WorldWideScience

Sample records for trace organic substances

  1. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  2. Organic substances in ashes; Organiska aemnen i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Based on a review of available literature the following conclusions have been reached: Organic substances constitute a minor part of the TOC, Total Organic Carbon, and inert, elemental carbon constitutes the major part, TOC being expressed as weight percent of the ash. Organic substances are trace substances, with concentrations of the order a few mg/kg, exceptionally g/kg, in screening analyses, and of the order of ng/kg to mg/kg in dedicated analyses. The results from a screening of organic content depend largely on sample preparation and the method of analysis. The substances that are commonly identified are aliphatic acids and n-alkanes (semi-volatile substances). However, in one investigation chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene were found instead, which are more volatile than acids and n-alkanes In the leachates, organic substances are mostly humus-like relatively high molecular products of degradation. There is not any experimental evidence for substances to be terminated, which evidence would allow an assessment of their importance. The concentrations of dioxins and furans in all ashes seem to be low, from a few ng/kg TEQ ta few tens of ng/kg TEQ. Their concentration in bioashes is significantly lower than the default value in UNEP's guidelines for national inventories of sources of dioxins. The exception is air pollution control residues from waste incineration, which residues contain 200 - 2,000 ng/kg TEQ depending on the type of plant. If combustion residues from waste incineration are well investigated, residues from other fuels are not. The concentration of PAH varies more widely and is more uncertain, from 0.015 mg/kg DS ta few hundreds of mg/kg DS. It is not feasible tassess the consequences for the environment of the presence of organic substances in ashes in this survey. This demands a separate study.

  3. Evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production processes by measuring total organic halogen formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Kohei; Iwase, Yoko

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of organic substances in water with high accuracy and high sensitivity was proposed, in which a hypochlorite is added to water, and the resultant total amount of organic halogen compounds (TOX formation potential) was measured, and it was applied to the evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production process. In this investigation, the TOX formation potential of the raw water which was to be used for the ultra-pure water production process, intermediately treated water and ultra-pure water was measured to clarify the behavior of organic substances in the ultra-pure water production process and to demonstrate the usefulness of this procedure to evaluate trace organic contaminants in water. The measurement of TOX formation potential requires no specific technical skill, and only a short time, and gives accurate results, therefore, it is expected that the water quality control in the ultra-pure water production process can be performed more exactly by applying this procedure. (Yoshitake, I.)

  4. Humic substances in natural waters and their complexation with trace metals and radionuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Livermore, D.; Seitz, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) occur in surface waters and groundwaters in concentrations ranging from less than 1 mg(C)/L to more than 100 mg(C)/L. Humic substances are strong complexing agents for many trace metals in the environment and are also capable of forming stable soluble complexes or chelates with radionuclides. Concentrations of humic materials as low as 1 mg(C)/L can produce a detectable increase in the mobility of some actinide elements by forming soluble complexes that inhibit sorption of the radionuclides onto rock materials. The stability of trace metal- or radionuclide-organic complexes is commonly measured by an empirically determined conditional stability constant (K'), which is based on the ratio of complexed metal (radionuclide) in solution to the product concentration of uncomplexed metal and humic complexant. Larger values of stability constants indicate greater complex stability. The stability of radionuclide-organic complexes is affected both by concentration variables and envionmental factors. In general, complexing is favored by increased of radionuclide, increased pH, and decreased ionic strength. Actinide elements are generally most soluble in their higher oxidation states. Radionuclides can also form stable, insoluble complexes with humic materials that tend to reduce radionuclide mobility. These insoluble complexes may be radionuclide-humate colloids that subsequently precipitate from solution, or complexes of radionuclides and humic substances that sorb to clay minerals or other soil particulates strongly enough to immobilize the radionuclides. Colloid formation appears to be favored by increased radionuclide concentration and lowered pH; however, the conditions that favor formation of insoluble complexes that sorb to particulates are still poorly understood. 129 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on 'behavior and distributions of trace substances in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, M.; Matsuzuru, H.

    1998-02-01

    The scientific meeting was held at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University on December 11-12, 1997. This single report covers all aspects concerning association of trace substances such as pesticides/herbicides, organic chemicals and radionuclides in the environment. The reason for having this meeting is to describe the distribution and behavior of trace substances in which the emphasis is directed towards the dynamic interaction between the soil-sediment-water system and the contaminants. The Chernobyl accident raised the attention on the fate of radionuclides released in the environment and stimulated many scientists, who carry out large scale 'field experiments' without using a tracer in a laboratory. Of course, fundamental laboratory studies are necessary to give direction to and to understand observations from field studies. These activities have brought a lot of knowledge and understanding towards revealing a part of the complexity of the transport processes. It is hoped that the assembled experts, will not only dwell on distinct scientific issues, but also be able to draw firm conclusions with respect to the effective environmental management of the ecological aspects of hazardous materials. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. A new approach to data evaluation in the non-target screening of organic trace substances in water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ruck, Wolfgang K L; Weber, Walter H

    2011-11-01

    Non-target screening via high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has gained increasingly in importance for monitoring organic trace substances in water resources targeted for the production of drinking water. In this article a new approach for evaluating the data from non-target HPLC-MS screening in water is introduced and its advantages are demonstrated using the supply of drinking water as an example. The crucial difference between this and other approaches is the comparison of samples based on compounds (features) determined by their full scan data. In so doing, we take advantage of the temporal, spatial, or process-based relationships among the samples by applying the set operators, UNION, INTERSECT, and COMPLEMENT to the features of each sample. This approach regards all compounds, detectable by the used analytical method. That is the fundamental meaning of non-target screening, which includes all analytical information from the applied technique for further data evaluation. In the given example, in just one step, all detected features (1729) of a landfill leachate sample could be examined for their relevant influences on water purification respectively drinking water. This study shows that 1721 out of 1729 features were not relevant for the water purification. Only eight features could be determined in the untreated water and three of them were found in the final drinking water after ozonation. In so doing, it was possible to identify 1-adamantylamine as contamination of the landfill in the drinking water at a concentration in the range of 20 ng L(-1). To support the identification of relevant compounds and their transformation products, the DAIOS database (Database-Assisted Identification of Organic Substances) was used. This database concept includes some functions such as product ion search to increase the efficiency of the database query after the screening. To identify related transformation products the database function

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of HUPA organic substances: natural and synthetic humic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, N.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Reiller, P.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on the characterisation of the HUPA organic materials, i.e. natural humic substances ''GOHY 573'' (fulvic acid FA and humic acid HA) extracted from the Gorleben ground waters, and synthetic humic acids ''M1'' and ''M42'' obtained from a standard melanoidin preparation from FZ Rossendorf, are presented in this paper. XPS investigations were focused on the determination of the chemical environment of the major elements as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, and on the identification of trace metals trapped by these organic compounds. (orig.)

  8. From consumption to harvest: Environmental fate prediction of excreted ionizable trace organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Plósz, Benedek G.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation with freshwa......Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation...... with freshwater or reclaimed wastewater. Recent research has shown the tendency for these substances to accumulate in food crops. In this study, we developed and applied a simulation tool to predict the fate of three ionizable trace chemicals (triclosan-TCS, furosemide-FUR, ciprofloxacin-CIP) from human...... and a recently developed dynamic soil-plant uptake model. The simulation tool was tested using country-specific (e.g., consumption/emission rates, precipitation and temperature) input data. A Monte Carlo-based approach was adopted to account for the uncertainty associated to physico-chemical and biokinetic model...

  9. Humic substances in natural waters and their complexation with trace metals and radionuclides: a review. [129 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Livermore, D.; Seitz, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) occur in surface waters and groundwaters in concentrations ranging from less than 1 mg(C)/L to more than 100 mg(C)/L. Humic substances are strong complexing agents for many trace metals in the environment and are also capable of forming stable soluble complexes or chelates with radionuclides. Concentrations of humic materials as low as 1 mg(C)/L can produce a detectable increase in the mobility of some actinide elements by forming soluble complexes that inhibit sorption of the radionuclides onto rock materials. The stability of trace metal- or radionuclide-organic complexes is commonly measured by an empirically determined conditional stability constant (K'), which is based on the ratio of complexed metal (radionuclide) in solution to the product concentration of uncomplexed metal and humic complexant. Larger values of stability constants indicate greater complex stability. The stability of radionuclide-organic complexes is affected both by concentration variables and envionmental factors. In general, complexing is favored by increased of radionuclide, increased pH, and decreased ionic strength. Actinide elements are generally most soluble in their higher oxidation states. Radionuclides can also form stable, insoluble complexes with humic materials that tend to reduce radionuclide mobility. These insoluble complexes may be radionuclide-humate colloids that subsequently precipitate from solution, or complexes of radionuclides and humic substances that sorb to clay minerals or other soil particulates strongly enough to immobilize the radionuclides. Colloid formation appears to be favored by increased radionuclide concentration and lowered pH; however, the conditions that favor formation of insoluble complexes that sorb to particulates are still poorly understood. 129 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Input of trace substances to coniferous forests by fog interception at high elevations of Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Pahl, S.

    1993-10-01

    The deposition of trace substances to a coniferous forest has been estimated by means of a one-dimensional cloud droplet deposition model. For a period of 21 months the liquid water content has been measured and 89 samples of cloud water from the weather station Feldberg have been analysed for chemical composition. These data and meteorological routine observations have been used as input parameters for the deposition model. Deposition calculations to a 40 years old coniferous forest for the period 1982-1991 showed that the cloud water deposition amounts to 33% of the precipitation amount on the average and varies between 23 and 43% in single years. The highest cloud water deposition rates occur during fall and winter. The trace substance concentration in cloud water has been found to be higher than in precipitation, by a factor between 6 and 12, depending on the type of ions. Typically seasonal variations of normalized ion concentrations could be shown to exist as well as dependencies on wind direction. Air mass transport from the industries of the Stuttgart area resulted in higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. The deposition of trace substances via fog interception during the summer months is as high and in the winter months higher than that by wet deposition. The forests at high elevations of Black Forest are charged appreciably by fog interception. (orig.). 31 figs., 5 tabs., 39 refs [de

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MUSCLE AND ORGANS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    revealed organ specific distribution of trace metals in Tilapia, which has been discussed .... The concentrations of copper (Table 2) varied from 1.68–4.95 in muscle, .... The lead concentrations in muscle and organs of Tilapia from both lakes were comparable. ... A, D and K, trace minerals, and essential fats and amino acids.

  12. Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, M. M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…

  13. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  14. Use of biomimetic forward osmosis membrane for trace organics removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik T.; Bajraktari, Niada; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The use of forward osmosis for the removal of trace organics from water has recently attracted considerable attention as an alternative to traditional pressure driven membrane filtration. However, the existing forward osmosis membranes have been found to be ineffective at rejecting small neutral...... organic pollutants, which limits the applicability of the forward osmosis process. In this study a newly developed biomimetic membrane was tested for the removal of three selected trace organics that can be considered as a bench marking test for a membrane[U+05F3]s ability to reject small neutral organic....... This difference is caused by differences in the transport mechanisms. For the cellulose acetate membrane rejection is controlled by steric hindrance, which results in a size dependent rejection of the trace organics, whereas rejection by the aquaporin membrane is controlled by diffusion of the trace organics...

  15. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  16. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Viglino, Liza [Danone Waters Analytical Center, Aqualab, Place de la Gare, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains (France); Di Gioia, Lodovico [Danone Research, R and D Waters Division, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lachassagne, Patrick [Danone Waters France, Environment and Water Resources Division, BP 87, 11 av. Général Dupas, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains cedex (France); Budzinski, Hélène, E-mail: h.budzinski@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  17. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  18. Measurement of Selected Organic Trace Gases During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Major goals of the TRACE-P mission were: 1) to investigate the chemical composition of radiatively important gases, aerosols, and their precursors in the Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and 2) to describe and understand the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow as it is transported and mixed into the global troposphere. The research performed as part of this proposal addressed these major goals with a study of the organic chemical composition of gases in the TRACE-P region. This work was a close collaboration with the Blake/Rowland research group at UC-Irvine, and they have provided a separate report for their funded effort.

  19. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  20. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Basic Substances under EU Pesticide Regulation: An Opportunity for Organic Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Marchand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some of the active substances allowed in organic production are now approved as basic sub- stances under the EU plant protection products regulation. Previously, all organic farming permitted active substances were approved as conventional plant protection products. In accordance with the criteria of Article 23 of the EU regulation (EC No 1107/2009, basic substances are granted without maximum residue limits and have a good prospect for being included in Annex II of organic farming Regulation (EC 889/2008. In fact, most of them are already permitted in organic farming. At this stage, it seems desirable to organize applications in order to avoid duplications and to clarify strategy across Europe. This organization should be planned in order to identify corresponding knowledge and data from field experiments, and to further constitute the most crucial issues related to organic production. A work of this nature was initially supported by IFOAM-EU for lecithin, calcium hydroxide and Quassia extract. The Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB was previously engaged in a large-scale approval plan motivated by the continuous demand for the regularization of compounds/substances already in use and has a mandate for testing and approving new compatible substances. Thus, the horsetail extract (Equisetum arvense was the first approved basic substance and ITAB has obtained 11 of the 15 basic substances approved at the EU level.

  2. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on `parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masami; Fujinawa, Katsuyuki [eds.

    1996-04-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting on `parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment`. The 18 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on 'parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Fujinawa, Katsuyuki

    1996-04-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting on 'parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment'. The 18 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Refractory organic substances in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frimmel, F. H

    2002-01-01

    ... and its Quality Control in Fractions of Refractory Organic Substances and the Corresponding Original Water Samples 39 Introduction 39 Description of Analytical Methods 41 Sample Treatment 41 Fl...

  5. Effect of fouling on removal of trace organic compounds by nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajibabania

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fate of chemical of concern is not yet fully understood during treatment of impaired waters. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of different organic-based fouling layers on the removal of a large range of trace organics. Both model and real water samples (mixed with trace organic contaminants at environmental concentration of 2 μg l−1 were used to simulate fouling in nanofiltration under controlled environment. The new and fouled membranes were systematically characterised for surface charge, hydrophobicity and roughness. It was observed that fouling generally reduced the membrane surface charge; however, the alterations of the membrane hydrophobicity and surface roughness were dependent on the foulants composition. The rejection of charged trace organics was observed to be improved due to the increased electrostatic repulsion by fouled membranes and the adsorption of the trace organic chemicals onto organic matters. On the other hand, the removal of nonionic compounds decreased when fouling occurred, due to the presence of cake enhanced concentration polarization. The fouling layer structure was found to play an important role in the rejection of the trace organic compounds.

  6. Resonance ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace substances in complex gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Holger; Weickhardt, Christian; Boesl, Ulrich; Frey, Ruediger

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mixtures of technical gases still comprises a lot of problems: the large number of components with very different and often rapidly varying concentrations makes great demands on analytical methods. By use of conventional analytical methods, signals of trace substances may interfere with signals of main components, whereas small signals representing low concentrations are covered by signals of main substances.The resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) makes use of excited intermediate states of molecules. As these states are characteristic of each substance, one or more components of interest can be ionized with high efficiency without interference of other molecules by using a special laser-wavelength. The combination of the above mentioned ionization method with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer permits a very fast and sensitive detection of preselected trace substances.As ionization processes of higher order strongly depend on the laser intensity, there is no direct relation between ion signals and concentrations of exhaust components. Quantitative assessments are based on an especially developed calibration technique that makes use of internal standards. Applied under environmental aspects, this new analytical method helps to analyze a large number of components extracted from exhaust gases of combustion engines with high time resolution (<20 ms motor synchronously), high sensitivity (1 ppm) and high quantitative accuracy (more than 10%). A preliminary list of detectable compounds contains 30 substances

  7. Trace organic removal by photochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K. Sen; Peori, R.G.; Wickware, S.L.

    1995-02-01

    Photochemical oxidation methods can be used for the destruction of dissolved organic contaminants in most process effluent streams, including those originating from the nuclear power sector. Evaporators can be used to separate organic contaminants from the aqueous phase if they are non volatile, but a large volume of secondary waste (concentrate) is produced, and the technology is capital-intensive. This paper describes two different types of photochemical oxidation technologies used to destroy trace organics in wastewater containing oil and grease. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  9. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  10. Trace substances in landfill gases. Evaluation and meaningful analysis. Spurenstoffe in Deponiegasen. Bewertung und sinnvolle Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, R [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Engler-Bunte-Institut

    1989-06-01

    Many of the innumerable substances which may occur in landfill gases are to be considered as possibly dangerous; they lead to environmental problems due to their malodour or noxious combustion products. With respect to the evaluation of the traces of substances there is great unsecurity and often extreme requirements as to volume and quality of gas analyses have to be met. Generally it can be noticed that there are hazards emanating from landfill gases, but in comparison to other risks they are not excessive. The contribution shall help to clarify questions and furnish a basis for the practice-oriented and appropriate landfill gas analytics. (orig.).

  11. Influence of S186 on trace elements in organs of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Li Landi; Chen Guibao; Zhang Meizhen

    1993-01-01

    The authors report the influence of a radiostrontium de-cooperating agents, S186 (calcium sodium N-acetylproplysmine 1, 1-diphosphonate), on trace elements in internal organs of dogs. The trace elements contents were determined with a PE-3030 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Compared with the control group, the trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) contents and the Cu/Zn ratio in organs of Beagle dogs after intramuscular injection of S186 for 30 days did not change obviously except the Cu content in the liver increased

  12. Molecular Speciation of Trace Metal Organic Complexes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R. M.; Bundy, R. M.; Babcock-Adams, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial production across approximately one third of the surface ocean is limited by extraordinarily low (picomolar) concentrations of dissolved iron, essentially all of which is complexed to strong organic ligands of unknown composition. Other biologically important trace metals (cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel) are also complexed to strong organic ligands, which again have not been extensively characterized. Nevertheless, organic ligands exert a strong influence on metal bioavailability and toxicity. For example, amendment experiments using commercially available siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, show these ligands can both facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on the siderophore composition and available uptake pathways. Over the past few years we have developed analytical techniques using high pressure liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify and quantify trace metal organic complexes in laboratory cultures of marine microbes and in seawater. We found siderophores to be widely distributed in the ocean, particularly in regions characterized by low iron concentrations. We also find chemically distinct complexes of copper, zinc, colbalt and nickel that we have yet to fully characterize. We will discuss some of our recent work on trace metal organic speciation in seawater and laboratory cultures, and outline future efforts to better understand the microbial cycling of trace metal organic complexes in the sea.

  13. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Trace Elements in Marine Sediment and Organisms in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms. PMID:29677146

  15. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organics in soil depends on the substances properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil is regulated by microbial uptake from solution and following incorporation of into specific cell cycles. Various chemical properties of LMWOS, namely oxidation state, number of carbon (C) atoms, number of carboxylic (-COOH) groups, can affect their uptake from soil solution and further microbial utilization. The aim of the study was to trace the initial fate (including the uptake from soil solution and utilization by microorganisms) of three main classes of LMWOS, having contrast properties - sugars, carboxylic and amino acids. Top 10 cm of mineral soil were collected under Silver birch stands within the Bangor DIVERSE experiment, UK. Soil solution was extracted by centrifugation at 4000 rpm during 15 min. Soil was spiked with 14C glucose or fructose; malic, succinic or formic acids; alanine or glycine. No additional non-labeled LMWOS were added. 14C was traced in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO2, cytosol and soil organic matter (SOM) during one day. To estimate half-life times (T1 /2)of LMWOS in soil solution and in SOM pools, the single and double first order kinetic equations were fitted to the uptake and mineralization dynamics, respectively. The LMWOS T1 /2in DOM pool varied between 0.6-5 min, with the highest T1 /2for sugars (3.7 min) and the lowest for carboxylic acids (0.6-1.4 min). Thus, initial uptake of LMWOS is not a limiting step of microbial utilization. The T1 /2 of carboxylic and amino acids in DOM were closely related with oxidation state, showing that reduced substances remain in soil solution longer, than oxidized. The initial T1 /2 of LMWOS in SOM ranged between 30-80 min, with the longest T1 /2 for amino acids (50-80 min) and the shortest for carboxylic acids (30-48 min). These T1 /2values were in one-two orders of magnitude higher than LMWOS T1 /2 in soil solution, pointing that LMWOS mineralization occur with a delay after the uptake. Absence of correlations between

  16. pH : a key control of the nature and distribution of dissolved organic matter and associated trace metals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.; Davranche, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter is ubiquitous at the Earth's surface and plays a prominent role in controlling metal speciation and mobility from soils to hydrosystems. Humic substances (HS) are usually considered to be the most reactive fraction of organic matter. Humic substances are relatively small and formed by chemically diverse organic molecules, bearing different functional groups that act as binding sites for cations and mineral surfaces. Among the different environmental physicochemical parameters controlling the metal speciation, pH is likely to be the most important one. Indeed, pH affect the dissociation of functional groups, and thus can influence the HS structure, their ability to complex metals, their solubility degree allowing the formation of aggregates at the mineral surface. In this context, soil/water interactions conducted through batch system experiments, were carried out with a wetland organic-rich soil to investigate the effect of pH on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated trace elements. The pH was regulated between 4 and 7.5 using an automatic pH stat titrator. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to separate the dissolved organic pool following decreasing pore sizes (30 kDa, 5 kDa and 2 kDa with 1 Da = 1 g.mol-1). The pH increase induced a significant DOC release, especially in heavy organic molecules (size >5 kDa) with a high aromaticity (>30 %). These were probably humic acids (HA). This HA release influenced (i) directly the trace element concentrations in soil solution since HA were enriched in several trace elements such as Th, REE, Y, U, Cr and Cu; and (ii) indirectly by the breaking of clay-humic complexes releasing Fe- and Al-rich nanoparticles associated with V, Pb and Ti. By contrast, at acid pH, most HS were complexed onto mineral surfaces. They also sequestered iron nanoparticles. Therefore, at low pH, most part of DOC molecules had a size pH and ionic strength .The molecular size and shape of HS is

  17. Nitrogen mineralization in a simulated rhizosphere as influenced by low molecular weight organic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Shamim Ara; Kader, MD Abdul; Sleutel, Steven; De Neve, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Rhizodeposits consist of over 200 organic compounds, mainly low-molecular-weight organic substances (LMWOS) such as amino acids (AA), carbohydrates (CH) and carboxylic acids (CA), lipids and phenols. Those LMWOS influence nutrient turnover, particularly N turnover. However, the exact influence of these organic substances on nitrogen mineralization is yet unknown. Therefore, the stimulatory effects of low molecular weight organic substances on nitrogen mineralization in the rhizosphere of a si...

  18. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production. 205.604 Section 205.604 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic livestock...

  19. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Kuno, Yoshio; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-07-01

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm 3 . Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  20. Characteristics of arsenic in humic substances extracted from natural organic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Junko; Norota, Susumu; Kawebe, Yoshishige; Sugita, Hajime; Zhang, Ming

    2018-06-01

    The stability and dispersion of naturally occurring As have been receiving increasing attention, because As is toxic and its contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. This study investigated As fractionation and speciation in organic sediments collected from different depositional settings to elucidate the existence of stable As in humic substances. Eleven organic sediment samples were collected from marine and terrestrial alluvial regions in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan, and the chemical fraction of As and species of humic substances were identified by sequential extraction. In addition, stable As bound in organic matter was evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The As fraction mainly comprised inorganic substances, especially sulfur, iron, and manganese, and terrestrial sediments (lacustrine and inland deposits) were rich in sulfides and Fe and Al (hydr)oxides. When the residual fraction was excluded, the organic fraction of As was higher in seawater sediments than in terrestrial sediments. Among humic substances, cellulose, humic acid, and hydrophilic fulvic acid were clearly associated with As accumulation, and As speciation showed that the As was of organic origin. Cellulose, an organic compound of plant origin, was abundant in As=S and As (III)=O bonds, and As accumulation was higher in sulfur-rich peat sediments, corresponding with the physiological activities of As in plants. Hydrophilic fulvic acid and humic acid in these sediments, originating from small animals and microorganisms in addition to plants, denote higher As contents and abound in As (III, V)=C and C-H, CH 3 bonds even in sulfur-rich sediments. The methylated As bonds reflect the ecological transition of organisms.

  1. An exploratory screening of organic substances in combustion residues; En orienterande screening av organiska aemnen i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Lennart; Lind, Bo (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Bjurstroem, Henrik (AaF-Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Ash consists of the inorganic incombustible part of fuels, but it also always contains a small amount of organic matter, occurring as trace substances with concentrations in the order of mg/kg and lower. A few types of compounds are analysed comparatively frequently, e.g. PCDD/F (the so-called dioxins), but knowledge about the other organic substances is far from exhaustive. In this investigation, three ash samples have been subjected to a semi-quantitative GC/MS screening of semi-volatile substances. In this method of analysis the substances are extracted, separated in a gas chromatograph and identified as well as quantified using a mass spectrometer. Even if this type of analysis can be performed by researchers at universities, we chose to let commercial analytical laboratories do it in order to assess results from a nearly routine work. Residues from woody biofuels (recovered wood, virgin wood and bark) were chosen in order to complement the information that has previously been obtained on ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The GC/MS screening was carried out on both non-derivatised samples (non-polar compounds) and derivatised samples (polar compounds). The investigation aimed also at assessing the potential and the limitations of the screening method. In addition, the potentially hazardous properties of each identified substance were examined. Screening without and with derivatization is a cost-effective method to chart the content of semi-volatile organic substances. The results are relevant, but the method commercially available in Sweden is at present not mature enough for the use considered. It must be further developed before it can be included in e.g. regulatory texts. Limitations may be found in several steps of the method, principally: - Extraction and derivatisation, as the internal standard added is recovered only to a small extent for some ash samples, indicating that not everything has been found - Detection, i.e. both the sensitivity of

  2. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  3. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean.

  4. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  5. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor - membrane distillation hybrid system for energy recovery and water reuse: Removal performance of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; Luo, Wenhai; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a direct contact membrane distillation (MD) unit was integrated with an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to simultaneously recover energy and produce high quality water for reuse from wastewater. Results show that AnMBR could produce 0.3-0.5L/g COD added biogas with a stable methane content of approximately 65%. By integrating MD with AnMBR, bulk organic matter and phosphate were almost completely removed. The removal of the 26 selected trace organic contaminants by AnMBR was compound specific, but the MD process could complement AnMBR removal, leading to an overall efficiency from 76% to complete removal by the integrated system. The results also show that, due to complete retention, organic matter (such as humic-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic salts accumulated in the MD feed solution and therefore resulted in significant fouling of the MD unit. As a result, the water flux of the MD process decreased continuously. Nevertheless, membrane pore wetting was not observed throughout the operation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Predicted and Observed Data on Biotransformation of Twenty-Nine Trace Organic Chemicals

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Trace organic chemicals present in household products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products may have adverse ecotoxicological effects once they are released to the environment. These chemicals are usually transported with the sewage to wastewater treatment facilities, where they might be attenuated depending on the degree of treatment applied prior to discharge to receiving streams. This study evaluates the removal performance of 29 trace organic compounds during two different activated sludge treatment systems. Predominant attenuation processes such as biotransformation and sorption for the target compounds were identified. Biotransformation rate constants determined in this study were used to assess removal of compounds from other treatment plants with similar operational conditions, using data gathered from the literature. The commercial software Catalogic was applied to predict environmental fate of chemicals. The software program consisted of four models able to simulate molecular transformations and to generate degradation trees. In order to assess the accuracy of this program in predicting biotransformation, one biodegradation model is used to contrast predicted degradation pathway with metabolic pathways reported in the literature. The predicted outcome was correct for more than 40 percent of the 29 targeted substances, while 38 percent of the chemicals exhibited some degree of lower agreement between predicted and observed pathways. Percent removal data determined for the two treatment facilities was compared with transformation probability output from Catalogic. About 80 percent of the 29 compounds exhibited a good correlation between probability of transformation of the parent compound and percent removal data from the two treatment plants (R2 = 0.82 and 0.9). Based upon findings for 29 trace organic chemicals regarding removal during activated sludge treatment, attacked fragments present in their structures, predicted data from

  7. Organic trace substances as emissions from incineration plants and their humane toxicological and eco-toxicological classification. Organic emissions; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 1. Organische Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 1: Organic Emissions`) describes the reaction pathways in the flame chemistry of organic materials. Possible organic products of incomplete combustion formed at the trace level in various processes are summarized. The emissions of organic compounds from municipal waste incineration plants are named in detail and compared to those of other combustion processes, like e.g. the combustion of coal, sewage sludge or fuels. Quantitative figures are given if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 1: Organische Emissionen`) werden die grundlegenden chemischen Prozesse bei der unvollstaendigen Verbrennung von organischem Material beschrieben und die dabei als Spurenstoffe entstehenden Substanzklassen benannt. Im Tabellenteil werden die Emissionen von organischen Verbindungen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen qualitativ und quantitativ mit den Emissionen bei anderen thermischen Prozessen - z.B. Verbrennung von Kohle, Klaerschlamm oder Treibstoffen - verglichen. Dabei wurde auf groesstmoegliche stoffliche Differenzierung und vollstaendige Erfassung der Emissionen geachtet. (orig.)

  8. A method for embedding granulated or spent ion-exchanging organic substances in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Jejes, P.

    1976-01-01

    A method of embedding in concrete a spent ion-exchanging organic substance originating from a scrubbing-circuit of a nuclear reactor Prior to solidification of the mixture, a substance is incorporated therewith said substance being capable of preventing water in the grains of the ion-exchanging substance from penetrating into the solidified product

  9. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  10. Decomposition of 14C-labeled organic substances in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The depth variation of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter composition and porewater composition in marine sediments suggest that different components of the organic matter undergo decomposition at widely different rates. The decomposition of 14 C-labeled organic substances was followed in sediment microcosms in the laboratory. The substances used were chosen to simulate a portion of material settling to the sediment-water interface (a marine diatom) or hypothesized components of refractory sediment organic matter (melanoidins and a bacterial polymer). The microcosms were found to be good models of the sediment-water interface in terms of how well they mimicked sediment decomposition rates and processes. The decomposition of the labeled material and the natural sediment TOC were monitored over 1 month: the water overlying the sediment remained oxic, and net consumption of nitrate was small. There was no detectable sulfate reduction. The algae and the bacterial polymer were decomposed on average 9x faster than the melanoidins and 90x faster than the natural sediment TOC. The soluble fraction of the algae was decomposed more rapidly than the particulate material

  11. Integration of Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations into Accountable Care Organizations: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Aunno, Thomas; Friedmann, Peter D.; Chen, Qixuan; Wilson, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    To meet their aims of managing population health to improve the quality and cost of health care in the United States, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will need to focus on coordinating care for individuals with substance abuse disorders. The prevalence of these disorders is high, and these individuals often suffer from comorbid chronic medical and social conditions. This article examines the extent to which the nation’s fourteen thousand specialty substance abuse treatment (SAT) organizations, which have a daily census of more than 1 million patients, are contracting with ACOs across the country; we also examine factors associated with SAT organization involvement with ACOs. We draw on data from a recent (2014) nationally representative survey of executive directors and clinical supervisors from 635 SAT organizations. Results show that only 15 percent of these organizations had signed contracts with ACOs. Results from multivariate analyses show that directors’ perceptions of market competition, organizational ownership, and geographic location are significantly related to SATinvolvement with ACOs. We discuss implications for integrating the SAT specialty system with the mainstream health care system. PMID:26124307

  12. Substance Flow Analyses of Organic Pollutants in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, A.; Friden, U.; Thuresson, K.; Soerme, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes substance flow analyses for four organic substances in the City of Stockholm, Sweden: diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), alkylphenolethoxylates (APEO), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) and chlorinated paraffins (CP). The results indicate that the stocks of APEO, PBDE and CP all are approximately 200-250 tonnes, whereas the DEHP stock is two orders of magnitude larger. Emissions can be linked to imported consumer goods such as electronics (PBDE) and textiles (APEO), and to construction materials (DEHP, CP). For several of the substances considerable amounts remain in the technosphere for a long time, even after use of the substance in new products has been eliminated. For example, the use of DEHP as plasticizer for PVC plastics in cables and floorings has more or less been phased-out, but still these applications make up a stock of some 20,000 tonnes (85% of the total DEHP stock in Stockholm) and emit 28 tonnes of DEHP annually (93% of overall emissions). Likewise, the use of chlorinated paraffins in sealants has been radically reduced, but there are 170 tonnes of CP in sealants in Stockholm making up 75% of the stock, and causing half of the emissions to water and air. These emissions are likely to continue for decades, and the stocks therefore have to be considered when analysing and managing the impact of urban substance flows on the environment

  13. Fate of Trace Organic Compounds in Granular Activated Carbon (GAC Adsorbers for Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sperlich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Granular activated carbon (GAC adsorbers for drinking water treatment were operated for approx. 14 months and the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and trace organic chemicals (TOrCs was monitored. Effluent concentration profiles of gabapentin and valsartan acid increase already at throughputs of <10,000 BV. The corresponding breakthrough curves flatten out without reaching the influent concentration level. This strongly indicates biological degradation of these substances in the GAC adsorbers under aerobic conditions, contributing to a more efficient use of GAC. The observed biodegradation in pilot GAC adsorbers also confirms recent reports of biodegradation of gabapentin and valsartan acid during managed aquifer recharge. Oxypurinol is comparatively well adsorbed and no breakthrough was observed during the experimental period. Adsorption capacity and breakthrough characteristics of oxypurinol appear very similar to carbamazepine. Breakthrough of GAC adsorbers operated with drinking water was compared to those of groundwater-fed adsorbers. The results show, that it is generally advisable to use previously aerated influents for GAC fixed-bed adsorbers because this can substantially improve biological removal of otherwise poorly adsorbable compounds and ensure full GAC accessibility for adsorbates by avoiding the undesirable formation of inorganic precipitates on adsorption sites.

  14. Through-furnace for burning solid organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, G.; Schlich, E.

    1984-01-01

    The through-furnace for burning radio-active organic solid waste consists of a reaction pipe heated from the outside, an input device and an output device. A solid pump is used as the input device, which has a common longitudinal axis with the reaction pipe. The reaction pipe is widened in the transport direction of the combustion pipe, where the angle between the longitudinal axis and the pipe wall is 0.5 to 5 0 . The pipe wall is wholely or partially permeable to gas. The thermal treatment of the solid organic substances can occur by combustion or by pyrohydrolysis or pyrolysis in the through-furnace. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Effect of organic acids traces on the carbon steel corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.; Radulescu; Mogosan, S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many different ways in which organic matter may get in water-steam cycles. One important pathway is constituted by organic matter admitted into the system by chemical make-up water under standard operation conditions (without inverse osmosis). The high molecular weight organic matter, in particularly polysaccharides are broken in organic acids, in particular acetic and formic acid. This paper presents an overview of the investigations undertaken referring to the behavior SA106 gr. B mild steel in secondary circuit aqueous environment contaminated with formic and acetic acid traces. The samples were filmed in static autoclaves in operation conditions of secondary circuit, in contaminated environment and after that they were investigated using metallographic microscopy and SEM. In addition, an electrochemical technique videlicet impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion behavior of SA106 gr. B carbon steel in secondary circuit medium contaminated with formic and acetic acid traces. (authors)

  16. Emission of organic substances from chip-boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppe, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A relatively small number of investigations on emissions of organic substances from chip-board is available up to now. The emissions known to date are caused by glues or other additives rather than by the wood itself. As concerns aminoplast glues (urea-formaldehyde or melamine-formaldehyde resins) the most important point of public interest has been the off-gassing of formaldehyde from chip-board. Chip-board with phenol-formaldehyde glues has been known in some cases to give off phenol. The formation of diamino diphenyl methane from isocyanate glues is still a matter of discussion. A further source for possible emissions are wood and fire protectives which are added during the manufacturing process. Finally, coating of chip-board may lead to emissions of organic substances. The lack of adequate detection methods has so far delayed the treatment of questions in relation to emissions from chip-board. Even now, there are numerous problems in this field especially when investigating isocyanate glues. Problems in relation to the origin of emissions due to the kind of glue used and the manufacturing process are discussed, and proposals are made how to solve some of these problems. The question of the health risk is dealt with from the view-point of the civil engineer and in an general economic context.

  17. Organic substances of bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, V A; Pronina, M V

    1944-01-01

    Samples of Gdov (Estonia) and Volga (Russia) oil shales were oxidized by alkaline permanganate to study the distribution of carbon and the composition of the resulting oxidation products. Gdov shale was rather stable to oxidation and, after 42 hours 61.2 percent of the organic material remained unoxidized. Five hundred hours were required for complete oxidation, and the oxidation products consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, and succinic acids. The oxidation products from Volga shale consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, benzenetricarboxylic, benzenetetracarboxylic, and benzenepentacarboxylic acids. The results indicated that Gdov shale is free of humic substances and is of sapropelic origin, while Volga shale is of sapropelic-humic origin.

  18. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace Metals And Organic Matter Diagenesis At The Oman Margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Trace Metals (e.g. Mn and Fe) play an important role as secondary oxidants in the degradation of sedimentary OM under sub-oxic conditions. Hence the remineralisation of organic constituents of sediments in the marine environment may significantly...

  20. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  1. Influence of acid rain and organic matter on the adsorption of trace elements on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Ambe, S.; Takematsu, N.; Ambe, F.

    1998-01-01

    Acid rain has become one of the most serious environmental problems. Soil loses its buffering capacity by long exposure to acid rain, and the soil pH value decreases significantly. The acidification of the soil disturbs the adsorption equilibrium of many elements in the soil-water system. Soil is a very complex heterogeneous system, primarily consisting of clay minerals, hydrous oxides and polymeric organic substances, which possess their own characteristic element-adsorbing properties. On the other hand, the intrinsic properties of elements are reflected in their adsorption process as a matter of course. Therefore, both the effects of the pH of acid rain and that of the components of the soil on the adsorption of different elements should be studied when the adsorption process in acid soils is to be clarified. Although leaching of major cations in soil, such as Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Al 3+ , by acid rain, has been extensively studied, relatively little attention has been focused on trace elements which can also seriously affect the ecological system. We studied the acid rain effects on element adsorption by kaolin, forest soil, black soil, and also these soils with Fe- and Mn-oxides or organic matter selectively removed by using the radioactive multitracer technique. (author)

  2. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  3. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  4. Development of a procedure for the sequential extraction of substances binding trace elements in plant biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 381, - (2005), s. 863-872 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : organic compounds binding trace elements * spinach plant * sequential extraction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  5. Effect of Technological Conditions on Removing Organic Substances from Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on how the effectiveness ofremoving organic substances is affected bythe use of polyurethane foam fillings characterized by a varied porosity and the temperature of the process of treating landfill leachate in a biological sequencing batch reactor. The information on the conversion of organic compounds during the operation of the reactor was obtained by measuring the absorbance for selected wavelengths to describe the process of humification. It was found that the technological conditions used in the experiment affected the effectiveness of reducing the COD, but did not affect the type or amount of the humic substances in the leachate treated. In all of the variants examined, the COD decreased the as the humification level increased, and yet this relation was not linear in character.

  6. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organic and Inorganic Speciation of Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-02-16

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing acidification of the oceans. This results in changes to the concentrations of key chemical species such as hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These changes will affect the distribution of different forms of trace metals. Using IPCC data for pCO2 and pH under four future emissions scenarios (to the year 2100) we use a chemical speciation model to predict changes in the distribution of organic and inorganic forms of trace metals. Under a scenario where emissions peak after the year 2100, predicted free ion Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb concentrations increase by factors of up to approximately 21, 2.4, 1.5, and 2.0 respectively. Concentrations of organically complexed metal typically have a lower sensitivity to ocean acidification induced changes. Concentrations of organically complexed Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd fall by up to 10%, while those of organically complexed Fe, Co, and Ni rise by up to 14%. Although modest, these changes may have significance for the biological availability of metals given the close adaptation of marine microorganisms to their environment.

  7. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock production. 205.603 Section 205.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the following synthetic substances may be used in organic livestock production: (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and...

  8. Canadian trace emissions project management : phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajeunesse, J.J.G.

    1997-12-01

    A comprehensive emission study was carried out at Nova Scotia Power's Lingan generating station in which pulverized coal, bottom ash, bottom ash cooling water, fly ash and flue gas were sampled and analyzed for organic and inorganic priority substances. The sampling was done according to the recommended standard of sampling provided by the Canadian Electricity Association's 1992 report entitled 'Trace Emission Project Management : phase 1'. The objectives of this emission study were to show how priority substances are transformed and partitioned within the various process streams in a modern pulverized coal-fired utility boiler and to determine the type and emission rate of various priority substances in the flue gas. An emission data set was prepared in PISCES format, and the data was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the electrostatic precipitator for controlling the emissions of these priority substances. All but five of the elements tracked in the report had mass balances from 90 per cent to 112 per cent. The five elements for which such closure could not be achieved were zinc, mercury, selenium, chlorine and bromine.The data set produced was used to evaluate the Ontario Hydro 640 MJ/h pilot scale combustor and FACT mathematical models. 39 refs., 32 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices

  9. Removal of trace organic contaminants by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2012-06-01

    The removal of trace organics by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) integrated system were investigated. The results confirmed that MBR treatment can be effective for the removal of hydrophobic (log D>3.2) and readily biodegradable trace organics. The data also highlighted the limitation of MBR in removing hydrophilic and persistent compounds (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac, and fenoprop) and that GAC could complement MBR very well as a post-treatment process. The MBR-GAC system showed high removal of all selected trace organics including those that are hydrophilic and persistent to biological degradation at up to 406 bed volumes (BV). However, over an extended period, breakthrough of diclofenac was observed after 7320 BV. This suggests that strict monitoring should be applied over the lifetime of the GAC column to detect the breakthrough of hydrophilic and persistent compounds which have low removal by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Bel-Amakeletch, T.; Zeisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has recently prepared a survey on internationally available analytical reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic contaminants in biological, environmental and related matrices. The purpose is to help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be measured. The present version of the survey, which is available in the form of two cost-free printed volumes [1], contains over 10,000 certified and information values in 650 reference materials from 27 different producers. The 455 measurands listed include trace elements, major and minor elements, organic contaminants, organometallic compounds, radionuclides and stable isotopes. Currently, the database from which the survey has been produced is being modified and extended so as to make the data available in electronic form via the Internet. (orig.)

  11. Trace elements controlling the atmospheric circulation. Atmospheric environmental research as part of future FhG research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    Atmospheric trace substances such as methane (CH/sub 4/), ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) essentially influence the biosphere. FhG research work will be consisting in the long-term measurement of trace substance concentrations in different places (e.g. South Africa, Italy, Thailand or China). An air container packed with measuring instruments and data storage equipment was sent to South America with scientists on board measuring the distribution of trace substances over the northern and southern hemisphere.

  12. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Shackleton, M.; Furness, A. J.; Bekele, E.; Pearce, J.; Linge, K. L.; Busetti, F.; Spadek, T.; Toze, S.

    2011-03-01

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12 month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life NDMA and NMOR) did not degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic aquifer geochemical conditions (half life > 50 days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required.

  13. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Bekele, E; Pearce, J; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T; Toze, S

    2011-03-25

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life aquifer geochemical conditions (half life >50days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace element, semivolatile organic, and chlorinated organic compound concentrations in bed sediments of selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, February-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Journey, Celeste A.; Stringfield, Whitney J.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Wellborn, John B.; Ratliff, Hagan; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial survey of streams was conducted from February to April 2010 to assess the concentrations of major ions, selected trace elements, semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls associated with the bed sediments of surface waters at Fort Gordon military installation near Augusta, Georgia. This investigation expanded a previous study conducted in May 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, that evaluated the streambed sediment quality of selected surface waters at Fort Gordon. The data presented in this report are intended to help evaluate bed sediment quality in relation to guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, and identify temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations at streambed sites previously sampled. Concentrations of 34 major ions and trace elements and 102 semivolatile organic, organochlorine pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were determined in the fine-grained fraction of bed sediment samples collected from 13 of the original 29 sites in the previous study, and 22 additional sites at Fort Gordon. Three of the sites were considered reference sites as they were presumed to be located away from potential sources of contaminants and were selected to represent surface waters flowing onto the fort, and the remaining 32 nonreference sites were presumed to be located within the contamination area at the fort. Temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations also were evaluated at 13 of the 32 nonreference sites to provide an assessment of the variability in the number of detections and concentrations of constituents in bed sediment associated with potential sources, accumulation, and attenuation processes. Major ion and trace element concentrations in fine-grained bed

  15. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  16. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  17. Application of Box-Behnken design to optimize multi-sorbent solid phase extraction for trace neonicotinoids in water containing high level of matrix substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised great concerns about their ecological risk. A reliable method to measure trace neonicotinoids in complicated aquatic environment is a premise for assessing their aquatic risk. To effectively remove matrix interfering substances from field water samples before instrumental analysis with HPLC/MS/MS, a multi-sorbent solid phase extraction method was developed using Box-Behnken design. The optimized method employed 200mg HLB/GCB (w/w, 8/2) as the sorbents and 6mL of 20% acetone in acetonitrile as the elution solution. The method was applied for measuring neonicotinoids in water at a wide range of concentrations (0.03-100μg/L) containing various amounts of matrix components. The recoveries of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked samples ranged from 76.3% to 107% while clothianidin and dinotefuran had relatively lower recoveries. The recoveries of neonicotinoids in water with various amounts of matrix interfering substances were comparable and the matrix removal rates were approximately 50%. The method was sensitive with method detection limits in the range of 1.8-6.8ng/L for all target neonicotinoids. Finally, the developed method was validated by measurement of trace neonicotinoids in natural water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption and Detection of Hazardous Trace Gases by Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Michelle; Hausdorf, Steffen; Klein, Nicole; Mueller, Philipp; Smith, Martin W; Kaskel, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    The quest for advanced designer adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring hazardous trace gases has recently been more and more driven by the need to ensure clean air in indoor, outdoor, and industrial environments. How to increase safety with regard to personal protection in the event of hazardous gas exposure is a critical question for an ever-growing population spending most of their lifetime indoors, but is also crucial for the chemical industry in order to protect future generations of employees from potential hazards. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are already quite advanced and promising in terms of capacity and specific affinity to overcome limitations of current adsorbent materials for trace and toxic gas adsorption. Due to their advantageous features (e.g., high specific surface area, catalytic activity, tailorable pore sizes, structural diversity, and range of chemical and physical properties), MOFs offer a high potential as adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring of hazardous trace gases. Three advanced topics are considered here, in applying MOFs for selective adsorption: (i) toxic gas adsorption toward filtration for respiratory protection as well as indoor and cabin air, (ii) enrichment of hazardous gases using MOFs, and (iii) MOFs as sensors for toxic trace gases and explosives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enhanced Removal of Nutrients and Trace Organics from Urban Runoff with Novel Capture, Treatment, and Recharge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, N.; Planes, M. T.; Lefevre, G.; Sedlak, D.; Luthy, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth, urban sprawl and impact of climate change are forcing water-stressed areas to rely on new local sources of water supply. Under this scenario, reclamation of stormwater runoff has emerged as a source for irrigation and replenishing drinking-water groundwater reservoirs. However, urban stormwater can be a significant source of pollutants, including nutrients and organic compounds. In order to overcome the stormwater treatment system limitations, this project has developed a pilot-scale column system for passive treatment of infiltrated water using low-cost, low-energy geomedia. The objective was to provide guidance on the design and operation of systems for controlling nutrient and trace organic contaminant releases to surface waters. The work comprised of replicate column studies in the field to test stormwater treatment modules with various media, such as woodchips and biochar, using urban runoff from a watershed in Sonoma, California. Woodchip bioreactors host an endemic population of microorganisms that can be harnessed to biologically degrade nitrate. The columns amended with biochar enhance removal of organic pollutants present in stormwater through physicochemical processes (i.e., adsorption onto biochar) and biodegradation in the column through increasing retention time. The field columns were conditioned with stormwater for eight months before being spiked weekly with 50 ppb of representative trace organics. The key finding was the successful field demonstration of a novel treatment system for both the removal of nitrate and trace organics. Nitrogen removal was successful in all columns for the thirteen month experiment due to the woodchips being an effective source of carbon for denitrifying microorganisms to convert nitrate to nitrogen gases. As for the trace organics experiments, the results highlight an overall attenuation of the studied trace organic compounds by the columns containing woodchip and biochar throughout the five

  20. Near-infrared imaging system for detecting small organic foreign substances in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hiroto; Genta, Tsuneaki; Ishii, Yuya; Ishiyama, Takeshi; Arai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Contamination of foodstuffs with foreign substances is a serious problem because it often has negative effects on consumer health. However, detection of small organic substances in foods can be difficult because they are undetectable with traditional inspection apparatus. In this work, we developed new equipment that can detect small organic contaminant substances in food at high speed using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging technique. The absorption spectra of various foods were measured, and the spectra showed low absorbance at wavelengths from 600 nm to 1150 nm. Based on the observable wavelength range of a CMOS camera, which has a high dynamic range, superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with a wavelength of 830 nm were selected as light sources. We arranged 40 SLDs on a flat panel and placed a diffusion panel over them. As a result, uniformly distributed light with an intensity of 0.26 mW/cm2 illuminated an area of 6.0 cm × 6.0 cm. Insects (3 mm wide) and hairs (0.1 mm in diameter) were embedded in stacked ham slices and in chocolate, with a total thickness of 5 mm in each case, and the transmission images were observed. Both insects and hairs were clearly observed as dark shadows with high contrast. We also compensated the images by using software developed in this study to eliminate low spatial frequency components in the images and improve the sharpness and contrast. As a result, the foreign substances were more clearly distinguished in the 5-mm-thick ham.

  1. Inorganics in Organics: Tracking down the Intrinsic Equilibriums between Organic Molecules and Trace Elements in Oceanic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    Recent developments in analytical instrumentation enable to describe biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters on a molecular level. This is the prerequisite to integrate biological and geochemical parameters and to develop chemical cycles on a global perspective. The state-of-the-art Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) applications for dissolved organic matter (DOM) focus mainly on carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen isotopes. Implementation of sulfur and especially phosphorus in the molecular formula assignment has been questionable because of ambiguous calculated elemental formulas. On the other hand, many compounds bearing these elements are well known to occur in the dissolved state as part of the permanent recycling processes (e.g. phospholipids, phosphonates) but analytics of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and sulfur (DOS) are often hampered by the large inorganic P and S pools. Even less is known about complexation characteristics of the DOM moieties. Although electrochemical methods provide some information about trace metal speciation, the high amount of organic molecules and its insufficient description as chemical functional classes prevent the assignment of trace metals to ligand classes. Nevertheless, it is undoubtful that a varying but extensive amount of transition metals is bond in form of organic complexes. Hyphenation of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) is a valuable tool to study these metal-organic interactions in a qualitative and quantitative approach. We established a desolvation method that allows direct transfer of high organic solvent loads into the plasma. Thus, in combination with internal standardization and external calibration, the investigation of a broad polarity scale was possible. This approach overcomes previous restrictions to non-organic solvent separation techniques like size

  2. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  3. Atmospheric input of trace substances into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Stoffeintrag in Nord- und Ostsee ueber die Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Eppel, D; Petersen, G; Schneider, B; Weber, H; Gandrass, J; Reinhardt, K H; Wodarg, D; Fliess, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations and deposition of atmospheric trace substances were measured over the Kiel Bight and the Southern North Sea. A European longrange-transport model was used to calculate the atmospheric concentrations of trace metals and their deposition into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Natural and anthropogenic emitted element concentrations could be separated definitely by the measurements, and preferred transport directions of anthropogenic contributions could be found. Concentrations measured over the North Sea could be related to the surrounding emission areas by airmass trajectory analyses. The deposition measurements show that the main removal process is due to deposition by precipitation. Calculated and measured concentrations at several receptor points agreed well. The model results confirm the dominating role of wet deposition. It could be shown that extrapolations from measurements at coastal stations to the whole sea area tend to overestimate the total deposition into North Sea and Baltic Sea. (orig.) With 78 refs., 26 tabs., 85 figs.

  4. An attempt to characterize certain organic and mineral substances by their stable isotope composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, J.; Fontes, J.C.; Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Merlivat, L.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the relative abundance of various stable isotopes - deuterium, oxygen-18, carbon-13, nitrogen-15, sulphur-34 - can be used to characterize the origin of a water body and of an organic or mineral substance in the environment. This results from the discovery that isotopic fractioning by living organisms occurs. The stable isotope composition of any substance reflects, at least partly, the various stages of its formation. A number of examples supporting this hypothesis are given. The passage of water through plants, or alcoholic fermentation, substantially modifies the stable isotope composition of water. The assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide involves a reduction in the carbon-13 content which varies depending on the enzymatic mechanism of photosynthesis. The enzymatic reactions that cause the biosynthesis of various organic substances in higher plants are accompanied by partial exclusion of deuterium, an exclusion which is greater or smaller depending on the biosynthesis pathway followed. The bacterial reduction of sulphur compounds involves a high rate of isotopic fractioning. As a result, industrial sulphates obtained by oxidation of reduced sulphur associated with hydrocarbon deposits are depleted in 34 S in comparison with natural sulphates. Similarly, the authors have observed that nitrates produced by the plant biological cycle are rich in nitrogen-15 compared to synthesized nitrates

  5. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals and Organic Matter in Marine Lake as In Situ Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, M.; Fiket, Ž.; Cuculić, V.; Cukrov, N.; Geček, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine lakes are unique, isolated marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. Impact of organic matter cycling on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters and organic matter concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high organic carbon concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and high proportion of organic matter (up to 9%) and inorganic phases, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. Surrounding karstic background, with occasional occurrences of red soil characterize deposited sediments as coarse grained and carbonate rich, whose elemental composition is affected by bathymetry of the basin and overall biological production.

  6. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  7. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  8. Effect of trace element addition and increasing organic loading rates on the anaerobic digestion of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K; Harris, Peter W; Lee, Seonmi

    2018-05-18

    In this study, anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater with the addition of trace elements was monitored for biogas quantity, quality and process stability using CSTR digesters operated at mesophilic temperature. The determination of trace element concentrations was shown to be deficient in Fe, Ni, Co, Mn and Mo compared to recommendations given in the literature. Addition of these trace elements resulted in enhanced degradation efficiency, higher biogas production and improved process stability. Higher organic loading rates and lower hydraulic retention times were achieved in comparison to the control digesters. A critical accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed at an organic loading rate of 1.82 g L -1  d -1 in the control compared to 2.36 g L -1  d -1 in the digesters with trace element addition. The improved process stability was evident in the final weeks of experimentation, in which control reactors produced 84% less biogas per day compared to the reactors containing trace elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracing organic matter sources of estuarine tidal flat nematodes with stable carbon isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Luyten, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study explores the use of stable carbon isotopes to trace organic matter sources of intertidal nematodes in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Stable carbon isotope signatures of nematodes from a saltmarsh and 4 tidal flat stations were determined in spring and winter situations, and

  10. Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of trace organic carbon on biological treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino

    2017-09-01

    The presence of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter (DOM) could have a significant effect on the adsorption mechanism and capacity of the sludge for many trace organic carbons (TrOCs). In this study, adsorption of three TrOCs on the sludge and HA was investigated. The results revealed that neutral hydrophilic compounds had an insignificant interaction with both sludge and HA. Positively charged compounds, such as fluoranthene, had more affinity toward HA than sludge with solid/liquid partitioning of 57 and 3.2 L/g, respectively. The adsorption intensity (K f ) of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate was 0.5 and 1.13 for the HA and the sludge, respectively. By introducing the sludge to the solution of HA and TrOCs that already reached equilibrium, the sludge adsorption capacity in the presence of HA was investigated. The finding showed that at the lower concentration, adsorption of HA on the sludge was considered as the main removal pathway for the adsorbed emerging contaminants, as 70 mg of HA was adsorbed by a gram of sludge. For the higher concentration, desorption of TrOCs from DOM into the sludge comprised 15-30% of total removal efficiency. CBZ: carbamazepine; DEHP: di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate; DOM: dissolved organic matter; FLAN: fluoranthene; f oc : fraction of organic carbon; HA: humic acid; Log Kow: octanol-water partition coefficient; PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon TS: total solid; TrOCs: trace organic carbons VS: volatile solid.

  11. Absorption features of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and tracing implication for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Changjiang Estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X. Y.; Chen, X.; Deng, H.; Du, Y.; Jin, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Studies have shown that the optical properties of CDOM can be used to infer the distribution and diffusion characteristics of DOC in the estuary and coastal zone. The inversion of DOC concentrations from remote sensing has been implemented in certain regions. In this study we investigate the potential of tracing DOC from CDOM by the measure...

  12. The effect of humus on biological cleaning of soils - association of harmful organic substances from mineral oil contaminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richnow, H.H.; Seifert, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1993-01-01

    The association of organic harmful substances and particularly their metabolites with the humin fraction is a process which has great ecological importance. The knowledge of the type and extent of such associations of harmful substances with the humin fraction of the soil plays a central part in the assessment of loading by harmful substances or the success of biological cleaning up measures. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kigawa, Akiko; Tateishi, Tsuneo; Iso, Katsuaki; Kimura, Toshio; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1987-01-01

    D values of B. pumilus spores suspended in water have been shown to increase in the presence of some coexisting organic substances. For elucidation of a mechanism or mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon, D-values of B.p. spores were examined by suspending them in aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of ethanol, glycerin, inulin and PVA. All these substances showed abrupt changes in D value at a narrow concentration range of 1 - 10 weight ppm. Solutions containing these substances at their lower limit concentrations and upper limit were prepared, sealed in incubator bottles leaving no air layer and irradiated at 0.7 Mrad with γ-rays. Winkler's method was used for the determination of oxygen concentrations in these solutions. The initial concentration of dissolved oxygen was 8.2 ppm. After irradiation, 3 - 5 ppm of oxygen remained in those solutions containing the lower limit (1 ppm), whereas only less than 0.5 ppm in those containing the upper limits, 2.5 ppm of ethanol, 5 ppm of PVA and 10 ppm each of glycerin and inulin. Therefore, the observed effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of B. pumilus can be explained by the so-called ''oxygen effect''. (author)

  14. Extraction of scandium by organic substance melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.P.; Lobanov, F.I.; Zebreva, A.I.; Andreeva, N.N.; Manuilova, O.A.; Il'yukevich, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities of scandium extraction by the melts of octadecanicoic acid, n-carbonic acids of C 17 -C 20 commerical fraction and mixtures of tributylphosphate (TBP) with paraffin at (70+-1) deg C have been studied. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction in the melt of organic substances are determined. A scheme of the extraction by the melts of higher carbonic acids at ninitial metal concentrations of 10 -5 to 10 -3 mol/l has been suggested. The scandium compound has been isolated in solid form, its composition having been determined. The main advantages of extraction by melts are as follows: a possibility to attain high distribution coefficients, distinct separation of phases after extraction, the absence of emulsions, elimination of employing inflammable and toxic solvents, a possibility of rapid X-ray fluorescence determinatinon of scandium directly in solid extract

  15. Direct measurement of the fluorescence characteristics of aquatic humic substances by a three-dimensional fluorescence spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya; Senoo, Muneaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hiraki, Keizo.

    1997-01-01

    Humic substances play an important role in the transport of trace metals and insoluble organic materials. They are also considered to be precursors of trihalomethane in aquatic environments. The direct measurement of humic substances was carried out with a three-dimensional fluorescence spectrophotometer after filtering natural-water samples through a GF/F glass fiber filter. Because the influence of the humic concentration, pH and ionic strength on the three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectra is negligible, the proposed method can be directly applied to the characterization of humic substances in freshwater samples (humic concentration 0.5-10 mg 1 -1 , pH6-9 and ionic strength <0.04 M) and sea-water samples (ionic strength 0.75 M). Humic substances in river, lake and pore water samples exhibit 2-3 peaks at excitation 305-340 nm/emission 415-440 nm and excitation 250-270 nm/emission 440-450 nm. These peak positions correspond to those of fulvic acids isolated from soil. (author)

  16. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radionuclides in marine organisms (particularly Tapes decussatus L.) in the Izmir bay area, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.; Uysal, H.

    1976-01-01

    The shell fish Tapes decussatus has economic importance as a product from Izmir bay. The concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Hg, Cd) in this organism have been determined in relation to different localities with polluted and non-polluted waters. Measurement of levels and trends of these trace elements are important in the context of public health. Seasonal as well as spatial variation of 65 Zn and 115 Cd in the organs and tissues of T. decussatus were determined. A comparison of the concentration of trace elements in natural conditions with that in laboratory conditions was made using radioisotopes. The concentrations of trace elements in T. decussatus varied according to the tissues and organs of the body, the size of the animal, the locality of sampling and the season of the year. Bio-concentrations of radioactive 65 Zn and 115 Cd were also observed to vary according to the tissues and organs of the animal. Pathways of the trace elements were also studied using radioisotopes ( 65 Zn and 115 Cd). The effects of toxicity of the stable elements on their uptake and loss were also determined. The toxic effects of different concentrations on the uptake and loss of 65 Zn and 115 Cd were studied. (author)

  17. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.; Wing, A.D.; Alidina, M.; Drewes, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory

  18. Use of carbon-14 in soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimal, O.P.; Kamath, M.B.

    1974-01-01

    Despite a great deal of research work on various aspects of soil organic matter, there are many gaps in the knowledge of the process of humus formation. These limitations arise mainly from the complex and heterogenous nature of soil humus substances, analytical problems in separating the fresh and decomposable materials from the old stabilized true humus substances and the lack of a clear understanding of the chemical structure of the humic acid molecule. During recent years, the use of carbon-14 has helped to trace within soil, transformation of a number of metabolites upto the point where they turn into humus. These studies have changed the concepts of the formation and stability of soil humus substances, their colloidal chemical properties and the uptake of organomolecules by plant roots. The present paper presents a synoptic view of the use of radiocarbon in studying the kinetics of humification, nature of precursors in humic acid formation, turnover of soil organic matter and the direct effects of humus substances on plant growth. (author)

  19. Estimation of Properties of Pure Organic Substances with Group and Pair Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.S. Ourique

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTbstract - This work presents a new predictive method for the estimation of properties of pure organic substances. Each compound is assigned a molecular graph or an adjacency matrix representing its chemical structure, from which properties are then obtained as a summation of all contributions associated with functional groups and chemically bonded pairs of groups. The proposed technique is applied to the estimation of critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and normal boiling point of 325 organic compounds from different chemical species. Accurate predictions based solely on chemical structure are obtained

  20. Separation of organic compounds binding trace elements in seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (Willd.)DC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 619-625 ISSN 0268-2605 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : trace elements * sequential analysis * Leuzea carthamoides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.385, year: 2004

  1. [Designer drugs and caffeine - characteristics of psychoactive substances and their impact on the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2014-01-01

    For many teenagers the time of growing up is a period of trying prohibited substances. Nowadays apart from alcohol and tobacco new designed, psychoactive substances known as "smart drugs" or "legal highs" are available. Intensive development of their market is taking place in the last few years which is difficult to overcome by regulations only. Toxicological tests used now are not able to detect the presence of many such substances in the body. Designer drugs cause the interest of young people even from small towns and many times taking them give effects requiring medical help. Caffeine is also a psychoactive substance but depending on the dose it can have positive or detrimental effect. Recently there are more and more products with caffeine, especially drinks and dietary supplements, what can cause the increase of consumption of caffeine. Children are particularly exposed to the adverse effect of high consumption of caffeine because of their small body weight and development of the central nervous system. This article presents actual data about the market of designer drugs, frequency of using them, consumption of caffeine by children and teenagers and about the impact of these substances on the organism.

  2. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied. (orig.) [de

  3. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, S; Gessner, M; Wolf, R H.H. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied.

  4. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds as...

  5. Interaction of plutonium with complexing substances in soils and natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Reynolds, S.A.; Shanks, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    The reactions of Pu with selected organic substances found in the environment have been studied to evaluate the valence and metalcomplex behaviour of Pu. Hexavalent Pu (and by inference pentavalent Pu) was unstable in the presence of fulvic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and alginic acid. Citrate-Pu(VI) complexes, however, were relatively more stable. Plutonium (IV) was the most stable valence upon interaction with these organics. Further reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) occurred by fulvic and humic acids. The reduction, under aerobic conditions, does not appear to occur above pH 3.1. The reduction mechanisms is probably similar to the Fe(III) reduction previously documented for phenolic humic substances. Data are presented that demonstrate that Pu is at least partially associated with humic materials in ORNL soil contaminated 30 years ago with trace levels of Pu. Desorption studies using solid exchange resins also showed that, while a cation exchange resin did not desorb Pu from soil after 14 weeks equilibration, chelating resin effected Pu desorption. The desorption rate was not constant, suggesting differential Pu forms. While the resin-extractable Pu was believed to originate from solid-phase organic complexes, over 80% of the Pu in this soil was not readily resin-desorbable. This indicates that more inert soil-Pu reaction products effectively immobilize soil Pu. Some of these associations also appear to be organic. (author)

  6. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na + , Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - , and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author)

  7. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  8. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  9. Differential Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Mobilization of Soil-Borne Arsenic and Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia

    2017-08-21

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As. Apart from acidification and complexation, reductive dissolution played a dominant role in the dissolution of iron oxides in the presence of oxalic acid, while acidification tended to be more important for dissolving iron oxides in the presence of other organic acids. The unique capacity of oxalic acid to solubilize iron oxides tended to affect the mobilization of other elements in different ways. For Cu, Mn, and Zn, acidification-driven mobilization was likely to be dominant while complexation might play a major role in Pb mobilization. The formation of soluble Fe and Pb oxalate complexes could effectively prevent arsenate or arsenite from combining with these metals to form solid phases of Fe or Pb arsenate or arsenite.

  10. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A.; Gianini, M. F. D.; Mohr, C.; Furger, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Minguillón, M. C.; Lienemann, P.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-09-01

    Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1-0.1, PM2.5-1 and PM10-2.5): secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate), hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic) and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  11. Definition of new trace-metal proxies for the controls on organic matter enrichment in marine sediments based on Mn, Co, Mo and Cd concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweere, T.; Van den Boorn, S.; Dickson, A.J.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace metal enrichments in sedimentary deposits are of prime interest because they are governed by processes that also control the production and preservation of organic matter. Consequently, trace metals have been used in reconstructions of the (palaeo)depositional environment of organic-rich

  12. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-08-01

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  13. Physical-mathematical model for cybernetic description of the human organs with trace element concentrations as input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report a physical-mathematical model for studying the organs and humans fluids by cybernetic principle. The input variables represent the trace elements which are determined by atomic and nuclear methods of elemental analysis. We have determined the health limits between which the organs might function. (authors)

  14. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors.

  15. Enhancement of sensitivity in the determination of organic trace compounds in complex matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascher, D.G.

    2002-05-01

    The PhD-thesis deals with 'enhancement of sensitivity in the determination of organic trace compounds in complex matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)'. Almost the most important factor is the enhancement of the ionization yield with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) or Electrospray Ionization (ESI) in LC-MS. Ionization yields of different compounds can vary by a factor of 10000. Three ways to solve this problem of little ionization yield were tried: 1) Modification of the mobile phase in HPLC 2) Chemical modification of the analytes 3) A new type of ionization called Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionization (APPI). ad 1) By using specific additives to mobile phases ion suppression that might derive from an ion pair reagent that was necessary for chromatography could be omitted. General remarks cannot be done. ad 2) Chemical modification or so called derivatization is well known for UV- and fluorescence-detection for a long period of time. As substances containing nitrogene (e.g. primary, secondary or tertiary amines) often have good ionization yields, poor or relatively poor ionizable substances like carboxylic acids, sugars and partially phenolic steroids were used as analytes for derivatization reactions. By using Dansyl as Dansylchlorid or Dansylhydrazine a basic derivatization agent could be found that ionizes very well. A 200 times more sensitive determination of estrogenes is possible after derivatization with Dansylchlorid. Using a tandem-mass-spectrometer a lower limit of quantification of 2 pg/mL plasma could be reached by using 1 mL of plasma. For ketones like carvon and campher an enhancement by a factor of 500 and 4000 could be reached by using Dansylhydrazine as the derivatization agent. For fatty acids DMEQ as derivatization agent enhanced the sensitivity by a factor of 20 to 100. ad 3) APPI as a new ionization mode showed really good results for specific molecules. Relatively unpolar substances as diphenylsulfide

  16. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhu Hongda; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate internal dose and derive annual limits of intake for radionuclides in the field of Radiation Protection, it is necessary to study the parameters of ingestion of radionuclides from diet, deposition in tissues and following metabolism of the radionuclides. But these kinds of parameters may be influenced by intake of nutrients and inorganic constituents of diets, for example, a relatively higher uptake rate and longer retention time of radioiodine in thyroid of person who's diet poor of stable iodine. So there is a need to have accurate knowledge of corresponding stable elements intake and their concentration in organs, especially for some trace elements of importance in radiological protection such as Caesium, Iodine, Strontium, Thorium and Uranium. A IAEA RCA CRP on 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological protection' was formulated in 1995 and initiated after the first RCM CRP on the project, held in Manila, Philippine 1-4 July 1996. This is the progress report for studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection after the first RCM

  17. Tuning the performance of a natural treatment process using metagenomics for improved trace organic chemical attenuation

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg; Li, Dong; Regnery, Julia; Alidina, Mazahirali; Wing, Alexandredavid; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    removal of trace organic chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). Increasing the humic content of the primary substrate resulted in higher microbial diversity. Lower concentrations and a higher humic content of the primary substrate promoted the attenuation

  18. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  19. Tracing the Origins of Nitrogen Bearing Organics Toward Orion KL with Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brandon; Crockett, Nathan; Wilkins, Olivia H.; Bergin, Edwin; Blake, Geoffrey

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis of a broadband 1.2 THz wide spectral survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) has shown that nitrogen bearing complex organics trace systematically hotter gas than O-bearing organics toward this source. The origin of this O/N dichotomy remains a mystery. If complex molecules originate from grain surfaces, N-bearing species may be more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing organics. Theoretical studies, however, have shown that hot (T=300 K) gas phase chemistry can produce high abundances of N-bearing organics while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex molecules. In order to distinguish these distinct formation pathways we have obtained extremely high angular resolution observations of methyl cyanide (CH_3CN) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward Orion KL. By simultaneously imaging ^{13}CH_3CN and CH_2DCN we map the temperature structure and D/H ratio of CH_3CN. We will present updated results of these observations and discuss their implications for the formation of N-bearing organics in the interstellar medium.

  20. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  1. Characterization of an organ-specific differentiator substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, V.E.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize a diffusible brain inhibitory substance, to elucidate its role in the maintenance of anterior-posterior polarity during head or tail regeneration, and to utilize its action in measuring the differentiative integrity of the stem cells following x-irradiation. Crude, cell-free homogenates of whole planarians (Dugesia etrusca) were centrifuged, Millipore filtered, ultrafiltered using Dow Hollow Fibers, chromatographed using Sephadex and Bio-Gel gel filtration media, electrophoresed using a continuous flow paper electrophoresis apparatus, digested by various enzymatic procedures, and ion focused using LKB Ampholine Electrofocusing equipment. The activities of the various fractions were assayed by placing decapitated planarians in the fractions, then, after nine days the resultant regenerated brain volumes were measured. In order to measure the effect that this substance has on the post-irradiation survival of both the whole animal and the differentiative integrity of the stem cells, x-irradiated planarians were decapitated and allowed to regenerate with or without addition of the inhibitory substance. The inhibitory activity is destroyed when the extract is treated with Pronase, but remains unaffected when treated with RNase, DNase, or Lipase. The inhibitory substance migrates toward the positive electrode when electrophoresed, and has an isoelectric point of between pH 4.75 and 5.38 when isoelectrically focused

  2. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author).

  3. Preconcentration of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu. A.; Kuz'min, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph deals with the theory and practical applications of trace metals preconcentration. It gives general characteristics of the process and describes in detail the methods of preconcentration: solvent extraction, sorption, co-precipitation, volatilization, and others. Special attention is given to preconcentration in combination with subsequent determination methods. The use of preconcentration in analysis of environmental and biological samples, mineral raw materials, high purity substances, and various industrial materials is also considered

  4. Potential Trace Metal–Organic Complexation in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okochi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible that metal–organic complexation enhances the uptake of gaseous organic compounds and the solubility of metals in aerosols and atmospheric water. We investigated potential atmospheric organic ligands and the enhanced uptake of hydroxy-, oxo-, and dicarboxylic acids as well as dicarbonyls into atmospheric aqueous aerosol. We examined complexation with transition metals (iron, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead on the basis of available references and our experimental data. Humic-like substances are most likely ligands in the atmosphere, although this is a poorly characterized material. A number of polycarboxylic acids and hydroxy forms (e.g., citric and tartronic acids effectively complex metals such as copper in atmospheric aerosols. The simple equilibrium model calculations show that the effect of the complexation on the gas–aqueous phase partition of gaseous atmospheric ligands is quite small for the ligands with the high physical Henry’s law constants, e.g., dicarboxylic acids represented by oxalic acid, even if they have high affinity with metal ions. The lower Henry’s law constants of the α-dicarbonyls, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, mean that the complexation could lead to profound increases in their partition into the aqueous phase. Despite quantum mechanical arguments for copper–glyoxal complexes, experiments showed no evidence of complexation between either hydrated or unhydrated α-dicarbonyls and the cupric ion. By contrast the β-dicarbonyl, malondialdehyde, has properties that would allow it to partition into atmospheric water via the complexation with metal ions under some conditions.

  5. The importance of radiochemistry and indicator methods for the chemistry of traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Majer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivity is compared for common chemical methods with respect to nonradioactive materials and methods for determining trace amounts of radioactive substances. The concept of trace amounts is explained and some other notions and terms are discussed from the point of view of chemistry and radiochemistry. The problem of radiation effect is briefly assessed on a sample of material containing trace amounts of a radionuclide and the isotopic effect problem in hydrogen is treated. (M.S.)

  6. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zielinski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  7. Symposium on refractory organic substances in the environment - Rose II. Abstracts of oral and poster papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimmel, F H; Abbt-Braun, G [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Again the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has generously supported the 25 research projects working together on Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment (ROSE). Numerous researchers from universities and research institutes all over Germany focused upon the characterization of refractory organic material from brown water, soil seepage water as well as treated and untreated waste water through the compilation of analytical and biochemical data on the genesis and transformation of the isolated organic material and its interactions with other water constituents. (orig.)

  8. Importance of nitrogen in the decomposition of various organic substances in the Bihugas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Bruene, H

    1955-01-01

    About 30 percent of the organic matter is decomposed during the fermentation process, 20-25 percent of the organic N being mineralized to NH/sub 3/. Trials with straw, sisal, peat, etc., showed that additional mineral N promotes the fermentation process of substances which decompose rapidly or are poor in easily available N compounds, except potato starch which decomposes without any notable fixation of N. Results did not confirm claims on the beneficial effects of hormone preparations and on killing of pathogenic typhus-enteritis bacteria during fermentation.

  9. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  10. Altitude dependence of trace substance deposition from clouds to forests. Final report; Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Spurenstoffdeposition durch Wolken auf Waelder. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahl, S.; Winkler, P.

    1995-12-31

    Novel forest decline is particularly pronounced in the area of the ridges of medium-range mountains. Whereas acid precipitation was viewed as its sole cause early on in the discussions, it turned out later that the impact of trace gases, too, contributes to the damaging of forests. This report wants to point out the importance of fog interception, which equally plays a part in the pollutant receipts of forests. The deposition of fog water to a forest stand depends very much on altitude, so that trace substance deposition, too, is to be expected to be dependent on altitude. By attempting to quantify this effect, the report helps to pinpoint areas of relevance of this deposition pathway (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die neuartigen Waldschaeden sind in den Kammlagen der Mittelgebirge besonders ausgepraegt. Waehrend in der anfaenglichen Diskussion die sauren Niederschlaege als alleinige Ursache angesehen wurden, zeigte sich spaeter, dass auch Einwirkungen von Spurengasen zur Schaedigung des Waldes beitragen. Dieser Bericht soll auf die Bedeutung der Nebelinterzeption aufmerksam machen, die ebenfalls zum Schadstoffeintrag in den Wald beitraegt. Die Deposition von Wolkenwasser auf einen Waldbestand ist stark abhaengig von der Hoehenlage, in der sich der Waldbestand befindet, so dass auch eine Hoehenabhaengigkeit des Spurenstoffeintrages zu erwarten ist. Durch den Versuch der Quantifizierung traegt dieser Bericht dazu bei, Gebiete zu erkennen, in denen dieser Eintragspfad eine Rolle spielt. (orig./KW)

  11. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  12. A review on the application of constructed wetlands for the removal of priority substances and contaminants of emerging concern listed in recently launched EU legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorito, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Ana R.; Almeida, C.M.R.; Silva, Adrián M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment, usually found at trace concentrations (i.e., between ng L −1 and μg L −1 or even lower, known as micropollutants), has been highlighted in recent decades as a worldwide environmental concern due to their difficult elimination by conventional water and wastewater treatment processes. The relevant information on constructed wetlands (CWs) and their application for the removal of a specific group of pollutants, 41 organic priority substances/classes of substances (PSs) and 8 certain other substances with environmental quality standards (EQS) listed in Directive 2013/39/EU as well as 17 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, is herein reviewed. Studies were found for 24 PSs and 2 other substances with EQS: octylphenol, nonylphenol, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloromethane, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, pentachlorobenzene, benzene, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, naphthalene, fluoranthene, trifluralin, alachlor, isoproturon, diuron, tributyltin compounds, simazine, atrazine, chlorpyrifos (chlorpyrifos-ethyl), chlorfenvinphos, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (or DDT) and dieldrin. A few reports were also published for 8 CECs: imidacloprid, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, diclofenac, estrone, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol. No references were found for the other 17 PSs, 6 certain other substances with EQS and 9 CECs listed in EU legislation. - Highlights: • Directive 2013/39/EU includes 41 organic priority substances/classes of substances. • Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU defines 17 contaminants of emerging concern. • Removal of these water micropollutants by constructed wetlands (CWs) is reviewed. • The need to study removal by CWs of more of these substances is emphasized. • More works with realistic concentrations

  13. Radiation-chemical degradation of traces of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Proksch, E.; Szinovatz, W.; Eschweiler, H.

    1986-01-01

    The degradation caused by gamma irradiation of traces of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene in certain water samples has been investigated over a wide range of concentrations. In general, the degradation is the slower, the higher the concentration of organic and inorganic substances (especially of nitrates) dissolved in the respective water. For pollutant concentrations up to about 500 ppb and for drinking water with rather low nitrate content (some ppm) the degradation follows a first-order rate law. For higher concentrations of pollutants or/and nitrates a much more complex behaviour is observed. In general, perchloroethylene is degraded slower than trichloroethylene. During degradation, organic chlorine is converted quantitatively to chloride ions. Unfortunately, as a side reaction nitrate is partially reduced to nitrite. Except for that, first rough estimates resulted in costs which seem to render such a process economically quite attractive. (orig.) [de

  14. Investigation on trace elements in crude oil and organic matter extracted from rocks with instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zuguo; Chai Zhifang

    1990-01-01

    Solvent extraction, column chromatography and instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) have been used to investigate the trace elements in crude oil, organic matter extracted from rocks and their related fractions. With these methods, about 70 crude oil samples from eight different oil fields in China and 6 extracted asphaltene samples of the lower paleozoic from the upper Yangtze region have been analyzed, and about 40 elements of interest have been determined. Those elements include Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, Ir, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Zn, V and parts of REE. The experimental results show that the method possesses several advantages, i.e. non-destructive, multi-elements, sensitive, precise and accurate. Without ashing samples, the loss of volatile elements such as Cl, S, Se and Sb are avoided. The column chromatography makes it possible to study the distributions of trace elements in different fractions of crude oil and organic matter extracted. Meanwhile, the characters of trace elements in them have also been discussed

  15. Behaviour of trace element concentration in human organs in dependence of age and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Schicha, H.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behaviour of trace elements in dependence of age and environment, samples of skin, lung, heart, aorta, kidney, liver and brain were assayed for concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sc, Sb, Cs, Al and partly Eu. All samples were dried at 100 deg C for two days. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine the element concentrations. The neutron flux was 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After decay of the short lived radioisotopes, the Al-concentration was measured following a second irradiation of 1 minute and directly comparing with a standard sample. Nearly all element concentrations changed with processing age, but they showed no clear correlation to either parameter assessed. The non-essential elements Se, Sb and Sc were increasingly concentrated in all organs except the skin. Comparing lung samples of patients from highly industrialized regions with those of lesser industrialization, the elements Sc, Al, Sb, Eu and Co were accumulated by a factor of 10 to 100. Thus the concentrations of trace elements in human organism also depend on the degree of industrialization. (T.G.)

  16. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Siegrist, Robert L; Barber, Larry B; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  17. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhu Hongda; Chen Rusong

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure the representative sampling for ingestion study a sampling strategy that took account of all relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic variables was devised by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, CAPM for the first total diet study in China. Total diet samples was prepared as 'market basket' samples. Based on the information of food consumption, composition and cookery obtained by the diet consumption survey, the 12 categories of food were collected from nearby markets and cooked by local cookery. For investigation the relationship between elements intake and organ content the specimens for organ content study will be collected from the subjects of sudden death inhabited in the region where the diet samples to be collected for ingestion study. The analytical technique that will be used to determine trace elements of interest in specimens of diet and organs have been proposed, for I that is ENAA, for Cs and Sr that is FAAS or ICP-MS, and for U and Th that is ICP-MS. At last the report summarized the information on trace element content of drinking water supplies in China. (author)

  19. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  20. Air pollution patterns in two cities of Colombia, S. A. according to trace substances content of an epiphyte (Tillandsia recurvata L. ). [Tillandsia recurvata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpff, E.

    1984-01-01

    The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: Zn and the PAH; BHCs, endrine and DDTs; Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.

  1. Humic Substances in waters for supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Valero, Miller; Cruz Torres, Luis Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The humic substances make part of the degradation products of the organic matter of the soil and they are incorporate to the superficial waters for the action of laundry that they carry out by the superficial waters. These substances have been recognized as precursors in the formation of the disinfections sub-products, with free chlorine in treatment of drinkable water plants. The disinfections sub-product and the compound organic halogens, they have been classified potentially in human as cancerigenic substances, and therefore the interest in knowing more about the precursors substances, mechanisms of formation of disinfections sub-products, national situation and methods to diminish their formation

  2. Investigating the role for adaptation of the microbial community to transform trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether adaptation by pre-exposure to trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was necessary for microbial transformation during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Two pairs of laboratory-scale soil columns, each

  3. Tracing the long-term microbial production of recalcitrant fluorescent dissolved organic matter in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin A.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean is resistant to microbial degradation, yet its formation remains poorly understood. The fluorescent fraction of DOM can be used to trace the formation of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM). A long-term (> 1 year) experiment revealed 27–52% removal...... of dissolved organic carbon and a nonlinear increase in RDOM fluorescence associated with microbial turnover of semilabile DOM. This fluorescence was also produced using glucose as the only initial carbon source, suggesting that degradation of prokaryote remnants contributes to RDOM. Our results indicate...... that the formation of a fluorescent RDOM component depends on the bioavailability of the substrate: the less labile, the larger the production of fluorescent RDOM relative to organic carbon remineralized. The anticipated increase in microbial carbon demand due to ocean warming can potentially forcemicrobes...

  4. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil

  5. Humic substances-part 7: the biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon and its interactions with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcal, Petr; Koprivnjak, Jean-François; Molot, Lewis A; Dillon, Peter J

    2009-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter, measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is an important component of aquatic ecosystems and of the global carbon cycle. It is known that changes in DOC quality and quantity are likely to have ecological repercussions. This review has four goals: (1) to discuss potential mechanisms responsible for recent changes in aquatic DOC concentrations; (2) to provide a comprehensive overview of the interactions between DOC, nutrients, and trace metals in mainly boreal environments; (3) to explore the impact of climate change on DOC and the subsequent effects on nutrients and trace metals; and (4) to explore the potential impact of DOC cycling on climate change. We review recent research on the mechanisms responsible for recent changes in aquatic DOC concentrations, DOC interactions with trace metals, N, and P, and on the possible impacts of climate change on DOC in mainly boreal lakes. We then speculate on how climate change may affect DOC export and in-lake processing and how these changes might alter nutrient and metal export and processing. Furthermore, the potential impacts of changing DOC cycling patterns on climate change are examined. It has been noted that DOC concentrations in lake and stream waters have increased during the last 30 years across much of Europe and North America. The potential reasons for this increase include increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration, climate warming, continued N deposition, decreased sulfate deposition, and hydrological changes due to increased precipitation, droughts, and land use changes. Any change in DOC concentrations and properties in lakes and streams will also impact the acid-base chemistry of these waters and, presumably, the biological, chemical, and photochemical reactions taking place. For example, the interaction of trace metals with DOC may be significantly altered by climate change as organically complexed metals such as Cu, Fe, and Al are released during photo-oxidation of DOC. The

  6. Selection of organic process and source indicator substances for the anthropogenically influenced water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Martin; Dott, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel; Dünnbier, Uwe; Gnirß, Regina; Haist-Gulde, Brigitte; Hamscher, Gerd; Letzel, Marion; Licha, Tobias; Lyko, Sven; Miehe, Ulf; Sacher, Frank; Scheurer, Marco; Schmidt, Carsten K; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of organic micropollutants (OMP) is detected in anthropogenically influenced water cycles. Source control and effective natural and technical barriers are essential to maintain a high quality of drinking water resources under these circumstances. Based on the literature and our own research this study proposes a limited number of OMP that can serve as indicator substances for the major sources of OMP, such as wastewater treatment plants, agriculture and surface runoff. Furthermore functional indicators are proposed that allow assessment of the proper function of natural and technical barriers in the aquatic environment, namely conventional municipal wastewater treatment, advanced treatment (ozonation, activated carbon), bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment as well as self-purification in surface water. These indicator substances include the artificial sweetener acesulfame, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole and the herbicide mecoprop among others. The chemical indicator substances are intended to support comparisons between watersheds and technical and natural processes independent of specific water cycles and to reduce efforts and costs of chemical analyses without losing essential information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace detection of organic compounds in complex sample matrixes by single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry: real-time detection of security-relevant compounds and online analysis of the coffee-roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Kürten, Andreas; Hölzer, Jasper; Mitschke, Stefan; Mühlberger, Fabian; Sklorz, Martin; Wieser, Jochen; Ulrich, Andreas; Pütz, Michael; Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Schultze, Rainer; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    An in-house-built ion trap mass spectrometer combined with a soft ionization source has been set up and tested. As ionization source, an electron beam pumped vacuum UV (VUV) excimer lamp (EBEL) was used for single-photon ionization. It was shown that soft ionization allows the reduction of fragmentation of the target analytes and the suppression of most matrix components. Therefore, the combination of photon ionization with the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability of an ion trap yields a powerful tool for molecular ion peak detection and identification of organic trace compounds in complex matrixes. This setup was successfully tested for two different applications. The first one is the detection of security-relevant substances like explosives, narcotics, and chemical warfare agents. One test substance from each of these groups was chosen and detected successfully with single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (SPI-ITMS) MS/MS measurements. Additionally, first tests were performed, demonstrating that this method is not influenced by matrix compounds. The second field of application is the detection of process gases. Here, exhaust gas from coffee roasting was analyzed in real time, and some of its compounds were identified using MS/MS studies.

  8. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ"1"5N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  9. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  10. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  11. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  12. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  13. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  14. Impact de quelques substances polluantes (éléments traces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les 2 principaux axes canoniques de cette ACC qui renseignent le plus sur la relation entre les vers de terre et les substances polluantes (ETM et HAP) ont été défini par le plomb, le thallium, le cuivre et le nickel. Conclusion et applications des résultats: Le long des bordures de l'autoroute du Nord en Côte d'Ivoire, les ETM ...

  15. Priority Substances and Emerging Organic Pollutants in Portuguese Aquatic Environment: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    Aquatic environments are among the most noteworthy ecosystems regarding chemical pollution due to the anthropogenic pressure. In 2000, the European Commission implemented the Water Framework Directive, with the aim of progressively reducing aquatic chemical pollution of the European Union countries. Therefore, the knowledge about the chemical and ecological status is imperative to determine the overall quality of water bodies. Concerning Portugal, some studies have demonstrated the presence of pollutants in the aquatic environment but an overall report is not available yet. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review about the occurrence of priority substances included in the Water Framework Directive and some classes of emerging organic pollutants that have been found in Portuguese aquatic environment. The most frequently studied compounds comprise industrial compounds, natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Concentration of these pollutants ranged from few ng L(-1) to higher values such as 30 μg L(-1) for industrial compounds in surface waters and up to 106 μg L(-1) for the pharmaceutical ibuprofen in wastewaters. Compounds already banned in Europe such as atrazine, alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates are still found in surface waters, nevertheless their origin is still poorly understood. Beyond the contamination of the Portuguese aquatic environment by priority substances and emerging organic pollutants, this review also highlights the need of more research on other classes of pollutants and emphasizes the importance of extending this research to other locations in Portugal, which have not been investigated yet.

  16. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  17. Rheological online determination of the organic dry substance concentration of sewage sludge; Rheologische online Bestimmung des oTS-Gehalts von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Boehm, A.; Fessler, J.; Liebelt, U. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Traegner, U. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In order to adjust the filter cake to a certain calorific value and to enhance the dehydratability of sludge, ash, carbon and flocculation agents are added to the latter prior to filtration. Dosage of the additives depends on the sludge's content of organic solids, determined in the form of the so-called organic dry substance concentration. In bench-scale and technical-scale experiments on the rheological properties of sewage sludge, a correlation between organic dry substance concentration and rheological properties, especially the liquid limit of sewage sludge, was established. This knowledge was used to develop a measuring technique for online determination of organic dry substance concentration by means of rheology. (orig.) [German] Zur Einstellung eines bestimmten Heizwertes des Filterkuchens und zur Verbesserung der Entwaesserbarkeit werden dem Schlamm vor der Filtration Asche, Kohle und Flockungsmittel zugegeben. Die Dosierung der Zuschlagsstoffe erfolgt in Abhaengigkeit vom Gehalt des Schlamms an organischem Feststoff, bestimmt in Form der sog. oTS-Konzentration. In Labor- und Betriebsversuchen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Klaerschlamm konnte eine Korrelation zwischen der oTS-Konzentration und den Fliesseigenschaften, insbesondere der Fliessgrenze von Klaerschlamm ermittelt werden. Diese Erkenntnis wurde in ein Messverfahren zur online-Bestimmung der oTS-Konzentration mittels Rheologie umgesetzt. (orig.)

  18. Exploring Diversification as A Management Strategy in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) creates both environmental uncertainties and opportunities for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers. One managerial response to uncertainties and emergent opportunities is strategic diversification of various dimensions of organizational activity. This paper explored organizational outcomes related to diversification of funding sources, services offered, and referral sources in a national sample of 590 SUD treatment organizations. Funding diversification was related to higher average levels of census, organization size, and recent expansion of operations. Service diversification was related to higher average levels of use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT), organization size, and expansion. Referral source diversification was related only to greater average use of MAT. Overall, strategic diversification in the three areas explored was related to positive organizational outcomes. Considering alternative strategies of diversification may help position SUD treatment centers to deliver more innovative treatments such as MAT as well as enhance capacity to satisfy current unmet treatment needs of individuals with behavioral health coverage provided under the ACA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of organic matter in the removal of emerging trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Williams, T; Hoppe-Jones, C; Drewes, J E

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effect of different bulk organic carbon matrices on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Infiltration through porous media was simulated in biologically active column experiments under aerobic and anoxic recharge conditions. Wastewater effluent derived organic carbon types, differing in hydrophobicity and biodegradability (i. e., hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic carbon, organic colloids), were used as feed substrates in the column experiments. These carbon substrates while fed at the same concentration differed in their ability to support soil biomass growth during porous media infiltration. Removal of degradable TOrC (with the exception of diclofenac and propyphenazone) was equal or better under aerobic versus anoxic porous media infiltration conditions. During the initial phase of infiltration, the presence of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) enhanced the decay of degradable TOrC by promoting soil biomass growth, suggesting that BDOC served as a co-substrate in a co-metabolic transformation of these contaminants. However, unexpected high removal efficiencies were observed for all degradable TOrC in the presence of low BDOC concentrations under well adopted oligotrophic conditions. It is hypothesized that removal under these conditions is caused by a specialized microbial community growing on refractory carbon substrates such as hydrophobic acids. Findings of this study reveal that the concentration and character of bulk organic carbon present in effluents affect the degradation efficiency for TOrC during recharge operation. Specifically aerobic, oligotrophic microbiological soil environments present favorable conditions for the transformation of TOrC, including rather recalcitrant compounds such as chlorinated flame retardants. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  1. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  2. Application of a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer to a trace elemental analysis of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer has been applied to a trace elemental analysis of wines. Sulfur, K, Mn, Fe, and Rb were detected. These five elements were quantified by using 1 ppm of Co as an internal standard. The quantified concentrations ranged from sub-ppm to several hundred ppm. Because of organic substances in wines, the scattering of the incident X-rays from the dry residues of wines becomes strong. Therefore, a high spectral background appears in TXRF spectra of wines. Because of this background, relative standard deviations of the quantified concentrations were from 4 to 28%. Although the high spectral background appeared in the TXRF spectra of the wines, a detection limit down to several tens of ppb was achieved. The present portable spectrometer can be applied to screening for trace elements in wines before an accurate and precise analysis using a large elemental analyzer. (author)

  3. Trace elements and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in shallow and deep-water organisms from the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Ramu, Karri; Inoue, Suguru; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Trace elements (22) and stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) were analyzed in marine organisms from shallow (SW) and deep-water (DW) of the East China Sea to understand biomagnification and prey source of trace elements. In the benthic marine organisms from DW, δ 15 N values were negatively correlated with Ba, Cu, Ag, Mo, Sr, As, and Co concentrations. This may be due to the specific accumulation in lower trophic animals and/or the biodilution through the food web in DW. Relationships between δ 15 N and concentrations of Co, Cr, Bi, and Tl in fish and Ag, Bi, V, Hg, and Tl in crustaceans showed positive correlations, suggesting that trophic position was affecting the concentrations of those elements in phyla, with higher trophic animals retaining higher concentrations than the lower trophic animals. Positive correlations between δ 13 C and Rb were observed in marine organisms. Therefore, Rb may be a possible substitute of δ 13 C as tracer of prey source in the East China Sea although further investigation is required. - This is the first study on trophic transfer and prey source of trace elements in marine organisms from the East China Sea

  4. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  5. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  6. Removal of emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters using nature and synthesized (Na A and Nam) zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modirshahla, N.; Tabatabaii, S.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this study was to compare the natural and synthetic (Na A and Nam) zeolites as absorbents in removing emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds, which appear in the wastewater of power plants, refinery and petrochemical complexes. The specific objections of the work was: a) to select the best species that have the highest amount of absorption; b) to measure the rate of absorption of traces organic compounds and emulsions on the natural and synthesized zeolites; c) to establish the absorption isotherms for the organics and emulsions with selected samples; d) to select readily available regenerants, and e ) to examine the ph dependence of the process and to establish a simple and practical method to detect and to measure the pollution after the treatment process. The BOD and COD of the treated and feed waters were compared

  7. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  8. The associations between psychotic experiences and substance use and substance use disorders: findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; Karam, Elie G; Karam, Georges; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Makanjuola, Victor; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy A; Scott, Kate M; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Ten Have, Margreet; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kessler, Ronald C; McGrath, John J

    2018-05-01

    Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs and various types of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders on these associations. We used data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys. A total of 30 902 adult respondents across 18 countries were assessed for (a) six types of life-time PEs, (b) a range of types of SU and DSM-IV SUDs and (c) mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete-time survival analyses based on retrospective age-at-onset reports examined the bidirectional associations between PEs and SU/SUDs controlling for antecedent mental disorders. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid SU/SUDs and antecedent mental disorders, those with prior alcohol use disorders [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.0], extra-medical prescription drug use (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9), alcohol use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.7) and tobacco use (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) had increased odds of subsequent first onset of PEs. In contrast, those with temporally prior PEs had increased odds of subsequent onset of tobacco use (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.9), alcohol use (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6) or cannabis use (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.0-1.5) as well as of all substance use disorders (ORs ranged between 1.4 and 1.5). There was a dose response relationship between both count and frequency of PEs and increased subsequent odds of selected SU/SUDs. Associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and substance use/substance use disorders (SU/SUDs) are often bidirectional, but not all types of SU/SUDs are associated with PEs. These findings suggest that it is important to be aware of the presence of PEs within those with SUDs or at risk of SUDs

  9. Monitoring hydrocarbons and trace metals in Beaufort Sea sediments and organisms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.; LeBlanc, L.; Trefry, J.; Marajh-Whittemore, P.; Brown, J.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Minerals Management Service's environmental studies of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a study was conducted in 1989 to monitor the marine environment for inputs of chemicals related to drilling and exploration. The 1989 Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program (BSMP) was designed to monitor sediments and selected benthic organisms for trace metals and hydrocarbons so as to infer any changes that might have resulted from drilling and production activities. A series of 49 stations were sampled during the program. The study area extended from Cape Halkett on the western end of Harrison Bay to Griffin Point, east of Barter Island. The sampling design combined an area-wide approach in which stations were treated as replicates of 8 specific geographic regions, with an activity-specific approach, which focused on the potential establishment of metal or hydrocarbon concentration gradients with distance from the Endicott Production Field in Prudhoe Bay. The analytical program focused on the analysis of the fine-fraction of the sediment for a series of trace metals and elements and the analysis of a suite of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk sediment. The total organic carbon (TOB) content and the grain size distribution in the sediments were determined as well. Benthic bivalve molluscs, representative of several feeding types were collected from those stations for which data previously existed from the 1984-1986 BSMP, and were analyzed for metals and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The benthic amphipods were collected, pooled by station or region, and analyzed as well

  10. Estudo de metais e de substâncias tóxicas em brinquedos Toys contamined by toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Zini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study is the analysis of toxic elements in plastic toys commercialized in Brazil. Metals like cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, and aluminum, along with organic substances, such as phthalates, were identified in different toys by quantitative analytical techniques. Traces of thorium were detected in one of the studied samples. Although the measured radioactive dose was rather low, the presence of such a radioactive contaminant is against to the International Agency of Atomic Energy regulations. Similar toys manufactured in Brazil were analyzed and found to observe the standards defined by the National Institute of Metrology (Inmetro.

  11. Sampling for radionuclides and other trace substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Various problems with the environment and an energy crisis have resulted in considerable emphasis on the analysis and understanding of natural systems. The present generation of ecological models suffers greatly from a lack of attention to use of accurate and efficient sampling methods in obtaining the data on which these models are based. Improving ecological sampling requires first of all that the objectives be clearly defined, since different schemes are required for sampling for totals, for changes over time and space, to determine hazards, or for estimating parameters in models. The frequency distributions of most ecological contaminants are not normal, but seem instead to follow a skewed distribution. Coefficients of variation appear to be relatively constant and typical values may range from 0.1 to 1.0 depending on the substance and circumstances. These typical values may be very useful in designing a sampling plan, either for fixed relative variance, or in terms of the sensitivity of a comparison. Several classes of sampling methods are available for particular kinds of objectives. The notion of optimal sampling for parameter estimates is new to ecology, but may possibly be adapted from work done in industrial experimentation to provide a rationale for sampling in time

  12. Uptakes of trace elements in Zn-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, T.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshida, T.; Maetsu, H.; Suganuma, H.; Omori, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multitracer technique was used to obtain uptake rates of essential trace elements in various organs and tissues in Zn-deficient mice. A multitracer solution, containing more than 20 radioisotopes, was injected intraperitoneally into Zn-deficient state mice and control ones. Uptake rates of the radioisotopes were compared with concentrations of trace elements determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to study a specific metabolism of Zn and other essential trace elements, such as Mn, Co, Se, Rb, and Sr. The result suggests that Zn is supplied from bone to other organs and tissues and an increase in Co concentration in all organs and tissues depends on its chemical form, under the Z-deficient state. (author)

  13. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  14. δ15N measurement of organic and inorganic substances by EA-IRMS: a speciation-dependent procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Rossi, Michel J; Delémont, Olivier; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid so far to the influence of the chemical nature of the substance when measuring δ(15)N by elemental analysis (EA)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Although the bulk nitrogen isotope analysis of organic material is not to be questioned, literature from different disciplines using IRMS provides hints that the quantitative conversion of nitrate into nitrogen presents difficulties. We observed abnormal series of δ(15)N values of laboratory standards and nitrates. These unexpected results were shown to be related to the tailing of the nitrogen peak of nitrate-containing compounds. A series of experiments were set up to investigate the cause of this phenomenon, using ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) and potassium nitrate (KNO(3)) samples, two organic laboratory standards as well as the international secondary reference materials IAEA-N1, IAEA-N2-two ammonium sulphates [(NH(4))(2)SO(4)]-and IAEA-NO-3, a potassium nitrate. In experiment 1, we used graphite and vanadium pentoxide (V(2)O(5)) as additives to observe if they could enhance the decomposition (combustion) of nitrates. In experiment 2, we tested another elemental analyser configuration including an additional section of reduced copper in order to see whether or not the tailing could originate from an incomplete reduction process. Finally, we modified several parameters of the method and observed their influence on the peak shape, δ(15)N value and nitrogen content in weight percent of nitrogen of the target substances. We found the best results using mere thermal decomposition in helium, under exclusion of any oxygen. We show that the analytical procedure used for organic samples should not be used for nitrates because of their different chemical nature. We present the best performance given one set of sample introduction parameters for the analysis of nitrates, as well as for the ammonium sulphate IAEA-N1 and IAEA-N2 reference materials. We discuss these results considering the

  15. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper.

  16. Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T

    2010-03-01

    Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  18. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  19. Interpretation of complexometric titration data: An intercomparison of methods for estimating models of trace metal complexation by natural organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pižeta, I.; Sander, S.G.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Omanovic, D.; Baars, O.; Barbeau, K.A.; Buck, K.N.; Bundy, R.M.; Carrasco, G.; Croot, P.L.; Garnier, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Gledhill, M.; Hirose, K.; Kondo, Y.; Laglera, L.M.; Nuester, J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Takeda, S.; Twining, B.S.; Wells, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the common goal of more accurately and consistently quantifying ambient concentrations of free metal ions and natural organic ligands in aquatic ecosystems, researchers from 15 laboratories that routinely analyze trace metal speciation participated in an intercomparison of statistical methods

  20. Humic Substances in Organic Wastes and their Effects on Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, N.; Ciavatta, C.; Plaza, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil humic substances (HS) are universally recognized to play a major role in a wide number of agronomic and environmental processes. For example, soil HS are able to bind mineral particles together, thus promoting a good soil structure, constitute an important source of nutrients for plants and microorganisms, contribute largely to the acid-base buffering capacity of soils, and exert a marked control on the biological availability, physico-chemical behavior, and environmental fate of toxic metal ions and xenobiotics. For these reasons, the knowledge of the short- and long-term effects of organic amendments on the status, quality, and reactivity of indigenous soil HS is of paramount importance. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the chemical and physico-chemical data available in the literature for the evaluation of the effects of organic wastes of various origin and nature used as soil amendments on the composition, structure, and chemical reactivity of native soil HS. In general, HS-like components of organic wastes are typically characterized by a relatively larger presence of aliphatic, amide, and polysaccharide structures, simple structural components of wide molecular heterogeneity, smaller contents of oxygen, acidic functional groups, and organic free radicals, and smaller degrees of aromatic ring polycondensation, polymerization, and humification than native soil HS. Further, with respect to native soil HS, HS-like fractions from organic wastes generally exhibit smaller binding capacities and affinities for metal ions and organic xenobiotics. Appropriate treatment processes of raw organic wastes able to produce environmentally safe and agronomically efficient soil amendments, such as composting, yield HS-like fractions characterized by chemical and physico-chemical features that approach those of native soil HS. In general, aliphatic, polysaccharide, and lignin structures and S- and N-containing groups of the HS-like fractions

  1. Lipid organics in background aerosols, cloudwater, and snow and implication for organic scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groellert, C.

    1998-01-01

    During three years free tropospheric snow, aerosol, and cloudwater samples were collected at Mount Sonnblick, Austria, at an elevation of 3106 m a.s.l. The samples were analyzed for their lipid organic trace components using extraction with n-hexane as sample pretreatment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection for identification and quantification of the substances. The main components identified in all the samples were the phthalic acid esters which are of anthropogenic origin. Of further interest were aliphatic alcohols (not detected in aerosols) and phenols. They are of biogenic origin. The concentrations were found to be higher in spring than in the fall season. To compare the concentrations of aerosol, cloudwater and snow samples scavenging ratios (aerosol to snow), scavenging efficiencies (aerosol to cloud) and cloud to snow ratios were calculated for the first time for organic compounds. Scavenging ratios were 10 to 100 times lower, scavenging efficiencies 2 to 10 times lower than sulfate. This can result from the poor watersolubility of the compounds or from gas phase sorptions on the filter surface (overestimation of aerosol concentrations). The cloud to snow ratios were generally higher than for sulfate. However, a few components exhibited very low cloud to snow ratios which might be due to additional sources in snow for these substances (alcohols). (author)

  2. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  3. The formation and fate of chlorinated organic substances in temperate and boreal forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Gryndler, Milan; Lachmanová, Zora; Liste, Hans-Holger; Rohlenová, Jana; Schroll, Reiner; Schröder, Peter; Matucha, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    Chlorine is an abundant element, commonly occurring in nature either as chloride ions or as chlorinated organic compounds (OCls). Chlorinated organic substances were long considered purely anthropogenic products; however, they are, in addition, a commonly occurring and important part of natural ecosystems. Formation of OCls may affect the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus the carbon cycle with implications for the ability of forest soils to sequester carbon, whilst the occurrence of potentially toxic OCls in groundwater aquifers is of concern with regard to water quality. It is thus important to understand the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine, both inorganic and organic, to get information about the relevant processes in the forest ecosystem and the effects on these from human activities, including forestry practices. A survey is given of processes in the soil of temperate and boreal forests, predominantly in Europe, including the participation of chlorine, and gaps in knowledge and the need for further work are discussed. Chlorine is present as chloride ion and/or OCls in all compartments of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. It contributes to the degradation of SOM, thus also affecting carbon sequestration in the forest soil. The most important source of chloride to coastal forest ecosystems is sea salt deposition, and volcanoes and coal burning can also be important sources. Locally, de-icing salt can be an important chloride input near major roads. In addition, anthropogenic sources of OCls are manifold. However, results also indicate the formation of chlorinated organics by microorganisms as an important source, together with natural abiotic formation. In fact, the soil pool of OCls seems to be a result of the balance between chlorination and degradation processes. Ecologically, organochlorines may function as antibiotics, signal substances and energy equivalents, in descending order of significance. Forest management practices can affect

  4. The effectiveness of removing precursors of chlorinated organic substances in pilot water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata; Szerzyna, Sławomir; Machi, Justyna; Mołczan, Marek; Adamski, Wojciech; Wiśniewski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    The presence of organic substances in the water intaken for consumption could be hazardous to human health due to the potential formation of disinfection by-products (TOX). The study were carried out in the pilot surface water treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, ozonation, adsorption and disinfection. Due to continuous operation of the system and interference with the parameters of the processes it was possible not only assess the effectiveness of individual water treatment processes in removing TOX, but also on factors participating on the course of unit processes.

  5. Occurrence of antibiotics as emerging contaminant substances in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Nataša; Milanović, Maja; Letić, Nevena Grujić; Sekulić, Maja Turk; Radonić, Jelena; Mihajlović, Ivana; Miloradov, Mirjana Vojinović

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in the environment has become a subject of growing concern. Due to the constant input of the emerging contaminants in the surface water via wastewater which leads to the long-term adverse effects on the aquatic and terrestrial organisms, special attention is being paid to their presence in the aquatic environment. Most of the emerging substances, especially pharmaceuticals, could not be completely removed using the wastewater treatment. Pharmaceuticals are usually water soluble and poorly degradable. They can pass through all natural filtrations and then reach the groundwater and, finally, the drinking water. The trace levels of antibiotics could have a negative impact on the environment and public health because of their inherent bioactivity. This article is an overview of the presence of the antibiotic residual concentrations, methods and levels of detection and possible risks to both health and environment.

  6. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  7. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Characterization of an organ-specific differentiator substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, V.E.

    1975-01-01

    Cell regeneration in planaria (Dugesia etrusca) was studied. An attempt was made to characterize a diffusible brain inhibitory substance, to elucidate its role in the maintenance of anterior-posterior polarity during head or tail regeneration, and to utilize its action in measuring the differentiative integrity of the stem cells following x-irradiation. (U.S.)

  9. Urgent need to reevaluate the latest World Health Organization guidelines for toxic inorganic substances in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-08-13

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has established guidelines for drinking-water quality that cover biological and chemical hazards from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the most recent edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (2011), the WHO withdrew, suspended, did not establish, or raised guidelines for the inorganic toxic substances manganese, molybdenum, nitrite, aluminum, boron, nickel, uranium, mercury, and selenium. In this paper, we review these changes to the WHO drinking-water guidelines, examining in detail the material presented in the WHO background documents for each of these toxic substances. In some cases, these WHO background documents use literature reviews that do not take into account scientific research published within the last 10 or more years. In addition, there are instances in which standard WHO practices for deriving guidelines are not used; for example, rounding and other mathematical errors are made. According to published meeting reports from the WHO Chemical Aspects Working Group, the WHO has a timetable for revising some of its guidelines for drinking-water quality, but for many of these toxic substances the planned changes are minimal or will be delayed for as long as 5 years. Given the limited nature of the planned WHO revisions to the inorganic toxic substances and the extended timetable for these revisions, we suggest that governments, researchers, and other stakeholders might establish independent recommendations for inorganic toxic substances and possibly other chemicals to proactively protect public health, or at the very least, revert to previous editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, which were more protective of public health.

  10. The role of dissolved organic substance in radionuclide migration in river water of the Kiev's water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domin, V.V.; Bondarenko, G.N.; Zheldakov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    The role of organic substance dissolved (DOS) in radionuclide migration in the river water of the Kiev's water reservoir was considered. It was ascertained, that metal complexes with fulvic acids were stable and complexing properties of fulvic acids affected radionuclide migration. When DOS content increased sharply during the freshet period, radionuclide migration also increased. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-10-18

    Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecular weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combustion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (Δ 199 Hg and Δ 200 Hg) measured in soils and runoff were in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg 0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70% of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg : C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the

  12. Tracing the sources of organic carbon in freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Meersmans, Jeroen; Barclay, Rachel; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Barker, Sam; Jones, Richard; Hartley, Iain; Dungait, Jennifer; Quine, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the lateral fluxes of carbon from land to inland waters is critical for the understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change mitigation. However, the crucial role of rivers in receiving, transporting and processing the equivalent of terrestrial net primary production in their watersheds has only recently been recognised. In addition, the fluxes of carbon from land to ocean, and the impact of anthropogenic perturbation, are poorly quantified. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the loss and preservation of C along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum is required to predict the present and future contribution of aquatic C fluxes to the global C budget. This pilot study examines the effect of land use on the fate of organic matter within two headwater catchments in Cornwall (UK) in order to develop a methodological framework for investigating C-cycling across the entire terrestrial-aquatic continuum. To this end, we aim to characterise the spatial heterogeneity of soil erosion driven lateral fluxes of SOC to identify areas of erosion and deposition using 137Cs radio-isotope and trace the terrestrial versus aquatic origin of C along the river reaches and in lake sediments at the catchment outlet. The 3D spatial distribution of SOC has been investigated by sampling three depth increments (i.e. 0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30-50cm) along 14 hillslope transects within two sub-catchments of ˜km2 each. In total, 80 terrestrial sites were monitored and analysed for total C and N, and bulk stable 13C/15N isotope values, while 137Cs was used to obtain a detailed understanding of the spatial - temporal variability in erosion driven lateral fluxes of SOC within the catchments. The relative contribution of terrestrial and aquatic C was examined along the river reaches as well as in lake sediments at the catchment outlet by considering n-alkane signatures. By linking the C accumulation rates in lake sediments over decadal timescales from

  13. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  14. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  15. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  16. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  17. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, P.A.; Spaan, S.; Brouwer, D.H.; Marquart, H.; Feber, M. le; Engel, R.; Geerts, L.; Jensen, K.A.; Kofoed-Sørensen, V.; Hansen, B.; Brouwere, K. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles

  18. Effect of kombucha on some trace element levels in different organs of electromagnetic field exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Gharib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have increased exponentially all over the world. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of kombucha (KT on some trace element levels of brain, spleen and intestine in male albino rats exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF. Four experimental groups labelled as controls, EMF group, KT group and KT + EMF group were formed with six randomly chosen animals in each group. After EMF exposure for eight weeks and the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Brain, spleen and intestine samples were collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves caused significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. Combined treatment of kombucha with EMF resulted in a successful attenuation of these adverse effects of EMF. From present findings we can state that kombucha as a supplement has an ameliorative signs against the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  19. Irradiated lanoline as a prospective substance for biomedical applications: A spectroscopic and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzlikova, Zuzana; Hybler, Peter; Fülop, Marko; Ondruska, Jan; Jomova, Klaudia; Porubska, Maria; Valko, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Refined wool wax products, such as lanoline and lanoline derivatives are key ingredients in some of the ointments, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, waterproof coatings and other products. Beneficial medicinal effects along with melting point near normal human body temperature designated lanoline to be used in pharmacotherapy and medical treatments. Since the general requirements for sterility of medicinal substances are very strict, especially in cases of skin contact, radiation technologies represent a valuable tool to sterilize the materials for medicinal purposes. In this work, lanoline was irradiated with accelerated electron beam in air within 0–400 kG dose to simulate sterilization for medical purposes. The irradiated lanoline showed considerable fluctuation of chemical structure. The most significant fluctuation was observed for etheric species, followed by ethylene sequences with n<4. While primary and secondary alcohols, as well as epoxides species, decreased below the initial concentration within whole range of the doses, aliphatic esters and ethylene sequences (CH 2 ) n with n≥4 indicated the most stable species. A trace amount of organic-in origin radicals was observed and that increased slightly with dose. Depending on dose, the melting temperature varied from 39.7 to 45.7 °C and the highest values were reached for 25 kGy and 156 kGy. For these same doses the highest thermal stability was also observed and, simultaneously the thermal stability was related inversely to the destruction rate. We propose, that the chemical transformation of lanoline within 0–25 kGy dose should be tested for prospective medical purposes as well as for the need to eliminate remaining outlasting organic-in-origin radicals which were detected in the lanoline even one year after the irradiation. - Highlights: • We propose that irradiated lanoline is a substance suitable for medicinal applications. • To emulate the sterilization, lanoline was irradiated with accelerated

  20. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  1. Trace element metabolism in man and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake, distribution, storage, excretion of different trace elements and resulting disturbances are investigated in blood and organs in animal experiments and in human diagnostics with the aid of radioisotopes. Apart from this, untritional disturbances are mentioned. Finally, future aspects of physiological trace element examinations are listed. (AJ) 891 AJ [de

  2. Sparse genetic tracing reveals regionally specific functional organization of mammalian nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Cui, Lian; Burdge, Justin; Raabe, Tobias; Ma, Minghong; Luo, Wenqin

    2017-10-12

    The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated Mrgprd CreERT2 mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd + nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord. This regional difference is well correlated with a heightened signal transmission for plantar paw circuits, as revealed by both spinal cord slice recordings and behavior assays. Taken together, our results elucidate a novel somatotopic functional organization of the mammalian pain system and suggest that regional central arbor structure could facilitate the "enlarged representation" of plantar paw regions in the CNS.

  3. Metallothionein is induced and trace element balance changed in target organs of a common viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilbaeck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W.; Wikberg, Lotta; Netzel, Elvy; Lindh, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    In experimental studies on the common human coxsackievirus B type 3 (CB3) infection, administered cadmium (Cd) is known to accumulate in the liver and kidneys. CB3 adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection affects the Cd-binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and if this alters the normal physiological trace element balance in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain. On day 3 of infection, degradation of liver proteins (44%, P<0.01) occurred, whereas in the spleen, protein increased (63%, P<0.05). The infection increased MT five-fold (P<0.01) in liver and kidneys, and in spleen by 34% (P<0.05). A redistribution of Cd and copper (Cu) from the liver to the kidney was associated with this increase in MT, resulting in an increased (P<0.01) kidney/liver ratio for both elements. The infection increased the zinc (Zn) concentration more in the kidney than in the liver, but the kidney/liver ratio was not significantly affected. Results show that MT is increased in several organs during the early phase of infection and is associated with redistribution of both essential and non-essential trace elements. This may be a normal response in common infections that could adversely influence the pathogenesis when the host is concomitantly exposed to potentially toxic trace elements, even at levels in the physiological range

  4. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2014-06-25

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 4 4 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  5. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  6. A comparative study of changes in immunological reactivity during prolonged introduction of radioactive and chemical substances into the organism with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Nevstrueva, M.A.; Kalnitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pilshchik, E.M.; Ponomareva, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted into the factors of non-specific protection and specific immunity, allergic and autoallergic reactivities during prolonged exposure of experimental animals to 6 different radioactive and 7 harmful chemical substances. Qualitative and quantitative peculiarities were found in the changes in immunological reactivity during the exposure of the organism to radionuclides and stable chemical compounds. Impairment of immunity plays an essential role in the course and the outcome of effects induced by chronic action of the substances examined. (author)

  7. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  8. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  9. Possibilities and limitations of dynamic headspace sampling as a pre-concentration technique for trace analysis of organics by capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, J.M.P.M.; Noij, T.H.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Rijks, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities, the limitations and the quantitative performance of dynamic headspace sampling, in particular closed-loop stripping, were investigated for various classes of organic substances in aqueous samples with concentrations down to the parts per 1012 (ppt) level. The effects of variations

  10. Studies in Bangladesh on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, M.; Miah, M.F.K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to characterize a Reference Asian Man for radiation protection a study on the ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection has been taken up by the IAEA/RCA among the Asian Countries. Representative sampling sample collection, appropriate techniques for analysis, quality assurance etc. for the study of this project are important parameters for accurate measurements. Some elemental composition in drinking supply water (Tap water and ground water) in the Dhaka city in Bangladesh has been presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Disturbed Intracardiac Flow Organization After Atrioventricular Septal Defect Correction as Assessed With 4D Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Quantitative Particle Tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E.; de Koning, Patrick J. H.; Blom, Nico A.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.; de Roos, Albert; Wolterbeek, Ron; Roest, Arno A. W.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Four-dimensional (3 spatial directions and time) velocity-encoded flow magnetic resonance imaging with quantitative particle tracing analysis allows assessment of left ventricular (LV) blood flow organization. Corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) patients have an abnormal left

  12. Measurements of trace contaminants in closed-type plant cultivation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Nitta, K.; Tako, Y.; Ashida, A.; Otsubo, K.; Saito, T.

    Trace contaminants generated in closed facilities can cause abnormal plant growth. We present measurement data of trace contaminants released from soils, plants, and construction materials. We mainly used two closed chambers, a Closed-type Plant and Mushroom Cultivation Chamber (PMCC) and Closed-type Plant Cultivation Equipment (CPCE). Although trace gas budgets from soils obtained in this experiment are only one example, the results indicate that the budgets of trace gases, as well as CO_2 and O_2, change greatly with the degree of soil maturation and are dependent on the kind of substances in the soil. Both in the PMCC and in the CPCE, trace gases such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and xylene were detected. These gases seemed to be released from various materials used in the construction of these chambers. The degree of increase in these trace gas levels was dependent on the relationship between chamber capacity and plant quantity. Results of trace gas measurement in the PMCC, in which lettuce and shiitake mushroom were cultivated, showed that ethylene was released both from lettuce and from the mushroom culture bed. The release rates were about 90 ng bed^-1 h^-1 for the shiitake mushroom culture bed (volume is 1700 cm^3) and 4.1 ~ 17.3 ng dm^-2h^-1 (leaf area basis) for lettuce. Higher ethylene release rates per plant and per unit leaf area were observed in mature plants than in young plants.

  13. Studying the processes relating to oxidation of organic substances contained in the coolant of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyrev, B. N.; Krichevtsov, A. L.; Sokolyuk, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    A radical-chain mechanism governing thermal-oxidation destruction of organic substances contained in the coolant of thermal and nuclear power stations is considered. Hypotheses on the chemical nature of antioxidation properties of amines are presented. Theoretical conjectures about the fundamental processes through which protective amine films are formed on the surface of metals are suggested.

  14. The influence of organic matter on sorption and fate of glyphosate in soil - Comparing different soils and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Christian N., E-mail: calbers@ruc.d [Dept. of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Banta, Gary T. [Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Poul Erik [Dept. of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole S. [Dept. of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-10-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is generally believed not to influence the sorption of glyphosate in soil. To get a closer look on the dynamics between glyphosate and SOM, we used three approaches: I. Sorption studies with seven purified soil humic fractions showed that these could sorb glyphosate and that the aromatic content, possibly phenolic groups, seems to aid the sorption. II. Sorption studies with six whole soils and with SOM removed showed that several soil parameters including SOM are responsible for the strong sorption of glyphosate in soils. III. After an 80 day fate experiment, approx40% of the added glyphosate was associated with the humic and fulvic acid fractions in the sandy soils, while this was the case for only approx10% of the added glyphosate in the clayey soils. Glyphosate sorbed to humic substances in the natural soils seemed to be easier desorbed than glyphosate sorbed to amorphous Fe/Al-oxides. - Glyphosate was sorbed by purified humic substances and a significant amount of glyphosate was found to be associated with soil organic matter in whole soils.

  15. The influence of organic matter on sorption and fate of glyphosate in soil - Comparing different soils and humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Christian N.; Banta, Gary T.; Hansen, Poul Erik; Jacobsen, Ole S.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is generally believed not to influence the sorption of glyphosate in soil. To get a closer look on the dynamics between glyphosate and SOM, we used three approaches: I. Sorption studies with seven purified soil humic fractions showed that these could sorb glyphosate and that the aromatic content, possibly phenolic groups, seems to aid the sorption. II. Sorption studies with six whole soils and with SOM removed showed that several soil parameters including SOM are responsible for the strong sorption of glyphosate in soils. III. After an 80 day fate experiment, ∼40% of the added glyphosate was associated with the humic and fulvic acid fractions in the sandy soils, while this was the case for only ∼10% of the added glyphosate in the clayey soils. Glyphosate sorbed to humic substances in the natural soils seemed to be easier desorbed than glyphosate sorbed to amorphous Fe/Al-oxides. - Glyphosate was sorbed by purified humic substances and a significant amount of glyphosate was found to be associated with soil organic matter in whole soils.

  16. Provider-agency fit in substance abuse treatment organizations: implications for learning climate, morale, and evidence-based practice implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa

    2015-05-12

    Substance abuse agencies have been slow to adopt and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs), due in part to poor provider morale and organizational climates that are not conducive to successful learning and integration of these practices. Person-organization fit theory suggests that alignment, or fit, between provider- and agency-level characteristics regarding the implementation of EBPs may influence provider morale and organizational learning climate and, thus, implementation success. The current study hypothesized that discrepancies, or lack of fit, between provider- and agency-level contextual factors would negatively predict provider morale and organizational learning climate, outcomes shown to be associated with successful EBP implementation. Direct service providers (n = 120) from four substance abuse treatment agencies responded to a survey involving provider morale, organizational learning climate, agency expectations for EBP use, agency resources for EBP use, and provider attitudes towards EBP use. Difference scores between combinations of provider- and agency-level factors were computed to model provider-agency fit. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to more adequately and comprehensively model the level of the dependent variables across the entire "fit continuum". Discrepancies, or misfit, between agency expectations and provider attitudes and between agency resources and provider attitudes were associated with poorer provider morale and weaker organizational learning climate. For all hypotheses, the curvilinear model of provider-agency discrepancies significantly predicted provider morale and organizational learning climate, indicating that both directions of misfit (provider factors more favorable than agency factors, and vice-versa) were detrimental to morale and climate. However, outcomes were most negative when providers viewed EBPs favorably, but perceived that agency expectations and resources were less supportive of EBP use. The

  17. Effect of soil invertebrates on the formation of humic substances under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, J.; Li, X.; Brune, A.; Pizl, V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The complete polymerization of phenols and proteins (one of the processes involved in the formation of humic substances) was explained. It was shown that fly ( Bibio marci) larvae and earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa) participate in the complete polymerization of phenols and proteins. In a laboratory experiment, invertebrates participated in the degradation of organic matter and the synthesis of humic substances, which was proved in experiments with 14C-labeled phenols and proteins. The same organic substances (phenols and proteins) without the impact of invertebrates were used as the control substances. The distributions of the 14C isotope in alkaline extracts separated by solubility in acids (humic and fulvic acids) was compared to those of the control substances. The portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids in the excrements of Bibio marci was higher than that in the control substances. The content of 14C-labeled humic substances in the excrements of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa exceeded the control values only in the experiment with proteins. When clay material was added to the organic substances, the portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids increased in both experiments with phenols and proteins. When these substrates passed through the digestive tracts of the invertebrates, the polymerization of organic substances and the inclusion of proteins and phenols into humic acids occurred.

  18. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  19. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  20. A fiber optic sensor with a metal organic framework as a sensing material for trace levels of water in industrial gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Miki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Toru; Nakamura, Nao; Sato, Yu-ki; Hirose, Yasuo; Toda, Kei

    2015-07-30

    Industrial gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium are easily contaminated with water during production, transfer and use, because there is a high volume fraction of water in the atmosphere (approximately 1.2% estimated with the average annual atmospheric temperature and relative humidity). Even trace water (industrial gases can cause quality problems in the process such as production of semiconductors. Therefore, it is important to monitor and to control trace water levels in industrial gases at each supplying step, and especially during their use. In the present study, a fiber optic gas sensor was investigated for monitoring trace water levels in industrial gases. The sensor consists of a film containing a metal organic framework (MOF). MOFs are made of metals coordinated to organic ligands, and have mesoscale pores that adsorb gas molecules. When the MOF, copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC), was used as a sensing material, we investigated the color of Cu-BTC with water adsorption changed both in depth and tone. Cu-BTC crystals appeared deep blue in dry gases, and then changed to light blue in wet gases. An optical gas sensor with the Cu-BTC film was developed using a light emitting diode as the light source and a photodiode as the light intensity detector. The sensor showed a reversible response to trace water, did not require heating to remove the adsorbed water molecules. The sample gas flow rate did not affect the sensitivity. The obtained limit of detection was 40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The response time for sample gas containing 2.5 ppmvH2O was 23 s. The standard deviation obtained for daily analysis of 1.0 ppmvH2O standard gas over 20 days was 9%. Furthermore, the type of industrial gas did not affect the sensitivity. These properties mean the sensor will be applicable to trace water detection in various industrial gases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The interest in eight new psychoactive substances before and after scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledberg, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the recreational use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased. NPS are considered a threat to public health and the main response to this threat is to make the selling and buying of these substances illegal. In Sweden, during the last 5 years, 62 new substances have been classified as narcotics but little is known of the effects of making a particular substance illegal. The aim of this work is to study how legal status influences the interest in NPS in Sweden. Forty-five thousand posts made in a Swedish Internet discussion forum (Flashback Forum) related to eight NPS (MDPV, Methylone, 4-MEC, 4-HO-MET, MXE, 6-APB, AH-7921, and 3-MMC) were used to derive time-dependent measures of interest in these substances. Intervention analyses were used to investigate the effects of legal status on the forum interest. For all eight substances the activity on the forum (measured as number of posts per day) showed a drastic decrease around the time of classification. The statistical analysis showed that in seven of eight cases, the drop in activity could be accounted for by the legal status of the substances. The legal status of the substances was shown to have a substantial effect on the interest in the substances. The novel measure used to trace the interest in particular NPS could be a useful tool to follow trends in substance use in almost real-time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation and assessment of the atmospheric input in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea). Partial report: Input of organic trace substances; Untersuchung und Bewertung des Stoffeintrags in die Atmosphaere im Rahmen von PARCOM (Nordsee) und HELCOM (Ostsee). Teilbericht: Eintrag von organischen Spurenstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodarg, D.; Reinhardt, K.H.

    1992-12-31

    Measurements were made of air concentration and deposition at one coastal station at the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, respectively as well as during four campaigns by ship on the North Sea to find out atmospheric input of organic trace substances into the sea. The measured concentrations of pentachlorobenzene (QCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexene ({alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH) varied by about three orders of magnitude. Based on measured concentrations in the atmosphere and statements of literature about concentrations in seawater, the atmospheric input of these components into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were estimated. For the components {gamma}-HCH and HCB as a rule was found an atmospheric input into the sea, which, besides the supply by rivers, is another contribution to the load of the sea. (orig.). 75 figs., 13 tabs. [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung des atmosphaerischen Eintrags von organischen Spurenstoffen ins Meer wurden Konzentrations- und Depositionsmessungen an jeweils einer Kuestenstation an Nord- und Ostsee sowie waehrend vier Schiffskampagnen auf der Nordsee durchgefuehrt. Die gemessenen Konzentrationen von Pentachlorbenzol (QCB), Hexachlorbenzol (HCB), alpha- und gamma-Hexachlorcyclohexan ({alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH) schwankten um bis zu drei Groessenordnungen. Ausgehend von den gemessenen Konzentrationswerten in der Atmosphaere und Literaturangaben ueber Konzentrationen im Wasser, wurde der atmosphaerische Eintrag dieser Substanzen in Nord- und Ostsee abgeschaetzt. Fuer die Komponenten {gamma}-HCH und HCB wurde in der Regel ein atmosphaerischer Eintrag ins Meer ermittelt, der neben der Zufuhr durch die Fluesse einen erheblichen Beitrag zur Belastung darstellt. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative trace analysis of polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in ambient air samples from Mace Head (Ireland): A method intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Barber, Jonathan L.; Jones, Kevin C.; Temme, Christian

    A method intercomparison study of analytical methods for the determination of neutral, volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was carried out in March, 2006. Environmental air samples were collected in triplicate at the European background site Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland, a site dominated by 'clean' westerly winds coming across the Atlantic. Extraction and analysis were performed at two laboratories active in PFAS research using their in-house methods. Airborne polyfluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorooctane sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs) as well as additional polyfluorinated compounds were investigated. Different native and isotope-labelled internal standards (IS) were applied at various steps in the analytical procedure to evaluate the different quantification strategies. Field blanks revealed no major blank problems. European background concentrations observed at Mace Head were found to be in a similar range to Arctic data reported in the literature. Due to trace-levels at the remote site, only FTOH data sets were complete and could therefore be compared between the laboratories. Additionally, FOSEs could partly be included. Data comparison revealed that despite the challenges inherent in analysis of airborne PFAS and the low concentrations, all methods applied in this study obtained similar results. However, application of isotope-labelled IS early in the analytical procedure leads to more precise results and is therefore recommended.

  4. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  5. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  6. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present report summarizes the progress and the results obtained within the BMWi financed Joint Research Project Interaction and Transport of Actinides in Natural Clay Rock with Consideration of Humic Substances and Clay Organic Compounds. The basic approach of the work was to obtain a fundamental process understanding on the molecular level of complexation and sorption reactions as well as diffusion processes. The experimental findings are supported by quantum mechanical modeling.

  7. Determination of water traces in various organic solvents using Karl Fischer method under FIA conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantan, N; Frenzel, W; Küppers, S

    2000-05-31

    Flow injection methods utilising the Karl Fischer (KF) reaction with spectrophotometric and potentiometric detection are described for the determination of the trace water content in various organic solvents. Optimisation of the methods resulted in an accessible (linear) working range of 0.01-0.2% water for many solvents studied with a typical precision of 1-2% R.S.D. Only 50 mul of organic solvent was injected and the sampling frequency was about 120 samples per h. Since the slopes of the calibration curves were different for different solvents appropriate calibration was required. Problems associated with spectrophotometric detection and caused by refractive index changes were pointed out and a nested-loop configuration was proposed to overcome this kind of interference. The potentiometric method with a novel flow-through detector cell was shown to surpass the performance of spectrophotometric detection in any respect. The characteristics of the procedures developed made them well applicable for on-line monitoring of technical solvent distillations in an industrial plant.

  8. Determination of degradation rates of organic substances in the unsaturated soil zone depending on the grain size fractions of various soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Stefan, Catalin; Goersmeyer, Nora

    2015-04-01

    Rate and extent of the biological degradation of organic substances during transport through the unsaturated soil zone is decisively influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the pollutants such as water solubility, toxicity and molecular structure. Furthermore microbial degradation processes are also influenced by soil-specific properties. An important parameter is the soil grain size distribution on which the pore volume and the pore size depends. Changes lead to changes in air and water circulation as well as preferred flow paths. Transport capacity of water inclusive nutrients is lower in existing bad-drainable fine pores in soils with small grain size fractions than in well-drainable coarse pores in a soil with bigger grain size fractions. Because fine pores are saturated with water for a longer time than the coarse pores and oxygen diffusion in water is ten thousand times slower than in air, oxygen is replenished much slower in soils with small grain size fractions. As a result life and growth conditions of the microorganisms are negatively affected. This leads to less biological activity, restricted degradation/mineralization of pollutants or altered microbial processes. The aim of conducted laboratory column experiments was to study the correlation between the grain size fractions respectively pore sizes, the oxygen content and the biodegradation rate of infiltrated organic substances. Therefore two columns (active + sterile control) were filled with different grain size fractions (0,063-0,125 mm, 0,2-0,63 mm and 1-2 mm) of soils. The sterile soil was inoculated with a defined amount of a special bacteria culture (sphingobium yanoikuae). A solution with organic substances glucose, oxalic acid, sinaphylic alcohol and nutrients was infiltrated from the top in intervals. The degradation of organic substances was controlled by the measurement of dissolved organic carbon in the in- and outflow of the column. The control of different pore volumes

  9. Characterization of an organ-specific differentiator substance in the planarian Dugesia etrusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, V.E.; Lange, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    A substance which inhibits brain formation in decapitated regenerating planarians (Dugesia etrusca) was characterized and partially purified. The substance's inhibitory activity was followed during each purification procedure by adding freshly decapitated animals of a standard size to each fraction, and later measuring the resultant regenerated brain volume. The inhibitory activity remained in the supernatant after a 10000 g centrifugation of a cell-free homogenate. Most of the activity sedimented when the 10000 g supernatant was centrifuged at 32000 g. The degree of inhibitory activity increased with increased numbers of animals in the initial homogenate. The substance has an apparent molecular weight between 2 x 10/sup 5/ and 4 x 10/sup 5/ daltons. Digestion by pronase destroyed the activity, but treatment with RNase, DNase I, or lipase had no significant effect. The inhibiting substance has an isoelectric point (pI) of between 4.75 and 5.38 and migrates to the anode when electrophorezed in pH 6.8 buffer.

  10. Trace determinations of individual organic pollutants - 25 years of research at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giger, W. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    An overview is given on analytical developments and applications for the determination of organic trace pollutants which have been performed at EAWAG since 1972. Gas and liquid chromatographic methods are of crucial importance. The presented examples include environmental hydrocarbons, semivolatile compounds and detergent-derived chemicals. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  11. THE CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN GNIEWINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Karolina Milik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP serving rural areas are suggested for agricultural or natural usage. Before, however, sewage sludge is subjected to the several pre-treatments, which involve stabilization, hygienisation and pre-composting. These methods decrease mainly the amount of organic substances and presence of microorganisms, but hardly affects concentrations of heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. The addition of sewage sludge to soils could affect potential availability of heavy metals. Trace elements are distributed in the soil in various forms: solid phases, free ions in soil solution, soluble organic-mineral complexes, or adsorbed on colloidal particles. In the study the concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn, Al, As, Se, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ga, Li, Mo, Sr, Mg, K, Ru, Tl, V, U was tested in sewage sludge obtained from (WWTP serving rural areas (PE< 9 000. In each case, the tested sewage sludge was meeting the criteria of stabilization and was used for agriculture and land reclamation purpose. All the samples were collected in 2016 and were subjected to microwave mineralization in a closed system in aqua regia. The total amound of macro and microelements were determined with a ICP-OES. It was found that the total concentrations of trace metals in all of sewage sludge are the same than Polish regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. The trace elements (cadmium: 1,16 mg·kg-1/d.m. in polish sewage sludge, respectively, much higher than those in the other countries. As a most prevalent copper and zinc were observed (111,28 mg·kg-1/d.m. and 282,94 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The concentrations of copper in polish sewage sludge are much lower (49-130 mg·kg-1/d.m. than european sewage sludge (522-562 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The two out of tested heavy metals (beryllium, bismuth

  12. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though

  13. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is

  14. OH reactivity and potential SOA yields from volatile organic compounds and other trace gases measured in controlled laboratory biomass burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Gilman; C. Warneke; W. C. Kuster; P. D. Goldan; P. R. Veres; J. M. Roberts; J. A. de Gouw; I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments were used to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases (e.g., CO, CH4, NO2, etc.) emitted from controlled burns of various fuel types common to the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. These laboratory-based measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Fire...

  15. Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Das, K. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Pellegrini, R. De; Drava, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Lepoint, G. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Minganti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: minganti@dictfa.unige.it; Poggi, R. [Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ' Giacomo Doria' - Via Brigata Liguria, 9 I-16121 Genova (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Mercury (total and organic), cadmium, lead, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc concentrations were measured in different organs of 6 different cetacean species stranded in an area of extraordinary ecological interest (Cetaceans' Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea) along the coast of the Ligurian Sea (North-West Mediterranean). Stable-isotopes ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were also measured in the muscle. A significant relationship exists between {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, mercury concentration and the trophic level. The distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements was studied on several organs, and a significant relationship between selenium and mercury, with a molar ratio close to 1, was found in the cetaceans' kidney, liver and spleen, regardless of their species. High selenium concentrations are generally associated with a low organic to total mercury ratio. While narrow ranges of concentrations were observed for essential elements in most organs, mercury and selenium concentrations are characterised by a wide range of variation. Bio-accumulation and bio-amplification processes in cetaceans can be better understood by comparing trace element concentrations with the stable-isotopes data.

  16. Tuning the performance of a natural treatment process using metagenomics for improved trace organic chemical attenuation

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics, this study revealed how the microbial community characteristics including composition, diversity, as well as functional genes in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems can be tuned to enhance removal of trace organic chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). Increasing the humic content of the primary substrate resulted in higher microbial diversity. Lower concentrations and a higher humic content of the primary substrate promoted the attenuation of biodegradable CECs in laboratory and field MAR systems. Metagenomic results indicated that the metabolic capabilities of xenobiotic biodegradation were significantly promoted for the microbiome under carbon-starving conditions. © IWA Publishing 2014.

  17. Role of organic matter in the Proterozoic Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon, Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Holliger, P.; Mossman, D.J.; Leventhal, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Of the sixteen known Oklo and the Bangombe natural fission reactors (hydrothermally altered elastic sedimentary rocks that contain abundant uraninite and authigenic clay minerals), reactors 1 to 6 at Oklo contain only traces of organic matter, but the others are rich in organic substances. Reactors 7 to 9 are the subjects of this study. These organic-rich reactors may serve as time-tested analogues for anthropogenic nuclear-waste containment strategies. Organic matter helped to concentrate quantities of uranium sufficient to initiate the nuclear chain reactions. Liquid bitumen was generated from organic matter by hydrothermal reactions during nuclear criticality. The bitumen soon became a solid, consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and an intimate mixture of cryptocrystalline graphite, which enclosed and immobilized uraninite and the fission-generated isotopes entrapped in uraninite. This mechanism prevented major loss of uranium and fission products from the natural nuclear reactors for 1.2 b.y. 24 refs., 4 figs

  18. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Farrahi

    Full Text Available Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  19. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  20. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  1. Online Continuous Trace Process Analytics Using Multiplexing Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco R; Lehnig, Rudolf; Trapp, Oliver

    2017-04-04

    The analysis of impurities at a trace level in chemical products, nutrition additives, and drugs is highly important to guarantee safe products suitable for consumption. However, trace analysis in the presence of a dominating component can be a challenging task because of noncompatible linear detection ranges or strong signal overlap that suppresses the signal of interest. Here, we developed a technique for quantitative analysis using multiplexing gas chromatography (mpGC) for continuous and completely automated process trace analytics exemplified for the analysis of a CO 2 stream in a production plant for detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the three structural isomers of xylene (BTEX) in the concentration range of 0-10 ppb. Additional minor components are methane and methanol with concentrations up to 100 ppm. The sample is injected up to 512 times according to a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with a mean frequency of 0.1 Hz into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). A superimposed chromatogram is recorded which is deconvoluted into an averaged chromatogram with Hadamard transformation. Novel algorithms to maintain the data acquisition rate of the detector by application of Hadamard transformation and to suppress correlation noise induced by components with much higher concentrations than the target substances are shown. Compared to conventional GC-FID, the signal-to-noise ratio has been increased by a factor of 10 with mpGC-FID. Correspondingly, the detection limits for BTEX in CO 2 have been lowered from 10 to 1 ppb each. This has been achieved despite the presence of detectable components (methane and methanol) with a concentration about 1000 times higher than the target substances. The robustness and reliability of mpGC has been proven in a two-month field test in a chemical production plant.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Trace Elements in Rice Field at Prafi District Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aplena Elen S. Bless

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial variability of trace elements in rice Ḁeld is necessary to obtain soil quality information to en-hance rice production. ἀis study was aimed to measure concentration and distribution of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cd in two diᴀerent sites (SP1, SP2 of PraḀ rice Ḁeld in Manokwari West Papua. ἀe representative 26 soil samples were analysed for their available trace metal concentration (DTPA, soil pH, and C-organic and soil texture. ἀe result indicated that Fe toxicity and Zn deḀcient problems were encountered in both sites.  Rice Ḁeld in SP2 was more deḀcient in Zn than SP1. Site with the highest trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cd concentration had low soil pH and high C-organic. Acidic soil has higher solubility of metals; while high C-organic could improve the formation of dissolve organic carbon-metal binding, hence it improving the trace metals concentration in soil solution.

  3. Study in Malaysia on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawiah, H.; Khalik Haji Wood, A.; Shahrom, A.W.; Halim Mansar, A.

    1998-01-01

    Involvement in the Reference Asian man project, Phase 2 began at the project, formulation meeting in Hitachinaka City, Japan in February 1995. The objective of the project is to look into the ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. The data on ingestion of radionuclides from diet and deposition in tissues are important for estimating internal dose for radiation protection. The meeting agreed the elements of primary interest are caesium, iodine, strontium, thorium and uranium in samples of representative diets and autopsy specimens of liver, muscle, thyroid, bone, and kidney. This report will highlight the methodology for implementation of the project including defining the study groups, sampling duplicate diet and autopsy specimens and the analytical techniques involved. Emphasis will be given to nuclear-related analytical technique (NAA) together with a complementary technique (AAS) available in our institution. Some data on trace element contents of local marine and fresh water fishes and milk was reported. Included also a brief discussion on drinking water quality in Malaysia and some information on related studies available. The information on drinking water will be very useful to the present study since water is part of daily diet. (author)

  4. UV-absorbing and other sun-protecting substances: genotoxicity of 2-ethylhexyl P-methoxycinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, A M; Arlauskas, A P; Angus, D S; Baker, R S; Gallagher, C H; Greenoak, G; Brown, M M; Meher-Homji, K M; Reeve, V

    1982-11-01

    The mutagenicity of 2-ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate was demonstrated when 25 sunscreen ingredients were tested in the Salmonella/microsome assay. This substance also increased the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals in Drosophila melanogaster. A trace contaminant may be implicated because many samples were obtained from several sources and the results were batch-related.

  5. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  6. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A; Beier, Kevin T; Pan, Y Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Wark, Abigail R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T; Schier, Alexander F; Cepko, Constance L

    2015-08-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV-G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of Organic Substances on the Efficiency of Fe(Ii to Fe(Iii Oxidation and Removal of Iron Compounds from Groundwater in the Sedimentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupińska Izabela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems with iron removal from groundwater is organic matter. The article presents the experiments involved groundwater samples with a high concentration of total iron - amounting to 7.20 mgFe/dm3 and an increased amount of organic substances (TOC from 5.50 to 7.50 mgC/dm3. The water samples examined differed in terms of the value of the ratio of the TOC concentration and the concentration of total iron (D. It was concluded that with increase in the coexistence ratio of organic substances and total iron in water (D = [TOC]/[Fetot], efficiency of Fe(II to Fe(III oxidization with dissolved oxygen decreased, while the oxidation time was increasing. This rule was not demonstrated for potassium manganate (VII when used as an oxidizing agent. The application of potassium manganate (VII for oxidation of Fe(II ions produced the better results in terms of total iron concentration reduction in the sedimentation process than the oxidation with dissolved oxygen.

  8. Effect of Organic Substances on the Efficiency of Fe(Ii) to Fe(Iii) Oxidation and Removal of Iron Compounds from Groundwater in the Sedimentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupińska, Izabela

    2017-09-01

    One of the problems with iron removal from groundwater is organic matter. The article presents the experiments involved groundwater samples with a high concentration of total iron - amounting to 7.20 mgFe/dm3 and an increased amount of organic substances (TOC from 5.50 to 7.50 mgC/dm3). The water samples examined differed in terms of the value of the ratio of the TOC concentration and the concentration of total iron (D). It was concluded that with increase in the coexistence ratio of organic substances and total iron in water (D = [TOC]/[Fetot]), efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidization with dissolved oxygen decreased, while the oxidation time was increasing. This rule was not demonstrated for potassium manganate (VII) when used as an oxidizing agent. The application of potassium manganate (VII) for oxidation of Fe(II) ions produced the better results in terms of total iron concentration reduction in the sedimentation process than the oxidation with dissolved oxygen.

  9. Ozonation of humic substances: Effects on molecular weight distributions of organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy, G.L.; Kuo, C.J.; Sierka, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Four different sources of humic substances were studied to determine the effects of ozonation on molecular weight distributions, based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Solutions of two soil-derived fulvic acids and a one soil-derived humic acid, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) associated with a natural water source were studied. Both gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultrafiltration (UF) were employed to define apparent molecular weight (AMW). Applied ozone doses ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 mg O 3 /mg DOC. Overall samples of untreated and ozonated waters, as well as individual molecular weight fractions, were characterized according to DOC, uv absorbance, and THMFP. Ozonation resulted in a significant disappearance of higher AMW material with a corresponding increase in lower AMW material. Although little overall reduction in DOC concentration was observed, significant overall reductions in UV absorbance and THMFP levels were observed

  10. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  11. Characteristics of selected bioaccumulative substances and their impact on fish health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence and effects of chosen bioaccumulative substances i.e. heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on fish, as well as provide information on time trends and potential threat to human health. Chemical substances which pollute water may affect living organisms in two ways. First of all, large amounts of chemical substances may cause sudden death of a significant part of the population of farmed fish, without symptoms (i.e. during breakdown of factories or industrial sewage leaks. However, more frequently, chemical substances accumulate in tissues of living organisms affecting them chronically. Heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent substances with a long-lasting biodegradation process. In a water environment they usually accumulate in sediments, which makes them resistant to biodegradation processes induced by, e.g., the UV light. These substances enter the fish through direct consumption of contaminated water or by contact with skin and gills. Symptoms of intoxication with heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs may vary and depend on the concentration and bioavailability of these substances, physicochemical parameters of water, and the fish itself.

  12. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  13. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  14. Nitrite fixation by humic substances: Nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for potential intermediates in chemodenitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Mikita, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Studies have suggested that NO2/-, produced during nitrification and denitrification, can become incorporated into soil organic matter and, in one of the processes associated with chemodenitrification, react with organic matter to form trace N gases, including N2O. To gain an understanding of the nitrosation chemistry on a molecular level, soil and aquatic humic substances were reacted with 15N-labeled NaNO2, and analyzed by liquid phase 15N and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Pahokee peat and peat humic acid were also reacted with Na15NO2 and analyzed by solid-state 15N NMR. In Suwannee River, Armadale, and Laurentian fulvic acids, phenolic rings and activated methylene groups underwent nitrosation to form nitrosophenols (quinone monoximes) and ketoximes, respectively. The oximes underwent Beckmann rearrangements to 2??amides, and Beckmann fragmentations to nitriles. The nitriles in turn underwent hydrolysis to 1??amides. Peaks tentatively identified as imine, indophenol, or azoxybenzene nitrogens were clearly present in spectra of samples nitrosated at pH 6 but diminished at pH 3. The 15N NMR spectrum of the peat humic acid exhibited peaks corresponding with N-nitroso groups in addition to nitrosophenols, ketoximes, and secondary Beckmann reaction products. Formation of N-nitroso groups was more significant in the whole peat compared with the peat humic acid. Carbon-13 NMR analyses also indicated the occurrence of nitrosative demethoxylation in peat and soil humic acids. Reaction of 15N-NH3 fixated fulvic acid with unlabeled NO2/- resulted in nitrosative deamination of aminohydroquinone N, suggesting a previously unrecognized pathway for production of N2 gas in soils fertilized with NH3.Studies have suggested that NO2-, produced during nitrification and denitrification, can become incorporated into soil organic matter and, in one of the processes associated with chemodenitrification, react with organic

  15. Multi-Resolution Playback of Network Trace Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    insertion, populateDB organizes the packet data by Open Systems Interconnec- tion model ( OSI ) layer, links each packet with those in the same flow to create...well as replay based on a statistical model of a network trace file. This thesis attempts to create such a system and to fulfil the requirements set...Lastly, the statistical model generated from characteristics of the original trace proved to accurately model the original capture and provide for a user

  16. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Standoff Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has...The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air , typically for inhalation or skin exposure. For acetone , the TLV is 250 ppm...12 pt) The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized

  17. Critical micelle concentrations of allelopathic substances produced by Nannochloris oculata which affect a red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of the green algae Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloris eucaryotum are known to cause lysis of Gymnodinium breve, which is Florida's red tide organism. Two cytolytic agents were previously identified as methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. In this study, the critical micelle concentrations of these substances were determined by ultraviolet light and turbidimetric methods to be 3.5 +/- 0.3 ppm (methyl stearate) and 4.3 +/- 0.6 (methyl palmitate). There were no significant differences in results obtained using the two methods.

  18. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for studying extracellular organic substances of Ulva rigida C. Ag; Analisi spettroscopica per fluorescenza sincrona nello studio delle sostanze organiche extracellulari dell`Ulva rigida C. Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, G.M. [IRSA, Marine Environment Unit, Ispra (Italy). Centro Comune di Ricerca; Targa, C. [Univ. degli studi, Venice (Italy). Dip. di scienze ambientali

    1996-01-01

    Experiments performed using Ulva rigida thalli and enriched culture solutions demonstrated that Ulva emits extra-cellular organic substances the complexity of which can be monitored by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that synchronous peak intensities hA (excitation at 270-280 nm), hB (340-350 nm) and hC (390-400 nm) varies in relation to the age of the thallus and the quality of the emitted substances by the alga. The peak height ratio hA/hB display an inverse relationship with the age of the alga and a direct relationship with the slope of the absorption curves. That occurs since hA, after a first increase, tends to diminish in correspondence to a progressive increase of the peaks hB and hC due to the emission of the more and more complex fluorescent organic substances.

  19. Insights in groundwater organic matter from Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater has important implications for the terrestrial global carbon budget. Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) is a size-exclusion based chromatography technique that separates the organic carbon into molecular weight size fractions of biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks (degradation products of humic substances), low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutrals. Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from a range of locations in Australia representing different surface soil, land cover, recharge type and hydrological properties. At one site hyporheic zone samples were also collected from beneath a stream. The results showed a general decrease in the aromaticity and molecular weight indices going from surface water, hyporheic downwelling and groundwater samples. The aquifer substrate also affected the organic composition. For example, groundwater samples collected from a zone of fractured rock showed a relative decrease in the proportion of humic substances, suggestive of sorption or degradation of humic substances. This work demonstrates the potential for using LC-OCD in elucidating the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater.

  20. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  1. Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokova, L.S.; Pokrovsky, O.S.; Moreva, O.Yu.; Chupakov, A.V.; Zabelina, S.A.; Klimov, S.I.; Shorina, N.V.; Vorobieva, T.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 μm). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa–0.22 μm) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30 °C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70–80% to only 20–30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90–98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60–70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (> 30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved ( 100 for Co), the second and third factors could have brought about the decrease of allochthonous DOC concentration as well as the concentration and proportion of organic and organo-mineral colloidal forms of non-essential low-soluble trace elements present in the form of organic colloids (Al, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th, Pb, all REEs). It can be hypothesized that climate warming in

  2. Organic Compounds, Trace Elements, Suspended Sediment, and Field Characteristics at the Heads-of-Tide of the Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, and Elizabeth Rivers, New Jersey, 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, and organic compounds were measured in samples from the heads-of-tide of the five tributaries to the Newark and Raritan Bays during June 2000 to June 2003. The samples were collected as part of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Toxics Reduction Workplan/Contaminant Assessment Reduction Program. Samples of streamwater were collected at water-quality sampling stations constructed near U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on the Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, and Elizabeth Rivers. Sampling was conducted during base-flow conditions and storms. Constituent concentrations were measured to determine the water quality and to calculate the load of sediment and contaminants contributed to the bays from upstream sources. Water samples were analyzed for suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and specific conductance. Samples of suspended sediment and water were analyzed for 98 distinct polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 7 dioxins, 10 furans, 27 pesticides, 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the trace elements cadmium, lead, mercury, and methyl-mercury. Measurements of ultra-low concentrations of organic compounds in sediment and water were obtained by collecting 1 to 3 grams of suspended sediment on glass fiber filters and by passing at least 20 liters of filtered water through XAD-2 resin. The extracted sediment and XAD-2 resin were analyzed for organic compounds by high- and low-resolution gas chromatography mass-spectrometry that uses isotope dilution procedures. Trace elements in filtered and unfiltered samples were analyzed for cadmium, lead, mercury, and methyl-mercury by inductively coupled charged plasma and mass-spectrometry. All constituent concentrations are raw data. Interpretation of the data will be completed in the second phase of the study.

  3. Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Entrepreneurial Strategic Orientation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    This research studied the relationships of the components of entrepreneurial strategic orientation (ESO) with implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) within organizations that treat patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). A national sample of 317 SUD treatment providers were studied in a period after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was enacted (2009) and meaningful use EHR requirements were established (2010), but before implementation of the Affordable Care Act. The study sample was selected using stratified random sampling and was part of a longitudinal study of treatment providers across the United States. After we controlled for potentially confounding variables, four components of ESO had a significant relationship with EHR implementation. Levels of slack resources in an organization moderated the relationship of ESO with meaningful use of EHRs, increasing the strength of the relationship for some components but reducing the strength of others. From a policy and practice perspective, the results suggest that training and education to develop higher levels of ESO within SUD treatment organizations are likely to increase their level of meaningful use of EHRs, which in turn may enhance the integration of SUD treatment with primary medical providers, better preparing SUD treatment providers for the environmental changes of the Affordable Care Act.

  4. Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Wricke, B.; Sontheimer, H.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.) [de

  5. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  6. Hazardous substances in wastewater systems:a delicate issue for wastewater management

    OpenAIRE

    Palmquist, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Many substances derived from human activity end up in wastewater systems at some point. A large number of different substances - up to 30,000 - are present in wastewater. Some of them are valuable, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, but there are also hazardous substances such as heavy metals and anthropogenic organic substances. To be able to utilise the wastewater nutrients on arable land (agriculture, forestry or other alternatives), it is of great importance to investigate the sources of ha...

  7. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza

    2016-01-15

    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  9. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  10. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  11. Geochemical behaviour of palladium in soils and Pd/PdO model substances in the presence of the organic complexing agents L-methionine and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Vang, My; Albers, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Schindl, Roland; Leopold, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessments of platinum group metal (PGE) emissions, notably those of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), have been mostly based on data regarding the metallic forms used in vehicular exhaust converters, known to be virtually biologically inert and immobile. To adequately assess the potential impacts of PGE, however, data on the chemical behaviour of these metals under ambient conditions post-emission is needed. Complexing agents with a high affinity for metals in the environment are hypothesized to contribute to an increased bioaccessibility of PGE. The purpose of this study is to examine the modulating effects of the organic complexing agents, L-methionine and citric acid, on the geochemical behavior of Pd in soils and model substances (Pd black and PdO). Batch experimental tests were conducted with soils and model substances to examine the impacts of the concentration of complexing agents, pH and length of extraction period on Pd solubility and its chemical transformation. Particle surface chemistry was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on samples treated with solutions under various conditions, including low and high O2 levels. Pd was observed to be more soluble in the presence of organic complexing agents, compared to Pt and Rh. Pd in soils was more readily solubilized with organic complexing agents compared to the model substances. After 7 days of extraction, L-methionine (0.1 M) treated soil and Pd black samples, for instance, had mean soluble Pd fractions of 12.4 ± 5.9% and 0.554 ± 0.024%, respectively. Surface chemistry analyses (XPS) confirmed the oxidation of metallic Pd surfaces when treated with organic complexing agents. The type of organic complexing agent used for experimental purposes was observed to be the most important factor influencing solubility, followed by solution pH and time of extraction. The results demonstrate that metallic Pd can be transformed into more bioaccessible species in the presence of

  12. Use of cluster rhenium substances with alkyl ligands for inhibition of the Guerin carcinoma Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Voronkova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantity and quality of erythrocytes, blood haemoglobin concentration, glucose levels in the erythrocytes and plasma, content of TBA-active products in blood plasma of rats were studied during development of the Guerin carcinoma, introduction of cis-platinum and cluster rhenium substances with organic ligands. It was shown that rhenium substances had essential antioxidant effects and changed the dynamic of tumour growth. The conclusion on perspectiveness of further investigations of rhenium substances with cluster fragment and organic ligands in experiments in vivo with changed redox-status of an organism was drawn.

  13. Effect of an Organic Trace Mineral Premix on the Semen Quality, Testicular Morphology and Gene Expression Related to Testosterone Synthesis of Male Broiler Breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate the effect of organic trace minerals premix (OTM on the reproductive performance of breeder roosters, a total of 240 San Huang roosters (23 weeks of age were randomly divided into two treatments with six replicates of 20 roosters each. The first group (n = 120 was fed a basal diet containing an inorganic trace minerals premix (ITM and the other group (n = 120 was fed the basal diet in which ITM was replaced by OTM. The experiment period was 22 weeks. Semen from one randomly-selected rooster per replicate was collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment and other 10 times every two weeks. Another rooster per replicate was randomly selected at 30, 35, and 45 weeks of age, and sacrificed. Results showed that OTM did not affect relative organ weights. There was a significant increase in semen parameters in OTM group (p<0.05, such as semen volume, semen density, and semen motility from 31 to 35 weeks. OTM-fed roosters presented higher serum testosterone levels at 45 weeks of age, as well as higher testicular mRNA expression of the genes 3-beta dehydrogenase 2 (HSD3B2 and cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1 in the OTM-fed group at 45 weeks of age compared with those fed ITM (p<0.05. Considering the results of the present study, it was concluded that feeding organic instead of inorganic trace minerals to male broilers breeders improves semen quality, which may be attributed to their better testicular development and higher expression of enzymes related to testosterone synthesis.

  14. The ecotoxicity of zinc and zinc-containing substances in soil with consideration of metal-moiety approaches and organometal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ellyn; Boyd, Patrick; Lawson-Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal; Saucier, Stacey; Scroggins, Richard; Princz, Juliska

    2017-12-01

    Within Canada, screening-level assessments for chemical substances are required to determine whether the substances pose a risk to human health and/or the environment, and as appropriate, risk management strategies. In response to the volume of metal and metal-containing substances, process efficiencies were introduced using a metal-moiety approach, whereby substances that contain a common metal moiety are assessed simultaneously as a group, with the moiety of concern consisting of the metal ion. However, for certain subgroups, such as organometals or organic metal salts, the organic moiety or parent substance may be of concern, rather than simply the metal ion. To further investigate the need for such additional consideration, certain substances were evaluated: zinc (Zn)-containing inorganic (Zn chloride [ZnCl2] and Zn oxide) and organic (organometal: Zn diethyldithiocarbamate [Zn(DDC) 2 ] and organic metal salts (Zn stearate [ZnSt] and 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrachlorozincate [BCNZ]). The toxicity of the substances were assessed using plant (Trifolium pratense and Elymus lanceolatus) and soil invertebrate (Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei) tests in a sandy soil. Effect measures were determined based on total metal and total parent analyses (for organic substances). In general, the inorganic Zn substances were less toxic than the organometals and organic metal salts, with 50% effective concentrations ranging from 11 to >5194 mg Zn kg -1 dry soil. The data demonstrate the necessity for alternate approaches in the assessment of organo-metal complexes, with the organic moieties or parent substances warranting consideration rather than the metal ion alone. In this instance, the organometals and organic metal salts were significantly more toxic than other test substances despite their low total Zn content. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3324-3332. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 Crown

  15. Trace element distribution in different chemical fractions of False Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosental, R.

    1984-05-01

    Trace metals in the aquatic environment are generally concentrated on solid geochemical phases which eventually become incorporated into estuarine and marine sediments. The mechanism of trace metal concentration is believed to be adsorption on various geochemical phases, such as hydrous metal oxides, clays and organic matter. Metals in estuarine sediments can thus be expected to be partitioned between different phases, depending on the concentration of the phase and the strength of the adsorption bond. The bioavailability of sediment-bound metals to deposit-feeding organisms will depend on trace metal partitioning and the kinetics of biological metal uptake from each geochemical phase. The major objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure involving sequential chemical extractions for the partitioning of particulate trace metals in sediment samples, collected from False Bay. Eight metals were examined, i.e. Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. X-ray diffraction was also used in the study

  16. 1993 Annual Report: San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Lacy, Jessica; Hardin, Dane; Grovhaug, Tom; Taberski, K.; Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Caffrey, J.; Cole, B.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    1993-01-01

    This first annual report of the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program contains the results of monitoring measurements made in 1993. Measurements of conventional water quality parameters and trace contaminant concentrations were made at 16 stations throughout the Estuary three times during the year: the wet period (March), during declining Delta outflow (May), and during the dry period (September). Water toxicity tests were conducted at 8 of those stations. Measurements of sediment quality and contaminant concentrations were made at the same 16 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods. Sediment toxicity was measured at 8 of those stations. Transplanted, bagged bivalve bioaccumulation and condition was measured at 11 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods.

  17. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  18. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  19. Re-evaluation of solid-phase adsorption and desorption techniques for isolation of trace organic pollutants from chlorinated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, S; Nagatsuka, A; Rokuhara, T; Asakura, T; Hirayama, N; Suzuki, S

    1993-07-16

    Amberlite XAD resin and activated carbon columns were tested for their abilities to concentrate trace organic pollutants in chlorinated water. Both XAD-2 and XAD-7 resin columns (20 ml) were capable of adsorbing about 30% of total organic halogen (TOX) present in 20 l of drinking water (pH 7) containing about 100 micrograms/l of TOX, whereas the carbon column (10 ml) adsorbed over 90% of TOX. The adsorption capacity of XAD-7 resin was found to be strongly dependent on the solution pH, as compared with those of XAD-2 and carbon adsorbents. Soxhlet and sonication extractions were also evaluated for their abilities to recover the adsorbed organics from the adsorbents, by measurements of TOX, chromatographable compounds and mutagenicity in the eluates. Soxhlet extraction gave higher recoveries than sonication, as measured with the above indices, but these differences were generally small (ca. 20%), with exception of the carbon extracts. The XAD-2 and XAD-7 extracts of drinking water also showed about 3-4 times higher mutagenic activity than the carbon extracts.

  20. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  1. The influence of intestine-based treatment using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang on the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that “treating from the intestine” using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang and its modified formulae can regulate the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats. This may be one of the mechanisms for intestine-based treatment for COPD.

  2. From Turnover-Oriented to Functional Soil Organic Matter Pools: a Lesson Learned from Stable Isotope Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Globally soils contain three times the amount of carbon (C) stored in the atmosphere, and 68% of this is stored in soil below 30cm. Changes to the size of the soil C stocks could significantly impact the net terrestrial-atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus either mitigate or increase concentrations of CO2. Yet we are currently unable to conduct reliable predictions of the direction and magnitude of soil C stock changes, since current soil C models fail to accurately capture the current understanding of how soil organic matter (SOM) forms and persists, and (2) the vertical movement and deep soil processing of SOM. We propose shifting soil C modelling approaches from a turnover-oriented approach to a more functional-oriented approach, where measurable SOM pools with specific function in soils, with respect to their physical structure (soluble versus particulate), microbial accessibility (free versus mineral or aggregate protection) and ability to transfer along the soil profile (through water flow or by mass transport) are represented. We will present experimental evidence from a number of studies conducted in the past few years using stable isotope tracing in support of incorporating a dissolved organic matter (DOM)-microbial path and a physical transfer of particulate organic matter path in SOM models. We will also show how, through the DOM-microbial path, fresh plant inputs quickly result in the formation of new mineral-associated organic matter.

  3. Ultra-trace determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Artic ice using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lacorte Bruguera, Silvia; Quintana, Jordi; Tauler, Romà; Ventura, Francesc; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the optimization and application of an analytical method based on the use of stirbarsorptiveextraction (SBSE) gaschromatographycoupled to massspectrometry (GC–MS) for the ultra-trace analysis of POPs (PersistentOrganicPollutants) in Arctic ice. In a first step, the mass-spectrometry conditions were optimized to quantify 48 compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorinated pesticides) at the low pg/L level....

  4. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO 3 type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K p value of 2* 10 6 ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs

  5. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  6. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Infrared Emission From Inorganic and Organic Substances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, C.S; Brown, E; Hommerich, U; Trivedi, S. B; Snyder, A. P; Samuels, A. C

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been established as a powerful method for identifying trace elemental contaminants by analyzing the atomic spectral emission lines that result subsequent to plasmas generated by laser power...

  7. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  8. Evaluation of dissolved oxygen and organic substances concentrations in water of the nature reserve Alluvium Zitavy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaticka, A.; Noskovic, J.; Babosova, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances were evaluated in water in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy (indirect method based on their oxidation by K 2 Cr 2 0 7 was used). The results are represented in mg of O 2 · dm -3 . Taking of samples took place in 6 sampling sites in regular month intervals. Based on obtained data and according to the standard STN 75 7221 (Water quality -The classification of the water surface quality) water in individual sampling sites was ranked into the classes of the .water surface quality. From the data it is clear that the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy changed in dependence on sampling sites and time. The highest mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen in dependence on sampling time were found out in spring months and the lowest concentrations in summer months. They ranged from 1.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 (July) to 9.0 mg O 2 · dm -3 (March). Falling dissolved oxygen values can be related to successive increase of water temperature, thus good conditions were created for decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms in water and sediments in which they use dissolved oxygen. In dependence on sampling place the highest mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was in sampling site No. 4 (6.0 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is situated in the narrowest place in the NR. The lowest value was in sampling site No. 2 (3.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is a typical wetland ecosystem. High mean values of COD Cr in dependence on sampling time were determined in summer months and low values during winter moths. Dependence of COD Cr values on sampling site was also manifested. The lowest mean value was obtained in sampling site No. 4 (59.5 mg · dm -3 ) and the highest value in sampling site No. 5 (97.1 mg · dm -3 ) which is also a typical wetland. Based on the results and according to the STN 75 7221 we ranked water in all sampling sites into the 5 th class of the water

  9. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen P. Davis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with severe mental illness receiving services at a regional psychiatric hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa. We describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime substance use and examine the association between substance use and DUP. Methods: A cross-sectional survey recruited adults diagnosed with severe mental illness and assessed lifetime and past 3-month substance use using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between lifetime substance use (other than alcohol and tobacco and DUP as measured by the World Health Organization Encounter Form. Results: Amongst 87 participants, alcohol (81.6%, tobacco (75.6% and cannabis (49.4% were the most common substances reported for lifetime use. Risk of health-related problems (health, social, financial, legal and relationship of cannabis use was associated with younger age, single marital status and lower education. Adjusted regression analyses indicated that use of amphetamines and methaqualone is associated with longer DUP. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent amongst psychiatric patients in KwaZulu-Natal and may contribute to longer DUP. Mental health services in this region should address co-morbid substance use and psychiatric disorders. Keywords: Substance Use; Psychosis; KwaZulu-Natal

  10. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  11. Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, M A

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludges and effluents on agricultural land is becoming a widespread practice. Most sludge samples disposed on soils contain large quantities of various trace elements. Studies of 20 trace elements commonly found in sludge samples showed that they inhibit the activity of urease in soils and that their order of effectiveness as inhibitors of urease depends on the soil. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol . g/sup -1/ soil, however, some of them showed the same order of effectiveness as urease inhibitors in the six soils studied i.e., for the monovalent and divalent ions. Ag/sup +/ greater than or equal to Hg/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cd/sup 2 +/ > Zn/sup 2 +/ > Sn/sup 2 +/ > Mn/sup 2 +/, and generally, Fe/sup 3 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup +/. Other trace element ions that inhibited urease were Ni/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, As/sup 3 +/, B/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, V/sup 4 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, and Mo/sup 6 +/. Of the trace element ions studied, only As/sup 5 +/ and W/sup 6 +/ did not inhibit urease activity in soils. Studies on the distribution of urease activity showed that it is concentrated in surface soils and decreases with depth. Urease activity was proportional to organic C distribution in each soil profile and was significantly correlated with organic C in the surface soils studied.

  12. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60–70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. - Highlights: • Column experiments examined fate of trace elements derived from poultry litter leachate in soils from Delaware, USA. • Influent solutions included poultry litter leachate and simulated solution without DOC. • Results showed increased mobility of litter-derived As, Cu, Zn and P in solution in the presence of DOC. • Mass balance showed all of Cu mass remained in solution but most (60–70%) of the Zn, As and P mass was associated with soil. • Study results show that DOC

  13. Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokova, L S; Pokrovsky, O S; Moreva, O Yu; Chupakov, A V; Zabelina, S A; Klimov, S I; Shorina, N V; Vorobieva, T Ya

    2013-10-01

    The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 μm). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30°C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70-80% to only 20-30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90-98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60-70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (>30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved (organic matter by heterotrophic aerobic bacterioplankton and 3) photo-degradation of DOM and photo-chemical liberation of organic-bound TE. While the first process may have caused significant decreases in the total dissolved concentration of micronutrients (a factor of 2 to 5 for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd and a factor of >100 for Co), the second and third factors could have brought

  14. Fast GC-analysis of selected organic compounds at trace levels with the novel RAPID-MS/MS-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poell, S.

    2002-03-01

    The main topic of the present thesis was the development of rapid analytical procedures for the environmental analysis of a steel producing company, to speed up the sample throughput for the daily routine work. Additionally, high precision of analysis results was requested. This brought a certain effort concerning the validation of the results which was supported by the analysis of certified reference materials. Special interest was laid on the optimization of the trace analysis of dioxins and furans (PCDD/DF). An expansion of the established methods with powerful techniques like single ion storage and tandem-mass spectrometry resulted in an obvious improvement of the limits of quantitation and the reliability of analysis. Further advances could be achieved with the simplification of the clean-up procedure by the application of a new sampling technique which reduced the demand on sample preparation time as well. Analysis were also carried out with brominated Dioxins and Furans (PBrDD/DF). The next item focused on the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the implementation of five new representatives with a highly carcinogenic potential. In this case, the coupling of three detectors resulted in a robust and precise HPLC-method with a highly qualitative and quantitative analytical reliability. Furthermore, the aim was to promote the routine analysis of alkylated aromatics (BTEX) and halogenated volatile organic (VOC) compounds. By the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection a common analytical technique for both classes of substances could be found with an enhancement of sensitivity due to application of the single ion storage technique. The existing method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was improved by replacing the electron capture detector with mass spectrometry. Due to an optimization of the single ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry parameters the requested demands on low detection

  15. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  17. Determination of microscopic interactions between actinides and humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of plutonium has been introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear power-plant accidents. Contaminated areas, which need a particular survey, have become a very interesting place to study and understand the plutonium behaviour in the environment. Until few years ago, it was admitted that plutonium introduced into subsurface environment is relatively immobile, owing to its low solubility in ground water and strong sorption onto rocks. However, studies of contaminated areas show that humic substances, which are ubiquitous in environment, can alter the speciation of metal ion, e.g. plutonium, and thus their migration. These humic substances are major components of the natural organic matter in soil and water as well as in geological organic deposits such as lake sediments, peats and brown coals. They are complex heterogeneous mixtures of polydisperse supra-molecules formed by biochemical and chemical reactions during the decay and transformation of plant and microbial remains. The knowledge of the impact of humic substances on the plutonium migration is required to assess their transport in natural systems. However, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of humic substances, there are a lot of difficulties in the description of microscopic interactions. The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate as precisely as possible interactions between actinides and humic substances. This work is divided in two parts: on the one hand humic substances will be separated to identify each component, on the other hand the speciation of actinides with characterized humic substances will be studied. In the first part of this study, new methods are developed to study the speciation of actinides with humic substances using two kinds of mass spectrometers: an ICP-MS and a high resolution mass spectrometer using various ionization devices (ESI, APCI, DART, APPI) in order to determine all active molecules for the complexation. In the

  18. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, G.F.; David, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the authors examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4 + , NO 3 - , K + , and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3 - . Total DOC ranged from 2,228 to 7,193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4,835 μmol L -1 . Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity (E 4 /E 6 ) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Their FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge balance deficits

  19. A preferred provider organization (PPO) case study for mental health and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomillion, I; Self, D R

    1988-01-01

    The Preferred Provider Organization concept is quickly becoming more popular because of its relative cost-effectiveness and recent successes. Managed care through means of this mental health and substance abuse PPO may well serve as the prototype for the general health care cost containment efforts of the future for the self-insured insurance plans for Alabama state employees and teachers. The first year also revealed several problems in the original proposal especially with respect to the unintended attractiveness of inpatient/residential care. Consequently, copayment plans were added to dissuade unnecessary lengthy stays (see Table 2). Second, a new quality assurance mechanism has been added to further evaluate the need for admissions to facilities, as well as for the need for continued inpatient treatment. The Alabama Quality Assurance Foundation (AQAF) began on January 1, 1988, conducting the preadmission certification on all admissions based upon criteria established jointly by AQAF and the PPO providers. In addition, AQAF will conduct continuing stay reviews at predetermined time periods to ensure that continued treatment in an inpatient setting is indeed necessary.

  20. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  1. Dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, humic substances and dissolved organic carbon in a temperate river system affected by agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Gabon, Marine; Riso, Ricardo

    2015-12-15

    Although reduced organic sulfur substances (RSS) as well as humic substances (HS) are widely suspected to play a role in, for example, metal speciation or used as a model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in laboratory studies, reports of their quantification in natural waters are scarce. We have examined the dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, HS and DOC over an annual cycle in a river system affected by agricultural practices. The new differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry was successfully applied to measure glutathione-like compounds (GSHs), thioacetamide-like compounds (TAs) and the liquid chromatography coupled to organic detector to analyze HS and DOC at high frequency in the Penzé River (NW France). The streamflow-concentration patterns, principal components analysis and flux analysis allowed discrimination of the source of each organic compound type. Surprisingly, the two RSS and HS detected in all samples, displayed different behavior. As previously shown, manuring practice is the main source of DOC and HS in this watershed where agricultural activity is predominant. The HS were then transferred to the river systems via runoff, particularly during the spring and autumn floods, which are responsible of >60% of the annual flux. TAs had a clear groundwater source and may be formed underground, whereas GSHs displayed two sources: one aquagenic in spring and summer probably linked to the primary productivity and a second, which may be related to bacterial degradation. High sampling frequency allowed a more accurate assessment of the flux values which were 280 tC y(-1) for DOC representing 20 kg C ha(-1) y(-1). HS, TAs and GSHs fluxes represented 60, 13, and 4% of the total annual DOC export, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of electrophysical processes during spontaneous combustion of gases and vapors of organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shebeko, Yu.N.; Muravlev, V.K.; Il' in, A.B.

    Combustion of organic substances is accompanied by non-equilibrium ionization, the greatest degree of ionization being in the high temperature zone of the flame, although notable concentrations of ions have been observed in the earlier, low temperature stages of combustion. Since this phenomenon has been studied for only a small number of compounds, a study was undertaken of the electrophysical phenomena taking place during spontaneous combustion of a large variety of compounds, viz., ethanol, acetone, benzene, diethylamine, pentane, diethyl ether, A-72 gasoline, dibromotetrafluoroethane, dichloromethane, and three mixtures of ethanol with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane. Relationships of temperature to passive sonde potential and conductivity current during the induction period were determined. The effective activation energy for the conductivity current-temperature relationship was found to be 230 kilojoules per mole, which agrees with that determined for the induction period in the spontaneous combustion of acetylene-air mixtures in shock waves. 14 references, 3 figures.

  4. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of the variations of the concentration of trace elements in various organs of rat as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Loc'h, C.; Stulzaft, O.; Gaudry, A.; Comar, D.

    1976-01-01

    In order to know the normal distribution of trace elements in rats as accurately as possible, the composition of different organs and body tissues by neutron activation analysis was determined in animals from 15 days to 22 months old. The experiment conditions were described. Normal concentrations for more than 20 trace elements were obtained, some of them being less than a tenth of a part per billion. The experiment has shown that variations in elemental concentrations in terms of age were a general phenomenon and that for some elements a steady state is apparently never attained

  6. Co-ordinated research project: ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This First Research Co-ordination Meeting on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements was held at the Hotel Rembrandt,Quezon City, the Philippines. Information on individual participant's plans for participation in the CRP, and the progress achieved so far on this and related topics is presented in each country's report. The major themes covered include sampling of diets and tissues, analytical techniques used, analytical quality assurance and data reporting of results

  7. Sequential assessment via daphnia and zebrafish for systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Hyuk; Park, Chang-Beom; Kang, Benedict J; Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Environment and organisms are persistently exposed by a mixture of various substances. However, the current evaluation method is mostly based on an individual substance's toxicity. A systematic toxicity evaluation of heterogeneous substances needs to be established. To demonstrate toxicity assessment of mixture, we chose a group of three typical ingredients in cosmetic sunscreen products that frequently enters ecosystems: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP). We first determined a range of nominal toxic concentration of each ingredient or substance using Daphnia magna, and then for the subsequent organismal level phenotypic assessment, chose the wild-type zebrafish embryos. Any phenotype change, such as body deformation, led to further examinations on the specific organs of transgenic zebrafish embryos. Based on the systematic toxicity assessments of the heterogeneous substances, we offer a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol that starts off by utilizing Daphnia magna to determine a nominal concentration range of each substance and finishes by utilizing the zebrafish embryos to detect defects on the embryos caused by the heterogeneous substances. The protocol showed additive toxic effects of the mixtures. We propose a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol for the systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances from Daphnia magna to zebrafish embryo in-vivo models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of organic carbon, active carbon, calcium ions and aging on the sorption of per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) to soil

    OpenAIRE

    Schedin, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are a large group of organic chemicals that have gained an increased attention during recent years. Many of the compounds have shown to be persistent, toxic and bioaccumulating and they are found in water, soils, sediments, biota, animals and humans across the globe. The effects of PFASs to humans and animals are still being debated. It is suspected that the compounds can be carcinogenic, disrupt different hormone systems and have other severe e...

  9. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  10. Toxicological impacts of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välitalo, Pia; Kruglova, Antonina; Mikola, Anna; Vahala, Riku

    2017-05-01

    Antibiotics are found globally in the environment at trace levels due to their extensive consumption, which raises concerns about the effects they can have on non-target organisms, especially environmental micro-organisms. So far the majority of studies have focused on different aspects of antibiotic resistance or on analyzing the occurrence, fate, and removal of antibiotics from hospital and municipal wastewaters. Little attention has been paid to ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms although they play a critical role in most ecosystems and they are potentially sensitive to these substances. Here we review the current state of research on the toxicological impacts of antibiotics to aquatic micro-organisms, including proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria commonly present in biological wastewater treatment processes. We focus on antibiotics that are poorly removed during wastewater treatment and thus end up in surface waters. We critically discuss and compare the available analytical methods and test organisms based on effect concentrations and identify the knowledge gaps and future challenges. We conclude that, in general, cyanobacteria and ammonium oxidizing bacteria are the most sensitive micro-organisms to antibiotics. It is important to include chronic tests in ecotoxicological assessment, because acute tests are not always appropriate in case of low sensitivity (for example for proteobacteria). However, the issue of rapid development of antibiotic resistance should be regarded in chronic testing. Furthermore, the application of other species of bacteria and endpoints should be considered in the future, not forgetting the mixture effect and bacterial community studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of different test organisms to individual antibiotic substances, the application of several bioassays with varying test organisms would provide more comprehensive data for the risk assessment of antibiotics

  11. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO{sub 3} type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K{sub p} value of 2* 10{sup 6} ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs.

  12. Radiation treatment of organic substances which are difficult to decompose for utilizing sewage water again. Radiation decomposition of lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Taruko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    The sewerage model projects utilizing sewage-treated water and the sewerage model project for the future city executed in Tokyo are described. It is important to obtain the treated water which is suitable to purposes by setting up the target for control and reducing the organic contamination which is difficult to decompose. In fiscal year 1995, as to the decomposing treatment of lignin by radiation, the effect of reducing coloring and the influence when actual flowing-in sewage and treated water coexist were examined. The experimental samples were lignin aqueous solution, synthetic sewage and flowing-in sewage, treated water, and the mixture of treated water and synthetic sewage. The measurement of water quality is explained. The γ ray irradiation with a Co-60 source was carried out. The results of respective samples are reported. When total organic carbon was at the level in flowing-in sewage and treated water, irradiation was effective for eliminating coloring. The soluble organic substances which are difficult to decompose were efficiently decomposed by irradiation. (K.I.)

  13. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer...... to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion...

  14. Search for biochemical fossils on earth and non-biological organic molecules on Jupiter, Saturn and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bartholomew

    1982-07-01

    Recognizable remnants of ancient biochemicals may survive under mild/moderate geological environments. Acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons with terpenoid carbon skeletons (e.g. hopanes) and vanadyl and nickel porphyrins have been isolated from organic matter, including petroleum, in Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Remnants of lignin have also been found. Usually, carbohydrates do not survive long; they degrade and/or react with other organic substances to form macromolecular matter. Proteins, e.g. apparently those in dinosaur bone collagen, break down relatively rapidly. Life arose during the Precambrian and potential biochemical fossils, e.g. n-alkanes, 2,5-dimethylfuran have been isolated from Precambrian kerogens. Traces of hydrocarbons, NH3, PH3 occur on Jupiter and Saturn. Hydrocarbons, N2 and HCN, the latter a key intermediary in the laboratory abiological syntheses of amino acids and nucleic acid bases, are present on Titan where life could not have evolved. Precursor abiological organic molecules of some complexity may have been synthesized on Titan and the Jovian planets.

  15. Biological monitoring of organic substances in workers of a hazardous waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, C.; Domingo, J.L.; Bocio, A.; Nadal, M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Muller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, incineration has been one of the most frequently used technologies for hazardous waste treatment. However, health risks and the potential environmental impact of hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) are still issues of major concern. The reason is the association of stack emissions of semivolatile and volatile compounds from HWI with their potential adverse health effects. Some compounds of special interest are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In relation to this, HWI workers can be potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pollutants with a well-known toxicity. Since 1999, the only HWI in Spain has been operating in Constanti (Tarragona, Catalonia). It has a burning furnace that operates at a temperature of 1100 C and can burn 30,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. The purpose of the present survey was to determine after four years of regular operations in the facility, the concentrations in blood and urine of the HWI workers of a number of organic substances directly related with HWI and to which workers could be exposed. Human biological monitoring evaluates the degree of internal exposure to a defined environmental or occupational pollutant of individuals or population groups. The results of the current study have been compared with the baseline levels.

  16. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  17. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  18. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  19. Trace element characterisation of Cretaceous Orange Basin hydrocarbon source rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Adekola, S.A.; Swakamisa, O.; Fadipe, O.A.; Akinyemi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vanadium and nickel contents indicate that the rock samples from the Orange Basin have marine organic matter input. → The organic matter of the Orange Basin source rocks were deposited in reducing conditions. → Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal their subtle differences. → Cluster analysis classified the samples into three groups based on subtle differences in their .thermal maturity. - Abstract: Trace elements in the kerogen fraction of hydrocarbon source rock samples from two wells obtained from the Cretaceous units of the Orange Basin, South Africa were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in order to determine their distribution and geochemical significances. The concentrations of the elements (As, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and V) determined ranged from 0.64 to 47,300 ppm for the samples analysed. The total organic carbon (TOC) values indicate that the samples are organic rich but did not show any trend with the distribution of the trace metals except Ce, Mo and Pb. Dendrogram cluster analysis discriminated the samples into three groups on the basis of their level of thermal maturity. Thermal maturity has a significant effect on the distribution of the trace metals. Cobalt/Ni and V/Ni ratios and cross plots of the absolute values of V and Ni indicate that the samples had significant marine organic matter input. The V and Ni contents and V/(V + Ni) ratio indicate that the organic matter of the source rocks had been deposited in reducing conditions. Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the organic matter of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal subtle differences. Cluster analysis of the samples was also able to reveal the subtle

  20. Determination of trace elements in ground water by two preconcentration methods using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, A. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This is a comparative study between two different methods of preconcentration done to separate the trace elements cadmium, nickel. chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and lead in drinking (ground) water samples taken from different locations in Gezira State, central Sudan (the map); these methods are (coprecipitation) with aluminium hydroxide and by Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) as an organic solvent; and subsequent analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for both methods. The result of comparison showed the superiority of the (APDC) coprecipitation method over the aluminium hydroxide coprecipitation method in the total percentage recoveries of the studied trace elements in drinking (ground) water samples, such results confirm previous studies. This study also involves direct analysis of these water samples by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentrations of trace elements Cadmium, Nickel, Chromium, Manganese, Copper, Zinc and Lead and compare it to the corresponding guide line values described by the World Health Organization and the maximum concentrations of trace elements in drinking water permitted by the Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organizations (SSMO), where the concentrations of some elements in some samples were found to be different than the described values by both of the organizations. The study includes a trial to throw light on the effect of the proximity of the water samples sources to the Blue Nile river on its trace elements concentrations; no relation was proved to exist in that respect.(Author)

  1. Comparing humic substance and protein compound effects on the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Rabearisoa, Andry Harinaina; Zhao, Pujun; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of humic substances and protein compounds on the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Daphnia magna was compared. The humic substances included humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), the protein compounds included chicken egg albumin (albumin) and peptone, and the PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Four concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of the four dissolved organic matter (DOM) types were investigated. At the 1 mg L(-1) level, HA and albumin enhanced all tested PFAS bioaccumulation, whereas FA and peptone only enhanced the bioaccumulation of shorter-chain PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA). However, all four DOM types decreased all tested PFAS bioaccumulation at the 20 mg L(-1) level, and the decreasing ratios of bioaccumulation factors caused by FA, HA, albumin, and peptone were 1-49%, 23-77%, 17-58%, and 8-56%, respectively compared with those without DOM. This is because DOM not only reduced the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lowered the elimination rates of PFASs in D. magna, and these opposite effects would change with different DOM types and concentrations. Although the partition coefficients (L kg(-1)) of PFASs between HA and water (10(4.21)-10(4.98)) were much lower than those between albumin and water (10(4.92)-10(5.86)), their effects on PFAS bioaccumulation were comparable. This study suggests that although PFASs are a type of proteinophilic compounds, humic substances also have important effects on their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic Trace Compounds as Emisions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 2. Toxicological and ecotoxicological classification; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 2. Humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    In this report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicologial Classification - Part 2: Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification`) emissions of organic compounds, measured from German municipal waste incineration plants, are compared with toxicological and ecotoxicological data, limits and threshold values and environmental baseline levels. Emission data of other combustion processes are integrated if available. A modern waste incineration plant, observing German emission regulations, emits less of most substances reported here than other industrial processes or e.g. the combustion of wood or coal. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 2: Humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung`) werden die realen organischen Emissionen von Muellverbrennungsanlagen in groesstmoeglicher stofflicher Differenzierung toxikologisch eingeordnet. Hierzu werden die Daten mit human-/oekotoxikologischen Kenngroessen, Grenz- und Orientierungswerten sowie mit der Hintergrundbelastung verglichen und die inhalative Zusatzbelastung wird berechnet. Diese liegt fuer alle Stoffe im Bereich von 10{sup -9} bis 10{sup -1} Prozent. Eine Ausnahme bilden die Phthalsaeureester mit einem Spitzenwert fuer die Zusatzbelastung von 6,5%. Wenn vorhanden, werden die Emissionsdaten von anderen Verbrennungsprozessen mit in die Einordnung aufgenommen. Von vielen Substanzklassen wird bei einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage, die die Grenzwerte der 17. BImSchV einhaelt, weniger an die Umgebungsluft abgegeben als bei anderen industriellen Prozessen oder z.B. bei der Verbrennung von Kohle oder Holz. (orig.)

  3. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib

    2016-11-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R [World Health Organization, Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Medical Applications Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1973-07-01

    For the past four years the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy-Agency have been jointly coordinating investigations at an international level on the role possibly played by stable trace elements in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases, and the use of nuclear techniques in studying these elements. (author)

  5. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are two types of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) that use microorganisms to convert chemical energy in wastewaters into useful energy products such as (bio)electricity (MFC) or hydrogen gas (MEC). These two systems were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate trace organic compounds (TOrCs), commonly found in municipal wastewater, under closed circuit (current generation) and open circuit (no current generation) conditions, using acetate as the carbon source. A biocide was used to evaluate attenuation in terms of biotransformation versus sorption. The difference in attenuation observed before and after addition of the biocide represented biotransformation, while attenuation after addition of a biocide primarily indicated sorption. Attenuation of TOrCs was similar in MFCs and MECs for eight different TOrCs, except for caffeine and trimethoprim where slightly higher attenuation was observed in MECs. Electric current generation did not enhance attenuation of the TOrCs except for caffeine, which showed slightly higher attenuation under closed circuit conditions in both MFCs and MECs. Substantial sorption of the TOrCs occurred to the biofilm-covered electrodes, but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some of the compounds (carbamazepine, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and diphenhydramine) but not for others (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Atenolol also showed high levels of sorption despite being the most hydrophilic in the suite of compounds studied (log DpH 7.4=-1.99). Though BESs do not show any inherent advantages over conventional wastewater treatment, with respect to TOrC removal, overall removals in BESs are similar to that reported for conventional wastewater

  6. Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimo, Vladimír; Tomašových, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Highly-bioturbated "spotted" limestones and marls (Fleckenmergel-Fleckenkalk facies) of the Early Jurassic, which were deposited in broad and recurrent deep-shelf habitats of the Northern Tethys, are characterized by rare benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates. To address this paradox, we analyse trace-fossil assemblages in a ~85 m-thick succession of Pliensbachian spotted deposits (Zliechov Basin, Western Carpathians). They are dominated by infaunal and semi-infaunal deposit-feeders, with 9 ichnogenera and pyritized tubes of the semi-infaunal foraminifer Bathysiphon, being dominated by Chondrites, Lamellaeichnus (new ichnogenus), and Teichichnus. Lamellaeichnus, represented by a horizontal basal cylindrical burrow and an upper row of stacked convex-up gutters, was produced by a mobile deposit-feeder inhabiting shallow tiers because it is crossed by most other trace fossils. We show that the spotty appearance of the deposits is generated by a mixture of (1) dark, organic-rich shallow- and deep-tier traces (TOC = 0.16-0.36), and (2) light grey, organic-poor mottled or structurless sediment (TOC = 0.09-0.22). The higher TOC in shallow-tier burrows of Lamellaeichnus demonstrates that uppermost sediment layers were affected by poor redox cycling. Such conditions imply a limited mixed-layer depth and inefficient nutrient recycling conditioned by hypoxic bottom-waters, allowed by poor circulation and high sedimentation rates in depocenters of the Zliechov Basin. Hypoxic conditions are further supported by (1) dominance of trace-fossils produced by infaunal deposit feeders, (2) high abundance of hypoxiatolerant agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon, and (3) high abundance of Chondrites with ~0.5 mm-sized branches. Oxygen-deficient bottom-conditions can thus simultaneously explain the rarity of benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates and high standing abundance of tolerant soft-shell and agglutinated organisms in spotted deposits.

  7. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  8. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  9. Interaction of acetamiprid with extracellular polymeric substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important components of activated sludge and it plays an important role in removing pollutants. The interaction between EPS and organic pollutants is still little known. In the present study, the interaction of soluble/bound EPS with acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was ...

  10. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  11. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Moody, P.M.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  12. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  13. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elucidation of molecular and elementary composition of organic and inorganic substances involved in 19th century wax sculptures using an integrated analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regert, M.; Langlois, J.; Laval, E.; Le Ho, A.-S.; Pages-Camagna, S.

    2006-01-01

    Wax sculptures contain several materials from both organic and inorganic nature. These works of art are particularly fragile. Determining their chemical composition is thus of prime importance for their preservation. The identification of the recipes of waxy pastes used through time also provides valuable information in the field of art history. The aim of the present research was to develop a convenient analytical strategy, as non-invasive as possible, that allows to identify the wide range of materials involved in wax sculptures. A multi-step analytical methodology, based on the use of complementary techniques, either non- or micro-destructive, was elaborated. X-ray fluorescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used in a non-invasive way to identify inorganic pigments, opacifiers and extenders. The combination of structural and separative techniques, namely infrared spectroscopy, direct inlet electron ionisation mass spectrometry and high temperature gas chromatography, was shown to be appropriate for unravelling the precise composition of the organic substances. A micro-chemical test was also performed for the detection of starch. From this study it has been possible to elucidate the composition of the waxy pastes used by three different sculptors at the end of the 19th century. Complex and elaborated recipes, in which a large range of natural substances were combined, were highlighted

  15. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  16. Determination of trace arsenic on hanging copper amalgam drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Niewiara, Ewa; Kubiak, Władysław W

    2007-04-30

    Hanging copper amalgam drop electrode has been applied for trace determination of arsenic by cathodic stripping analysis. Detection limit for As(III) as low as 0.33nM (0.02mug/L) at deposition time (240s) could be obtained. For seven successive determinations of As(III) at concentration of 5nM relative standard deviation was 2.5% (n=7). Interferences from selected metals and surfactant substances were examined. Absence of copper ions in sample solution causes easier optimization and makes method less vulnerable on contamination. The developed method was validated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and applied to arsenic determinations in natural water samples.

  17. 77 FR 33290 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... resistance in human pathogens; (ii) inconsistency with the prohibition on antibiotic use in organic livestock... synthetic substances that may be used in organic production and nonsynthetic (natural) substances that are prohibited in organic crop and livestock production. The National List also identifies nonagricultural...

  18. Levitation of water and organic substances in high static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugnon, E.; Tournier, R.

    1991-08-01

    The levitation of various diamagnetic liquid and solid substances such as water, ethanol, acetone, bismuth, antimony, graphite, wood and plastic has been achieved at room temperature in a strong inhomogeneous static magnetic field. These experiments were performed in the hybrid magnet at the Service National des Champs Intenses (CNRS, Grenoble). These findings show that high field superconducting magnets could be used to provide a contactless, low gravity environment for the elaboration of a wide range of materials. En utilisant les forts champs magnétiques produits par la bobine hybride du Service National des Champs Intenses (CNRS, Grenoble), nous avons obtenu àtempérature ambiante la lévitation de substances diamagnétiques solides ou liquides telles que l'eau, l'alcool, l'acétone, le bismuth, l'antimoine, le graphite, le bois et le plastique. Ces résultats montrent que les bobines supraconductrices peuvent être utilisées pour l'élaboration de nombreux matériaux en gravité réduite, sans contact avec un contenant.

  19. Management strategies for trace organic chemicals in water - A review of international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Stefan; Snyder, Shane A; Dagnino, Sonia; Rauch-Williams, Tanja; Drewes, Jörg E

    2018-03-01

    To ensure an appropriate management of potential health risks and uncertainties from the release of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) into the aqueous environment, many countries have evaluated and implemented strategies to manage TOrCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing management strategies for TOrCs in different countries to derive and compare underlying core principles and paradigms and to develop suggestions for more holistic management strategies to protect the environment and drinking water supplies from the discharge of undesired TOrCs. The strategies in different industrial countries were summarized and subsequently compared with regards to three particular questions: 1) Do the approaches different countries have implemented manage all or only specific portions of the universe of chemicals; 2) What implementation and compliance strategies are used to manage aquatic and human health risk and what are their pros and cons; and 3) How are site-specific watershed differences being addressed? While management strategies of the different countries target similar TOrCs, the programs differ in several important aspects, including underlying principles, the balance between aquatic or human health protection, implementation methods, and financing mechanisms used to fund regulatory programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative animal studies for the determination of the extracellular space with several radioactively labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pippart, S.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the total extracellular space and of the extracellular space of the organs (liver, lungs, heart, spleen, brain) was determined with the aid of 5 radioactively labelled substances, each in 10 rats. The test substances (inulin- 3 H, 51 Cr-EDTA, thiosulfate- 35 S, NH 4 - 82 Br, 60 Co-vitamin B 12 ) are described in the relevant literature as substances for the determination of the extracellular space and as clearance substances. (BSC/AK) [de

  1. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  2. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples

  3. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  4. Investigation of the mechanism of microplasma impact on iron and aluminum load using solutions of organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanova, G L; Yurmazova, T A; Shiyan, L N; Voyno, D A

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the study of mechanism of electroeffects on iron and aluminum and pellets with using solutions of organic substances. Methylene blue solution, furacilin and eosin were used. It is observed the reactions of the pulse at the time and after switching off the voltage source. It is shown that there are two developing process in the conditions studied. The first process depends on material of electrodes and pulse parameters. The second process occurs spontaneously and it is determined by the redox reaction and sorption processes. The products of electrode erosion and active particles react in the redox reactions. Active particles are formed in solution by the action of pulsed electric discharge in water. The highest efficiency of the process was demonstrated on an iron pellets. (paper)

  5. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of trace metals and improvement of dredged sediment dewaterability by bioleaching combined with Fenton-like reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Twardowska, Irena; Wei, Shuhe; Sun, Lina; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jianyu; Cai, Jianchao

    2015-05-15

    Bioleaching by Aspergillus niger strain SY1 combined with Fenton-like reaction was optimized to improve trace metal removal and dewaterability of dredged sediments. The major optimized parameters were the duration of bioleaching and H₂O₂ dose in Fenton-like process (5 days and 2g H₂O₂/L, respectively). Bioleaching resulted in the removal of ≈90% of Cd, ≈60% of Zn and Cu, ≈20% of Pb, and in decrease of sediment pH from 6.6 to 2.5 due to organic acids produced by A. niger. After addition of H₂O₂, Fenton-like reaction was initiated and further metal removal occurred. Overall efficiency of the combined process comprised: (i) reduction of Cd content in sediment by 99.5%, Cu and Zn by >70% and Pb by 39% as a result of metal release bound in all mobilizable fractions; (ii) decrease of sediment capillary suction time (CST) from 98.2s to 10.1s (by 89.8%) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) from 37.4×10(12)m/kg to 6.2×10(12)m/kg (by 83.8%), due to reducing amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by 68.7% and bound water content by 79.1%. The combined process was found to be an efficient method to remove trace metals and improve dewaterability of contaminated dredged sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  8. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rembrandt; Wachtler, Thomas; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The CoCoMac database contains the results of several hundred published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque monkey brain. The combined results are used for constructing the macaque macro-connectome. Here we discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two online resources that provide full access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3D graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large-scale brain simulations. The second edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables and their nested dependencies. Connectivity matrices can be computed on demand in a user-selected nomenclature. A new data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven data entry in manually collated databases. We conclude with the question whether neuronal tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby highlighting developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging, and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23293600

  9. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt eBakker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The CoCoMac database contains the results of published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque brain. The combined data are used to construct the macaque macro-connectome. We discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two resources that provide online access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3d graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large scale brain simulations.The 2nd edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables. Connectivity matrices are computed on demand in a user selected nomenclature. An online data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven manual data entry.We end with the question whether tract-tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby mentioning developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging and serial block face scanning electron microscopy.

  10. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rembrandt; Wachtler, Thomas; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The CoCoMac database contains the results of several hundred published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque monkey brain. The combined results are used for constructing the macaque macro-connectome. Here we discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two online resources that provide full access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3D graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large-scale brain simulations. The second edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables and their nested dependencies. Connectivity matrices can be computed on demand in a user-selected nomenclature. A new data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven data entry in manually collated databases. We conclude with the question whether neuronal tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby highlighting developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging, and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Informative importance of determination of trace elements in biologocal mediums in patients with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Андрусишина

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The changes of mineral metabolism in human organism caused by the deficiency or excess of trace elements in environment (air, food stuffs, water can lead to disorder of functional status of organism.An excess or deficiency of the certain metals disturb the balance of metabolic processes in organism that causes the different changes in endocrine system too. That is why the aim of research was to detect the peculiarities of distribution of macro and trace elements in patients with different endocrine pathology and to show the reasonability of the complex approach in assessment of microelementoses at hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.Methods. The balance of 15 macro and trace elements in different biological mediums (hairs, whole blood, blood serum, urine was studied using EAAS and AES-ICP methods.Result. There was demonstrated the high informative importance of determination of K, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn at pancreas pathology and Cr, Mn, Se, Zn- at thyroid pathology in human. There was detected that endocrine pathology is characterized with the surplus accumulation of Al, As and Pb in organism of examined patients.Conclusions. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the clinical diagnostics of endocrine human pathology there was demonstrated the high informative importance of the complex approach in choice of biological mediums at assessment of the trace elements imbalance. 

  12. Comparative animal studies for the determination of the extracellular space with several radioactively labelled substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippart, S

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the total extracellular space and of the extracellular space of the organs (liver, lungs, heart, spleen, brain) was determined with the aid of 5 radioactively labelled substances, each in 10 rats. The test substances (inulin-/sup 3/H, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, thiosulfate-/sup 35/S, NH/sub 4/-/sup 82/Br, /sup 60/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/) are described in the relevant literature as substances for the determination of the extracellular space and as clearance substances.

  13. Security and health protection during the transport of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.; Bobic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of this work describes the legal regulations which regulate the conditions and method of the transport of hazardous substances, necessary documentation for storage, forwarding and transport. Hazardous substances are defined and classified according to the ADR. The necessary security measures which are taken for the transport of particular types of hazardous substances are mentioned. Marking and labeling of vehicles for the transport of hazardous substances (plates and lists of hazards), packing and marking of packaging is important. The safety measures which are taken at the filling stations of combustible liquids as well as places specially organized for filling, prohibitions and limitations and necessary transport documentation are mentioned. It is visible from the above mentioned that the activity of the whole security chain is necessary and depends on the good knowledge of basic characteristics and features of substances. All the participants in the security chain have to be familiar with and consistently obey the legal regulations. The manufacturer must know the features of the hazardous substance, supervisory services must be acquainted with the threat and potential danger. The hauler and intervention forces must, in case of accidents and damage, be familiar with the emergency procedures in case of accidents and act properly regarding the threatening dangerous substance.(author)

  14. Studies on the concentrations and enrichment of potentially phytotoxic organic pollutants in rain, cloud, and fogwater. Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen und zur Anreicherung potentiell phytotoxischer organischer Umweltgifte in der Nebeldeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herterich, R.; Herrmann, R. (Bayreuth Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Hydrologie)

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of organic pollutants in rain, cloud- and fogwater indicate that among other phytotoxic compounds especially nitrated phenols reach deposition rates which can possibly exert harmfull effects on vegetation. We present a highly efficient fogwater collector and a wet deposition sampler for the analysis of organic trace substances. Their arrangement for comparative wet deposition studies in the Alpes and the Fichtelgebirge is shown. Preliminary results show maximum fogwater contaminations up to 2 {mu}molx1{sup -1} for 4-nitrophenol and 4-nitrocresols including both pollutants. At highly exposed mountain sites deposition of these compounds into spruce stands via fogwater can reach several mgxm{sup -2} within a period of 10 days. (orig.).

  15. Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Kevin T; Mundell, Nathan A; Pan, Y Albert; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-04

    Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (G), derived from either VSV or rabies virus (RABV). Anterograde and retrograde labeling, from initial infection and/or viral replication and transmission, was observed in Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, jellyfish, zebrafish, chickens, and mice. These vectors are widely applicable for gene delivery, afferent tract tracing, and/or directional connectivity mapping. Here, we detail the use of these vectors and provide protocols for propagating virus, changing the surface glycoprotein, and infecting multiple organisms using several injection strategies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  17. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with individuals who need help tending to deny or hide their condition for fear ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. A,. 2004. 19. Strauss ... Community based organizations for substance users in Cape Town,.

  19. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole.

  20. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  1. 75 FR 63878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory...

  2. Certification of the methylmercury content in SRM 2977 mussel tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) and SRM 1566b oyster tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, S; Schantz, M M; Horvat, M; Logar, M; Akagi, H; Emons, H; Levenson, M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    The methylmercury content in two new marine bivalve mollusk tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been certified using results of analyses from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and two other laboratories. The certified concentrations of methylmercury were established based on the results from four and six different (independent) analytical methods, respectively, for SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue (13.2 +/- 0.7 microg/kg) and SRM 2977 Mussel Tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) (36.2 +/- 1.7 microg/kg). The certified concentration of methylmercury in SRM 1566b is among the lowest in any certified reference material (CRM).

  3. THE EFFECT OF FORMULATION HUMIC SUBSTANCE AND Trichoderma sp TO INCREASE PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF CORN (Zea Mays,L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Eko Kusuma Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research to determine of formulation humic subtance and Trichoderma sp to increase the production and growth of corn (zea mays,L. This research was conducted by extracting humic substance with fractionation organic matter method from cattle manure organic material. Trichoderma sp grow on corn medium and harvested after reaching a density of 1015 cfu. Created this compound formulation with mixing humic substance and Trichoderma sp. Indicator plant with F1 sweet corn Jago varieties. Aplication used humic substance in range 8%, 16%, and 32% on the recommended use NPK fertilizer for corn, as well as control without humic substance. The result showed application use 8% humic substance most good for plant growth and harvest. Additionally, nutrient uptake NPK fertilizer efficiency is increased and more effective than control and use of the formulation 16% and 32% humic substance.

  4. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New Albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. The results of the results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

  5. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  6. Neural predictors of substance use disorders in Young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y

    2017-10-30

    Offspring from multiplex, alcohol-dependent families are at heightened risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. These high-risk offspring have also been shown to have atypical structure and function of brain regions implicated in emotion regulation, social cognition, and reward processing. This study assessed the relationship between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volumes obtained in adolescence and SUD outcomes in young adulthood among high-risk offspring and low-risk controls. A total of 78 participants (40 high-risk; 38 low-risk) from a longitudinal family study, ages 8-19, underwent magnetic resonance imaging; volumes of the amygdala and OFC were obtained with manual tracing. SUD outcomes were assessed at approximately yearly intervals. Cox regression survival analyses were used to assess the effect of regional brain volumes on SUD outcomes. The ratio of OFC to amygdala volume significantly predicted SUD survival time across the sample; reduction in survival time was seen in those with smaller ratios for both high-risk and low-risk groups. Morphology of prefrontal relative to limbic regions in adolescence prospectively predicts age of onset for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  8. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  9. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  10. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Møller, Morten; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2009-01-01

    innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect...... of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  11. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayzoun, H. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Garnier, C., E-mail: cgarnier@univ-tln.fr [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Angeletti, B. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement UMR 6635 CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, FR ECCOREV, Europôle Méditerranéen de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Ouammou, A. [LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Mounier, S. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  12. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayzoun, H.; Garnier, C.; Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C.; Angeletti, B.; Ouammou, A.; Mounier, S.

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  13. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  14. Corps sans organes et anamnèse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Je trace certains liens entre le corps sans organes de Deleuze et Guattari et les principes de l’organologie générale que décrit Bernard Stiegler.......Je trace certains liens entre le corps sans organes de Deleuze et Guattari et les principes de l’organologie générale que décrit Bernard Stiegler....

  15. Effect of temperature on removal of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether changes in temperature experienced in MAR systems affect attenuation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). A set of laboratory-scale soil columns were placed in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber and operated at five different temperature set-points (30, 20, 10, 8 and 4. °C) covering the range of typical groundwater temperatures in cold, moderate and arid climate regions. Removal of bulk organic carbon both in the infiltration zone as well as during deeper infiltration was independent of temperature. Of the 22 TOrCs investigated, only six chemicals exhibited changes in attenuation as a function of temperature. Attenuation of four of the compounds (diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen and naproxen) decreased as the temperature was reduced from 30. °C to 4. °C, likely due to decreased microbial activity at lower temperatures. As the temperature was decreased, however, attenuation of oxybenzone and trimethoprim were noted to increase. This increased attenuation was likely due to more efficient sorption at lower temperatures, though possible changes in the microbial composition as the temperature decreased may also have contributed to this change. Changes in rate constants of attenuation (. ka) for the biotransformed TOrCs with temperature suggested the existence of a critical temperature at 10. °C for three of the four TOrCs, where significant changes to rates of attenuation occurred. Results from this study indicated that for most TOrCs, changes in temperature do not impact their attenuation. Thus, seasonal changes in temperature are not considered to be a major concern for attenuation of most TOrCs in MAR systems.

  16. Effect of temperature on removal of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Shewchuk, Justin; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether changes in temperature experienced in MAR systems affect attenuation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). A set of laboratory-scale soil columns were placed in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber and operated at five different temperature set-points (30, 20, 10, 8 and 4°C) covering the range of typical groundwater temperatures in cold, moderate and arid climate regions. Removal of bulk organic carbon both in the infiltration zone as well as during deeper infiltration was independent of temperature. Of the 22 TOrCs investigated, only six chemicals exhibited changes in attenuation as a function of temperature. Attenuation of four of the compounds (diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen and naproxen) decreased as the temperature was reduced from 30°C to 4°C, likely due to decreased microbial activity at lower temperatures. As the temperature was decreased, however, attenuation of oxybenzone and trimethoprim were noted to increase. This increased attenuation was likely due to more efficient sorption at lower temperatures, though possible changes in the microbial composition as the temperature decreased may also have contributed to this change. Changes in rate constants of attenuation (ka) for the biotransformed TOrCs with temperature suggested the existence of a critical temperature at 10°C for three of the four TOrCs, where significant changes to rates of attenuation occurred. Results from this study indicated that for most TOrCs, changes in temperature do not impact their attenuation. Thus, seasonal changes in temperature are not considered to be a major concern for attenuation of most TOrCs in MAR systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  18. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  19. Closed substance cycle and substance cycling management: Compilation and evaluation of data for the assessment of priority organic contaminants in secondary raw-material fertilisers (slightly polluted sewage sludge from rural areas and compost) and organic farm fertilisers (liquid manure and slurry) for a risk assessment; Kreislaufwirtschaft - Stoffstrommanagement: Ermittlung und Auswertung von Daten zur Beurteilung prioritaerer organischer Schadstoffe in Abfallduengern (niedrig belastete Klaerschlaemme aus laendlichen Regionen und Kompost) sowie in organischen Wirtschaftsduengern (Guelle und Jauche) fuer eine Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A.; Klein, M.

    2003-07-31

    In the scope of the presently discussed closed substance cycle management and the resulting substance cycling management the agricultural use of animal wastes, sewage sludges and composts as fertilisers and soil improvers, respectively, plays an important role. The aim of the present project was the scientific preparation of deliberations aiming to find out which concentrations of selected contaminants occurring in secondary raw-material fertilisers (sewage sludge and compost) and farm fertilisers can still be tolerated, which do not have harmful effects on the environment. Information on the occurrence in sewage sludges and soils and their effects on soil organisms were compiled and evaluated for the following substances: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), tributyltin (TBT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEPH) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition, respective data were searched for polyacrylamide (PAM), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic musk compounds. The impact of composts by organic contaminants was described giving examples for diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concerning the farm fertiliser slurry, information about organic pollutants stemming from cleaning agents or disinfectants, NP, LAS and quartenary ammonium compounds were collected. LAS, NP, TBT and DEHP were detected in most of the sewage sludge samples. DBP occurred less frequently and in lower concentrations than DEHP. Single exceedings of the respective limit-values of the 3{sup rd} Draft of the EU-Sewage Sludge Directive (LAS, NP, DEHP) or other expert groups (BaP) were observed. In compliance with the respective regulations, there seems to be no risk potential for terrestrial organisms. To derive reliable environmental standards for TBT, there is a need for more data. In compost, content of organic contaminants is generally dependent on impurities. Compost made of &apos

  20. Antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of major and trace element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O G; Suslov, N I; Shilova, I V

    2013-06-01

    The antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of a composition of major and trace elements including KCl, RbNO3, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate were studied on the models of behavioural despair (Porsolt test) and conditioned passive avoidance test. The preparation was found to shorten the immobilization time in the Porsolt test and promote retention of the conditioned passive avoidance. The most pronounced psychostimulant effect of the substance was observed at a dose of 4.68 mg/kg and the most pronounced antidepressant effect was found at a dose of 18.72 mg/kg. Maximum nootropic activity of the preparation was found at a dose of 93.6 mg/kg.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  2. Using Poly-L-Histidine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode to Trace Hydroquinone in the Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive voltammetric method for trace measurements of hydroquinone in the sewage water is described. The poly-L-histidine is prepared to modify the glassy carbon electrode in order to improve the electrochemical catalysis of interesting substances such as hydroquinone. The influence of the base solution, pH value, and scanning speed on the tracing of hydroquinone is discussed, and the experimental procedures and conditions are optimized. The laboratory results show that it is possible to construct a linear calibration curve between the peak current of hydroquinone on modified electrode and its concentration at the level of 0.00001 mol/L. The potential limitation of the method is suggested by a linear peaking shift model as well. The method was successfully applied to the determination of hydroquinone in the actual sample of industrial waste water.

  3. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyan, L N; Machekhina, K I; Gryaznova, E N

    2016-01-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters. (paper)

  4. Effective Enrichment and Detection of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food Samples based on Magnetic Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Hu, Na; Fan, Guangsen; Li, Xiuting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng; Suo, Yourui; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-04-04

    The present study reported a facile, sensitive, and efficient method for enrichment and determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples by employing new core-shell nanostructure magnetic covalent organic framework hybrid microspheres (Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD)) as the sorbent followed by HPLC-DAD. Under mild synthetic conditions, the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) were prepared with the retention of colloidal nanosize, larger specific surface area, higher porosity, uniform morphology, and supermagnetism. The as-prepared materials showed an excellent adsorption ability for PAHs, and the enrichment efficiency of the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) could reach 99.95%. The obtained materials also had fast adsorption kinetics and realized adsorption equilibrium within 12 min. The eluent was further analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and good linearity was observed in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with the linear correlation being above 0.9990. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for 15 PAHs were in the range of 0.83-11.7 ng/L and 2.76-39.0 ng/L, respectively. For the application, the obtained materials were employed for the enrichment of trace PAHs in food samples and exhibited superior enrichment capacity and excellent applicability.

  5. Effect of Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of vaginal Lactobacillus population leads to overgrowth of opportunistic organisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), which causes life threatening neonatal infections. The activities of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Lactobacillus species isolated from the ...

  6. Is halogen content the most important factor in the removal of halogenated trace organics by MBR treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Faisal I; Tadkaew, Nichanan; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; Nghiem, Long D

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between physicochemical properties (namely halogen content and hydrophobicity) of halogenated trace organics and their removal efficiencies by a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) under stable operating conditions. The reported results demonstrated a combined effect of halogen content and hydrophobicity on the removal. Compounds with high halogen content (>0.3) were well removed (>85%) when they possessed high hydrophobicity (Log D>3.2), while those with lower Log D values were also well removed if they had low halogen content (BIOWIN index (which is based on only biodegradation) or a more specific index such as the halogen content (which captures a chemical aspect) appeared insufficient to predict the removal efficiency of halogenated compounds in MBR. Experimental data confirmed that the ratio of halogen content and Log D, which incorporates two important physico-chemical properties, is comparatively more suitable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  8. Trace organics removal using three membrane bioreactor configurations: MBR, IFAS-MBR and MBMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, T; Alonso, E; Santos, J L; Rodríguez, C; Gómez, M A; Malfeito, J J

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen pharmaceutically active compounds and 22 other trace organic pollutants were analysed regularly in the influent and permeate from a semi-real plant treating municipal wastewater. The plant was operated during 29 months with different configurations which basically differed in the type of biomass present in the system. These processes were the integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane bioreactor (IFAS-MBR), which combined suspended and attached biomass, the moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) (only attached biomass) and the MBR (only suspended biomass). Moreover, removal rates were compared to those of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operating nearby with conventional activated sludge treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) was used after the pilot plant to improve removal rates. The highest elimination was found for the IFAS-MBR, especially for hormones (100% removal); this was attributed to the presence of biofilm, which may lead to different conditions (aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic) along its profile, which increases the degradation possibilities, and also to a higher sludge age of the biofilm, which allows complete acclimation to the contaminants. Operating conditions played an important role, high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge retention time (SRT) being necessary to achieve these high removal rates. Although pharmaceuticals and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates showed high removal rates (65-100%), nonylphenols and phthalate could only be removed to 10-30%. RO significantly increased removal rates to 88% mean removal rate.

  9. Formation of organic acids from trace carbon in acidic oxidizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrassier, C.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon 14 does not fully desorb as CO 2 during the hot concentrated nitric acid dissolution step of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing: a fraction is entrained in solution into the subsequent process steps as organic species. The work described in this dissertation was undertaken to identify the compounds arising from the dissolution in 3 N nitric acid of uranium carbides (selected as models of the chemical form of carbon 14 in spent fuel) and to understand their formation and dissolution mechanism. The compounds were present at traces in solution, and liquid-solid extraction on a specific stationary phase (porous graphite carbon) was selected to concentrate the monoaromatic poly-carboxylic acids including mellitic acid, which is mentioned in the literature but has not been formally identified. The retention of these species and of oxalic acid - also cited in the literature - was studied on this stationary phase as a function of the mobile phase pH, revealing an ion exchange retention mechanism similar to the one observed for benzyltrimethylammonium polystyrene resins. The desorption step was then optimized by varying the eluent pH and ionic strength. Mass spectrometry analysis of the extracts identified acetic acid, confirmed the presence of mellitic acid, and revealed compounds of high molecular weight (about 200 g/mol); the presence of oxalic acid was confirmed by combining gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Investigating the dissolution of uranium and zirconium carbides in nitric acid provided considerable data on the reaction and suggested a reaction mechanism. The reaction is self-catalyzing via nitrous acid, and the reaction rate de pends on the acidity and nitrate ion concentration in solution. Two uranium carbide dissolution mechanisms are proposed: one involves uranium at oxidation state +IV in solution, coloring the dissolution solution dark green, and the other assumes that uranium monocarbide is converted to uranium oxide. The carboxylic acid

  10. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge contaminated by trace elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi Nissim, Werther; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Alvisi, Laura; Palm, Emily; Mancuso, Stefano; Azzarello, Elisa

    2018-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a green technique being increasingly used worldwide for various purposes including the treatment of municipal sewage sludge (MSS). Most plants proposed for this technique have high nutrient demands, and fertilization is often required to maintain soil fertility and nutrient balance while remediating the substrate. In this context, MSS could be a valuable source of nutrients (especially N and P) and water for plant growth. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity willow (Salix matsudana, cv Levante), poplar (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra, cv Orion), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to clean MSS, which is slightly contaminated by trace elements (TEs) and organic pollutants, and to assess their physiological response to this medium. In particular, we aimed to evaluate the TE accumulation by different species as well as the decrease of TEs and organic pollutants in the sludge after one cropping cycle and the effect of MSS on plant growth and physiology. Since MSS did not show any detrimental effect on the biomass yield of any of the species tested, it was found to be a suitable growing medium for these species. TE phytoextraction rates depended on the species, with eucalyptus showing the highest accumulation for Cr, whereas sunflower exhibited the best performance for As, Cu and Zn. At the end of the trial, some TEs (i.e. Cr, Pb and Zn), n-alkanes and PCBs showed a significant concentration decrease in the sludge for all tested species. The highest Cr decrease was observed in pots with eucalyptus (57.4%) and sunflower (53.4%), whereas sunflower showed the highest Cu decrease (44.2%), followed by eucalyptus (41.2%), poplar (16.2%) and willow (14%). A significant decrease (41.1%) of Pb in the eucalyptus was observed. Zn showed a high decrease rate with sunflower (59.5%) and poplar (52%) and to a lesser degree with willow (35.3%) and eucalyptus (25.4%). The highest decrease in n

  11. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  13. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  14. Special aspects of the indirect radiotracer technique when used to study the adsorption and electrochemical reactions of organic substances at solid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.N.; Horanyi, G.; Kazarinov, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities and special aspects of the indirect radiotracer technique with a number of examples. Data are presented concerning the effects of acetic and oxalic acid on chloride ion adsorption on platinized platinum electrodes at a potential E = 0.2 V. The effect on chloride ion adsorption is much larger in the case of oxalic acid, which is evidence for its higher adsorbability on platinum at E = 0.2 V. It is shown that the indirect radiotracer technique offers significant possibilities for studying the electrochemical properties of adsorption products of organic substances

  15. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  16. Photometric determination of traces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter

  17. Zinc and palladium traces separation from uranium by tri-n-octylamine extraction. Direct determination in organic phase by atomic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Moraes, S; Cipriani, M; Abrao, A

    1974-12-01

    A procedure for the extraction and determination of Zn and Pd as traces from nuclear grade uranium ADU, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is introduced. The elements are extracted from UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/-HCl-KI solution with tri-n-octylamine in benzene and determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The adition of potassium iodide to the UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/-HCl solutions improved the extraction of both elements. Direct burn of the organic phase in the atomic absorption spectrophotometer using hydrogen-air flame provided enhancement of the absorbance for both elements. The relative standard deviations were Zn, 3% and Pd, 2.9%.

  18. Trace organics in AGR coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Green, L.O.; Johnson, P.A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Several analytical techniques have been employed in previous studies of the stable organic compounds arising from the radiolysis of methane/carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide coolants. The majority of this early information was collected from the Windscale AGR prototype. Analyses were also carried out on the liquors obtained from the WAGR humidryers. Three classes of compound were found in the liquors; aliphatic acids in the aqueous phase and methyl ketones and aromatic hydrocarbons in the oily phase. Acetic acid was found to be the predominant carboxylic acid. This paper outlines the major findings from a recent analytical survey of coolants taken over a wide range of dose rate, pressure, temperature and composition, from materials testing reactor facilities, WAGR and CAGR. (author)

  19. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijun; Wang Jianlong; Wan Jianxin; Sun Mengmeng; Ye Longfei

    2012-01-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV 254 ) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Dalton< MW<3000 Dalton, in short MMW) into low molecular weight (MW<1000 Dalton, in short LWM), which is readily degraded by the subsequently activated sludge process. (author)

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijun, He; Jianlong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jianxin, Wan; Mengmeng, Sun [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Longfei, Ye [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2012-07-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV{sub 254}) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Dalton

  2. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment samplers from the MT MITCHELL and other platforms from 22 May 1974 to 27 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7800886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the coastal waters of the East coast of US. Data...

  3. Complexes of actinides with naturally occuring organic substances - Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, U.; Allard, B.

    1983-02-01

    Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hydroxide and carbonate complexes. Preliminary experiments have shown, that the presence of predominantly humic acid complexes would significantly reduce the sorption of americium on geologic media. This does not, however, necessarily lead to a potentially enhanced mobility under environmental conditions, since humic and fulvic acids carrying trace metals also would be strongly bound to e.g. clayish material. (author)

  4. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  5. Organic carbon mass accumulation rate regulates the flux of reduced substances from the sediments of deep lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinsberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The flux of reduced substances, such as methane and ammonium, from the sediment to the bottom water (Fred is one of the major factors contributing to the consumption of oxygen in the hypolimnia of lakes and thus crucial for lake oxygen management. This study presents fluxes based on sediment porewater measurements from different water depths of five deep lakes of differing trophic states. In meso- to eutrophic lakes Fred was directly proportional to the total organic carbon mass accumulation rate (TOC-MAR of the sediments. TOC-MAR and thus Fred in eutrophic lakes decreased systematically with increasing mean hypolimnion depth (zH, suggesting that high oxygen concentrations in the deep waters of lakes were essential for the extent of organic matter mineralization leaving a smaller fraction for anaerobic degradation and thus formation of reduced compounds. Consequently, Fred was low in the 310 m deep meso-eutrophic Lake Geneva, with high O2 concentrations in the hypolimnion. By contrast, seasonal anoxic conditions enhanced Fred in the deep basin of oligotrophic Lake Aegeri. As TOC-MAR and zH are based on more readily available data, these relationships allow estimating the areal O2 consumption rate by reduced compounds from the sediments where no direct flux measurements are available.

  6. Modelling metal-humic substances-surface systems: reasons for success, failure and possible routes for peace of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides are commonly of considerable importance in the sorption of ions onto rocks, soils and sediments. They can be the controlling sorptive phases even if they are present in relatively small quantities. In common with other oxides and clay minerals, the sorption pH-edge of metals is directly linked to their hydrolysis: the higher the residual charge on the metal ion, the lower the pH-edge. Modelling of this process has been successfully carried out using different microscopic or macroscopic definitions of the interface (e.g. surface complexation or ion exchange models that may or may not include mineralogical descriptions). The influence of organic material on the sorption of many metals is of significant. This organic material includes simple organic molecules and more complex exo-polymeric substances (e.g. humic substances) produced by the decay of natural organic matter. Sorption of this organic material to mineral surfaces has been the subject of a large body of work. The various types of organic substances do not share the same affinities for mineral surfaces in general, and for iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides in particular. In those cases in which successful models of the component binary systems (i.e. metal-surface, metal-organic, organic-surface) have been developed, the formation of mixed surface complexes, the evolution of the surface itself, the addition order in laboratory systems, and the evolution of natural organic matter fractions during sorption, have often precluded a satisfactory description of metal-surface-organic ternary systems over a sufficiently wide range of parameter values (i.e. pH, ionic strength, concentration of humic substances). This manuscript describes the reasons for some successes and failures in the modelling of the ternary systems. Promising recent advances and possible methods of providing more complete descriptions of these intricate systems are also discussed. (author)

  7. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  8. Multi-organ dysfunction in bodybuilding possibly caused by prolonged hypercalcemia due to multi-substance abuse: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, C N; Guldager, H; Jørgensen, H L

    2011-01-01

    A 26-year-old male bodybuilder was admitted to the surgical department of a Danish community hospital for hematemesis. During the clinical interview, he revealed that he had recently finished a course of anabolic steroids and erythropoietin. The patient also had a previous history of infections and chronic ulcers due to paraffin-oil injections in both upper arms one year before. Over the course of the next few hours, the patient developed signs of multi-organ dysfunction, including pancreatitis, hemorrhagic gastritis, nephropathy with temporary anuria, and respiratory insufficiency, and was transferred to the ICU. After manometric monitoring on the patient's upper arms proved difficult, invasive blood pressure monitoring was used and revealed that the patient was in a state of hypertensive crisis. This case of multi-organ dysfunction was possibly caused by multi-substance-induced hypercalcemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The first Coordinated Research Program on Reference Asian Man (RAM) was conducted for a period of six years. The study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely: (1) anthropometric measurements, (2) organ mass measurements, (3) nutritional and dietary intake, and (4) pulmonary and water balance studies. Based on the research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appear to be important aspects of the RAM. Information to be generated from the elemental analysis of food and tissue would be used to characterize the intake, retention and release of radioactive elements coming from different population groups. This study also aims to establish the elemental composition profile of the average Filipino using simple and accurate methods of measurements. This report will present the protocol which is based to the extent possible on prescribed procedures required for the study. A standardized Protocol to be used in the study is important since stable elements are present only in trace quantities in biological samples of interest. The procedures presented in this document include: collection of one day diet samples and tissue samples (lung, liver, skeletal muscle, thyroid, bone and kidney) from average healthy adult Filipino. The sample treatment and preparation, analytical measurements, data evaluation and reporting will complete said protocol. The elements that are of importance to radiation protection are iodine, cesium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. The essential minor elements are calcium, potassium and sodium. Trace elements like copper. manganese, iron, selenium and zinc will also be included in the analysis. Concentrations of common toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium and lead may likewise be reported in this study. (author)

  10. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  11. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  12. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Open-water and under-ice seasonal variations in trace element content and physicochemical associations in fluvial bed sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Carr, Meghan K; Meissner, Anna G N; Jardine, Tim D; Jones, Paul D; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-11-01

    Across the circumpolar world, intensive anthropogenic activities in the southern reaches of many large, northward-flowing rivers can cause sediment contamination in the downstream depositional environment. The influence of ice cover on concentrations of inorganic contaminants in bed sediment (i.e., sediment quality) is unknown in these rivers, where winter is the dominant season. A geomorphic response unit approach was used to select hydraulically diverse sampling sites across a northern test-case system, the Slave River and delta (Northwest Territories, Canada). Surface sediment samples (top 1 cm) were collected from 6 predefined geomorphic response units (12 sites) to assess the relationships between bed sediment physicochemistry (particle size distribution and total organic carbon content) and trace element content (mercury and 18 other trace elements) during open-water conditions. A subset of sites was resampled under-ice to assess the influence of season on these relationships and on total trace element content. Concentrations of the majority of trace elements were strongly correlated with percent fines and proxies for grain size (aluminum and iron), with similar trace element grain size/grain size proxy relationships between seasons. However, finer materials were deposited under ice with associated increases in sediment total organic carbon content and the concentrations of most trace elements investigated. The geomorphic response unit approach was effective at identifying diverse hydrological environments for sampling prior to field operations. Our data demonstrate the need for under-ice sampling to confirm year-round consistency in trace element-geochemical relationships in fluvial systems and to define the upper extremes of these relationships. Whether contaminated or not, under-ice bed sediment can represent a "worst-case" scenario in terms of trace element concentrations and exposure for sediment-associated organisms in northern fluvial systems

  14. The role of high-energy synchrotron radiation in biomedical trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Long, G.J.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will present the results of an investigation of the distribution of essential elements in the normal hepatic lobule. the liver is the organ responsible for metabolism and storage of most trace elements. Although parenchymal hepatocytes are rather uniform histologically, morphometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and microdissection with microchemical investigations have revealed marked heterogeneity on a functional and biochemical level. Hepatocytes from the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver parrenchyma differ in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose uptake and output, unreagenesis, biotransformation, bile acid secretion, and palsma protein synthesis and secretion. Although trace elements are intimately involved in the regulation and maintenance of these functions, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of trace element localization of the liver parenchyma. Histochemical techniques for trace elements generally give high spatial resolution, but lack specificity and stoichiometry. Microdissection has been of marginal usefulness for trace element analyses due to the very small size of the dissected parenchyma. The characteristics of the high-energy x-ray microscope provide an effective approach for elucidating the trace element content of these small biological structures or regions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  16. Soil contamination in south Backa region of Serbia with dangerous and harmful substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Livija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples in disturbed state were taken in order to control fertility and monitor contents of harmful and hazardous substances in Vojvodina soils and possibilities of soil degradation in general. Moderately contaminated soils were selected for examination. Microbial activity in contaminated soil and the impact of harmful and hazardous substances (pesticides on soil microorganisms were observed and most resistant microorganisms were isolated. Vegetation experiments were organized to study the effect of chelating agents EDTA and EDDS on copper adoption and translocation in rapeseed and sunflower. Importance of some ions in the complexation of copper chelators and their undesirable effects on copper uptake were established. Field trials were organized to study the effect of hydrogel on water uptakes by plants, increase in rate and the increase in rate of removal of hazardous and harmful substances from soil solution. At all phases of the project, we monitored the effectiveness of soil bioremediation soils by means of the application of chelating agents, stimulative preparations such as hydrogel and certain microorganisms. It effectiveness was measured in terms of plant growth rate and intensity in removal of hazardous and harmful substances from contaminated soil.

  17. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to an organic soil horizon - Effect of cation composition and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pereira, Hugo; Ullberg, Malin; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils is essential for environmental risk assessment. We investigated the effect of solution pH and calculated soil organic matter (SOM) net charge on the sorption of 14 PFASs onto an organic soil as a function of pH and added concentrations of Al 3+ , Ca 2+ and Na + . Often, the organic C-normalized partitioning coefficients (K OC ) showed a negative relationship to both pH (Δlog K OC /ΔpH = -0.32 ± 0.11 log units) and the SOM bulk net negative charge (Δlog K OC  = -1.41 ± 0.40 per log unit mol c g -1 ). Moreover, perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) sorbed more strongly than perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and the PFAS sorption increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length with 0.60 and 0.83 log K OC units per CF 2 moiety for C 3 -C 10 PFCAs and C 4 , C 6 , and C 8 PFSAs, respectively. The effects of cation treatment and SOM bulk net charge were evident for many PFASs with low to moderate sorption (C 5 -C 8 PFCAs and C 6 PFSA). However for the most strongly sorbing and most long-chained PFASs (C 9 -C 11 and C 13 PFCAs, C 8 PFSA and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)), smaller effects of cations were seen, and instead sorption was more strongly related to the pH value. This suggests that the most long-chained PFASs, similar to other hydrophobic organic compounds, are preferentially sorbed to the highly condensed domains of the humin fraction, while shorter-chained PFASs are bound to a larger extent to humic and fulvic acid, where cation effects are significant. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Selected Trace Metals and Organic Compounds and Bioavailability of Selected Organic Compounds in Soils, Hackberry Flat, Tillman County, Oklahoma, 1994-95

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Mark F

    1997-01-01

    .... S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Geological Survey, examined the soils of Hackberry Flat to determine trace metal concentrations, presence of selected...

  19. Dynamics of emerging organic pollutants from a municipal landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guern, Cécile; Béchet, Béatrice; Lépinay, Alexandra; Conil, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In large cities, municipal landfills may have received waste coming from hospitals, but also green waste. The corresponding anthroposol might thus be a source of organic emerging substances such as pharmaceutical or phytosanitary substances. The occurrence and fate of organic emerging substances from such a former landfill in urban areas has been studied as part of a research program dealing with the observation and the monitoring of the environment. Of the 261 substances sought (30 pharmaceutical molecules, 223 phytosanitary products and 8 other emerging substances), 11 pharmaceutical molecules in particular have been quantified in the leachates, 2 endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A and triclosan) and 10 phytosanitary substances. Most of these substances are found also in groundwater immediately downstream of the site (including carbamazepine) at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/l and 10 µg/l. The number of detected substances appears much smaller a few hundred meters far from the landfill (bisphenol A and diclofenac in particularly, with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 µg/l and about 0.1 µg/l respectively). Natural attenuation occurs during transfer in the plume, as observed for PAHs or metals. Several mechanisms may explain the natural attenuation of the substances.

  20. Influence of humic substances on plant-microbes interactions in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Pascazio, Silvia; Spaccini, Riccardo; Crecchio, Carmine; Trevisan, Marco; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances are known to play a wide range of effects on the physiology of plant and microbes. This is of particular relevance in the rhizosphere of terrestrial environments, where the reciprocal interactions between plants roots, soil constituents and microorganisms strongly influence the plants acquisition of nutrients. Chemical advances are constantly improving our knowledge on humic substances: their supra-molecular architecture, as well as the moltitude of their chemical constituents, many of which are biologically active. An approach for linking the structure of humic substances with their biological activity in the rhizosphere is the use of rhizoboxes, which allow applying a treatment (e.g., an amendment with humic substances) in an upper soil-plant compartment and take measurements in a lower isolated rhizosphere compartment that can be sampled at desired distances from the rhizoplane. This approach can be adopted to assess the effects of several humic substances, as well as composted materials, on maize plants rhizodeposition of carbon, and in turn on the structure and activity of rhizosphere microbial communities. In order to gain a complete understanding of processes occurring in the complex soil-plant-microorganisms tripartite system, rhizobox experiments can be coupled with bacterial biosensors for the detection and quantification of bioavailable nutrients, chemical analyses of main rhizodeposits constituents, advanced chemical characterizations of humic substances, DNA-fingerprinting of microbial communities, and multivariate statistical approaches to manage the dataset produced and to infer general conclusions. By such an approach it was found that humic substances are significantly affecting the amount of carbon deposited by plant roots. This induction effect is more evident for substances with more hydrophobic and complex structure, thus supporting the scientific hypothesis of the "microbial loop model", which assumes that plants feed

  1. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  2. AXAF FITS standard for ray trace interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.

    1993-07-01

    A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.

  3. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance... ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVING DISCRETIONARY FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa...—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving...

  4. Potential of IRMS technology for tracing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marclay, François; Pazos, Diego; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Saudan, Christophe

    2010-05-20

    Popularity of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is fairly stable among drug users, while the consumption of its chemical precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), is a growing phenomenon. Although conventional analytical methods allow to detect this substance in various matrices, linking a trace and a source is still a difficult challenge. However, as several synthesis pathways and chemical precursors exist for the production of GBL, its carbon isotopic signature may vary extensively. For that purpose, a method has been developed to determine the carbon isotopes content of GBL by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The delta(13)C-values of 19 bulk samples purchased worldwide were in the range from -23.1 to -45.8 per thousand (SDIRMS for discriminating between seizures of GBL and for source determination.

  5. Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in Gulf of Mexico from 1979-07-23 to 1980-12-13 (NODC Accession 8200103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net, sediment sampler, and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  6. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) listed in this index reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substances Registry database maintained by the Base Operations Contractor at the Kennedy Space Center. The purpose of this index is to provide KSC government, contractor, and tenant organizations a means to access information on the hazards associated with these chemicals. The Toxic Substance Registry Service (TSRS) was established to manage information dealing with the storage and use of toxic and otherwise hazardous materials at KSC. As a part of this service, the BOC Environmental Health Services maintains a central repository of MSDS's which were provided to TSRS. The data on the TSRS are obtained from NASA, contractor, and tenant organizations who use or store hazardous materials at KSC. It is the responsibility of these organizations to conduct inventories, obtain MSDS's, distribute Hazard Communication information to their employees, and otherwise implement compliance with appropriate Federal, State, and NASA Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know regulations and policies.

  7. Influence of Protozoan Grazing on the Marine Geochemistry of Particle Reactive Trace Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbeau, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    .... Principle findings included mobilization of extracellular as well as intracellular trace metals by protists, apparent generation of metal-organic complexes, and decoupling of metal and carbon cycling...

  8. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... the Controlled Substances Act (the CSA). DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by... information, see also section IV of this document). ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments to http://www.... The excerpts are currently available in English only, pending receipt of the official French...

  9. Effect of organic and conventional rearing system on the mineral content of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Donghua; Yang, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Dietary composition and rearing regime largely determine the trace elemental composition of pigs, and consequently their concentration in animal products. The present study evaluates thirteen macro- and trace element concentrations in pork from organic and conventional farms. Conventional pigs were given a commercial feed with added minerals; organic pigs were given a feed based on organic feedstuffs. The content of macro-elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and some trace elements (Ni, Fe, Zn and Sr) in organic and conventional meat samples showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Several trace element concentrations in organic pork were significantly higher (Ppork: Cr (808 and 500μg/kg in organic and conventional pork, respectively), Mn (695 and 473μg/kg) and Cu (1.80 and 1.49mg/kg). The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between samples from pigs reared in organic and conventional systems. Our results also indicate that authentication of organic pork can be realized by applying multivariate chemometric methods such as discriminant analysis to this multi-element data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  11. “I Sign, Therefore I am” (Unstable Traces of Professional Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gherardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Signatures will be read as (unstable traces of professional knowledges, practices, and identities. The paper intends to propose a theoretical framework to explore the sociomateriality of signature in occupational and professional practices. This exploration will be conducted by assuming a practice-based approach to “signing in practice” and therefore by paying attention to knowing as a situated practice within organizations. The aim of the paper is to invite to a line of research that considers signatures—in occupational and professional practices—as “matters of fact,” i.e. stable traces resistant to disputation that “make” the professional accountable, and as “social fabrications,” i.e. traces which emerge from professional learning and knowing, thus resulting from stable negotiations of human and nonhuman assemblages.

  12. Adopting evidence-based medically assisted treatments in substance abuse treatment organizations: roles of leadership socialization and funding streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Terry C; Davis, Carolyn D; Roman, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational adoption of medically assisted treatments (MAT) for substance use disorders (SUDs) in a representative sample of 555 US for-profit and not-for-profit treatment centers. The study examines organizational adoption of these treatments in an institutionally contested environment that traditionally has valued behavioral treatment, using sociological and resource dependence frameworks. The findings indicate that socialization of leadership, measured by formal clinical education, is related to the adoption of MAT. Funding patterns also affect innovation adoption, with greater adoption associated with higher proportions of earned income from third party fees for services, and less adoption associated with funding from criminal justice sources. These findings may generalize to other social mission-oriented organizations where innovation adoption may be linked to private and public benefit values inherent in the type of socialization of leadership and different patterns of funding support.

  13. Analysis of metallic traces from the biodegradation of endomedullary AZ31 alloy temporary implants in rat organs after long implantation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelón, O G; Iglesias, C; Garrido, J; Clemente, C; Garcia-Alonso, M C; Escudero, M L

    2015-08-04

    AZ31 alloy has been tested as a biodegradable material in the form of endomedullary implants in female Wistar rat femurs. In order to evaluate the accumulation of potentially toxic elements from the biodegradation of the implant, magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and fluorine (F) levels have been measured in different organs such as kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen and brain. Several factors that may influence accumulation have been taken into account: how long the implant has been in place, whether or not the bone is fractured, and the presence of an MgF2 protective coating on the implant. The main conclusions and the clinical relevance of the study have been that AZ31 endomedullary implants have a degradation rate of about 60% after 13 months, which is fully compatible with fracture consolidation. Neither bone fracture nor an MgF2 coating seems to influence the accumulation of trace elements in the studied organs. Aluminium is the only alloying element in this study that requires special attention. The increase in Al recovered from the sampled organs represents 3.95% of the amount contained in the AZ31 implant. Al accumulates in a statistically significant way in all the organs except the brain. All of this suggests that in long-term tests AZ31 may be a suitable material for osteosynthesis.

  14. Nuclear traces in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, M. de N.

    1978-01-01

    The charged particles produce, in dielectric materials, physical and chemical effects which make evident the damaged zone along the trajectory of the particle. This damaged zone is known as the latent trace. The latent traces can be enlarged by an etching of the detector material. This treatment attacks preferently the zones of the material where the charged particles have penetrated, producing concavities which can be observed through a low magnification optical microscope. These concavities are known as developed traces. In this work we describe the glass characteristics as a detector of the fission fragments traces. In the first chapter we present a summary of the existing basic theories to explain the formation of traces in solids. In the second chapter we describe the etching method used for the traces development. In the following chapters we determine some chatacteristics of the traces formed on the glass, such as: the development optimum time; the diameter variation of the traces and their density according to the temperature variation of the detector; the glass response to a radiation more penetrating than that of the fission fragments; the distribution of the developed traces and the existing relation between this ditribution and the fission fragments of 252 Cf energies. The method which has been used is simple and cheap and can be utilized in laboratories whose resources are limited. The commercial glass which has been employed allows the registration of the fission fragments and subsequently the realization of experiments which involve the counting of the traces as well as the identification of particles. (author)

  15. Synergistic effect of ellagic acid and certain trace element on some biochemical disorders induced by gamma-irradiation in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, M. H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to produce deleterious effects on the biological system. The cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation is predominantly mediated through generation of ROS which when present in excess can react with certain components of the cell and cause serious system damage to various organs, tissues, cellular and subcellular structures (Ward, 1988; Nelson, 2003). Under normal conditions, there is a balance between the generation of ROS and the cellular antioxidant system. Antioxidant enzymes are part of this system responsible for removal and detoxification of free radicals and their products formed by ionizing radiation (Kilciksiz et al., 2008). Most of these enzymes are affected by trace elements which act as essential activators or cofactors for them to exert their action. So, any disturbances in trace elements level post-irradiation will in turn affect the level of these enzymes (Sorenson, 2002). Essential trace elements of the human body include zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, manganese and molybdenum although these elements account for only 0.02 % of the total body weight they play significant roles, e.g. as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive substances (Kodama, 1996). They involved in many biochemical processes supporting life; the most important of these processes are cellular respiration, cellular utilization of oxygen, DNA and RNA reproduction, maintenance of cell membrane integrity, and sequestration of free radicals so they act as antioxidant (Chan et al., 1998). Polyphenols are a broad family of natural compounds widely found in plant foods, they are nutritionally important for their antioxidant activities and protective functions against disease risk caused by oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that some phenolic compounds have antiinflammatory, anticancer, anti carcinogenic or antimutagenic activities (Maciel et al., 2011). Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound

  16. TraceContract: A Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe TRACECONTRACT, an API for trace analysis, implemented in the SCALA programming language. We argue that for certain forms of trace analysis the best weapon is a high level programming language augmented with constructs for temporal reasoning. A trace is a sequence of events, which may for example be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. The API supports writing properties in a notation that combines an advanced form of data parameterized state machines with temporal logic. The implementation utilizes SCALA's support for defining internal Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). Furthermore SCALA's combination of object oriented and functional programming features, including partial functions and pattern matching, makes it an ideal host language for such an API.

  17. Biogeochemical and hydrological controls on fate and distribution of trace metals in oiled Gulf salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevan, J.; Natter, M.; Lee, M.; Keimowitz, A.; Okeke, B.; Savrda, C.; Saunders, J.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the release of approximately 5 million barrels of crude oil into the environment. Oil and its associated trace metals have been demonstrated to have a detrimental effect on coastal wetland ecosystems. Wetlands are particularly susceptible to oil contamination because they are composed largely of fine-grained sediments, which have a high capacity to adsorb organic matter and metals. The biogeochemical cycling of trace metals can be strongly influenced by microbial activity, specifically those of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria. Microbial activity may be enhanced by an increase in amounts of organic matter such as oil. This research incorporates an assessment of levels of trace metals and associated biogeochemical changes from ten coastal marshes in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. These sampling sites range in their pollution levels from pristine to highly contaminated. A total digestion analysis of wetland sediments shows higher concentrations of certain trace metals (e.g., Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr, Co, V, Ba, Hg, As) in heavily-oiled areas compared to less-affected and pristine sites. Due to chemical complexation among organic compounds and metals, crude oils often contain elevated levels (up to hundreds of mg/kg) of trace metals At the heavily-oiled Louisiana sites (e.g., Bay Jimmy, Bayou Dulac, Bay Batiste), elevated levels of metals and total organic carbon have been found in sediments down to depths of 30 cm. Clearly the contamination is not limited to shallow sediments and oil, along with various associated metals, may be invading into deeper (pre-industrial) portions of the marsh sediments. Pore-waters extracted from contaminated sediments are characterized by very high levels of reduced sulfur (up to 80 mg/kg), in contrast to fairly low ferrous iron concentrations (<0.02 mg/kg). The influx of oil into the wetlands might provide the initial substrate and

  18. Investigating Nitrate-Dependent Humic Substance Oxidation and In-Service K-12 Teachers' Understanding of Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nastassia N.

    2011-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are the humified portions of totally decomposed soil organic matter that are ubiquitous in nature. Although these substances have been studied for more than 200 years, neither their metabolic capabilities nor a specific chemical structure has yet to be determined. HS have been studied as a carbon source in many environments…

  19. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  20. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  1. Alleviation of environmental risks associated with severely contaminated mine tailings using amendments: Modeling of trace element speciation, solubility, and plant accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Bes, Cleménce; Bernal, Maria Pilar; Clemente, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Tailings are considered one of the most relevant sources of contamination associated with mining activities. Phytostabilization of mine spoils may need the application of the adequate combination of amendments to facilitate plant establishment and reduce their environmental impact. Two pot experiments were set up to assess the capability of 2 inorganic materials (calcium carbonate and a red mud derivate, ViroBind TM ), alone or in combination with organic amendments, for the stabilization of highly acidic trace element-contaminated mine tailings using Atriplex halimus. The effects of the treatments on tailings and porewater physico-chemical properties and trace-element accumulation by the plants, as well as the processes governing trace elements speciation and solubility in soil solution and their bioavailability were modeled. The application of the amendments increased tailings pH and decreased (>99%) trace elements solubility in porewater, but also changed the speciation of soluble Cd, Cu, and Pb. All the treatments made A. halimus growth in the tailings possible; organic amendments increased plant biomass and nutritional status, and reduced trace-element accumulation in the plants. Tailings amendments modified trace-element speciation in porewater (favoring the formation of chlorides and/or organo-metallic forms) and their solubility and plant uptake, which were found to be mainly governed by tailing/porewater pH, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon content, as well as soluble/available trace-element concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2874-2884. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. New method for mass spectrometric trace analysis of metals in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.; Bahr, U.; Palavinskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A first survey on the basic aspects and applications of a novel method for trace analyses of metals is given. The advantages of this methodology for analyses of trace metals which was developed by our group are: small sample amount, high sensitivity and selectivity, simple sample preparation for the measurement (no ashing) and reliability and precision of the results. The time consumption for one complete quantitative analysis lies below 30 min. The concentration of monoisotopic metals, as for example aluminium, cesium, manganese etc. is determined using a calibration curve. Using stable isotope dilution analysis quantification of metals with at least two stable isotopes further improved the precision of the results. If this technique is utilized, on one hand contamination of the environment by radioactive substances is avoided, on the other even the smallest changes in concentrations of trace metals are detected unambigeously. The accuracy of the resulting quantitative data has been confirmed test measurements with other analytical methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Although there is no doubt that the greatest analytical capacity of field desorption mass spectrometry is in the field of high-molecular weight natural products, it has been possible in the last years to modify the method for qualitative and quantitative investigations of more than 60 metals. (orig./EF) [de

  3. Production of chemical substances in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, Kh.E.; Nazarov, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has signed Convention "On prohibition of chemical weapon application"and no chemical weapon (CHW) is produced on the territory of republic. However, the potential production of CHW by individual persons or groups can be organized, using available production and obtaining chemical substances from other countries. Chemical substances, which have strong damage effect, easily, can be synthesized in chemical laboratories. These are general toxic substances, as hydrocyanic acid acid, phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, sarin and others. The similar chemical substances of industrial significance are produced in Tajikistan: ammonia, chlorine, explosives, caustic soda, carbamide, formaldehyde and others. For industrial needs and agriculture from other countries Tajikistan is receiving the following: sodium cyanide and potassium for gold-mining; mineral acids; pesticides and others. Besides, there are different deposits in Tajikistan, reprocessing of which gives an opportunity to obtain different chemical substances. What can be obtained from chemicals produced in Tajikistan? Chlorine - from this reagent the fluoride chlorine, phosgene COCl_2 and many other compounds are easily synthesized, which are CHW components. Obtained cyanic compounds for gold mining can be used as precursor for neuroparalytic action. A big amount of metallic aluminum is produced in the republic. The Al powder for rocket fuel can be obtained from it. Obtained from other countries pesticides are potential components for CHW creation. A strong control and account of pesticides use is necessary. It is extremely important to control materials, equipment and technologies which allow countries and separate groups to create weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The most important factor is goods identification. Firstly - inspection of external view, labeling, packing specifications, license availability and etc. Strong control of checklists is necessary according

  4. Abdominal multi-organ CT segmentation using organ correlation graph and prediction-based shape and location priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal CT data. We propose a framework of multi-organ segmentation which is adaptable to any imaging conditions without using intensity information in manually traced training data. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) the organ correlation graph (OCG) is introduced, which encodes the spatial correlations among organs inherent in human anatomy; (2) the patient-specific organ shape and location priors obtained using OCG enable the estimation of intensity priors from only target data and optionally a number of untraced CT data of the same imaging condition as the target data. The proposed methods were evaluated through segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidney, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 86 CT data obtained by four imaging conditions at two hospitals. The performance was comparable to the state-of-the-art method using intensity priors constructed from manually traced data.

  5. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  6. Humic substances, their microbial interactions and effects on biological transformations of organic pollutants in water and soil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipczynska-Kochany, Ewa

    2018-07-01

    Depicted as large polymers by the traditional model, humic substances (HS) tend to be considered resistant to biodegradation. However, HS should be regarded as supramolecular associations of rather small molecules. There is evidence that they can be degraded not only by aerobic but also by anaerobic bacteria. HS presence alters biological transformations of organic pollutants in water and soil. HS, including humin, have a great potential for an application in aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment as well as in bioremediation. Black carbon materials, including char (biochar) and activated carbon (AC), long recognized effective sorbents, have been recently discovered to act as effective redox mediators (RM), which may significantly accelerate degradation of organic pollutants in a way similar to HS. Humic-like coating on the biochar surface has been identified. Explanation of mechanisms and possibility of applications of black carbon materials have only started to be explored. Results of many original and review papers, presented and discussed in this article, show an enormous potential for an interesting, multidisciplinary research as well as for a development of new, green technologies for biological wastewater treatment and bioremediation. Future research areas have been suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Johnson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the occurrence of organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition is given. Multiplicity of sources and problems associated with source identification are discussed. Available literature is reviewed by using citations from Chemical Abstracts and Water Resources Abstracts through June 1985 and includes reports published through December 1984 that summarize current knowledge. Approaches to the chemical determination of organic compounds in precipitation are examined in addition to aspects of sampling protocols. Best methods for sample collection and preparation for instrumental analysis continue to be discussed among various investigators. Automatic wet-deposition-only devices for collection and extraction are preferred. Classes of organic compounds that have been identified in precipitation include a spectrum of compounds with differing properties of acidity or basicity, polarity, and water solubility. Those compounds that have been reported in rainfall, snowfall, and ice include hydrocarbons (both aromatic and nonaromatic), chlorinated derivatives of these hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds (both acidic and nonacidic), and carboxylic acids and esters. Formic and acetic are the most abundant organic acids present. Cloudwater, fogwater, and mist also have been collected and analyzed for organic composition.

  8. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  9. Present and Future Challenges in Trace and Ultra-Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of trace and ultra-trace elements is continuously stimulating the progress in analytical chemistry. Environmental chemistry, radiochemistry, biology, health, agri-food are prescribers of trace analyses, with continuously increasing exigencies: lowering detection limits, lowering costs and analysis time, improving the quality of analytical information. Precise data about the chemical identity and chemical environment of analytes are now requested. Such pieces of information, beyond simple numerical data and confidence intervals, are necessary to understand studied systems, and to predict their evolution. From environmental contamination cases, one can envisage the various aspects of a problem, with for each of them its own exigencies and specificities in terms of analytical methods and approaches. The detection of traces and ultra-traces of actinides and fission products has been recently revisited and stimulates new technological developments (non proliferation issues, waste management). Data on their speciation in geological and biological media are essential for evaluating the safety of nuclear waste repositories. Various techniques are now used to determine speciation in liquid samples or on surfaces, with tremendous spatial resolutions or sensitivities. A new revolution in analytical chemistry is expected with the development of micro- or nano-analytical technologies. (author)

  10. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  11. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  12. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  13. Horizontal variation in trace elements and soil characteristics at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Soil indicators – pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil water retention (SWR) – were also ... The determination of total extractable trace element concen- ..... Tshipise soil. Factor 1. Factor 2. Factor 1. Factor 2. Li. −0.497. 0.176 ..... KABANDA TA (2003) Climate in A first synthesis of the environmental, bio-.

  14. Popularity Trajectories and Substance Use in early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, James; Brynildsen, Wendy D; Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Gest, Scott

    2011-05-01

    This paper introduces new longitudinal network data from the "Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience" or "PROSPER" peers project. In 28 communities, grade-level sociometric friendship nominations were collected from two cohorts of middle school students as they moved from 6(th), to 9(th) grade. As an illustration and description of these longitudinal network data, this paper describes the school popularity structure, changes in popularity position, and suggests linkages between popularity trajectory and substance use. In the cross-section, we find that the network is consistent with a hierarchical social organization, but exhibits considerable relational change in both particular friends and position at the individual level. We find that both the base level of popularity and the variability of popularity trajectories effect substance use.

  15. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W. . Author

    2006-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamics is one of the pillars which support safety analyzes of repositories for radioactive waste. The research summarized in this review deals with approaches to resolve the problems related to thermodynamic equilibrium constants and solubility of solid phases in the field of radioactive waste management. The results have been obtained at the Paul Scherrer Institut between 1995 and 2005 and comprise the scientific basis of the author's habilitation thesis in the field of nuclear environmental chemistry. The topics are grouped according to three different levels of problem solving strategies: critical and comprehensive reviews of the available literature, which are necessary in order to establish a reliable chemical thermodynamic database that fulfils the requirements for rigorous modeling of the behavior of the actinides and fission products in the environment. In many case studies involving inorganic and simple organic ligands a serious lack of reliable thermodynamic data is encountered. There, a new modeling approach to estimate the effects of these missing data was applied. This so called 'backdoor approach' begins with the question, 'What total concentration of a ligand is necessary to significantly influence the speciation, and hence the solubility, of a given trace metal?' In the field of natural organics, mainly humic and fulvic acids, we face an ill-defined problem concerning the molecular structure of the ligands. There, a pragmatic approach for performance assessment purposes was applied, the 'conservative roof' approach, which does not aim to accurately model all experimental data, but allows estimates of maximum effects on metal complexation by humic substances to be calculated. (author)

  16. Antitumoral activity of marine organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Iglesias, O; Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism

  17. Towards a proportionality assessment of risk reduction measures aimed at restricting the use of persistent and bioaccumulative substances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Frans; Brouwer, Roy; Janssen, Martien; Verhoeven, Julia; Luttikhuizen, Cees

    2017-01-01

    International chemicals legislation aims at adequately controlling persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and substances of very high concern (SVHCs), such as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) and very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) substances, with a view to progressively

  18. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  19. Uptake, accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radioisotopes by marine organisms in the Izmir area. Part of a coordinated programme on the fate and significance of foreign substances in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.

    1976-12-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the concentrations of trace metals such as copper, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, cobalt, chromium, mercury and cadmium in marine organisms particularly Tapes decussatus in different localities in Izmir Bay. The results demonstrate the marine coastal pollution problems in a developing country where industrialisation has overtaken traditional fisheries. Metals are taken directly from solution in sea water or through feed chains or by absorption through the gills. In Izmir Bay there were found unusually high concentration of toxic elements in edible shellfish (Tapes decussatus) - maximum values in ug/g on a dry weight basis: Fe - 353, Zn - 211, Pb - 21, Mn - 13, Co - 10, Cu - 7, Hg - 20 (wct weight). The concentration of metals in the animals of Cakalburnu was lower than that of Deniz Bostanli and Tuzla. The concentration of copper, manganese, lead and zinc were lower in winter than in other seasons. Considerable seasonal differences are probably the results of changes in environmental temperature and productivity. A decrease in size of the animals tends to be associated with the higher mean concentration of manganese, zinc, lead and cobalt. Copper was found to accumulate mostly in digestive glands, gills and palps; manganese in gills and palps, body fluids and digestive glands; zinc in body fluids, digestive glands, gills and palps; iron in digestive glands gills and palps; lead in body fluids, shells, muscles, gills and palps; cobalt in shells and body fluids; mercury in digestive glands, gills, palps and muscles

  20. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  1. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  2. Imidacloprid adsorption by soils treated with humic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mobility of a pesticide in soil is determined by the extent and strength of sorption, which is influenced by either the existing soil humus or exogenous humic substances. Exogenous humic acids (HAs) were added to soil to enhance the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) by 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g kg-1. Imidacloprid sorption ...

  3. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYONG-SONG; NIWU-ZHONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

  4. Analysis of trace gases at ppb levels by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.

    1996-01-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace gas components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H 3 O + ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of medical information obtained by means of breath analysis, of environmental trace analysis, and examples in the field of food chemistry demonstrate the wide applicability of the method. (Authors)

  5. Engineering hyporheic zones for the attenuation of urban pesticides and other stormwater trace organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, A. C.; Halpin, B. N.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor that can provide in-stream attenuation of various nonpoint source contaminants. Main contributions of nonpoint source pollution are coming from urban stormwater and agricultural runoff, which both adversely impact aquatic life. Stormwater pollutants of concern commonly include nutrients, metals, pathogens, and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs). Despite substantial water quality challenges, current stormwater management typically focuses on water quantity issues rather than pollutant removal. Furthermore, current HZ restoration best management practices do not explicitly control HZ residence times, and generally only induce localized effects. To increase hyporheic exchange and therefore improving water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds featuring modifications to subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) and reactivity - termed Biohydrochemical Enhancements for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST modifications comprise subsurface modules that employ 1) low-permeability sediments to drive hyporheic exchange and control subsurface residence times, and 2) permeable reactive geomedia to change reaction rates within the HZ. Here we present performance data collected in constructed stream experiments, comparing an all-sand control condition with a stream containing BEST modules and a mixture of 70/30 sand/woodchips (v/v). We evaluated the attenuation of a suite of TOrCs in the BEST versus the control system for two different streambed media: a coarse sand with K = 0.48 cm/s and a fine sand with K = 0.16 cm/s. The range of TOrCs investigated comprises urban pesticides and other stormwater relevant TOrCs. Benefits of applying BEST include increased exchange between streamwater and HZ water, leading to diverse redox conditions that are beneficial for aquatic organisms and will facilitate in-stream pollutant transformation. Future work will focus on tailoring the BEST design for specific pollutants, thereby controlling HZ

  6. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  7. An activated sludge modeling framework for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X): assessment of diclofenac and carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plósz, Benedek Gy; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V

    2012-11-01

    Conventional models for predicting the fate of xenobiotic organic trace chemicals, identified, and calibrated using data obtained in batch experiments spiked with reference substances, can be limited in predicting xenobiotic removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). At stake is the level of model complexity required to adequately describe a general theory of xenobiotic removal in WWTPs. In this article, we assess the factors that influence the removal of diclofenac and carbamazepine in activated sludge, and evaluate the complexity required for the model to effectively predict their removal. The results are generalized to previously published cases. Batch experimental results, obtained under anoxic and aerobic conditions, were used to identify extensions to, and to estimate parameter values of the activated sludge modeling framework for Xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X). Measurement and simulation results obtained in the batch experiments, spiked with the diclofenac and carbamazepine content of preclarified municipal wastewater shows comparably high biotransformation rates in the presence of growth substrates. Forward dynamic simulations were performed using full-scale data obtained from Bekkelaget WWTP (Oslo, Norway) to evaluate the model and to estimate the level of re-transformable xenobiotics present in the influent. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that xenobiotic loading conditions can significantly influence the removal capacity of WWTPs. We show that the trace chemical retransformation in upstream sewer pipes can introduce considerable error in assessing the removal efficiency of a WWTP, based only on parent compound concentration measurements. The combination of our data with those from the literature shows that solids retention time (SRT) can enhance the biotransformation of diclofenac, which was not the case for carbamazepine. Model approximation of the xenobiotic concentration, detected in the solid phase, suggest that between

  8. Determination of the trace TBP in industrial feed liquid by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuehua; Jiang Junqing; Mu Ling; Yang Songtao

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the trace TBP in kerosene of the industrial feed liquid by gas chromatography is studied in the paper. It first takes the purification treatment for the kerosene containing trace TBP. The plutonium is removed by 0.2 mol/L ferrous sulfamate-1 mol/L nitric acid using the back-extraction. The uranium and the nitric acid in the organic phase are removed by the deionized water. The impurity which affect the measurement of the TBP and is harmful to the gas chromatograph are eliminated. Then the content of the TBP of the organic phase can be determined by gas chromatography. Results show that the measuring range of the content of the TBP is 0.02% ∼ 2%. The precision of the method is better than 5% and the recovery is between 95%∼106%. (authors)

  9. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    throughout each event for trace-element analysis, and multiple samples were collected for suspended sediment (SS), particulate carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis. The suspended sediment and exchange resin were analyzed for 114 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, by US EPA method 1668A, modified), seven 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD) and 10 dibenzo-p-difurans (CDF) (by US EPA method 1613), 24 PAHs (by low-resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), 27 organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) (by high resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), and the trace elements mercury (Hg), methyl-mercury (MeHg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Isotope dilution methods using gas chromatography and high-and low-resolution mass spectral (GC/MS) detection were used to accurately identify and quantify organic compounds in the sediment and water phases. Trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry methods. The loads of sediment, carbon, and chemicals were calculated for each storm and low-flow event sampled. Because only a few storm events were sampled, yearly loads of sediment were calculated from rating curves developed using historical SS and POC data. The average annual loads of sediment and carbon were calculated for the period 1975-2000, along with the loads for the selected water years being modeled as part of the New York New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program CARP. Comparison of loads calculated using the rating curve method to loads measured during the sampled storm events indicated that the rating curve method likely underpredicts annual loads. Average annual loads of suspended sediment in the tributaries were estimated to be 395,000 kilograms per year (kg/yr) in the Hackensack River, 417,000 kg/yr in the Elizabeth River, 882,000 kg/yr in the Rahway River, 22,700,000 kg/yr in the Passaic River, and 93,100,000 kg/yr in the Raritan River. Averag

  10. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  11. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: Application of acid leachable technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki-Raman, D.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Mohan, S.P.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO 3 , organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO 3 indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources. - Natural and anthropogenic trace metals afeecting mangrove sediments

  12. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  13. Silver nanoparticle accumulation by aquatic organisms – neutron activation as a tool for the environmental fate of nanoparticles tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asztemborska Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water environments are noted as being some of the most exposed to the influence of toxic nanoparticles (NPs. Therefore, there is a growing need for the investigation of the accumulation and toxicity of NPs to aquatic organisms. In our studies neutron activation followed by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used for studying the accumulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by freshwater larvae of Chironomus and fish Danio rerio. The influence of exposition time, concentration and the source of nanoparticles on the efficiency of AgNP accumulation were studied. It was found that AgNPs are efficiently accumulated by Chironomid larvae for the first 30 hours of exposition; then, the amount of silver nanoparticles decreases. The silver content in larvae increases together with the NP concentration in water. Larvae which have accumulated AgNPs can be a source of nanoparticles for fish and certainly higher levels of Ag in the trophic chain. In comparison with water contamination, silver nanoparticles are more efficiently accumulated if fish are fed with AgNP-contaminated food. Finally, it was concluded that the applied study strategy, including neutron activation of nanoparticles, is very useful technique for tracing the uptake and accumulation of NPs in organisms

  14. Organic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, D; Ribault, M [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Bechgaard, K [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). H.C. Oersted Inst.

    1980-07-10

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream.

  15. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.; Ribault, M.; Bechgaard, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream. (UK)

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Resonant-Gravimetric Detection of Trace-Level Xylene Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xinxin

    2016-12-20

    As one of typical VOCs, xylene is seriously harmful to human health. Nowadays, however, there is really lack of portable sensing method to directly detect environmental xylene that has chemical inertness. Especially when the concentration of xylene is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb, people are indeed hard to be aware of and avoid this harmful vapor. Herein the metal-organic framework (MOF) of HKUST-1 is first explored for sensing to the nonpolar molecule of p-xylene. And the sensing mechanism is identified that is via host-guest interaction of MOF with xylene molecule. By loading MOFs on mass-gravimetric resonant-cantilevers, sensing experiments for four MOFs of MOF-5, HKUST-1, ZIF-8, and MOF-177 approve that HKUST-1 has the highest sensitivity to p-xylene. The resonant-gravimetric sensing experiments with our HKUST-1 based sensors have demonstrated that trace-level p-xylene of 400 ppb can be detected that is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb. We analyze that the specificity of HKUST-1 to xylene comes from Cu 2+ -induced moderate Lewis acidity and the "like dissolves like" interaction of the benzene ring. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is used to elucidate the adsorbing/sensing mechanism of HKUST-1 to p-xylene, where p-xylene adsorbing induced blue-shift phenomenon is observed that confirms the sensing mechanism. Our study also indicates that the sensor shows good selectivity to various kinds of common interfering gases. And the long-term repeatability and stability of the sensing material are also approved for the usage/storage period of two months. This research approves that the MOF materials exhibit potential usages for high performance chemical sensors applications.

  17. A hard tissue cephalometric comparative study between hand tracing and computerized tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the angular and linear hard tissue cephalometric measurements using hand-tracing and computerized tracings with Nemoceph and Dolphin software systems. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 cephalograms were randomly chosen for study with the following criteria, cephalograms of patients with good contrast, no distortion, and minimal radiographic artifacts were considered using the digital method (Kodak 8000 C with 12 angular and nine linear parameters selected for the study. Comparisons were determined by post-hoc test using Tukey HSD method. The N-Par tests were performed using Kruskal-Walli′s method. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc. Results: The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in the angular and linear measurements recorded. The P values were significant at 0.05 levels for two parameters, Co-A and Co-Gn with the hand-tracing method. This was significant in ANOVA and post-hoc test by Tukey HSD method. Conclusions: This study of comparison provides support for transition from digital hand to computerized tracing methodology. In fact, digital computerized tracings were easier and less time consuming, with the same reliability irrespective of each method of tracing.

  18. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  20. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (I, Cr, Sr, Th, U etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1998-01-01

    To study on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection for population in Vietnam we need to select representative population groups. This can be done using some basic information about relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical factors of Vietnam. It is also very importance to know the average food consumption, a characteristics and nutritive value of Vietnamese diet and the daily nutritional intake for this population groups. A general discussion have been made on proposal of sample collection, using analytical techniques to determine the elements of interest. There are also some primary results of analysis of iodine content in different kinds of foodstuffs in natural water and human urine. (author)

  1. Dietary investigation by trace element content in bones of ancient inhabitants of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, M.; Giordani, L.; Brandone, A.; Cattaneo, C.; Mazzucchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Lo