Sequence- and profile-based computational methods have been proficient in discovering novel chemokines by making use of their sequence-conserved cysteine patterns. However, it has been recently shown that some chemokines escaped annotation by these methods due to low sequence similarity to known chemokines and to different arrangement of cysteines in sequence and in 3D. Innovative methods overcoming the limitations of current techniques may allow the discovery of new remote homologs in the still functionally uncharacterized fraction of the human genome. We report a novel computational approach for proteome-wide identification of remote homologs of the chemokine family that uses fold recognition techniques in combination with a scaffold-based automatic mapping of disulfide bonds to define a 3D profile of the chemokine protein family. By applying our methodology to all currently uncharacterized human protein sequences, we have discovered two novel proteins that, without having significant sequence similarity to known chemokines or characteristic cysteine patterns, show strong structural resemblance to known anti-HIV chemokines. Detailed computational analysis and experimental structural investigations based on mass spectrometry and circular dichroism support our structural predictions and highlight several other chemokine-like features. The results obtained support their functional annotation as putative novel chemokines and encourage further experimental characterization. The identification of remote homologs of human chemokines may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms causing pathologies such as cancer or AIDS, and may contribute to the development of novel treatments. Besides

  3. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Mental Imagery-Based BCI Performance from Personality, Cognitive Profile and Neurophysiological Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Jeunet

    Full Text Available Mental-Imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs allow their users to send commands to a computer using their brain-activity alone (typically measured by ElectroEncephaloGraphy-EEG, which is processed while they perform specific mental tasks. While very promising, MI-BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories because of the difficulty encountered by users to control them. Indeed, although some users obtain good control performances after training, a substantial proportion remains unable to reliably control an MI-BCI. This huge variability in user-performance led the community to look for predictors of MI-BCI control ability. However, these predictors were only explored for motor-imagery based BCIs, and mostly for a single training session per subject. In this study, 18 participants were instructed to learn to control an EEG-based MI-BCI by performing 3 MI-tasks, 2 of which were non-motor tasks, across 6 training sessions, on 6 different days. Relationships between the participants' BCI control performances and their personality, cognitive profile and neurophysiological markers were explored. While no relevant relationships with neurophysiological markers were found, strong correlations between MI-BCI performances and mental-rotation scores (reflecting spatial abilities were revealed. Also, a predictive model of MI-BCI performance based on psychometric questionnaire scores was proposed. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation process revealed the stability and reliability of this model: it enabled to predict participants' performance with a mean error of less than 3 points. This study determined how users' profiles impact their MI-BCI control ability and thus clears the way for designing novel MI-BCI training protocols, adapted to the profile of each user.

  5. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire using high- and moderateresolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixelbased modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  6. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  8. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  9. Base profile design for high-performance operation of bipolar transistors at liquid-nitrogen temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, J.M.C.; Harame, D.L.; Meyerson, B.S.; Nguyen, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The base profile requirements of Si bipolar junction transistors (BJT's) high-performance operation at liquid-nitrogen temperature are examined. Measurements of thin epitaxial-base polysilicon-emitter n-p-n transistors with increasing base doping show the effects of bandgap narrowing, mobility changes, and carrier freezeout. At room temperature the collector current at low injection is proportional to the integrated base charge, independent of the impurity distribution. At temperatures below 150 Κ, however, minority injection is dominated by the peak base doping because of the greater effectiveness of bandgap narrowing. When the peak doping in the base approaches 10 19 cm -3 , the bandgap difference between emitter and base is sufficiently small that the current gain no longer monotonically decreases with lower temperature but instead shows a maximum as low as 180 Κ. The device design window appears limited at the low-current end by increased base-emitter leakage due to tunneling and by resistance control at the high-current end. Using the measured dc characteristics, circuit delay calculations are made to estimate the performance of an ECL ring oscillator at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. It is shown that if the base doping can be raised to 10 19 cm -3 while keeping the base thickness constant, the minimum delay at liquid nitrogen can approach the delay of optimized devices at room temperature

  10. Efficacy and toxicity profile of carfilzomib based regimens for treatment of multiple myeloma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Adeela; Kapoor, Vikas; Latif, Azka; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Zahid, Umar; McBride, Ali; Abraham, Ivo; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Anwer, Faiz

    2018-05-01

    Standard induction therapy for multiple myeloma is three-drug combination based on following classes of drugs: proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators and steroids. Despite its notable efficacy, bortezomib has side effects like peripheral neuropathy (PNP) with reported incidence of grade ≥3 PNP between 2%-23% Schlafer et al., 2017. Carfilzomib (CFZ) has high selectivity and minimal off-target adverse effects including lower rates of PNP. CFZ is already approved for treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) as single agent as well as in combination with lenalidomide and/or dexamethasone. Extensive literature search identified a total of 1839 articles. Twenty-six articles (n = 5980) met the inclusion criteria, 15 in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and 11 in RRMM group. CFZ demonstrates comparable or even better efficacy to bortezomib with much favorable AE profile. Deep, rapid and sustainable response using KRd with safer toxicity profile supports extension of KRd therapy to frontline therapy for all risk categories of MM. High incidence of grade ≥3 HTN underscores the importance of serial BP monitoring. In RRMM, CFZ has documented efficacy with standard 20-27mg/m2 dose. Further large-scale trials are needed to study benefit-to-risk profile of 20-56 and 20-70 mg/m2 dose of CFZ vs standard 20-27 mg/m2 dose in NDMM and RRMM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Elderly fall risk prediction based on a physiological profile approach using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmara, Jafar; Zaboli, Mohammad Hassan; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    Falls play a critical role in older people's life as it is an important source of morbidity and mortality in elders. In this article, elders fall risk is predicted based on a physiological profile approach using a multilayer neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm. The personal physiological profile of 200 elders was collected through a questionnaire and used as the experimental data for learning and testing the neural network. The profile contains a series of simple factors putting elders at risk for falls such as vision abilities, muscle forces, and some other daily activities and grouped into two sets: psychological factors and public factors. The experimental data were investigated to select factors with high impact using principal component analysis. The experimental results show an accuracy of ≈90 percent and ≈87.5 percent for fall prediction among the psychological and public factors, respectively. Furthermore, combining these two datasets yield an accuracy of ≈91 percent that is better than the accuracy of single datasets. The proposed method suggests a set of valid and reliable measurements that can be employed in a range of health care systems and physical therapy to distinguish people who are at risk for falls.

  12. Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Josefsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (=1402 to 1902. TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck’s depression inventory, BDI were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR and fanatical people (ScT were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.

  13. Lateral energy band profile modulation in tunnel field effect transistors based on gate structure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing novel materials and structures is important for enhancing the on-state current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs. In this paper, we reveal that the on-state performance of TFETs is mainly determined by the energy band profile of the channel. According to this interpretation, we present a new concept of energy band profile modulation (BPM achieved with gate structure engineering. It is believed that this approach can be used to suppress the ambipolar effect. Based on this method, a Si TFET device with a symmetrical tri-material-gate (TMG structure is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrated that the special band profile in this device can boost on-state performance, and it also suppresses the off-state current induced by the ambipolar effect. These unique advantages are maintained over a wide range of gate lengths and supply voltages. The BPM concept can serve as a guideline for improving the performance of nanoscale TFET devices.

  14. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV: a controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M. R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kong, M.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J. M.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A. A.; Vu, N. M. T.; The EUROfusion MST1-team; The TCV-team

    2017-12-01

    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety factor profile (q-profile) and kinetic plasma parameters such as the plasma beta. This demands to establish reliable profile control routines in presently operational tokamaks. We present a model predictive profile controller that controls the q-profile and plasma beta using power requests to two clusters of gyrotrons and the plasma current request. The performance of the controller is analyzed in both simulation and TCV L-mode discharges where successful tracking of the estimated inverse q-profile as well as plasma beta is demonstrated under uncertain plasma conditions and the presence of disturbances. The controller exploits the knowledge of the time-varying actuator limits in the actuator input calculation itself such that fast transitions between targets are achieved without overshoot. A software environment is employed to prepare and test this and three other profile controllers in parallel in simulations and experiments on TCV. This set of tools includes the rapid plasma transport simulator RAPTOR and various algorithms to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium and plasma profiles by merging the available measurements with model-based predictions. In this work the estimated q-profile is merely based on RAPTOR model predictions due to the absence of internal current density measurements in TCV. These results encourage to further exploit model predictive profile control in experiments on TCV and other (future) tokamaks.

  15. Trace element studies at University of Pittsburgh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Chan, K.C.; Shabason, L.; Wedberg, G.; Rudolph, H.

    1974-01-01

    Seven areas of research are discussed. A method was developed for analyzing samples for their major constituent elements by irradiating with protons and detecting prompt gamma rays, mostly produced in (p,p'γ) reactions. Among other applications, the method was used to analyze air particulates for C, N, O, Al, Si, S, Co, and Fe. Trace element analysis by proton or alpha particle induced x-ray fluorescence was used on thin samples in a study of the variations of Pb, Br, Fe, and Zn in air particulates as a function of time. Among other applications this method was also used in studying trace elements in rainwater. An x-ray fluorescence method that is effective in the analysis of thick samples was developed. A method based on measuring energies of elastically scattered protons was developed for the analysis of light elements. The use of proton and neutron activation analyses, as well as methods for studying depth profiles for hydrogen and helium in materials are discussed

  16. Internet-based Profiler system as integrative framework to support translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Robert; Demichelis, Francesca; Tang, Jeffery; Riva, Alberto; Shen, Ronglai; Gibbs, Doug F; Mahavishno, Vasudeva; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A

    2005-12-19

    Translational research requires taking basic science observations and developing them into clinically useful tests and therapeutics. We have developed a process to develop molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis by integrating tissue microarray (TMA) technology and an internet-database tool, Profiler. TMA technology allows investigators to study hundreds of patient samples on a single glass slide resulting in the conservation of tissue and the reduction in inter-experimental variability. The Profiler system allows investigator to reliably track, store, and evaluate TMA experiments. Here within we describe the process that has evolved through an empirical basis over the past 5 years at two academic institutions. The generic design of this system makes it compatible with multiple organ system (e.g., prostate, breast, lung, renal, and hematopoietic system,). Studies and folders are restricted to authorized users as required. Over the past 5 years, investigators at 2 academic institutions have scanned 656 TMA experiments and collected 63,311 digital images of these tissue samples. 68 pathologists from 12 major user groups have accessed the system. Two groups directly link clinical data from over 500 patients for immediate access and the remaining groups choose to maintain clinical and pathology data on separate systems. Profiler currently has 170 K data points such as staining intensity, tumor grade, and nuclear size. Due to the relational database structure, analysis can be easily performed on single or multiple TMA experimental results. The TMA module of Profiler can maintain images acquired from multiple systems. We have developed a robust process to develop molecular biomarkers using TMA technology and an internet-based database system to track all steps of this process. This system is extendable to other types of molecular data as separate modules and is freely available to academic institutions for licensing.

  17. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer has limited impact on transcriptomic-based molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Rantalainen, Mattias; Stålhammar, Gustav; Lövrot, John; Ullah, Ikram; Alkodsi, Amjad; Ma, Ran; Wedlund, Lena; Lindberg, Johan; Frisell, Jan; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2017-11-29

    Transcriptomic profiling of breast tumors provides opportunity for subtyping and molecular-based patient stratification. In diagnostic applications the specimen profiled should be representative of the expression profile of the whole tumor and ideally capture properties of the most aggressive part of the tumor. However, breast cancers commonly exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity at molecular, genomic and in phenotypic level, which can arise during tumor evolution. Currently it is not established to what extent a random sampling approach may influence molecular breast cancer diagnostics. In this study we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify gene expression in 43 pieces (2-5 pieces per tumor) from 12 breast tumors (Cohort 1). We determined molecular subtype and transcriptomic grade for all tumor pieces and analysed to what extent pieces originating from the same tumors are concordant or discordant with each other. Additionally, we validated our finding in an independent cohort consisting of 19 pieces (2-6 pieces per tumor) from 6 breast tumors (Cohort 2) profiled using microarray technique. Exome sequencing was also performed on this cohort, to investigate the extent of intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity versus the intra-tumor molecular subtype classifications. Molecular subtyping was consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors and transcriptomic grade assignments were consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors as well. Molecular subtype predictions revealed consistent subtypes in four out of six patients in this cohort 2. Interestingly, we observed extensive intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity in these tumor pieces but not in their molecular subtype classifications. Our results suggest that macroscopic intra-tumoral transcriptomic heterogeneity is limited and unlikely to have an impact on molecular diagnostics for most patients.

  18. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  20. Trace lead analysis based on carbon-screen-printed-electrodes modified via 4-carboxy-phenyl diazonium salt electroreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouden, Sarra; Chausse, Annie; Dorbes, Stephane; El Tall, Omar; Bellakhal, Nizar; Dachraoui, Mohamed; Vautrin-Ul, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of 4-carboxyphenyl-grafted screen-printed carbon electrodes (4-CP-SPEs) for trace lead analysis.These novel and simple use of electrodes were easily prepared by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. Pb detection was then performed by a three-steps method in order to avoid oxygen interference:(i)immersion of the grafted screen-printed electrode (SPE) in the sample and adsorption of Pb(II), (ii)reduction of adsorbed Pb(II) by chrono-amperometry (CA), and (iii) oxidation of Pb by Anodic Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV).The re-oxidation response was exploited for lead detection and quantification. In order to optimize the analytical responses, the influence of the adsorption medium pH and the adsorption time were investigated. Moreover, an interference study was carried out with Cu(II), Hg(II), Al(III), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and no major interference can be expected to quantify Pb(II). The described method provided a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.2*10 9 M and 4.1*10 9 M, respectively. These performances indicate that the 4-CP-SPE could be considered as an efficient tool for environmental analysis. (authors)

  1. Tracing crystal-field splittings in the rare-earth-based intermetallic CeIrIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. Y.; Wen, C. H. P.; Yao, Q.; Huang, K.; Ding, Z. F.; Shu, L.; Niu, X. H.; Zhang, Y.; Lai, X. C.; Huang, Y. B.; Zhang, G. B.; Kirchner, S.; Feng, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Crystal electric field states in rare earth intermetallics show an intricate entanglement with the many-body physics that occurs in these systems and that is known to lead to a plethora of electronic phases. Here we attempt to trace different contributions to the crystal electric field (CEF) splittings in CeIrIn5, a heavy-fermion compound and member of the Ce M In5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family. To this end, we utilize high-resolution resonant angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and present a spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of this unconventional superconductor over a wide temperature range. As a result, we show how ARPES can be used in combination with thermodynamic measurements or neutron scattering to disentangle different contributions to the CEF splitting in rare earth intermetallics. We also find that the hybridization is stronger in CeIrIn5 than CeCoIn5 and the effects of the hybridization on the Fermi volume increase is much smaller than predicted. By providing experimental evidence for 4 f7/2 1 splittings which, in CeIrIn5, split the octet into four doublets, we clearly demonstrate the many-body origin of the so-called 4 f7/2 1 state.

  2. Determination of trace mercury in water based on N-octylpyridinium ionic liquids preconcentration and stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhan; Xia, Shanhong; Wang, Jinfen; Bian, Chao; Tong, Jianhua

    2016-01-15

    A novel method for determination of trace mercury in water is developed. The method is performed by extracting mercury firstly with ionic liquids (ILs) and then detecting the concentration of mercury in organic media with anodic stripping voltammetry. Liquid-liquid extraction of mercury(II) ions by four ionic liquids with N-octylpyridinium cations ([OPy](+)) was studied. N-octylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate and N-octylpyridinium trifluoromethylsulfonate were found to be efficient and selective extractant for mercury. Temperature controlled dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TC-DLPME) technique was utilized to improve the performance of preconcentration. After extraction, precipitated IL was diluted by acetonitrile buffer and mercury was detected by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) with gold disc electrode. Mercury was enriched by 17 times while interfering ions were reduced by two orders of magnitude in the organic media under optimum condition. Sensitivity and selectivity for electrochemical determination of mercury were improved by using the proposed method. Tap, pond and waste water samples were analyzed with recoveries ranging from 81% to 107% and detection limit of 0.05 μg/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Columbia River basalt flows from deep cores in the Pasco Basin based on trace element abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Rancitelli, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of basalt from three deep core holes drilled in the Pasco Basin, Washington (DDH-3, DH-4, DH-5) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) for up to fifteen trace and major elements. These analyses were used to assign each basalt flow to one of a series of previously defined chemical types of the Columbia River Basalt Group. All of the flows except the two flows at the bottom of well DDH-3 were clearly assignable to one of the defined chemical types. These two flows apparently represent new, as yet undefined chemical types. Average values and standard deviations for compositions of each of the chemical types found in the three wells are presented along with two-element variation diagrams for the geochemically important pair La-Cr, La-Fe, La-Th and La-Sc. The assignment of the flows to known chemical types accomplished in this study was very helpful in relating the basalts in the core holes to stratigraphically defined basalt flows in surface sections. A correlation diagram relating the flows in the core holes to one another on the basis of chemical type is presented

  4. A molecularly imprinted electrochemiluminescence sensor based on the mimetic enzyme catalytic effect for ultra-trace Ni2+ determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Lianming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-21

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) electrochemiluminescence (MIP-ECL) sensor was developed for the highly sensitive and selective determination of ultra-trace levels of Ni 2+ . The complex Ni 2+ -dimethylglyoxime (Ni-DMG) was chosen as the template molecule to construct the MIP and then acted as a mimetic enzyme to catalyse the oxidisation of luminol to enhance the ECL signal. When the imprinted cavities were occupied by Ni-DMG in the rebinding process, the ECL intensities produced by the luminol-H 2 O 2 ECL system on the MIP-modified electrode surface increased with increased concentration of the Ni-DMG complex. The highly sensitive determination of Ni 2+ was achieved through a catalytic reaction. This technique could be used for the quantitative analysis of Ni 2+ with concentrations from 3.0 × 10 -12 mol L -1 to 6.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1 . The detection limit was 1.01 × 10 -12 mol L -1 , which is much lower than that reported previously. In addition, the allowable amounts of interference ions in the MIP-ECL sensor were higher than that in other common molecularly imprinted sensors because of its excellent recognition of 3D cavity-to-complex molecules and ligand-to-metal ions. This method was successfully used to determine Ni 2+ in real samples, such as apples, carrots and grapes, and has been proven feasible for practical applications.

  5. Comparative study on serum levels of macro and trace elements in schizophrenia based on supervised learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-09-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) remain obscure. This study explored the associations between SCZ risk and serum levels of 39 macro and trace elements (MTE). A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted among 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls matched by age, sex and region. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of 39 MTE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Both supervised learning methods and classical statistical testing were used to uncover the difference of MTE levels between cases and controls. The best prediction accuracies were 99.21% achieved by support vector machines in the original feature space (without dimensionality reduction), and 98.82% achieved by Naive Bayes with dimensionality reduction. More than half of MTE were found to be significantly different between SCZ patients and the controls. The presented investigation showed that there existed remarkable differences in concentrations of MTE between SCZ patients and healthy controls. The results of this study might be useful to diagnosis and prognosis of SCZ; they also indicated other promising applications in pharmacy and nutrition. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size and the lack of potential confounding factors, such as alcohol, smoking, body mass index (BMI), use of antipsychotics and dietary intakes. In the future the application of the analyses will be useful in designs that have larger sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of inhalation flow profile using audio-based methods to assess inhaler medication adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle Muls, Helena; Costello, Richard W.; Reilly, Richard B.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are required to inhale forcefully and deeply to receive medication when using a dry powder inhaler (DPI). There is a clinical need to objectively monitor the inhalation flow profile of DPIs in order to remotely monitor patient inhalation technique. Audio-based methods have been previously employed to accurately estimate flow parameters such as the peak inspiratory flow rate of inhalations, however, these methods required multiple calibration inhalation audio recordings. In this study, an audio-based method is presented that accurately estimates inhalation flow profile using only one calibration inhalation audio recording. Twenty healthy participants were asked to perform 15 inhalations through a placebo Ellipta™ DPI at a range of inspiratory flow rates. Inhalation flow signals were recorded using a pneumotachograph spirometer while inhalation audio signals were recorded simultaneously using the Inhaler Compliance Assessment device attached to the inhaler. The acoustic (amplitude) envelope was estimated from each inhalation audio signal. Using only one recording, linear and power law regression models were employed to determine which model best described the relationship between the inhalation acoustic envelope and flow signal. Each model was then employed to estimate the flow signals of the remaining 14 inhalation audio recordings. This process repeated until each of the 15 recordings were employed to calibrate single models while testing on the remaining 14 recordings. It was observed that power law models generated the highest average flow estimation accuracy across all participants (90.89±0.9% for power law models and 76.63±2.38% for linear models). The method also generated sufficient accuracy in estimating inhalation parameters such as peak inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory capacity within the presence of noise. Estimating inhaler inhalation flow profiles using audio based methods may be

  7. Determination of trace heavy metals in soil and sediments by atomic spectrometry following preconcentration with Schiff bases on Amberlite XAD-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Derya, E-mail: dkara@balikesir.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve J. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    A matrix separation and analyte preconcentration system using Amberlite XAD copolymer resins functionalized by Schiff base reactions coupled with atomic spectrometry has been developed. Three different functionalized Amberlite XAD resins were synthesized using 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde as reagents. These resins could be used to preconcentrate transition and other trace heavy metal analytes from nitric acid digests of soil and sediment samples. Analyte retention was shown to work well at pH 6.0. After treatment of the digests with sodium fluoride and buffering to pH 6, samples that contain extremely large concentrations of iron were analysed for trace analytes without the excess iron overloading the capacity of the resin. The analytes Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb were preconcentrated from acid extracts of certified soil/sediment samples and then eluted with 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} directly to the detection system. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a means of detection during the studies. The efficiency of the chelating resin and the accuracy of the proposed method were evaluated by the analysis of soil (SO-2) and sediment (LGC 6157 and MESS-3) certified reference materials.

  8. Assessing flow paths in a karst aquifer based on multiple dye tracing tests using stochastic simulation and the MODFLOW-CFP code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Amin; Mohammadi, Zargham

    2017-09-01

    Karst systems show high spatial variability of hydraulic parameters over small distances and this makes their modeling a difficult task with several uncertainties. Interconnections of fractures have a major role on the transport of groundwater, but many of the stochastic methods in use do not have the capability to reproduce these complex structures. A methodology is presented for the quantification of tortuosity using the single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) algorithm and a groundwater flow model. A training image was produced based on the statistical parameters of fractures and then used in the simulation process. The SNESIM algorithm was used to generate 75 realizations of the four classes of fractures in a karst aquifer in Iran. The results from six dye tracing tests were used to assign hydraulic conductivity values to each class of fractures. In the next step, the MODFLOW-CFP and MODPATH codes were consecutively implemented to compute the groundwater flow paths. The 9,000 flow paths obtained from the MODPATH code were further analyzed to calculate the tortuosity factor. Finally, the hydraulic conductivity values calculated from the dye tracing experiments were refined using the actual flow paths of groundwater. The key outcomes of this research are: (1) a methodology for the quantification of tortuosity; (2) hydraulic conductivities, that are incorrectly estimated (biased low) with empirical equations that assume Darcian (laminar) flow with parallel rather than tortuous streamlines; and (3) an understanding of the scale-dependence and non-normal distributions of tortuosity.

  9. Improving Feature Representation Based on a Neural Network for Author Profiling in Social Media Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Adorno, Helena; Markov, Ilia; Sidorov, Grigori; Posadas-Durán, Juan-Pablo; Sanchez-Perez, Miguel A; Chanona-Hernandez, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a lexical resource for preprocessing social media data. We show that a neural network-based feature representation is enhanced by using this resource. We conducted experiments on the PAN 2015 and PAN 2016 author profiling corpora and obtained better results when performing the data preprocessing using the developed lexical resource. The resource includes dictionaries of slang words, contractions, abbreviations, and emoticons commonly used in social media. Each of the dictionaries was built for the English, Spanish, Dutch, and Italian languages. The resource is freely available.

  10. Sub-bottom profiling for large-scale maritime archaeological survey An experience-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    and wrecks partially or wholly embedded in the sea-floor sediments demands the application of highresolution sub-bottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for the cost-effective large-scale mapping of unknown sedimentembedded sites such as submerged Stone Age settlements or wrecks, based on sub...... of the submerged cultural heritage. Elements such as archaeological wreck sites exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multi-beam techniques. These can also provide information on bathymetric patterns representing potential Stone Age settlements, whereas the detection of such archaeological sites...

  11. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  12. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  13. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free

  14. Polynomial Chaos–Based Bayesian Inference of K-Profile Parameterization in a General Circulation Model of the Tropical Pacific

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab; Zedler, Sarah E.; Knio, Omar; Jackson, Charles S.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a polynomial chaos (PC)-based Bayesian inference method for quantifying the uncertainties of the K-profile parameterization (KPP) within the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) of the tropical Pacific. The inference

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Gilboa, Asaf; Addis, Donna Rose; Westmacott, Robyn; Grady, Cheryl; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Levine, Brian; Black, Sandra; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2005-07-01

    We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and retrieval of detailed, vivid autobiographical memories depend on the hippocampal system no matter how long ago they were acquired. Semantic memories, on the other hand, benefit from hippocampal contribution for some time before they can be retrieved independently of the hippocampus. Even semantic memories, however, can have episodic elements associated with them that continue to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, we distinguish between experientially detailed spatial memories (akin to episodic memory) and more schematic memories (akin to semantic memory) that are sufficient for navigation but not for re-experiencing the environment in which they were acquired. Like their episodic and semantic counterparts, the former type of spatial memory is dependent on the hippocampus no matter how long ago it was acquired, whereas the latter can survive independently of the hippocampus and is represented in extra-hippocampal structures. In short, the evidence reviewed suggests strongly that the function of the hippocampus (and possibly that of related limbic structures) is to help encode, retain, and retrieve experiences, no matter how long ago the events comprising the experience occurred, and no matter whether the memories are episodic or spatial. We conclude that the evidence favours a multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory over two other models: (1) traditional consolidation models which posit that the hippocampus is a time-limited memory structure for all forms of memory; and (2) versions of cognitive map theory which posit that the hippocampus is needed for representing all forms of allocentric space in memory.

  16. Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Gilboa, Asaf; Addis, Donna Rose; Westmacott, Robyn; Grady, Cheryl; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Levine, Brian; Black, Sandra; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and retrieval of detailed, vivid autobiographical memories depend on the hippocampal system no matter how long ago they were acquired. Semantic memories, on the other hand, benefit from hippocampal contribution for some time before they can be retrieved independently of the hippocampus. Even semantic memories, however, can have episodic elements associated with them that continue to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, we distinguish between experientially detailed spatial memories (akin to episodic memory) and more schematic memories (akin to semantic memory) that are sufficient for navigation but not for re-experiencing the environment in which they were acquired. Like their episodic and semantic counterparts, the former type of spatial memory is dependent on the hippocampus no matter how long ago it was acquired, whereas the latter can survive independently of the hippocampus and is represented in extra-hippocampal structures. In short, the evidence reviewed suggests strongly that the function of the hippocampus (and possibly that of related limbic structures) is to help encode, retain, and retrieve experiences, no matter how long ago the events comprising the experience occurred, and no matter whether the memories are episodic or spatial. We conclude that the evidence favours a multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory over two other models: (1) traditional consolidation models which posit that the hippocampus is a time-limited memory structure for all forms of memory; and (2) versions of cognitive map theory which posit that the hippocampus is needed for representing all forms of allocentric space in memory. PMID

  17. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsdal HT

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Henriette Thisted Horsdal,1,2 Michael Eriksen Benros,2,3 Ole Köhler-Forsberg,2–4 Jesper Krogh,3 Christiane Gasse1,2,5 1National Centre for Register-based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 4Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Centre for Integrated Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician’s monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark Region. Information on metabolic parameters was obtained from a clinical laboratory information system. Associations were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: A total of 2,452 people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4% were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present an abnormal lipid measure (65.7% vs 46.8%, P<0.001 and abnormal glucose profile (16.4% vs 10.1%, P=0.01. Conclusion: Metabolic abnormalities are common at first

  18. Flow-through solid-phase based optical sensor for the multisyringe flow injection trace determination of orthophosphate in waters with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Ines P.A.; Miro, Manuel; Manera, Matias; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerda, Victor; Souto, M. Renata S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a novel flow-through solid-phase based chemiluminescence (CL) optical sensor is described for the trace determination of orthophosphate in waters exploiting the multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) concept with multicommutation. The proposed time-based injection flow system relies upon the in-line derivatisation of the analyte with ammonium molybdate in the presence of vanadate, and the transient immobilisation of the resulting heteropolyacid in a N-vinylpyrrolidone/divinylbenzene copolymer packed spiral shape flow-through cell located in front of the window of a photomultiplier tube. The simultaneous injection of well-defined slugs of luminol in alkaline medium and methanol solution towards the packed reactor is afterwards performed by proper switching of the solenoid valves. Then, the light emission from the luminol oxidation by the oxidant species retained onto the sorbent material is readily detected. At the same time, the generated molybdenum-blue compound is eluted by the minute amount of injected methanol, rendering the system prepared for a new measuring cycle. Therefore, the devised sensor enables the integration of the solid-phase CL reaction with elution and detection of the emitted light without the typical drawbacks of the molybdenum-blue based spectrophotometric procedures regarding the excess of molybdate anion, which causes high background signals due to its self-reduction. The noteworthy features of the developed CL-MSFIA system are the feasibility to accommodate reactions with different pH requirements and the ability to determine trace levels of orthophosphate in high silicate content samples (Si/P ratios up to 500). Under the optimised conditions, a dynamic linear range from 5 to 50 μg P l -1 for a 1.8 ml sample, repeatability better than 3.0% and a quantification limit of 4 μg P l -1 were attained. The flowing stream system handles 11 analysis h -1 and has been successfully applied to the determination of trace levels of

  19. Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.

  20. Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert

    2018-04-12

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.

  1. Simultaneous genomic identification and profiling of a single cell using semiconductor-based next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining single-cell methods and next-generation sequencing should provide a powerful means to understand single-cell biology and obviate the effects of sample heterogeneity. Here we report a single-cell identification method and seamless cancer gene profiling using semiconductor-based massively parallel sequencing. A549 cells (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line were used as a model. Single-cell capture was performed using laser capture microdissection (LCM with an Arcturus® XT system, and a captured single cell and a bulk population of A549 cells (≈106 cells were subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA. For cell identification, a multiplex PCR method (AmpliSeq™ SNP HID panel was used to enrich 136 highly discriminatory SNPs with a genotype concordance probability of 1031–35. For cancer gene profiling, we used mutation profiling that was performed in parallel using a hotspot panel for 50 cancer-related genes. Sequencing was performed using a semiconductor-based bench top sequencer. The distribution of sequence reads for both HID and Cancer panel amplicons was consistent across these samples. For the bulk population of cells, the percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 99.04% for the HID panel and 98.83% for the Cancer panel, while for the single cell percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 55.93% for the HID panel and 65.96% for the Cancer panel. Partial amplification failure or randomly distributed non-amplified regions across samples from single cells during the WGA procedures or random allele drop out probably caused these differences. However, comparative analyses showed that this method successfully discriminated a single A549 cancer cell from a bulk population of A549 cells. Thus, our approach provides a powerful means to overcome tumor sample heterogeneity when searching for somatic mutations.

  2. Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Verdejo, María; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Orlandi, Emiliano; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity profiles is important for many applications, e.g., assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. Nowadays there are a wide variety of ground-based sensors for atmospheric humidity profiling. Unfortunately there is no single instrument able to provide a measurement with complete vertical coverage, high vertical and temporal resolution and good performance under all weather conditions, simultaneously. For example, Raman lidar (RL) measurements can provide water vapor with a high vertical resolution, albeit with limited vertical coverage, due to sunlight contamination and the presence of clouds. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) receive water vapor information throughout the troposphere, though their vertical resolution is poor. In this work, we present an MWR and RL system synergy, which aims to overcome the specific sensor limitations. The retrieval algorithm combining these two instruments is an optimal estimation method (OEM), which allows for an uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information, taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied to a 2-month field campaign around Jülich (Germany), focusing on clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyze the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity uncertainty is reduced above the last usable lidar range by a factor of ˜ 2 with respect to the case where only RL measurements are used. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom per signal reveal that most information is gained above the usable lidar range, especially important during daytime when the lidar vertical coverage is limited. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using

  3. Definition of a CDI metadata profile and its ISO 19139 based encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Schaap, Dick M. A.; Nativi, Stefano; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and query. The primary goal of the EU funded project SeaDataNet is to develop a system which provides transparent access to marine data sets and data products from 36 countries in and around Europe. The European context of SeaDataNet requires that the developed system complies with European Directive INSPIRE. In order to assure the required conformity a GI-cat based solution is proposed. GI-cat is a broker service able to mediate from different metadata sources and publish them through a consistent and unified interface. In this case GI-cat is used as a front end to the SeaDataNet portal publishing the original data, based on CDI v.1 XML schema, through an ISO 19139 application profile catalog interface (OGC CSW AP ISO). The choice of ISO 19139 is supported and driven by INSPIRE Implementing Rules, that have been used as a reference through the whole development process. A mapping from the CDI data model to the ISO 19139 was hence to be implemented in GI-cat and a first draft quickly developed, as both CDI v.1 and ISO 19139 happen to be XML implementations based on the same abstract data model (standard ISO 19115 - metadata about geographic information). This first draft mapping pointed out the CDI metadata model differences with respect to ISO 19115, as it was not possible to accommodate all the information contained in CDI v.1 into ISO 19139. Moreover some modifications were needed in order to reach INSPIRE compliance. The consequent work consisted in the definition of the CDI metadata model as a profile of ISO 19115. This included checking of all the metadata elements present in CDI and their cardinality. A comparison was made with respect to ISO 19115 and possible extensions were individuated. ISO 19139 was then chosen as a natural XML implementation of this new CDI metadata profile. The mapping and the profile definition processes were iteratively refined leading up to a

  4. Development and psychometric testing of a trans-professional evidence-based practice profile questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Maureen Patricia; Williams, Marie T; Olds, Timothy Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Previous survey tools operationalising knowledge, attitudes or beliefs about evidence-based practice (EBP) have shortcomings in content, psychometric properties and target audience. This study developed and psychometrically assessed a self-report trans-professional questionnaire to describe an EBP profile. Sixty-six items were collated from existing EBP questionnaires and administered to 526 academics and students from health and non-health backgrounds. Principal component factor analysis revealed the presence of five factors (Relevance, Terminology, Confidence, Practice and Sympathy). Following expert panel review and pilot testing, the 58-item final questionnaire was disseminated to 105 subjects on two occasions. Test-retest and internal reliability were quantified using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity against a commonly used EBP questionnaire by Pearson's correlation coefficient and discriminative validity via analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on exposure to EBP training. The final questionnaire demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.96), test-retest reliability (ICCs range 0.77-0.94) and convergent validity (Practice 0.66, Confidence 0.80 and Sympathy 0.54). Three factors (Relevance, Terminology and Confidence) distinguished EBP exposure groups (ANOVA p profile (EBP(2)) questionnaire is a reliable instrument with the ability to discriminate for three factors, between respondents with differing EBP exposures.

  5. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  6. Identification of Baltic Sea salmon based on PCB and dioxin profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren; Lund, Kirsten H.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht

    2016-01-01

    , important to be able to enforce correct labeling of geographical origin through authentication. One authentication strategy is to examine trace markers specific for a geographical origin. The chemical contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans...

  7. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence.

  8. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...... is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic...

  9. Cation Recognition: Novel Potentiometric PVC-Membrane Sensor based on Meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for the Determination of Trace Amounts of Titanium (III) Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeid Ahmadzadeh; Anuar Kassim Majid Rezayi

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with developing a novel high selective membrane electrode based on meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for accurate determination of trace amount of titanium (III) ions in real sample solutions. The amounts of ionophore (4 mg), PVC (33 mg), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer (62.8 mg) and sodium tetrakis [3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl] borate (NaTFPB) as an ionic additive (0.2 mg) were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 29.49±0.16 (mV per decade of activity) over the pH range from 1 to 3 with a satisfactory concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x x10 -2 M. The developed sensor exhibited good reproducibility over a period of about 3 months with a fast response time of 15 seconds. (author)

  10. Analytical method for the determination of trace levels of steroid hormones and corticosteroids in soil, based on PLE/SPE/LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineys, N; Giroud, B; Vulliet, E

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of traces of steroid hormones (including oestrogen, androgens and progestagens) and corticosteroids in soil. A method of sample preparation involving pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of six steroids and five corticosteroids in soils, followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The conditions employed for PLE involved acetone/methanol (50:50) as the extracting solvent, a temperature of 80 degrees C, two cycles and a static time of 5 min. The extraction was followed by a SPE clean-up based on a polymeric phase. With use of protocol, a residual matrix effect was, however, highlighted. The limit of detection in soil was 0.08-0.89 ng/g for steroids and 0.09-2.84 ng/g for corticosteroids.

  11. Testing fast photochemical theory during TRACE-P based on measurements of OH, HO2, and CH2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jennifer R.; Crawford, J. H.; Chen, G.; Fried, A.; Evans, M. J.; Jordan, C. E.; Sandholm, S. T.; Davis, D. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Avery, M. A.; Barrick, J. D.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Eisele, F. L.; Flocke, F.; Harder, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Kondo, Y.; Lefer, B. L.; Martinez, M.; Mauldin, R. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Shetter, R. E.; Singh, H. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Tan, D.

    2004-08-01

    Measurements of several short-lived photochemical species (e.g., OH, HO2, and CH2O) were obtained from the DC-8 and P3-B aircraft during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign. To assess fast photochemical theory over the east Asian coast and western Pacific, these measurements are compared to predictions using a photochemical time-dependent box model constrained by coincident measurements of long-lived tracers and physical parameters. Both OH and HO2 are generally overpredicted by the model throughout the troposphere, which is a different result from previous field campaigns. The calculated-to-observed ratio of OH shows an altitude trend, with OH overpredicted by 80% in the upper troposphere and by 40-60% in the middle troposphere. Boundary layer and lower tropospheric OH ratios decrease from middle tropospheric values to 1.07 for the DC-8 and to 0.70 for the P3-B. HO2 measured on the DC-8 is overpredicted by a median of 23% and shows no trend in the agreement with altitude. Three subsets of data which compose 12% of the HO2 measurements represent outliers with respect to calculated-to-observed ratios: stratospherically influenced air, upper tropospheric data with NO > 135 pptv, and data from within clouds. Pronounced underpredictions of both HO2 and OH were found for stratospherically influenced air, which is in contrast to previous studies showing good agreement of predicted and observed HOx in the stratosphere. Observational evidence of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 within low and middle tropospheric clouds is presented, though there is no indication of significant HO2 uptake within higher-altitude clouds. Model predictions of CH2O are in good agreement with observations in the median for background concentrations, but a large scatter exists. Factors contributing to this scatter are examined, including the limited availability of some important constraining measurements, particularly CH3OOH. Some high concentrations of CH2O

  12. Interpretation of pH-activity profiles for acid-base catalysis from molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Thakshila; Swails, Jason M; Harris, Michael E; Roitberg, Adrian E; York, Darrin M

    2015-02-17

    The measurement of reaction rate as a function of pH provides essential information about mechanism. These rates are sensitive to the pK(a) values of amino acids directly involved in catalysis that are often shifted by the enzyme active site environment. Experimentally observed pH-rate profiles are usually interpreted using simple kinetic models that allow estimation of "apparent pK(a)" values of presumed general acid and base catalysts. One of the underlying assumptions in these models is that the protonation states are uncorrelated. In this work, we introduce the use of constant pH molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent (CpHMD) with replica exchange in the pH-dimension (pH-REMD) as a tool to aid in the interpretation of pH-activity data of enzymes and to test the validity of different kinetic models. We apply the methods to RNase A, a prototype acid-base catalyst, to predict the macroscopic and microscopic pK(a) values, as well as the shape of the pH-rate profile. Results for apo and cCMP-bound RNase A agree well with available experimental data and suggest that deprotonation of the general acid and protonation of the general base are not strongly coupled in transphosphorylation and hydrolysis steps. Stronger coupling, however, is predicted for the Lys41 and His119 protonation states in apo RNase A, leading to the requirement for a microscopic kinetic model. This type of analysis may be important for other catalytic systems where the active forms of the implicated general acid and base are oppositely charged and more highly correlated. These results suggest a new way for CpHMD/pH-REMD simulations to bridge the gap with experiments to provide a molecular-level interpretation of pH-activity data in studies of enzyme mechanisms.

  13. Simultaneous and synergistic profiling of cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Stephanie P.; Donovan, David P.; Russchenberg, Herman W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of radar reflectivity (Z) measurements in the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties, it remains nontrivial to interpret Z due to the possible presence of drizzle droplets within the clouds. So far, there has been no published work that utilizes Z to identify the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically consistent manner. In this work, we develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to carry out this task and to subsequently profile the microphysical properties of the cloud and drizzle in a unified framework. This is accomplished by using ground-based measurements of Z, lidar attenuated backscatter below as well as above the cloud base, and microwave brightness temperatures. Fast physical forward models coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parameterization are used in an optimal-estimation-type framework in order to retrieve the best estimate for the cloud and drizzle property profiles. The cloud retrieval is first evaluated using synthetic signals generated from large-eddy simulation (LES) output to verify the forward models used in the retrieval procedure and the vertical parameterization of the liquid water content (LWC). From this exercise it is found that, on average, the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5 % of the mean truth. The full cloud-drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) campaign dataset collected in Cabauw, the Netherlands. An assessment of the retrieval products is performed using three independent methods from the literature; each was specifically developed to retrieve only the cloud properties, the drizzle properties below the cloud base, or the drizzle fraction within the cloud. One-to-one comparisons, taking into account the uncertainties or limitations of each retrieval, show that our results are consistent with what is derived

  14. pH-sensitive nanocarrier based on gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon manotubes for tracing drug release in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Yizhi; Wu, Lei; Cui, Yiping

    2016-01-15

    We fabricate a multifunctional nanocarrier based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for tracking the intracellular drug release process. In the demonstrated nanocarrier, the Au@Ag NPs adsorbed on the surface of MWCNTs were labeled with the pH-dependent SERS reporter 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) for SERS based pH sensing. FITC was conjugated on MWCNTs to provide fluorescence signal for tracing the MWCNTs. Fluorescent doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the model drug which can be loaded onto MWCNTs via π-π stacking and released from the MWCNTs under acidic condition. By detecting the SERS spectrum of 4MBA, the pH value around the nanocarrier could be monitored. Besides, by tracing the fluorescence of FITC and DOX, we can also investigate the drug release process in cells. Experimental results show that the proposed nanocarrier retained a well pH-sensitive performance in living cells, and the DOX detached from MWCNTs inside the lysosomes and entered into the cytoplasm with the MWCNTs being left in lysosomes. To further investigate the drug release dynamics, 2-D color-gradient pH mapping were plotted, which were calculated from the SERS spectra of 4MBA. The detailed release process and carrier distribution have been recorded as environmental pH changes during cell endocytosis. Furthermore, we also confirmed that the proposed nanocarrier has a good biocompatibility. It indicates that the designed nanocarrier have a great potential in intraceable drug delivery, cancer cells imaging and pH monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, S.; Weckwerth, T.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carbone, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating the performance of an eye-safe, low-cost, diode-laser-based, water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler. This class of instrument may be capable of providing continuous water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles at high vertical resolution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for periods of months to years. The technology potentially fills a national long term observing facility gap and could greatly benefit micro- and meso-meteorology, water cycle, carbon cycle and, more generally, biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interaction research at both weather and climate variability time scales. For the evaluation, the Montana State University 3rd generation water vapor DIAL was modified to enable unattended operation for a period of several weeks. The performance of this V3.5 version DIAL was tested at MSU and NCAR in June and July of 2012. Further tests are currently in progress with Howard University at Beltsville, Maryland; and with the National Weather Service and Oklahoma University at Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The presentation will include a comparison of DIAL profiles against meteorological "truth" at the aforementioned locations including: radiosondes, Raman lidars, microwave and IR radiometers, AERONET and SUOMINET systems. Instrument reliability, uncertainty, systematic biases, detection height statistics, and environmental complications will be evaluated. Performance will be judged in the context of diverse scientific applications that range from operational weather prediction and seasonal climate variability, to more demanding climate system process studies at the land-canopy-ABL interface. Estimating the extent to which such research and operational applications can be satisfied with a low cost autonomous network of similar instruments is our principal objective.

  16. Prognostic Impact of Array-based Genomic Profiles in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Jönsson, Göran; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Falkenback, Dan; Halvarsson, Britta; Nilbert, Mef

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to obtain a whole genome copy number profile relevant for identifying deranged pathways and clinically applicable markers. A 32 k aCGH platform was used for high resolution mapping of copy number changes in 30 stage I-IV ESCC. Potential interdependent alterations and deranged pathways were identified and copy number changes were correlated to stage, differentiation and survival. Copy number alterations affected median 19% of the genome and included recurrent gains of chromosome regions 5p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 10q, 11q, 12p, 14q, 16p, 17p, 19p, 19q, and 20q and losses of 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p and 11q. High-level amplifications were observed in 30 regions and recurrently involved 7p11 (EGFR), 11q13 (MYEOV, CCND1, FGF4, FGF3, PPFIA, FAD, TMEM16A, CTTS and SHANK2) and 11q22 (PDFG). Gain of 7p22.3 predicted nodal metastases and gains of 1p36.32 and 19p13.3 independently predicted poor survival in multivariate analysis. aCGH profiling verified genetic complexity in ESCC and herein identified imbalances of multiple central tumorigenic pathways. Distinct gains correlate with clinicopathological variables and independently predict survival, suggesting clinical applicability of genomic profiling in ESCC

  17. ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling of human rectal cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis. Methods Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n = 127) and normal controls (n = 43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer. Results Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I = 35; stage II = 37; stage III = 37 and stage IV = 18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would

  18. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  19. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  20. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  1. First retrievals of MLT sodium profiles based on satellite sodium nightglow observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Savigny, Christian; Zilker, Bianca; Langowski, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The Na D lines are a well known feature of the terrestrial airglow and have been identified for the first time in 1929. During the daytime the Na airglow emission is caused by resonance fluorescence, while during the night the excitation occurs by chemiluminescent reactions. Knowledge of Na in the mesopause region is of interest, because the Na layer is thought to be maintained by meteoric ablation and Na measurements allow constraining the meteoric mass influx into the Earth system. In this contribution we employ SCIAMACHY/Envisat nighttime limb measurements of the Na D-line airglow from fall 2002 to spring 2012 - in combination with photochemical models - in order to retrieve Na concentration profiles in the 75 - 100 km altitude range. The Na profiles show realistic peak altitudes, number densities and seasonal variations. The retrieval scheme, sample results and comparisons to ground-based LIDAR measurements of Na as well as SCIAMACHY daytime retrievals will be presented. Moreover, uncertainties in the assumed photochemical scheme and their impact on the Na retrievals will be discussed.

  2. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  3. Identification of circulating miRNA biomarkers based on global quantitative real-time PCR profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Kang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs (18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of miRNAs in the blood circulation. Deregulation of miRNAs in serum or plasma has been associated with many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the possible use of miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers. However, the detection of the small amount of miRNAs found in serum or plasma requires a method with high sensitivity and accuracy. Therefore, the current study describes polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for measuring circulating miRNAs. Briefly, the procedure involves four major steps: (1 sample collection and preparation; (2 global miRNAs profiling using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR; (3 data normalization and analysis; and (4 selection and validation of miRNA biomarkers. In conclusion, qRT-PCR is a promising method for profiling of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers.

  4. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O' Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  5. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernandez-Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG, clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep and objective “short” sleep duration as a PSG total sleep time ≤7 h. A significant interaction showed that objective short sleep duration modified the association of insomnia symptoms with internalizing problems. Consistently, adolescents with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration were characterized by depression, rumination, mood dysregulation and social isolation, while adolescents with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were characterized by rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors and, to a lesser extent, rumination. These findings indicate that objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles among adolescents with insomnia symptoms. The insomnia with objective short sleep duration phenotype is associated with an increased risk of depression earlier in the lifespan than previously believed.

  6. The Study of a Beam Profile Monitor based on Faraday Cup Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. M.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal can then be discharged to measure a small current equivalent to the number of impinging ions. The beam current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup. Recently, beam profile monitor (BPM) based on Faraday cup array (FCA), which represented beam position through the spatial and temporal distribution of the beam current, has been studied due to advantages of measure of wide-range ion beam current. FCA system is divided into a FC, an electrical circuit and display parts. We have studied FCA to monitor beam profile on an electrostatic accelerator with wide-range ion current. In this paper, we represented basic characteristics and designs for the fabricated FCA. FCA system, which consisted of FC system, electronic readout system, and output display, was suggested to measure ion beam current, efficiently. FC system consisted of a collimator, suppressor, tiny FC, insulator frame, and circuit board divided into elec PCB, cap PCB, and con PCB. FC size was 4 mm diameters and FCA system was considered as 8 x 8 array and whole size of 8 x 8 mm''2. FCA system was set-up in vacuum chamber and an integrator and output display parts were formed out of chamber to minimize number of feed-through.

  7. Students' profile as autonomous learners in an Internet-based EAP course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Soler Cervera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out to what extent university students are able to develop learner autonomy through an EAP course delivered through the Internet. The course, oriented to the use of Internet resources for language learning, was designed specifically to foster learner autonomy. Based on a previous exploratory study (Arnó et al. 2003, this research seeks to refine the profile of the autonomous learner initially developed and to discover which specific actions and attitudes related to learner autonomy are found in students’ behaviour. Thus, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we carried out an analysis of the autonomous behaviour displayed by students when using different Internet resources through activities designed to foster learner autonomy. This study has allowed us to outline the profile of autonomous learners in a virtual classroom, with students who are able to take the initiative and make decisions on the organization and management of their learning process. Focusing on the connection between making the most of the Internet and developing students’ autonomy, our ultimate aim is to point to ways in which students may be encouraged to become more autonomous and explore the role that the Internet may play in helping us attain this objective.

  8. [Nutritional status in children with intellectual disabilities based on anthropometric profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Vidal-Espinoza, Rubén; Lagos-Luciano, Juan; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropometric variables such as weight, height and body length in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities should be studied in connection with nutritional status, physical growth and biological maturation. a) to analyze the anthropometric profile based on nutritional status, b) to determine the prevalence of overweight and short stature c) to propose equations for predicting height from anthropometric variables. A total of 49 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and from a special education school were studied (30 boys and 19 girls). Weight, height, trunk-cephalic height, forearm and foot length were evaluated. The calculation of nutritional status resulted in the establishment of nutritional categories: underweight, normal and overweight. The anthropometric profile of males varies significantly when classified according to nutritional categories (P.05). Also, high values of overweight prevalence were observed in both genders (43% of boys and 26% of girls). Variables such as age, weight, length of the forearm in females, and foot length in males are good predictors of height (R(2) = 91-94% males and R(2) = 87% females). A high percentage of overweight cases were observed; therefore, rigorous control and monitoring of nutritional status are suggested. The proposed regression equations could be an option in schools to easily and simply predict height. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  11. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanafy M; O'Neill, Paul M; Hong, David W; Finn, Robert D; Henderson, Colin J; Wright, Aaron T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I

    2013-12-03

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or "pyrethrome." Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control.

  12. Coniacian sandstones from the North Sudetic Synclinorium revisited: palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical reconstructions based on trace fossil analysis and associated body fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrząstek, Alina; Wypych, Monika

    2018-03-01

    The Coniacian quartz sandstones (Żerkowice Member, Rakowice Wielkie Formation) that crop out at quarries near Czaple-Nowa Wieś Grodziska (North Sudetic Synclinorium) contain a low-diversity assemblage of trace fossils: Gyrochorte isp., Ophiomorpha nodosa (Lundgren, 1891), Ophiomorpha isp., Phycodes cf. curvipalmatum (Pollard, 1981), ?Phycodes isp., Planolites cf. beverleyensis (Billings, 1862), Thalassinoides paradoxicus (Woodward, 1830) and ?Thalassinoides isp. Moreover, interesting compound burrow systems, here referred to as Thalassinoides-Phycodes cf. palmatus and ?Thalassinoides-Phycodes, were recognised at the Czaple Quarry. Additionally, ?Gyrochorte isp., Phycodes cf. flabellum (Miller and Dyer, 1878) and ?Treptichnus isp. were encountered at correlative levels in the Rakowice Małe Quarry. Some of these ichnotaxa have not been recorded previously from Coniacian sandstones of the Żerkowice Member. Additionally, in slabs of these sandstones, the gastropod Nerinea bicincta (Bronn, 1836) and the bivalve Lima haidingeri (Zittel, 1866) were found. These interesting finds, in particular the gastropods, were already noted from the study area in the first half of the twentieth century by (Scupin (1912-1913)). Ethologically, the trace fossil assemblage is represented by domichnia or domichnia/fodinichnia (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides), fodinichnia (Phycodes) and pascichnia (Gyrochorte, Planolites). The compound burrow systems (Thalassinoides-Phycodes) are interpreted as dwelling/feeding structures. The possible tracemakers are crustaceans (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides) or worm-like animals (annelids and other) (Planolites, ?Phycodes, Gyrochorte and ?Treptichnus). The assemblage of trace fossils is characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies and Cruziana ichnofacies, typical of shallow-marine settings. Ichnological studies, as well as the presence of accompanying fossils (bivalves, gastropods), confirm the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Żerkowice Member

  13. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Karto

    2014-03-01

    Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  14. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Karto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  15. The Assessment of the Character Profile of Wood-based House Users in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Lenoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2012–2014 the authors carried out an extensive marketing research among users of wood-based buildings in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey had 1,000 respondents – Czech households using a wood-based house. The survey was conducted separately in each region of the Czech Republic (40–100 questionnaires per region. The results were evaluated separately for each region and for the Czech Republic as a whole. Questionnaires consisted of four thematic groups of questions. This paper deals with processing and evaluation of results of the first group of questions. This group addresses characteristics of people using wood-based family houses. The results are evaluated for individual regions and for the whole Czech Republic. The evaluation covers seven characteristics of adults using the surveyed buildings: age of users, type of the buildings’ ownership, educational attainment, sector of employment, profession, type of previous housing, and the size of municipality of the previous housing. The aim of the paper is to create profile of a “common user” of wood-based buildings. The results of the marketing research can be used to enhance competitiveness of companies in the woodworking and construction sector.

  16. FEM BASED PARAMETRIC DESIGN STUDY OF TIRE PROFILE USING DEDICATED CAD MODEL AND TRANSLATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a finite element method (FEM based parametric design study of the tire profile shape and belt width is presented. One of the main obstacles that similar studies have faced is how to change the finite element mesh after a modification of the tire geometry is performed. In order to overcome this problem, a new approach is proposed. It implies automatic update of the finite elements mesh, which follows the change of geometric design parameters on a dedicated CAD model. The mesh update is facilitated by an originally developed mapping and translation code. In this way, the performance of a large number of geometrically different tire design variations may be analyzed in a very short time. Although a pilot one, the presented study has also led to the improvement of the existing tire design.

  17. Project FIND: a profile of a community-based senior services agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Andrée

    2007-01-01

    Project FIND has been providing innovative supportive housing, nutrition, and social support to homeless and low- and moderate-income seniors on New York City's West Side since 1967. This article profiles this nonprofit, community-based agency, which was established to meet the needs of the frail and isolated elderly, and has continued to grow and evolve in response to changing demographics, neighborhood gentrification, and needs of both the homeless as well as the active "younger old." The article describes creative programming that has distinguished Project FIND's response to seniors' needs beyond basic housing and nutrition. It also explores what it takes to successfully provide senior services using limited resources and examines challenges for the future both nationally and for the agency.

  18. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Algorithm Validation of the Current Profile Reconstruction of EAST Based on Polarimeter/Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jinping; Ren Qilong; Wan Baonian; Liu Haiqin; Zeng Long; Luo Zhengping; Chen Dalong; Shi Tonghui; Sun Youwen; Shen Biao; Xiao Bingjia; Lao, L. L.; Hanada, K.

    2015-01-01

    The method of plasma current profile reconstruction using the polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) data from a simulated equilibrium is explored and validated. It is shown that the safety factor (q) profile can be generally reconstructed from the external magnetic and POINT data. The reconstructed q profile is found to reasonably agree with the initial equilibriums. Comparisons of reconstructed q and density profiles using the magnetic data and the POINT data with 3%, 5% and 10% random errors are investigated. The result shows that the POINT data could be used to a reasonably accurate determination of the q profile. (fusion engineering)

  20. Definition of new trace-metal proxies for the controls on organic matter enrichment in marine sediments based on Mn, Co, Mo and Cd concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweere, T.; Van den Boorn, S.; Dickson, A.J.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace metal enrichments in sedimentary deposits are of prime interest because they are governed by processes that also control the production and preservation of organic matter. Consequently, trace metals have been used in reconstructions of the (palaeo)depositional environment of organic-rich

  1. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  2. GNSS troposphere tomography based on two-step reconstructions using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, balloon-based radiosonde soundings are used to study the spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapour. However, this approach cannot be frequently employed due to its high cost. In contrast, GPS tomography technique can obtain water vapour in a high temporal resolution. In the tomography technique, an iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is usually utilised to overcome rank deficiency of observation equations for water vapour inversion. However, the single iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm has their limitations. For instance, the iterative reconstruction algorithm requires accurate initial values of water vapour while the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm needs proper constraint conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, we present a combined iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approach for the three-dimensional (3-D water vapour inversion using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles. In this approach, the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is first used to estimate water vapour density based on a priori water vapour information derived from COSMIC radio occultation data. The estimates are then employed as initial values in the iterative reconstruction algorithm. The largest advantage of this approach is that precise initial values of water vapour density that are essential in the iterative reconstruction algorithm can be obtained. This combined reconstruction algorithm (CRA is evaluated using 10-day GPS observations in Hong Kong and COSMIC profiles. The test results indicate that the water vapor accuracy from CRA is 16 and 14% higher than that of iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approaches, respectively. In addition, the tomography results obtained from the CRA are further validated using radiosonde data. Results indicate that water vapour densities derived from the CRA agree with radiosonde results very well at altitudes above 2.5 km. The average RMS value of their

  3. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Deep-depletion physics-based analytical model for scanning capacitance microscopy carrier profile extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K. M.; Chim, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    An approach for fast and accurate carrier profiling using deep-depletion analytical modeling of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) measurements is shown for an ultrashallow p-n junction with a junction depth of less than 30 nm and a profile steepness of about 3 nm per decade change in carrier concentration. In addition, the analytical model is also used to extract the SCM dopant profiles of three other p-n junction samples with different junction depths and profile steepnesses. The deep-depletion effect arises from rapid changes in the bias applied between the sample and probe tip during SCM measurements. The extracted carrier profile from the model agrees reasonably well with the more accurate carrier profile from inverse modeling and the dopant profile from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements

  5. Improved recovery of trace amounts of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) from large amounts of associated base metals using anion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, I. [Lab. of Chemistry, Tokyo Women' s Medical Univ. (Japan); Takeda, Y.; Ishida, K. [Lab. of Chemistry, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) were surveyed in column chromatographic systems consisting of one of the conventional anion-exchange resins of large ion-exchange capacity and dilute thiourea solutions. The noble metals were strongly adsorbed on the anion-exchange resins from dilute hydrochloric acid, while most base metals did not show any marked adsorbability. These facts made it possible to separate the noble metals from a large quantity of base metals such as Ag (I), Al (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Fe (III), Mn (II), Ni (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II). Although it used to be very difficult to desorb the noble metals from the resins used, the difficulty was easily overcome by use of dilute thiourea solutions as an eluant. In the present study, as little as 1.00 {mu}g of the respective noble metals was quantitatively separated and recovered from as much as ca. 10 mg of a number of metals on a small column by elution with a small amount of dilute thiourea solution. The present systems should be applicable to the separation, concentration and recovery of traces of the noble metals from a number of base metals coexisting in a more extended range of amounts and ratios. (orig.)

  6. Graphene-based solid-phase extraction disk for fast separation and preconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zonghua; Han, Qiang; Xia, Jianfei; Xia, Linhua; Ding, Mingyu; Tang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Graphene has great potentials for the use in sample preparation due to its ultra high specific surface area, superior chemical stability, and excellent thermal stability. In our work, a novel graphene-based SPE disk was developed for separation and preconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples. Based on the strong π-π stacking interaction between the analytes and graphene, the analytes extracted by graphene were eluted by cyclohexane and then determined by GC-MS. Under the optimized conditions, high flow rate (30 mL/min) and sensitivity (0.84-13 ng/L) were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of real environmental water samples with recoveries ranging from 72.8 to 106.2%. Furthermore, the property of anticlogging and reusability was also improved. This work reveals great potentials of graphene-based SPE disk in environmental analytical. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of the performance and limitations of empirical partition-relations and process based multisurface models to predict trace element solubility in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Bonten, L.T.C. [Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, J.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); De Vries, W. [Department of Environmental Systems Analysis, Wageningen University, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Here we evaluate the performance and limitations of two frequently used model-types to predict trace element solubility in soils: regression based 'partition-relations' and thermodynamically based 'multisurface models', for a large set of elements. For this purpose partition-relations were derived for As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, Zn. The multi-surface model included aqueous speciation, mineral equilibria, sorption to organic matter, Fe/Al-(hydr)oxides and clay. Both approaches were evaluated by their application to independent data for a wide variety of conditions. We conclude that Freundlich-based partition-relations are robust predictors for most cations and can be used for independent soils, but within the environmental conditions of the data used for their derivation. The multisurface model is shown to be able to successfully predict solution concentrations over a wide range of conditions. Predicted trends for oxy-anions agree well for both approaches but with larger (random) deviations than for cations.

  8. Trace level determination of precious metals in aqueous medium, U, Th and Zr based nuclear materials by ICP-AES and EDXRF - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Thulasidas, S.K.; Natarajan, V.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out to determine Ag, Au and Pt in aqueous samples, uranium, zirconium, and thorium based nuclear fuels and associated materials by CCD based ICP-AES and EDXRF. In ICP-AES, the spectral interference of U, Th, Zr matrices on trace level determination of Ag, Au and Pt were studied for different analytical lines of these analytes. The analytical performance of different lines including detection limits, sensitivity, linear dynamic range etc were studied both by ICP-AES and EDXRF. Though EDXRF technique was known its non destructive nature, the overall analytical performance of ICP-AES technique was found to be superior to EDXRF. Based on the spectral contribution from emission rich matrix elements and the analytical performance of different analytical lines of these analytes, a method was developed for direct determination of these analytes by ICP-AES without chemical separation. The method was validated with synthetic samples and compared with EDXRF technique and conventional ICP-AES technique where the major matrix was chemically separated using suitable organic phase containing selective ligands. The ICP-AES method for direct determination of analytes without chemical separation was found to be simple, less time consuming, without generation of organic waste with acceptable analytical performance

  9. Time-Based Loss in Visual Short-Term Memory Is from Trace Decay, Not Temporal Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Spiegel, Lauren R.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to why forgetting occurs in short-term memory tasks. In past work, we have shown that forgetting occurs with the passage of time, but there are 2 classes of theories that can explain this effect. In the present work, we investigate the reason for time-based forgetting by contrasting the predictions of temporal…

  10. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p < .001) than those for the app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  11. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  12. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Aubertot

    Full Text Available The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i develop, and to a lesser extent ii combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategies (vertical integration, there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration. Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator, a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat. In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  13. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertot, Jean-Noël; Robin, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests) in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i) develop, and to a lesser extent ii) combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies (vertical integration), there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration). Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator), a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat). In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  14. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  15. Paper-Based MicroRNA Expression Profiling from Plasma and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sai Mun; Tan, Karen Mei-Ling; Chua, Hui Wen; Huang, Mo-Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Li, Mo-Huang; Tucker, Steven; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise for monitoring metastatic progression and characterizing metastatic disease. However, leukocyte and red blood cell contamination of routinely isolated CTCs makes CTC-specific molecular characterization extremely challenging. Here we report the use of a paper-based medium for efficient extraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) from limited amounts of biological samples such as rare CTCs harvested from cancer patient blood. Specifically, we devised a workflow involving the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) ® Elute Card with a digital PCR-inspired "partitioning" method to extract and purify miRNAs from plasma and CTCs. We demonstrated the sensitivity of this method to detect miRNA expression from as few as 3 cancer cells spiked into human blood. Using this method, background miRNA expression was excluded from contaminating blood cells, and CTC-specific miRNA expression profiles were derived from breast and colorectal cancer patients. Plasma separated out during purification of CTCs could likewise be processed using the same paper-based method for miRNA detection, thereby maximizing the amount of patient-specific information that can be derived from a single blood draw. Overall, this paper-based extraction method enables an efficient, cost-effective workflow for maximized recovery of small RNAs from limited biological samples for downstream molecular analyses. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Image-based compound profiling reveals a dual inhibitor of tyrosine kinase and microtubule polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-04-27

    Small-molecule compounds are widely used as biological research tools and therapeutic drugs. Therefore, uncovering novel targets of these compounds should provide insights that are valuable in both basic and clinical studies. I developed a method for image-based compound profiling by quantitating the effects of compounds on signal transduction and vesicle trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Using six signal transduction molecules and two markers of vesicle trafficking, 570 image features were obtained and subjected to multivariate analysis. Fourteen compounds that affected EGFR or its pathways were classified into four clusters, based on their phenotypic features. Surprisingly, one EGFR inhibitor (CAS 879127-07-8) was classified into the same cluster as nocodazole, a microtubule depolymerizer. In fact, this compound directly depolymerized microtubules. These results indicate that CAS 879127-07-8 could be used as a chemical probe to investigate both the EGFR pathway and microtubule dynamics. The image-based multivariate analysis developed herein has potential as a powerful tool for discovering unexpected drug properties.

  17. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respecti