WorldWideScience

Sample records for trace metals contamination

  1. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more...

  2. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  3. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  4. assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic .... and this was done all through the sample preparation. ... shaking was done by a mechanical sieve shaker and.

  5. Trace metal contamination of Beaufort's Dyke, North Channel, Irish Sea: A legacy of ordnance disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Alexander; Quinn, Rory; Brown, Craig J.; Service, Matthew; Benetti, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our samples are the first trace metal concentrations taken from the valley of Beaufort's Dyke. → There is no clear trend between concentrations of trace metals in Dyke and NMMP sediments. → Particle transport simulations show dispersal of trace metals from Beaufort's Dyke is possible. → Disposed ordnance may also contribute to contamination of surrounding areas. → These methods could help predict areas at risk of future trace metal contamination as a result of ordnance disposal. - Abstract: Beaufort's Dyke is a disused ordnance disposal ground within the North Channel of the Irish Sea. Over 1 million tonnes of ordnance were disposed of in the dyke over a 40 year period representing a substantial volume of trace metal pollutants introduced to the seabed. Utilising particle transport modelling software we simulated the potential transport of metal particles from Beaufort's Dyke over a 3 month period. This demonstrated that Beaufort's Dyke has the potential to act as a source for trace metal contamination to areas beyond the submarine valley. Trace metal analysis of sediments from the Dyke and surrounding National Marine Monitoring Programme areas demonstrate that the Dyke is not the most contaminated site in the region. Particle transport modelling enables the transport pathways of trace metal contaminants to be predicted. Implementation of the technique in other munitions disposal grounds will provide valuable information for the selection of monitoring stations.

  6. Assessment of trace metal contamination of soils around Oluyole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of metals contamination of the soils around Oluyole industrial estate in Ibadan. Oluyole industrial estate has heavy concentration of manufacturing industries that generate a lot of waste products capable of introducing metals into the environment. Consequently, twenty-one ...

  7. Assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic workshops in Oyo town in order to assess their possible adverse health implications on man and his environment. Concentrations of metals above certain levels have been shown to impair man's health.

  8. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    copper and lead sulpho-salts (Dzigbordi-Adjimah, 1988). ... The resulting solution was analysed for trace metals at the Institute of Mining and Mineral ..... found in the samples (Tables 3 and 4) may be due to the mineral-water interactions and.

  9. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak U Benson

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria. The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  10. Contamination from an affluent of Furnas reservoir by trace metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine concentrations and characterize trace metals distribution in an affluent of Furnas reservoir, Alfenas-MG. Water and sediment samples were taken monthly, 2010/10-2011/07 in five sites of Córrego do Pântano for subsequent determination of Pb, Cd and Zn levels by chemical analysis. The stream studied is in disagreement with Brazilian legislation for Class II water bodies (CONAMA 357. The highlights are the unsuitable concentrations of Pb for human consumption, according to Ministry of Health 2914 decree, providing risk for population.

  11. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  12. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  13. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.; Hillman, A. L.; Pompeani, D. P.; Abbott, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The remobilization of legacy contamination stored in floodplain sediments remains a threat to ecosystem and human health, particularly with potential changes in global precipitation patterns and flooding regimes. Vehicular and industrial emissions are often the dominant, recognized source of anthropogenic trace metal loadings to ecosystems today. However, loadings from early industrial activities are poorly characterized and potential sources of trace metal inputs. While potential trace metal contamination from these activities is recognized (e.g., the historical use of lead arsenate as a pesticide), the magnitude and distribution of legacy contamination is often unknown. This presentation reconstructs a lake sediment record of trace metal inputs from an oxbow lake in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sediment cores were analyzed for major and trace metal chemistry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Sediment trace metal chemistry in this approximately 250 year record (180 cm) record changes in land use and industry both in the 19th century and the 20th century. Of particular interest is early 19th century loadings of arsenic and calcium to the lake, likely attributable to pesticides and lime used in tanning processes near the lake. After this period of tanning dominated inputs, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of coal mining operations and resulting discharge of acid mine drainage to surface waters. In the 20th century portion of our record (70 -20 cm), patterns in sediment zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by the opening and closing of the nearby Donora Zinc Works and the American Steel & Wire Works, infamous facilities in the history of air quality regulation. The most recent sediment chemistry records periods include the enactment of air pollution legislation (~ 35 cm), and the phase out of tetraethyl leaded gasoline (~30 cm). Our study documents the impact of early industry in the

  14. Trace metal contamination in mangrove sediments, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Cassia O.; Hamacher,Claudia; Wagener,Angela de Luca R.; Campos,Reinaldo C. de; Godoy,José M.

    2007-01-01

    The Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro has undergone profound alterations of its natural environmental conditions. Metal concentration increase in sediments has been reported to be among these alterations. Trace-metal contamination and availability were studied in sediments of 3 mangrove areas of the bay. Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Al concentrations were determined in segments of sediment cores, after treatment with 1 mol L-1 HCl and with concentrated HNO3. Fe and Mn were determined in the leach wit...

  15. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lena Q.; Dong Yan

    2004-01-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl 2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg -1 ), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg -1 ). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO 3 . The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. - Iron is important in controlling metal solubility and mobility in flooded soils

  16. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Mawji, Edward [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D{sub ow}, ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (<1%) to octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10{sup 3.3}-10{sup 5.3} ml g{sup -1}. The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating

  18. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  19. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D ow , ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant ( 3.3 -10 5.3 ml g -1 . The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating trace metals in natural waters

  20. Phytotoxicity of trace metals in spiked and field-contaminated soils: Linking soil-extractable metals with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamels, Fanny; Malevé, Jasmina; Sonnet, Philippe; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Smolders, Erik

    2014-11-01

    Soil tests have been widely developed to predict trace metal uptake by plants. The prediction of metal toxicity, however, has rarely been tested. The present study was set up to compare 8 established soil tests for diagnosing phytotoxicity in contaminated soils. Nine soils contaminated with Zn or Cu by metal mining, smelting, or processing were collected. Uncontaminated reference soils with similar soil properties were sampled, and series of increasing contamination were created by mixing each with the corresponding soil. In addition, each reference soil was spiked with either ZnCl2 or CuCl2 at several concentrations. Total metal toxicity to barley seedling growth in the field-contaminated soils was up to 30 times lower than that in corresponding spiked soils. Total metal (aqua regia-soluble) toxicity thresholds of 50% effective concentrations (EC50) varied by factors up to 260 (Zn) or 6 (Cu) among soils. For Zn, variations in EC50 thresholds decreased as aqua regia > 0.43 M HNO3  > 0.05 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) > 1 M NH4 NO3  > cobaltihexamine > diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) > 0.001 M CaCl2 , suggesting that the last extraction is the most robust phytotoxicity index for Zn. The EDTA extraction was the most robust for Cu-contaminated soils. The isotopically exchangeable fraction of the total soil metal in the field-contaminated soils markedly explained the lower toxicity compared with spiked soils. The isotope exchange method can be used to translate soil metal limits derived from soils spiked with metal salts to site-specific soil metal limits. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D(ow), ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10(3.3)-10(5.3)mlg(-1). The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision.

  2. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V

    1981-02-01

    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.

  3. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  4. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of ... transfer factor (TF) showed that Zn was the most bioaccumulated trace metals by all the grasses followed by. Pb, Mn ... was used to de-contaminate copper (Cu) and.

  5. Sandhopper solar orientation as a behavioural biomarker of trace metals contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungherese, Giuseppe; Ugolini, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have focused on trace metals accumulation, investigations of talitrid amphipods as biomarkers are rare. This study explores the possibility of using the solar orientation capacity of Talitrus saltator as a behavioural marker of exposure to two essential (Cu and Zn) and two non-essential (Cd and Hg) metals. LC 50 analyses performed before the solar orientation tests showed that the 72 h LC 50 for Hg was 0.02 ppm while the 96 h LC 50 values for Cu, Cd and Zn were 13.28 ppm, 27.66 ppm, and 62.74 ppm, respectively. The presence of metals in seawater affects the solar orientation capacity of T. saltator in a concentration-dependent manner and according to the toxicity ranking of the metals (Hg > Cu > Cd > Zn). Therefore, the solar orientation capacity of T. saltator seems to be a promising behavioural marker for exposure to trace metals. - Solar orientation capacity is a promising behavioural marker for exposure to trace metals in sandhoppers

  6. Surfactant-induced mobilisation of trace metals from estuarine sediment: Implications for contaminant bioaccessibility and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anu [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    The mobilisation of metals (Al, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) from contaminated estuarine sediment has been examined using commercially available surfactants. Metal release by the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), increased with increasing amphiphile concentration up to and above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). Metal mobilisation by the bile acid salt, sodium taurocholate, and the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, however, did not vary with amphiphile concentration. SDS was the most efficient surfactant in mobilising metals from the sample, and Cd, Cu and Ni were released to the greatest extents (12-18% of total metal at [SDS] > CMC). Metal mobilisation appeared to proceed via complexation with anionic amphiphiles and denudation of hydrophobic host phases. Surfactants may play an important role in the solubilisation of metals in the digestive environment of deposit-feeding animals and, potentially, in the remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment. - Significant quantities of metals are mobilised from estuarine sediment by commercially available surfactants.

  7. Trace metal contaminants in sediments and soils: comparison between ICP and XRF quantitative determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congiu A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A mineralization method HCl-free for heavy metals analysis in sediments and soils by DRC-ICP-MS was developed. The procedure, which uses concentrated nitric, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide, was applied for the analysis of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel and vanadium. The same samples were then analyzed, as pressed pellets, by wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WD-XRF using the dedicated PANalytical Pro Trace solution for the determination of trace elements. Comparison of ICP and XRF data showed good agreement for the elements under investigation, unless for chromium in soils, which recovery was not complete.

  8. The changes in trace metal contamination over the last decade in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; Liang, Ximei; Xu, Weihai; Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangdong

    2012-11-15

    Surface sediments can provide useful information on the recent pollution status of an estuary. One recent field survey was carried out in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China in 2011. The comparisons with previous surveys demonstrated that the concentrations of Ni and Pb in the PRE declined over the last decade, but the concentration of Cu increased in the same time frame. The significant decreases in the concentrations of Ni and Pb were probably due to a reduction of anthropogenic inputs, such as industrial wastewater, into the PRE environment, and the ban imposed on leaded gasoline. Statistical analyses have consistently demonstrated that the process of the sedimentation of fine particles was the dominant factor in controlling the transport and distribution of trace metals in the PRE. The riverine trace metals generally displayed a pattern of diffusion from the northwest to the southeast in the estuary. However, the riparian industrial activities at the east bank of the inner PRE caused significant metal contamination in sediments. In general, effective pollution control measures in the PRD region have decreased the levels of some trace metals in the entire PRE over the last decade with the exception of Cu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g -1 , respectively, and small proportions of these metals ( -1 , respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in 'background' sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  10. Macroalgal biomonitors of trace metal contamination in acid sulfate soil aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosavi, K; Sammut, J; Gifford, S; Jankowski, J

    2004-05-25

    Earthen shrimp aquaculture ponds are often impacted by acid sulfate soils (ASS), typically resulting in increased disease and mortality of cultured organisms. Production losses have been attributed to either low pH or to elevated concentrations of toxic metals, both direct products of pyrite oxidation in ASS. The standard farm management practice to minimise effects of pyrite oxidation is to maintain pH of pond waters above 5, based on the assumption that dissolved metal bioavailability is negligible at this pH. This study aimed to test the validity of this assumption, and therefore elucidate a possible role of toxic heavy metals in observed decreases in farm productivity. Metal bioaccumulation in four genera of macroalgae, Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Cladophora sp. and Chaetomorpha sp., sampled from ASS-affected shrimp aquaculture ponds were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to assess the relative bioavailability of dissolved metals within the system. Results showed that all four genera of macroalgae accumulated appreciable quantities of Fe, Al, Zn, Cd, Cu, As and Pb. Iron and Al, the most common metals mobilised from ASS, were both accumulated in all algal genera to concentrations three orders of magnitude greater than all other metals analysed. These findings indicate that dissolved heavy metals are indeed bioavailable within the aquaculture pond system. A literature search of heavy metal bioaccumulation by these algal genera revealed concentrations recorded in this study are comparable to highly contaminated environments, such as those exposed to urban, industrial and mining pollution. The results of this study indicate that dissolved metal bioavailability in many earthen shrimp aquaculture ponds may be higher than previously thought.

  11. Central Tibetan Plateau atmospheric trace metals contamination: a 500-year record from the Puruogangri ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 1980s, Asia has experienced enormous industrial development from rapid population growth, industrialization and consequent large-scale environmental changes. The inherent generated atmospheric pollution currently contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions. Asian trace metal aerosols, when deposited on glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Interpreting trace element (TE) records from glaciers implies a thorough comprehension of their provenance and temporal variability. It is then essential to discriminate the TEs' natural background components from their anthropogenic components. Here we present 500-year TE records from the Puruogangri ice core (Tibet, China) that provide a highly resolved account of the impact of past atmospheric influences, environmental processes and human activities on the central TP. A decreasing aeolian dust input to the ice cap allowed the detection of an atmospheric pollution signal. The anthropogenic pollution contribution emerges in the record since the early 1900s and increases substantially after 1935. The metallurgy (Zn, Pb and steel smelting) emission products from the former Soviet Union and especially from central Asia likely enhanced the anthropogenic deposition to the Puruogangri ice cap between 1935 and 1980, suggesting that the westerlies served as a conveyor of atmospheric pollution to central Tibet. The impact of this industrial pollution cumulated with that of the hemispheric coal and gasoline combustion which are respectively traced by Sb and Pb enrichment in the ice. The Chinese steel production accompanying the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) is proposed as a secondary but proximal source of Pb pollution affecting the ice cap between 1958 and 1976. The most recent decade (1980-1992) of the enrichment time series suggests that Puruogangri ice cap recorded the early

  12. A Market Basket Survey of Horticultural Fruits for Arsenic and Trace Metal Contamination in Southeast Nigeria and Potential Health Risk Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Damian Ezeonyejiaku; Maximilian Obinna Obiakor

    2017-01-01

    Background. Elevated arsenic and trace metal contamination of the terrestrial food chain represents one of the most significant environmental risk exposures for human populations in developing countries. Metalloid and metal contamination in horticultural crop produce such as fruit is a public health concern in Nigeria. Local fruits are cheap sources of vitamins and minerals for the resident population and pose an important dietary threat of metal(loid) toxicity through consumption. Objecti...

  13. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Menghua; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Qian; Wang, Linling; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L −1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  14. A watershed-scale approach to tracing metal contamination in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionPublic policy during the 1800's encouraged mining in the western United States. Mining on Federal lands played an important role in the growing economy creating national wealth from our abundant and diverse mineral resource base. The common industrial practice from the early days of mining through about 1970 in the U.S. was for mine operators to dispose of the mine wastes and mill tailings in the nearest stream reach or lake. As a result of this contamination, many stream reaches below old mines, mills, and mining districts and some major rivers and lakes no longer support aquatic life. Riparian habitats within these affected watersheds have also been impacted. Often, the water from these affected stream reaches is generally not suitable for drinking, creating a public health hazard. The recent Department of Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is an effort on the part of the Federal Government to address the adverse environmental impact of these past mining practices on Federal lands. The AML Initiative has adopted a watershed approach to determine those sites that contribute the majority of the contaminants in the watershed. By remediating the largest sources of contamination within the watershed, the impact of metal contamination in the environment within the watershed as a whole is reduced rather than focusing largely on those sites for which principal responsible parties can be found.The scope of the problem of metal contamination in the environment from past mining practices in the coterminous U.S. is addressed in a recent report by Ferderer (1996). Using the USGS1:2,000,000-scale hydrologic drainage basin boundaries and the USGS Minerals Availability System (MAS) data base, he plotted the distribution of 48,000 past-producing metal mines on maps showing the boundaries of lands administered by the various Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMA). Census analysis of these data provided an initial screening tool for prioritization of

  15. Lyophilization of a triply unsaturated phospholipid: Effects of trace metal contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Betker, Jamie L.; Randolph, T.W.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    As liquid liposomal formulations are prone to chemical degradation and aggregation, these formulations often require freeze drying (e.g. lyophilization) to achieve sufficient shelf-life. However, liposomal formulations may undergo oxidation during lyophilization and/or during prolonged storage. The goal of the current study was to characterize the degradation of 1, 2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) during lyophilization, and to also probe the influence of metal contaminants in promoting the observed degradation. Aqueous sugar formulations containing DLPC (0.01 mg/ml) were lyophilized, and DLPC degradation was monitored using HPLC/UV and GC/MS methods. The effect of ferrous ion and sucrose concentration, as well as lyophilization stage promoting lipid degradation, was investigated. DLPC degradation increased with higher levels of ferrous ion. After lyophilization, 103.1% ± 1.1%, 66.9% ± 0.8%, and 28.7% ± 0.7% DLPC remained in the sucrose samples spiked with 0.0 ppm, 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm ferrous ion, respectively. Lipid degradation predominantly occurs during the freezing stage of lyophilization. Sugar concentration and buffer ionic strength also influence the extent of lipid degradation, and DLPC loss correlated with degradation product formation. We conclude that DLPC oxidation during the freezing stage of lyophilization dramatically compromises the stability of lipid-based formulations. In addition, we demonstrate that metal contaminants in sugars can become highly active when lyophilized in the presence of a reducing agent. PMID:23567484

  16. Natural and anthropogenic trace metal contamination and load assessment in the Oum Er-Rbia river basin, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schone, Selina; Zahry, Fatiha; Matschullat, Jorg; Bounakhla, Moussa

    2008-01-01

    Due to natural constraints and its fast socio-economic development Morocco is confronted with serious problems both in terms of water quantity and water quality management. In order to counteract the water quality degradation a comprehensive understanding of the geochemical and hydrological functioning as well as the bahavior of inorganic contaminants in large riverine systems under semiarid conditions shall be developed within the scope of this pilot study. Within the scope of a dissertation project Mrs Zahry has already investigated the physical and geochemical characteristics of the oum Er-Rbia river basin in Morocco. Water, sediment and suspended matter samples were analyzed in order to assess the trace metal contamination of the river. Due to the lack of the local geochemical backgrounds levels the results were normalised to common international standards. But because of the spatial and temporal variability of the geochemical background global standards are not appropriate to answer regional and local problems. Following up the work of Mrs Zahry the project shall for the first time ever in Morocco provide local geochemical backgrounds levels of various media in the large-scale Oum ErRbia river basin to establish regional geochemical standards and to assess the watercourse contamination in terms of anthropogenic contributions of trace metals. The research project will be conducted in cooperation between the CNESTEN, Morocco and the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg in Germany. The project has started of the aquisation of geo-basis data to develop a sampling strategy. All field investigations (sampling, run-off measurements), analytical work and data analysis will be done in direct collaboration with the Moroccan Scientists [fr

  17. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  18. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W. . Author

    2006-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamics is one of the pillars which support safety analyzes of repositories for radioactive waste. The research summarized in this review deals with approaches to resolve the problems related to thermodynamic equilibrium constants and solubility of solid phases in the field of radioactive waste management. The results have been obtained at the Paul Scherrer Institut between 1995 and 2005 and comprise the scientific basis of the author's habilitation thesis in the field of nuclear environmental chemistry. The topics are grouped according to three different levels of problem solving strategies: critical and comprehensive reviews of the available literature, which are necessary in order to establish a reliable chemical thermodynamic database that fulfils the requirements for rigorous modeling of the behavior of the actinides and fission products in the environment. In many case studies involving inorganic and simple organic ligands a serious lack of reliable thermodynamic data is encountered. There, a new modeling approach to estimate the effects of these missing data was applied. This so called 'backdoor approach' begins with the question, 'What total concentration of a ligand is necessary to significantly influence the speciation, and hence the solubility, of a given trace metal?' In the field of natural organics, mainly humic and fulvic acids, we face an ill-defined problem concerning the molecular structure of the ligands. There, a pragmatic approach for performance assessment purposes was applied, the 'conservative roof' approach, which does not aim to accurately model all experimental data, but allows estimates of maximum effects on metal complexation by humic substances to be calculated. (author)

  19. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on trace metal uptake by sunflower plants grown on cadmium contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad Eldin; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2013-09-25

    Trace metal (TM) pollution of soil is a worldwide problem that threatens the quality of human and environmental health. Phytoremediation using plants and their associated microbes has been increasingly used as a green technology for cleaning up TM-polluted soils. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates, Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae, on trace metal uptake by sunflower plants grown in soils contaminated with three different Cd concentrations in a greenhouse trial. Root colonization, plant dry mass, and plant tissue cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations in roots and shoots were determined after sunflower harvesting. We found that root mycorrhizal colonization rates were not significantly affected by Cd treatments. At low soil Cd concentration, R. irregularis-inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot Cd and Zn concentrations than plants inoculated with F. mosseae and non-inoculated plants. However, at high soil Cd concentrations, F. mosseae-inoculated plants had significantly lower shoot Cd and Zn concentrations and biological concentration factor (BCF) values than plants inoculated with R. irregularis and non-inoculated plants. Cadmium was mainly translocated in shoot tissues of R. irregularis-inoculated plants and sequestered in the rhizosphere of F. mosseae-inoculated plants. The results indicate that these AMF strains mediate different tolerance strategies to alleviate TM toxicity in their host plants and that inoculation with the R. irregularis strain can be used for Cd phytoextraction, whereas this F. mosseae strain can be useful for Cd and Zn phytostabilization of contaminated soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.

    2007-01-01

    in Swiss radioactive waste disposal projects. Within the scope of this TDB project I reviewed extensively thermodynamic data for Th, Pd, Al, and solubility and metal complexation of silicates, the review considering not only U, Np, Pu, Am, Tc, Ni, Se and Zr, but also the major constituents of ground and surface waters, i.e. H, Na, K, Mg and Ca. The decision to evaluate the organic ligands oxalate, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) and α-isosaccharinate (isa) was based on two aspects, namely the importance of the ligands in radioactive waste problems, and the availability of experimental data. (ii) In many case studies involving inorganic and simple organic ligands a serious lack of reliable thermodynamic data is encountered. There, a new modeling approach to estimate the effects of these missing data was applied. This so called 'backdoor approach' begins with the question: 'What total concentration of a ligand is necessary to significantly influence the speciation, and hence the solubility, of a given trace metal?' Radioactive waste contains substantial amounts of ion-exchange resins from decontamination procedures. Degradation of these organic waste forms by radiolysis in a repository is a source of concern in radioactive waste management. Radiolytic degradation experiments with strong acidic ion exchange resins resulted in the formation of the complexing ligands oxalate and ligand X, whose structure could not be identified. In the case of anion exchange resins, ammonia and methylamines were detected. I assessed the influence of these ligands on radionuclide speciation in groundwater and cement pore water of a repository using the 'backdoor approach'. Prussian Blue, Fe III 4 [Fe II (CN) 6 ] 3 , and structurally related transition metal compounds like Ni 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ] are used as cesium ion exchangers in decontamination procedures of liquid radioactive waste. The used ion exchangers are conditioned as cementitious waste form for interim storage and finally

  1. Optimizing the molarity of a EDTA washing solution for saturated-soil remediation of trace metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.D.; Prasher, S.O.; Hendershot, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to optimize the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for reclaiming urban soils contaminated with trace metals. As compared to Na 2 EDTA (NH 4 ) 2 EDTA extracted 60% more Zn and equivalent amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from a sandy loam. When successively saturating and draining loamy sand columns during a washing cycle, which submerged it once with a (NH 4 ) 2 EDTA wash and four times with deionised water, the post-wash rinses largely contributed to the total cumulative extraction of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Both the washing solution and the deionised water rinses were added in a 2:5 liquid to soil (L:S) weight ratio. For equal amounts of EDTA, concentrating the washing solution and applying it and the ensuing rinses in a smaller 1:5 L:S weight ratio, instead of a 2:5 L:S weight ratio, increased the extraction of targeted Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - A single EDTA addition is best utilised in a highly concentrated washing solution given in a small liquid to soil weight ratio

  2. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  3. In situ stabilization of trace metals in a copper-contaminated soil using P-spiked Linz-Donawitz slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, Osama; Mench, Michel; Bes, Clémence; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Amin, Fouad; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    A former wood exploitation revealing high Cu and As concentration of the soils served as a case study for assisted phytoextraction. P-spiked Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag was used as a soil additive to improve physico-chemical soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu and other trace metals in a sandy Cu-contaminated soil (630 mg kg⁻¹ soil). The LD slag was incorporated into the contaminated soil to consist four treatments: 0% (T1), 1% (T2), 2% (T3), and 4% (T4). A similar uncontaminated soil was used as a control (CTRL). After a 1-month reaction period, potted soils were used for a 2-week growth experiment with dwarf beans. Soil pH increased with the incorporation rate of LD slag. Similarly the soil electrical conductivity (EC, in millisiemens per centimetre) is ameliorated. Bean plants grown on the untreated soil (T1) showed a high phytotoxicity. All incorporation rates of LD slag increased the root and shoot dry weight yields compared to the T1. The foliar Ca concentration of beans was enhanced for all LD slag-amended soil, while the foliar Mg, K, and P concentrations were not increased. Foliar Cu, Zn, and Cr concentrations of beans decreased with the LD slag incorporation rate. P-spiked LD slag incorporation into polluted soil allow the bean growth and foliar Ca concentration, but also to reduce foliar Cu concentration below its upper critical value avoiding an excessive soil EC and Zn deficiency. This dual effect can be of interest for soil remediation at larger scale.

  4. Electric discharge for treatment of trace contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, D. L.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A radio frequency glow discharge reactor is described for removing trace oxidizable contaminants from an oxygen bearing atmosphere. The reaction chamber is defined by an inner metal electrode facing a dielectric backed by an outer conductive electrode. In one embodiment, a conductive liquid forms the conductor of an outer electrode and cools the dielectric. A resonator coupled to a variable radio frequency source generates the high voltages for creating a glow discharge in the chamber at a predetermined pressure whereby the trace contaminants are oxidized into a few simple non-toxic products that may be easily recovered. The corresponding process for removal of trace contaminants from an oxygen-bearing atmosphere with high efficiency independent of the concentration level is also disclosed.

  5. Socially-mediated differences in brain monoamines in rainbow trout: effects of trace metal contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Lepage, Olivier; Rogers, Joseph T.; Wood, Chris M.; Winberg, Svante

    2005-01-01

    Monoaminergic systems play a crucial role in linking behaviour and physiology. Here the physiological and behavioural effects of metal exposure in relation to monoaminergic systems were considered by exposing rainbow trout dyads, demonstrating stable dominance relationships, to cadmium or lead. Fish exposed to 4 μg l -1 cadmium accumulated more cadmium at the gill than fish held in control water. Fish exposed to 7 μg l -1 cadmium had higher gill, liver and kidney cadmium concentrations. No significant lead accumulation was seen after exposure to 46 μg l -1 for 48 h but exposure to 325 μg l -1 lead caused an increase in gill, liver and kidney lead concentrations. Brain accumulation of both cadmium and lead was only seen after exposure to the highest concentrations. Exposure to 4 or 7 μg l -1 cadmium, or 46 or 325 μg l -1 lead for 48 h did not disrupt established dominance hierarchies. As expected with this stable behavioural situation, in control pairs, animals of different social status displayed different physiological profiles. Subordinate fish had higher concentrations of circulating plasma cortisol and telencephalic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratios. However, these physiological profiles were affected by metal exposure, with a trend towards higher serotonergic activity in dominant fish. Dominants exposed to 325 μg l -1 lead had significantly higher hypothalamic 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios when compared with subordinates. The results demonstrate that if stable social hierarchies are established in control water they may not be affected by exposure to cadmium and lead although physiological changes may be evident

  6. An assessment of contamination of the Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy) by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M; Toscano, F; Di Fraia, M; Caputi, L; Sordino, P; Guida, M; Aliberti, F; Ferrara, L

    2014-09-01

    The Fusaro Lagoon is a shallow lagoon, located in SW Italy, largely influenced in the last decades by several anthropic impacts. The study examined the pollution status of the lagoon, during year 2011-2012 at nine sampling stations with the aim to find out proper measurements of water lagoon restoration. Concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) (aluminium [Al], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], vanadium [V] and zinc [Zn]) were examined in water, sediments and specimens of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis sp. A. Low levels of dissolved oxygen concentration were detected at many stations, with mean values of 5.2-6.4 mg L(-1). The redox potential of surface waters was also low, -2.7 to 50.7 mV. Sediments possessed high organic matter content, 17.7-29.4%. In sediments, the mean Zn level, 251.4 mg kg(-1), was about sixfold higher than that recorded in year 2000 (38.5 mg kg(-1)) and considerably higher than that recorded in 2007 (191 mg kg(-1)). The mean levels of Cd were outstandingly high, with a mean value of 70.5 mg kg(-1), about 30- and 50-fold higher than those determined in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Cadmium (Cd), Cu and nickel (Ni) appeared in excess with respect to most current guidelines, reaching significant pollution levels. C. intestinalis sp. A was detected only at few stations, with metals accumulated preferentially in the body in respect to the tunic, from 1.2 times for Zn (178 mg kg(-1)) to 4.0 times for V (304 mg kg(-1)). Data suggests the necessity of an immediate action of eco-compatible interventions for environmental restoration.

  7. Socially-mediated differences in brain monoamines in rainbow trout: effects of trace metal contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: katherine.sloman@plymouth.ac.uk; Lepage, Olivier [Evolutionary Biology Centre, Department of Comparative Physiology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Rogers, Joseph T. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Winberg, Svante [Evolutionary Biology Centre, Department of Comparative Physiology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-02-10

    Monoaminergic systems play a crucial role in linking behaviour and physiology. Here the physiological and behavioural effects of metal exposure in relation to monoaminergic systems were considered by exposing rainbow trout dyads, demonstrating stable dominance relationships, to cadmium or lead. Fish exposed to 4 {mu}g l{sup -1} cadmium accumulated more cadmium at the gill than fish held in control water. Fish exposed to 7 {mu}g l{sup -1} cadmium had higher gill, liver and kidney cadmium concentrations. No significant lead accumulation was seen after exposure to 46 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 48 h but exposure to 325 {mu}g l{sup -1} lead caused an increase in gill, liver and kidney lead concentrations. Brain accumulation of both cadmium and lead was only seen after exposure to the highest concentrations. Exposure to 4 or 7 {mu}g l{sup -1} cadmium, or 46 or 325 {mu}g l{sup -1} lead for 48 h did not disrupt established dominance hierarchies. As expected with this stable behavioural situation, in control pairs, animals of different social status displayed different physiological profiles. Subordinate fish had higher concentrations of circulating plasma cortisol and telencephalic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratios. However, these physiological profiles were affected by metal exposure, with a trend towards higher serotonergic activity in dominant fish. Dominants exposed to 325 {mu}g l{sup -1} lead had significantly higher hypothalamic 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios when compared with subordinates. The results demonstrate that if stable social hierarchies are established in control water they may not be affected by exposure to cadmium and lead although physiological changes may be evident.

  8. Evolution of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated River Sediments: Geochemical Variation Along River Linear and Vertical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, Hussein; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Losson, Benoit; Manceau, Luc; Bauer, Allan; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; El Samrani, Antoine; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Kazpard, Veronique; Villieras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    ICP-MS and ICP-OES for trace and major elements respectively. Well crystallized minerals were detected by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), while amorphous and poorly crystallized phases were identified with scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM respectively), combined with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Such microscopic techniques also provided information about metal carriers. To have an insight about the metal speciation at molecular level, X-Ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed at Zn K-edge. The first analyses of Orne sediment cores evidenced different particle size distribution and sediment consolidation levels. Yet the cores showed that below a layer of apparently recent sediments (about 10-20 cm), lie highly contaminated ones. Zn and Pb content in deep sediment layers reach several thousands ppm, where they appeared mainly as Zn and Pb sulphides. Also, the high content of iron in deep sediments resulted in the presence of different iron phases: hematite, wuestite, magnetite, goethite, sulphides (pyrite), as well as undefined iron-silicate. In addition, interstitial waters contained high values of available metals (Zn: 500-35000 ppm, Pb: 150-5700 ppm, Cd: 1-10ppm), which might cause a greater concern than solid-bound metals, especially when river bed sediments are disturbed.

  9. Trace metal contamination in estuarine fishes from Vitória Bay, ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Joyeux

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscular tissue from wild-caught mullet (Mugil spp. and snook (Centropomus spp. was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine muscle contamination levels for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc and evaluate risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. Fishes were captured by subsistence fishermen in Vitória Bay, a Brazilian tropical estuary with numerous outfalls of untreated industrial and residential sewage. Based on the premisses that subsistence fisherman and local consumer show weak (culinary or other preferences within the taxa studied, analyses were conducted and results are reported for genera. Snook cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations were positively correlated with size or weight. Mullet chromium concentration decreased with size. Cadmium and lead were higher and zinc lower in mullet than in snook. Summer cadmium and lead concentrations were higher than in winter. Chromium presented concentrations consistently over the legal Brazilian limit for seafood. However, the greatest health concern was probably related to lead concentration, especially in respect to consumption by young children.Tecidos musculares de tainhas (Mugil sp. e robalos (Centropomus sp. foram analisados por espectrometria de absorção atômica para determinar as concentrações dos metais cádmio, cromo, cobre, chumbo e zinco no músculo e avaliar os riscos a saúde humana resultante do consumo do pescado. Todos os indivíduos foram capturados por pescadores de subsistência na Baía de Vitória, um estuário brasileiro com numerosos lançamentos de efluentes não tratados de origem doméstica e industrial. Baseado na presunção que pescador de subsistência e consumidor local mostram pouca preferência (culinária ou outra dentro de cada desses taxa, análises foram conduzidas, e resultados reportados, para gêneros em vez de espécies. Em robalos, as concentrações de cádmio, cromo, cobre e zinco aumentaram

  10. Study of the trace metal ion influence on the turnover of soil organic matter in cultivated contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumat, C.; Quenea, K.; Bermond, A.; Toinen, S.; Benedetti, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The role of metals in the behaviour of soil organic matter (SOM) is not well documented. Therefore, we investigated the influence of metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) on the dynamic of SOM in contaminated soils where maize (C 4 plant) replaced C 3 cultures. Three pseudogley brown leached soil profiles under maize with a decreasing gradient in metals concentrations were sampled. On size fractions, stable carbon isotopic ratio (δ 13 C), metals, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations were measured in function of depth. The determined sequence for the amount of C 4 organic matter in the bulk fractions: M 3 (0.9) > M 2 (0.4) > M 1 (0.3) is in agreement with a significant influence of metals on the SOM turnover. New C 4 SOM, mainly present in the labile coarser fractions and less contaminated by metals than the stabilised C 3 SOM of the clay fraction, is more easily degraded by microorganisms. - Measure of δ 13 C and total metal concentrations in size fractions of contaminated soils suggests an influence of metals on the soil organic matter dynamic

  11. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  12. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Song, Liuting; Zuo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn). The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment) > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment) > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment). Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  14. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn. The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment. Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  15. Using stable lead isotopes to trace heavy metal contamination sources in sediments of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Wang, Xin-Jun; Hu, Qin-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Lead isotopes and heavy metal concentrations were measured in two sediment cores sampled in estuaries of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in Hunan province, China. The presence of anthropogenic contribution was observed in both sediments, especially in Xiangjiang sediment. In the Xiangjiang sediment, the lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratio, than natural Pb isotope signature (1.198 and 2.075 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively), indicated a significant input of non-indigenous Pb with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb. The corresponding concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Zn, Mn and Pb) were much higher than natural values, suggesting the contaminations of heavy metals from extensive ore-mining activities in the region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: a case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Faivre, Bruno; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; van den Brink, Nico W; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-08-15

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels in blackbirds, tissue residues increasing with soil contamination. At a finer grain, landscape composition and soil properties (pH, organic matter, clay) influenced metal transfer, while no influence of landscape diversity was detected. Landscape composition better explained metal transfer than soil properties did. Diet composition varied according to landscape composition, but diet diversity was not influenced by landscape diversity. Surprisingly, metal accumulation in some insect taxa was as high as in earthworms (known as hyper-accumulators). Results strongly suggested that variations in diet composition were the drivers through which landscape composition influenced metal transfer to blackbirds. This study shows that landscape features can affect pollutant transfer in food webs, partly through ecological processes related to spatial and foraging

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation protects Miscanthus × giganteus against trace element toxicity in a highly metal-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Stéphane; Labidi, Sonia; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Nsanganwimana, Florian; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dalpé, Yolande; Grandmougin, Anne; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Verdin, Anthony; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2015-09-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-assisted phytoremediation could constitute an ecological and economic method in polluted soil rehabilitation programs. The aim of this work was to characterize the trace element (TE) phytoremediation potential of mycorrhizal Miscanthus × giganteus. To understand the mechanisms involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis tolerance to TE toxicity, the fatty acid compositions and several stress oxidative biomarkers were compared in the roots and leaves of Miscanthus × giganteus cultivated under field conditions in either TE-contaminated or control soils. TEs were accumulated in greater amounts in roots, but the leaves were the organ most affected by TE contamination and were characterized by a strong decrease in fatty acid contents. TE-induced oxidative stress in leaves was confirmed by an increase in the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). TE contamination decreased the GSSG/GSH ratio in the leaves of exposed plants, while peroxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in leaves and in whole plants, respectively. AMF inoculation also increased root colonization in the presence of TE contamination. The mycorrhizal colonization determined a decrease in SOD activity in the whole plant and PO activities in leaves and induced a significant increase in the fatty acid content in leaves and a decrease in MDA formation in whole plants. These results suggested that mycorrhization is able to confer protection against oxidative stress induced by soil pollution. Our findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation could be used as a bioaugmentation technique, facilitating Miscanthus cultivation on highly TE-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI and Geo-accumulation Index Igeo Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mgkg and 0.330 mgkg while the mean iron was highest 5.05 mgkg in station 4 and lowest 2.26 mgkg in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mgkg station 1 and 2 to 0.021 mgkg station 3 and 4. The mean copper was highest 3.97 mgkg in station 1 and lowest 0.008 mgkg in station 2. Analysis of variance ANOVA revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference P 0.05 in lead chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference P0.05 in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class 0 in all the five sampling stations indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments lead fall in class 3 in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class 0in station 1 2 3 and 5 and copper fall in class 3 in station 4 and 5 in class 6 in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluentswastes into River. Therefore perpetual assessment is highly recommended

  19. Probing the distribution and contamination levels of 10 trace metal/metalloids in soils near a Pb/Zn smelter in Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Guanghui; Lin, Yan; Sun, Guangyi

    2014-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns and contamination status of ten trace metal/metalloids (Ag, Bi, Co, Cr, Ge, In, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl) in soils around one of the largest Chinese Pb-Zn smelter in Zhuzhou City, Central China, were revealed. Different soil samples were collected from 11 areas, including ten agricultural areas and one city park area, with a total of 83 surface soil samples and six soil cores obtained. Trace metal/metalloids were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after digestion by an acid mixture of HF and HNO3. The results showed that Ag, Bi, In, Sb, Sn, and Tl contents decreased both with the distance to the Pb-Zn smelter as well as the soil depth, hinting that these elements were mainly originated from the Pb-Zn smelting operations and were introduced into soils through atmospheric deposition. Soil Ge was influenced by the smelter at a less extent, while the distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni were roughly even among most sampling sites and soil depths, suggesting that they were primarily derived from natural sources. The contamination status, as revealed by the geo-accumulation index (I geo), indicated that In and Ag were the most enriched elements, followed by Sb, Bi, and Sn. In general, Cr, Tl, Co, Ni, and Ge were of an uncontaminated status.

  20. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  1. Translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the tomato and topinambur plants in a contaminated area of South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Stefania; Bartoli, Giovanni; Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Zornoza, Raúl; Carillo, Petronia; Fioretto, Antonietta

    2017-04-01

    According to a survey of the Italian Environmental Monitoring Agency (ARPA), there are different critical sites in Campania region (South Italy) (e.i. legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets). Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006; Liu et al 2012; Chang et al 2014; Wong et al 2002). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food are very important with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sampled in the coast area of Castel Volturno (Campania region, South Italy). This area is one of the critical sites according to a survey of the Environmental Monitoring Agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant. The results showed that the trace metals concentration determinated in different organs of each species studied were more present in the roots than the other plant's parts, suggesting a probable block at root level. The only exception were Cu and Hg in tomato and topinambur plants respectively, that were mainly present in the leaves. The metals block at the root induced no alteration of MDA. However, the correlation between this activity and Cd, Pb, V and Hg seemed to attest to a possible synergy. Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation Reference -Kachenko AG, Singh B, 2006 Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Urban and Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Australia. Water

  2. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2008-11-01

    Many geochemical reactions that control aqueous metal concentrations are directly affected by solution pH. However, changes in solution pH are strongly buffered by various aqueous phase and solid phase precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior of the soil-solution system is thus critical to predict metal transport under variable pH conditions. This studywas undertaken to develop a practical generic geochemical modeling approach to predict aqueous and solid phase concentrations of metals and anions during conditions of acid or base additions. The method of Spalding and Spalding was utilized to model soil buffer capacity and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity by treating aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. To simulate the dynamic and pH-dependent anion exchange capacity, the aquifer solids were simultaneously treated as a polyprotic base controlled by mineral precipitation/ dissolution reactions. An equilibrium reaction model that describes aqueous complexation, precipitation, sorption and soil buffering with pH-dependent ion exchange was developed using HydroGeoChem v5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration data of pH, Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co, and SO4(2-) for contaminated sediments indicated close agreement suggesting that the model could potentially be used to predictthe acid-base behavior of the sediment-solution system under variable pH conditions.

  3. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  4. Water contamination with heavy metals and trace elements from Kilembe copper mine and tailing sites in Western Uganda; implications for domestic water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Mwesigye R; Susan, Tumwebaze B

    2017-02-01

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt of cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley, in addition to mine water which is pumped to the land surface. This study was conducted to assess the sources and concentrations of heavy metals and trace elements in Kilembe mine catchment water. Multi-element analysis of trace elements from point sources and sinks was conducted which included mine tailings, mine water, mine leachate, Nyamwamba River water, public water sources and domestic water samples using ICP-MS. The study found that mean concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of Co (112), Cu (3320), Ni (131), As (8.6) in mine tailings were significantly higher than world average crust and were being eroded and discharged into water bodies within the catchment. Underground mine water and leachate contained higher mean concentrations (μg L -1 ) of Cu (9470), Co (3430) and Ni (590) compared with background concentrations (μg L -1 ) in un contaminated water of 1.9, 0.21 and 0.67 for Cu, Co and Ni respectively. Over 25% of household water samples exceeded UK drinking water thresholds for Al of 200 μg L -1 , Co exceeded Winsconsin (USA drinking) water thresholds of 40 μg L -1 in 40% of samples while Fe in 42% of samples exceeded UK thresholds of 200 μg L -1 . The study however found that besides mining activities, natural processes of geological weathering also contributed to Al, Fe, and Mn water contamination in a number of public water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  6. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlation...

  7. Trace metal speciation: Finally, correctly addressing trace metal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donard, O.F.X.

    2001-01-01

    The history of the development of trace metal speciation was discussed and the reasons behind the relatively slow widespread acceptance of its importance were presented. Partially, this was due to the lack of availability of commercial instrumentation and partly to the drive towards improving sensitivity in analytical chemistry which had focused attention on total concentration determinations. The sophistication and control of analytical instrumentation is now such that the spotlight must be turned onto the chemical species of an element present in a sample since this is what governs its behaviour in the biosphere. Indeed, several companies are currently considering the introduction of instrumentation specifically designed for metal species determination

  8. Assessment of trace metal contamination in groundwater in a highly urbanizing area of Shenfu New District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yintao; Zang, Xinghua; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shichao; Sun, Shaobin; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Shenfu New District, located between two old industrial cities, Shenyang and Fushun, is a typical area undergoing industrialization and urbanization in China. The sources and distributions of heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater by multivariate analysis and GIS, and the impact of urbanization on the aqueous distribution of these metals was investigated. The results indicated that the mean contents of zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the wet periods were about two times of those in the dry period. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) were considered to be associated with the same anthropogenic origins (i.e., wastewater from agricultural processing). The concentration of Zn was high under natural conditions, but was also affected by human activities (e.g., wastewater from foundry and instrument manufacturers). As, Cd, and Pb are likely derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources (agricultural and water-rock interactions). The spatial distributions of heavy metals in groundwater were region-specific, with the highest concentrations mostly along the Hun River. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values from the dry and wet periods showed similar trends at different sampling sites. Only one site's HPI was above the critical value of 100. These results provide information that can be used to understand potential threats to the groundwater resources of other developing cities.

  9. Influence of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in a contaminated tidal freshwater marsh soil colonized with common reed (Phragmites australis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuchies, J.; Deckere, E. de; Bervoets, L.; Meynendonckx, J.; Regenmortel, S. van; Blust, R.; Meire, P.

    2008-01-01

    A historical input of trace metals into tidal marshes fringing the river Scheldt may be a cause for concern. Nevertheless, the specific physicochemical form, rather than the total concentration, determines the ecotoxicological risk of metals in the soil. In this study the effect of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in different compartments of the soil was investigated. As, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in sediment, pore water and in roots were determined along a depth profile. Total sediment metal concentrations were similar at different sites, reflecting pollution history. Pore water metal concentrations were generally higher under less flooded conditions (mean is (2.32 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mg Cd L -1 and (1.53 ± 0.03) x 10 -3 mg Cd L -1 ). Metal concentrations associated with roots (mean is 202.47 ± 2.83 mg Cd kg -1 and 69.39 ± 0.99 mg Cd kg -1 ) were up to 10 times higher than sediment (mean is 20.48 ± 0.19 mg Cd kg -1 and 20.42 ± 0.21 mg Cd kg -1 ) metal concentrations and higher under dryer conditions. Despite high metal concentrations associated with roots, the major part of the metals in the marsh soil is still associated with the sediment as the overall biomass of roots is small compared to the sediment. - Pore water metal concentrations and metal root plaque concentration are influenced by the tidal regime

  10. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Vethamony, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Fernandes, B.

    of sources. Enrichment of metals in bottom sediments represents a critical measure of health for any mangrove ecosystem (Janaki-Raman et al., 2007). Trace metals in coastal and estuarine sediments are incorporated into the aquatic food webs through primary... of susceptibility of the particles to the processes of physical and chemical weathering. The different morphological forms of iron oxides are well correlated with the sediment horizons. Spherical iron oxides predominate in the upper layers of sediment profiles...

  11. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O; Flegal, A Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  12. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley O Odigie

    Full Text Available The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1, [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1, [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1, [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1, and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1 in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  13. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  14. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bonnail-Miguel, E. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, 11,510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity.

  15. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Bonnail-Miguel, E.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity

  16. Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T

    2010-03-01

    Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling trace element concentrations in perennial grasses grown on phytotoxic soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses cover diverse soils throughout the world, including sites contaminated with heavy metals, producing forages that must be safe for livestock and wildlife. Chromosome regions known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling forage mineral concentrations were mapped in a populatio...

  18. Life Support Systems: Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control task: Work in the area of trace contamination and...

  19. NSF-RANN Trace Contaminants Program directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, P.A.; Smith, S.K.; Wilkes, C.F.

    1976-10-01

    This directory is designed to aid effective communication throughout the National Science Foundation's Trace Contaminants Program, Research Applied to National Needs. The majority of the participants in the Program are represented by name, address, telephone number, and a very brief description of research interest. The directory has five major divisions to facilitate its use. Section I contains a listing of the program managers associated with the NSF-RANN Trace Contaminants Program. Section II lists the principal investigators, co-principal investigators, and coordinators of each of the research grants in the Program. Section III lists the personnel by individual projects. Section IV contains a total alphabetic listing complete with project titles and Section V contains a keyword index. This directory is maintained by the Toxic Materials Information Center as part of the Environmental Resource Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  1. Radioisotope studies of some effects and interactions of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The coordinated programme of ''isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture'', initiated in 1973, had involved the participation of 12 scientists from 10 countries. Pesticide residues, toxic metals, atmospheric sulphur dioxide were studied, and the use of radiotracer techniques as monitoring tools for existing contaminant levels or for their biological effects. The programme had been successful in the development and application of selected labelled substrate techniques. Specific aspects studied were the effects of environmental contaminants at the molecular level of the cell nucleus, the development and significance of radioimmunoassay procedure for trace contaminants, action and joint action of toxic elements, and the radiometric analysis of cholinesterase as an index of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Ten papers were presented and 12 coordinated investigations discussed. A number of recommendations were made

  2. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 μg/g, 49 μg/g, and 272 μg/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel

  3. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  4. Enriquecimiento, disponibilidad y contaminación de metales traza (Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn) en sedimentos de lagunas urbanas de Concepción-Chile Enrichment, availability and contamination of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediments of urban lagoons in Concepción, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth González Sepúlveda; María Retamal Cifuentes; Valentina Medina Pedreros; Ramón Ahumada Bermúdez; José Neira Hinojosa

    2009-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) enrichment, availability and contamination in superficial sediments of three interconnected urban lagoons localized in Concepción-Chile, were evaluated. According to the results of geochemical fracctionation analysis, Cu and Pb are rather associated with oxi-hydroxides, Cd is associated with exchangeable and carbonates fraction, while Zn is mainly associated with organic, oxi-hydroxides and residual fraction. The estimation of the availability percentages indi...

  5. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  6. Decontamination method of contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Chikara; Komori, Itaru.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive materials from molten metals in dry-processing method by heating metals contaminated with radioactive materials at a temperature below melting point to oxidize the surface thereof, then heating them to melt and include the radioactive materials into the oxides. Method: Metals contaminated with radioactive materials are heated at a temperature below the melting point thereof in an oxidizing atmosphere to oxidize the surface. Thereafter they are heated to melt at temperature above the melting point of the metals, and the molten metals are separated with the radioactive materials included in the oxides. For instance, radiation-contaminated aluminum pipe placed on the bed of an electrical heating furnace, and heated at 500 0 C which is lower than the melting point 660 0 C of aluminum for 1 - 2 hours while supplying air from an air pipe into the furnace, and an oxide film is formed on the surface of the aluminum pipe. Then, the furnace temperature is increased to 750 0 C wherein molten aluminum is flown down to a container and the oxide film is separated by floating it as the slug on the molten aluminum. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. studies on trace metal concentration pseudotolithus elongatus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Trace metals, Lead Pollution, Pseudotolithus elongatus, Mbo coastal waters, ..... Analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and ... Pekey, H., Karakas, D., and Bakog'lu, M., 2004. Source apportionment of trace metals in the surface.

  8. Assessing Heavy and Trace Metal Contamination in Surface Materials near the Ambaji and Zawar mines in Gujurat and Rajasthan, India using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    An investigation has begun into effects on water quality in waters coming from a pair of mines, and their surrounding drainage basins, in western India. The study areas are the Ambaji and Zawar mines in the Indian states of, respectively, Gujurat and Rajasthan. The Ambaji mine is situated in Precambrian-aged metasediments and metavolcanics of the Delhi Supergroup. Sulfide mineralization at Ambaji is hosted by hydrothermally altered felsic metavolcanics rocks with ferric oxide and oxyhydroxide as well as copper carbonate surface indicator minerals. The Zawar zinc mine is part of the Precambrian Aravalli Supergroup and lies amidst surface exposures of dolomites and quartzites. Hyperspectral visible through short-wave infrared (VSWIR) data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) was collected in February 2016 over these sites as part of a joint campaign between NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The AVIRIS-NG data is being used to detect, map, and characterize surface mineralogy in the area. Data discovery is being carried out using a self-organizing map (SOM) methodology with mineral endmembers being mapped initially with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and a planned more comprehensive mapping using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results of the mineral mapping will be field checked and rock, soil, and water samples will be collected and examined for heavy and trace metal contamination. Past studies have shown changes in the shape of the 2.2 mm Al-OH vibrational overtone feature as well as in blue-red spectral ratios that were directly correlated with the concentration of heavy and trace metals that had been adsorbed into the structure of the affected minerals. Early analysis of the Zawar area scenes indicates the presence of Al-OH clay minerals which might have been affected by the adsorption of trace metals. Scenes from the Ambaji area have more

  9. Metal Contamination in the Republic of Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian

    2000-05-01

    / Air, soil, and water samples were collected throughout the Republic of Armenia both before and after its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Reported analyses of those samples indicated that levels of several trace metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations established by the former Soviet Union (FSU) and subsequently adopted by Armenia. Although industrial production has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s, the economy is improving and there is potential for a significant increase in the generation of industrial metal emissions. These include automobile emissions, which are now considered to be the primary source of atmospheric lead. Historically, the Soviet Union did not strictly enforce environmental standards, and Armenia is now faced with the resulting environmental problems and the associated risks to public health. Since some trace metal concentrations may be at or near potentially toxic levels, there is a need to accurately assess the extent of metal contamination in order to devise cleanup plans and develop long-term environmental protection and public health strategies in Armenia.

  10. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  11. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  12. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  13. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  14. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  15. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  16. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  17. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  18. Trace Metals Concentration Assessment in Urban Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Principal component analysis revealed that major sources of trace metals in ambient air ... contributed by earth crust and windblown soil .... Source Apportionment: To probe the origin of trace .... atmospheric accumulation of heavy metals and.

  19. Photometric determination of traces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter

  20. Trace Metals in Urban Stormwater Runoff and their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Hall, K.; Li, L. Y.; Schreier, H.

    2009-04-01

    In past decades, due to the rapid urbanization, land development has replaced forests, fields and meadows with impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots and roads, significantly affecting watershed quality and having an impact on aquatic systems. In this study, non-point source pollution from a diesel bus loop was assessed for the extent of trace metal contamination of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in the storm water runoff. The study was carried out at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) of British Columbia, Canada. Fifteen storm events were monitored at 3 sites from the diesel bus loop to determine spatial and temporal variations of dissolved and total metal concentrations in the storm water runoff. The dissolved metal concentrations were compared with the provincial government discharge criteria and the bus loop storm water quality was also compared with previous studies conducted across the GVRD urban area. To prevent storm water with hazardous levels of contaminants from being discharged into the urban drainage system, a storm water catch basin filter was installed and evaluated for its efficiency of contaminants removal. The perlite filter media adsorption capacities for the trace metals, oil and grease were studied for better maintenance of the catch basin filter. Dissolved copper exceeded the discharge criteria limit in 2 out of 15 cases, whereas dissolved zinc exceeded the criteria in 4 out of 15 cases, and dissolved manganese was below the criteria in all of the events sampled. Dissolved Cu and Zn accounted for 36 and 45% of the total concentration, whereas Mn and Fe only accounted for 20 and 4% of their total concentration, respectively. Since they are more mobile and have higher bioaccumulation potentials, Zn and Cu are considered to be more hazardous to the aquatic environment than Fe and Mn. With high imperviousness (100%) and intensive traffic at the UBC diesel bus loop, trace metal concentrations

  1. Enriquecimiento, disponibilidad y contaminación de metales traza (Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn en sedimentos de lagunas urbanas de Concepción-Chile Enrichment, availability and contamination of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments of urban lagoons in Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González Sepúlveda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn enrichment, availability and contamination in superficial sediments of three interconnected urban lagoons localized in Concepción-Chile, were evaluated. According to the results of geochemical fracctionation analysis, Cu and Pb are rather associated with oxi-hydroxides, Cd is associated with exchangeable and carbonates fraction, while Zn is mainly associated with organic, oxi-hydroxides and residual fraction. The estimation of the availability percentages indicate that Cu is the most mobile metal and the less mobile is the Cd. An evaluation of the geo-accumulation index and urban industrial pollution allowed to classify the studied zone as moderately to highly contaminated.

  2. Evaluation of Perna perna (Linné, 1758 as a tool to monitoring trace metals contamination in estuarine and coastal waters of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francioni Eleine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna was collected from several sites along the coast of Rio de Janeiro and analysed for the content of copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium. In spite of the observed concentration variability in organisms pertaining to the same population, statistical evaluation allowed metal level differentiation among regions and sites as well as between males and females. Differences in metal contents did not confirm expectations based on source strength and existing data on water concentration.

  3. Metal bioaccumulation and oxidative stress profiles in Ruditapes philippinarum – insights towards its suitability as bioindicator of estuarine metal contamination

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Ana; Piló , David; Carvalho, Susana; Araú jo, Olinda; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Vale, Carlos; Pereira, Fá bio; Pacheco, Má rio; Pereira, Patrí cia

    2017-01-01

    is not consensual. This study provided clarification on this issue by evaluating the ability of R. philippinarum to signalise trace element contamination in an estuary chronically impacted by metals and metalloids (Tagus estuary, Portugal). A multidimensional

  4. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  5. Radionuclides and trace metals in surface air. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feely, H.W.; Toonkel, L.E.; Larsen, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1963, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), formerly the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL), has been conducting the Surface Air Sampling Program. This study is a direct outgrowth of a program initiated by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1957 and continued through 1962. The primary objective of this program is to study the spatial and temporal distribution of specific natural and man-made radioisotopes, and of trace metals in the surface air. Other special studies of surface air contamination have been performed during the course of the program

  6. Trace metal mobilization in an experimental carbon sequestration scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Virginia [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Kaszuba, John [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Univeristy of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources, Larmaie, WY. 82070 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. Hydrothermal experiments investigate the release of harmful metals from two zones of a sequestration injection reservoir: at the cap-rock-reservoir boundary and deeper within the reservoir, away from the cap-rock. In both systems, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn behave in a similar manner, increasing in concentration with injection, but subsequently decreasing in concentration over time. SEM images and geochemical models indicate initial dissolution of minerals and precipitation of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates, metal sulfides (i.e. Fe, As, Ag, and Co sulfides), and anhydrite in both systems. The results suggest that Ba, Cu, and Zn will not be contaminants of concern, but Pb, Fe, and As may require careful attention. (authors)

  7. Application of the 210Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M.; James, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for 226 Ra and 210 Po using alpha spectrometry. The 226 Ra activity equates to the supported 210 Pb activity and the 210 Po activity equates to the total 210 Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported 210 Pb is the excess 210 Pb activity. Once the excess 210 Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the 20P b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement

  8. Application of the {sup 210}Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D. [Melbourne University Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; James, J.M. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Po using alpha spectrometry. The {sup 226}Ra activity equates to the supported {sup 210}Pb activity and the {sup 210}Po activity equates to the total {sup 210}Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported {sup 210}Pb is the excess {sup 210}Pb activity. Once the excess {sup 210}Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the {sup 20P}b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement. Paper no. 42; Extended abstract. 1 fig.

  9. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  10. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  11. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. ... of the fine fraction (under 2 mm) were conserved away from light for ... To assess the migration and accumulation of trace elements ..... metals from sewage sludge in an agricultural soil. ... Pesticides and heavy metals in drinking water, soils.

  12. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  13. study on trace contaminants control assembly for sealed environment chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L. P.; Wang, J.; Liu, L. K.; Liu, H.

    The biological and Physicochemical P C life support technologies are all important parts to establish a human Closed Ecological Life Support System CELSS for long-duration mission The latter has the advantages of lower power consumption lower mass and higher efficiency therefore researchers often incorporate the use of biological systems with P C life support technologies to continuously recycle air water and part of the solid waste stream generated such as the Russian BLSS and the NASA-sponsored Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP In short these tests were very successful in integrating biological and P C life support technologies for long-duration life support Therefore we should use a combination of integrated biological with P C life support technologies in a human CELSS Human construction materials plants animals and soils release much trace toxic gases in a CELSS and they will inhibit plant growth and badly affect human health when their concentrations rise over their threshold levels The effect of biological trace contaminant control technologies is slower especially for a human sealed chamber because human produce much more methane and other contaminants A regenerative Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem TCCS with P C technology is a more important part in this case to control quickly the airborne contaminants levels and assure human in good condition in a sealed chamber This paper describes a trace contaminant control test facility incorporated a 8 m3 sealed environment chamber a regenerative TCCS with P C

  14. Occurrence of Trace and Toxic metals in River Narmada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality has become a serious problem in developing countries. Almost 70% of Indian’s surface water resources have become contaminated due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The results reveals that out of nine water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 5 water quality stations (Amarkantak, Dindori, Manot, Barmanghat and Handia are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes in respect to trace & toxic metals. While Sandia, Hoshangabad, Mandleshwar and Garudeshwar stations were beyond the permissible limit due to presence of chromium, copper and iron metals. The major source of pollution to the Narmada river is the anthropogenic municipal solid waste and sewage from nearby towns/habitations, agricultural runoff and native soil erosion. The quality of the Narmada River is degraded due to the municipal and industrial discharges from the catchment.

  15. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  16. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  17. Limitation of productivity by trace metals in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.M.M.; Price, N.M.; Hudson, R.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Some trace metals such as Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn are essential for the growth of phytoplankton. The concentrations of these essential trace elements in seawater are so low as to limit their availability to aquatic microbiota. Trace element uptake is ultimately limited by kinetics of reaction with transport ligands or by diffusion to the cell. From what the authors know of the characteristics of the uptake systems of phytoplankton and their trace metal requirements they can estimate that Fe and Zn may at some times in some place limit phytoplankton productivity, which is in accord with available field data on trace metal enrichments

  18. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  19. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Bonten, Luc T C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-12-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still limited. Here, a field-contaminated paddy soil was subjected to two flooding and drainage cycles in a pot experiment with two rice plant cultivars, exhibiting either high or low Cd accumulation characteristics. Flooding led to a strong vertical gradient in the redox potential (Eh). The pH and Mn, Fe, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased with decreasing Eh and vice versa. During flooding, trace metal solubility decreased markedly, probably due to sulfide mineral precipitation. Despite its low solubility, the Cd content in rice grains exceeded the food quality standards for both cultivars. Trace metal contents in different rice plant tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) increased at a constant rate during the first flooding and drainage cycle but decreased after reaching a maximum during the second cycle. As such, the high temporal variability in trace metal solubility was not reflected in trace metal uptake by rice plants over time. This might be due to the presence of aerobic conditions and a consequent higher trace metal solubility near the root surface, even during flooding. Trace metal solubility in the rhizosphere should be considered when linking water management to trace metal uptake by rice over time.

  1. Particulate trace metals in Cochin backwaters: Distribution of seasonal indices

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.

    that surface distribution pattern of the trace metal concentration of cobalt, nickel and iron was almost similar at the four stations thereby stressing the fact that seasonal fluctuations contributed a major part in the surface distribution of these metals...

  2. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  3. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  4. NSF-RANN Trace Contaminants Program directory. [Personnel directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, P.A.; Smith, S.K.; Wilkes, C.F.

    1976-10-01

    This directory is designed to aid effective communication throughout the National Science Foundation's Trace Contaminants Program, Research Applied to National Needs. The majority of the participants in the Program are represented by name, address, telephone number, and a very brief description of research interest. The directory has five major divisions to facilitate its use. Section I contains a listing of the program managers associated with the NSF-RANN Trace Contaminants Program. Section II lists the principal investigators, co-principal investigators, and coordinators of each of the research grants in the Program. Section III lists the personnel by individual projects. Section IV contains a total alphabetic listing complete with project titles and Section V contains a keyword index. This directory is maintained by the Toxic Materials Information Center as part of the Environmental Resource Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Metals in environmental media: A study of trace and platinum group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed study has been conducted to determine the contamination of Thohoyandou roadside soils, vegetation, sewage and river waters by Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Fe, Pt and Pd. The study further investigated the correlation between these trace metals in roadside soils and vegetation in order to infer the potential impacts of ...

  6. 40 CFR 227.6 - Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trace contaminants. 227.6 Section 227.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.6 Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants. (a) Subject to the..., of materials containing the following constituents as other than trace contaminants will not be...

  7. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  8. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  9. Contaminated metallic melt volume reduction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale metallic melts (stainless steel) were accomplished in support of Decontamination and Decommissioning's (D and D) contaminated equipment volume reduction and Low-Level Lead Site Waste programs. Six laboratory scale melts made with contaminated stainless steel provided data that radionuclide distribution can be predicted when proper temperature rates and ranges are employed, and that major decontamination occurs with the use of designed slagging materials. Stainless steel bars were contaminated with plutonium, cobalt, cesium and europium. This study was limited to stainless steel, however, further study is desirable to establish data for other metals and alloys. This study represents a positive beginning in defining the feasibility of economical volume reduction or conversion from TRU waste forms to LLW forms for a large portion of approximately 50 thousand tons of contaminated metal waste now being stored at Hanford underground or in deactivated facilities

  10. Decontamination method for radiation contaminated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Hosaka, Katsumi; Sakai, Hitoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An organic acid solution is used as a decontamination liquid, and base materials of radiation contaminated metals are dissolved in the solution. The concentration of the organic acid is measured, and the organic acid is supplied by an amount corresponding to the lowering of the concentration. The decontamination liquid wastes generated during the decontamination step are decomposed, and metals leached in the organic acid solution are separated. With such procedures, contamination intruded into the inside of the mother materials of the metals can be removed, and radioactivity of the contaminated metals such as stainless steels and carbon steels can be eliminated, or the radiation level thereof can be reduced. In addition, the amount of secondary wastes generated along with the decontamination can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  11. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP's off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described

  12. Analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes belonging to four different countries. In the present research seven trace elements have been determined spectrophotometrically by the use of suitable analytical reagent of the respective metal ions. The metals which has been analysed quantitatively in forty one brand of cigarettes are aluminium, copper, chromium, nickel, iron titanium and zinc. The concentration per cigarette of these metals are in tolerable range. The concentration of above mentioned metal ions is highest in Pakistani cigarettes tobacco while the concentration of nickel is highest in American cigarettes. (author) 221 refs

  13. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    similar manner, increasing in concentration with injection but continually decreasing after about 830 hours until termination of the experiment. SEM images and geochemical models indicate initial dissolution of all rocks and minerals, re-precipitation of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates and Fe-sulfides, and precipitation of anhydrite in both systems. Calcite dissolves more readily than dolomite in these experiments, but re-precipitates in veins on dolomite. If brines leak from a storage reservoir and mix with a potable aquifer, the experimental results suggest that Ba, Cu, and Zn will not be contaminants of concern. Pb, Fe and As (still under consideration) initially exceed the EPA threshold and may require careful attention in a sequestration scenario. However, experimentally observed trends of decreasing trace metal concentration suggest that these metals could become less of a concern during the life of a carbon repository. Finally, the caprock plays an active role in trace metal mobilization in the system. The caprock provides a source of metals, although subsequent precipitation may remove metals from solution.

  14. Trace contaminant control simulation computer program, version 8.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control Simulation computer program is a tool for assessing the performance of various process technologies for removing trace chemical contamination from a spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Included in the simulation are chemical and physical adsorption by activated charcoal, chemical adsorption by lithium hydroxide, absorption by humidity condensate, and low- and high-temperature catalytic oxidation. Means are provided for simulating regenerable as well as nonregenerable systems. The program provides an overall mass balance of chemical contaminants in a spacecraft cabin given specified generation rates. Removal rates are based on device flow rates specified by the user and calculated removal efficiencies based on cabin concentration and removal technology experimental data. Versions 1.0 through 8.0 are documented in NASA TM-108409. TM-108409 also contains a source file listing for version 8.0. Changes to version 8.0 are documented in this technical memorandum and a source file listing for the modified version, version 8.1, is provided. Detailed descriptions for the computer program subprograms are extracted from TM-108409 and modified as necessary to reflect version 8.1. Version 8.1 supersedes version 8.0. Information on a separate user's guide is available from the author.

  15. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  16. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  17. Trace Metal Concentrations in Commercially Important Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Some trace metals such as zinc and copper are important in small quantities for ...... Cameroon: Institut de recherches meddicales et d'etudes des plantes edicinales, ... Determination of Total Cadmium, Zinc, Lead, Copper in Selected Marine ...

  18. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza

    2016-01-15

    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace Metals And Organic Matter Diagenesis At The Oman Margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Trace Metals (e.g. Mn and Fe) play an important role as secondary oxidants in the degradation of sedimentary OM under sub-oxic conditions. Hence the remineralisation of organic constituents of sediments in the marine environment may significantly...

  20. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  1. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  2. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references

  3. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  4. Transboundary Movement of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizamska, M., E-mail: m.nimzamska@bnra.bg [Emergency Planning and Preparedness Division, Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-15

    Starting in 1989, Bulgaria has undergone a comprehensive transformation of its economy and social conditions. Part of this process is related to the intensive privatization that started in 2001. This privatization included facilities, as well as sites that use radioactive material for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, science, etc. The rapid change of property ownership and, in some cases, the resulting bankruptcy, has caused difficulties in tracing and identifying radioactive sources and materials and a deterioration of the system of safety, physical protection, etc. of radioactive material. In some cases, radioactive sources were stolen because of the value of their protective containers and sold for scrap metal. This led to the occurrence of different types of radiation incidents, mainly related to the discovery of radioactive sources in scrap metal. The consequences of these incidents include the risk of radiation exposure of the workers at scrap metal yards or reprocessing facilities and of members of the public and, in addition, radioactive contamination of the environment. The Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BNRA) has been responding to these incidents and has carried out a series of measures to improve the control over materials (e.g. activated or surface contaminated materials) and radioactive sources and to strengthen the preventive, monitoring, emergency preparedness and mitigating measures at facility, national and transboundary levels. This paper presents an analysis of the lessons learned by the BNRA and of the control of the transboundary movement of radioactively contaminated scrap metal through the territory of Bulgaria. (author)

  5. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  6. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  7. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, Yu S [ed.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods.

  8. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  9. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  10. Trace metal physiology in normal and pathological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the ionic tumour seeking radiopharmaceuticals consist of a metal ion combined with an anion. The choice of metal depends on the existence of radionuclides with suitable radiological properties, and on their availability. Because several of the metal complexes used in nuclear medicine are of rather recent interest, information about their metabolism is scarce. Although nuclear medicine is limited to those metals which radiochemists can produce, we can manipulate the chemical form in which the metals are introduced into the organism to some extent. The relation between chemical form and biological pathway, e.g., the extent of accumulation in certain tissues, is subject of study related to trace metal physiology. It is the purpose of this paper to try and bridge the gap between nuclear medicine and trace metal physiology by showing the progress made by the latter in the study of the metabolism of copper and zinc. Few trace metals have been studied as thoroughly as these, although iron could have been chosen just as well. This presentation is limited to a study of the fate of a metal derivative after its intravenous injection. Where possible the results obtained are related to the behaviour of metals presently of interest to nuclear medicine. (Auth.)

  11. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  12. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  13. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  14. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  15. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  16. Trace Metals in Mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    A coastal survey in the northwestern Mediterranean region was initiated to measure existing levels of selected trace metals in mussels. For most metals the highest values were found in samples from port cities and areas in the vicinity of river discharge. Marked seasonal variation for many metals was evident; an overall increase in metal concentration in mussels from most stations during March 1974 was attributed to high precipitation and attendant run-off rather than to local pollution. Data comparison indicates that average metal levels in northwestern Mediterranean mussels do not differ markedly from those measured in similar species from different localities throughout the world. (author)

  17. Rapid diffusion of molybdenum trace contamination in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.P.; Greenwald, A.C.; Wolfson, R.G.; Meier, D.L.; Drevinsky, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Molybdenum contamination has been detected in silicon epitaxial layers and substrate wafers after processing in any one of several epitaxial silicon reactors. Greatly reduced minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes are consistent with Mo concentrations measured by DLTS in the 10 12 and 10 13 cm -3 ranges. Depth profiling of diffusion length and the Mo deep level show much greater penetration than expected from previous reports of Mo as a slow diffuser. The data indicate a lower limit of 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for the diffusion coefficient of Mo in silicon at 1200 0 C, consistent with high diffusivities measured for other transition metals

  18. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  19. The use of transgenic plants in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, U. [Max Planck Inst. of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam (Germany); Chardonnens, A.N. [Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld Univ. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The use of plants to clean-up soils contaminated with trace elements could provide a cheap and sustainable technology for bioremediation. Field trials suggested that the rate of contaminant removal using conventional plants and growth conditions is insufficient. The introduction of novel traits into high biomass plants in a transgenic approach is a promising strategy for the development of effective phytoremediation technologies. This has been exemplified by generating plants able to convert organic and ionic forms of mercury into the less toxic, volatile, elemental mercury, a trait that occurs naturally only in some bacteria and not at all in plants. The engineering of a phytoremediator plant requires the optimization of a number of processes, including trace element mobilization in the soil, uptake into the root, detoxification and allocation within the plant. A number of transgenic plants have been generated in an attempt to modify the tolerance, uptake or homeostasis of trace elements. The phenotypes of these plants provide important insights for the improvement of engineering strategies. A better understanding, both of micronutrient acquisition and homeostasis, and of the genetic, biochemical and physiological basis of metal hyperaccumulation in plants, will be of key importance for the success of phytoremediation. (orig.)

  20. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  2. Estuaries as Filters: The Role of Tidal Marshes in Trace Metal Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuchies, Johannes; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Carpentier, Roos; Bervoets, Lieven; Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen; Maris, Tom; Cox, Tom J. S.; Van Braeckel, Alexander; Meire, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary. PMID:23950927

  3. Estuaries as filters: the role of tidal marshes in trace metal removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Teuchies

    Full Text Available Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary.

  4. Influence of Protozoan Grazing on the Marine Geochemistry of Particle Reactive Trace Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbeau, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    .... Principle findings included mobilization of extracellular as well as intracellular trace metals by protists, apparent generation of metal-organic complexes, and decoupling of metal and carbon cycling...

  5. Trace metals in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the Viburnum Trend resource mining District of Missouri--implementation of a direct-suspension sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C; Wronkiewicz, David J; Pavlowsky, Robert T; Shi, Honglan

    2013-09-01

    Fugitive dust from 18 unsurfaced roadways in Missouri were sampled using a novel cyclonic fugitive dust collector that was designed to obtain suspended bulk samples for analysis. The samples were analyzed for trace metals, Fe and Al, particle sizes, and mineralogy to characterize the similarities and differences between roadways. Thirteen roads were located in the Viburnum Trend (VT) mining district, where there has been a history of contaminant metal loading of local soils; while the remaining five roads were located southwest of the VT district in a similar rural setting, but without any mining or industrial process that might contribute to trace metal enrichment. Comparison of these two groups shows that trace metal concentration is higher for dusts collected in the VT district. Lead is the dominant trace metal found in VT district dusts representing on average 79% of the total trace metal concentration, and was found moderately to strongly enriched relative to unsurfaced roads in the non-VT area. Fugitive road dust concentrations calculated for the VT area substantially exceed the 2008 Federal ambient air standard of 0.15μgm(-3) for Pb. The pattern of trace metal contamination in fugitive dust from VT district roads is similar to trace metal concentrations patterns observed for soils measured more than 40years ago indicating that Pb contamination in the region is persistent as a long-term soil contaminant. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Biogeochemical and hydrological controls on fate and distribution of trace metals in oiled Gulf salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevan, J.; Natter, M.; Lee, M.; Keimowitz, A.; Okeke, B.; Savrda, C.; Saunders, J.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the release of approximately 5 million barrels of crude oil into the environment. Oil and its associated trace metals have been demonstrated to have a detrimental effect on coastal wetland ecosystems. Wetlands are particularly susceptible to oil contamination because they are composed largely of fine-grained sediments, which have a high capacity to adsorb organic matter and metals. The biogeochemical cycling of trace metals can be strongly influenced by microbial activity, specifically those of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria. Microbial activity may be enhanced by an increase in amounts of organic matter such as oil. This research incorporates an assessment of levels of trace metals and associated biogeochemical changes from ten coastal marshes in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. These sampling sites range in their pollution levels from pristine to highly contaminated. A total digestion analysis of wetland sediments shows higher concentrations of certain trace metals (e.g., Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr, Co, V, Ba, Hg, As) in heavily-oiled areas compared to less-affected and pristine sites. Due to chemical complexation among organic compounds and metals, crude oils often contain elevated levels (up to hundreds of mg/kg) of trace metals At the heavily-oiled Louisiana sites (e.g., Bay Jimmy, Bayou Dulac, Bay Batiste), elevated levels of metals and total organic carbon have been found in sediments down to depths of 30 cm. Clearly the contamination is not limited to shallow sediments and oil, along with various associated metals, may be invading into deeper (pre-industrial) portions of the marsh sediments. Pore-waters extracted from contaminated sediments are characterized by very high levels of reduced sulfur (up to 80 mg/kg), in contrast to fairly low ferrous iron concentrations (<0.02 mg/kg). The influx of oil into the wetlands might provide the initial substrate and

  7. Trace metals in urban road dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, Loredana Antonella; Dongarra, Gaetano; Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals associated with urban road dust is a matter for concern as they may have serious effects on biological systems. The bioavailability and potential toxicity of metals bound to urban dust is related to the specific chemical form of the element. In the present article are reported the determinations and chemical speciation of As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in six samples of road dust collected within the urban centre and the outskirts of Palermo [it

  8. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVA) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. Measurement of oxygen purity above 99.5% is problematic, and currently only complex instruments such as gas chromatographs or mass spectrometers are used for these determinations. Because liquid oxygen boil-off from the space shuttle will no longer be available to supply oxygen for EVA use, other concepts are being developed to produce and validate high purity oxygen from cabin air aboard the International Space Station. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen was developed at White Sands Test Facility. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. System design and optimized measurement parameters are presented.

  9. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of trace metals in vitiligo by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, Abdel-Aziz M.; Amin, N.E.; Mohy El-Din, Safaa M.

    1985-01-01

    Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Co, Ag, Ca, and Mg were estimated in hair, fingernails and epidermis of vitiligo patients by atomic absorption spectroscopy. There has been a significant reduction in the concentration of trace metals in the studied sites. It seems that any speculation on the role of trace elements in vitiligo would have to take into account the structural defect which underlies the absence of melanin

  11. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  12. New method for mass spectrometric trace analysis of metals in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.; Bahr, U.; Palavinskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A first survey on the basic aspects and applications of a novel method for trace analyses of metals is given. The advantages of this methodology for analyses of trace metals which was developed by our group are: small sample amount, high sensitivity and selectivity, simple sample preparation for the measurement (no ashing) and reliability and precision of the results. The time consumption for one complete quantitative analysis lies below 30 min. The concentration of monoisotopic metals, as for example aluminium, cesium, manganese etc. is determined using a calibration curve. Using stable isotope dilution analysis quantification of metals with at least two stable isotopes further improved the precision of the results. If this technique is utilized, on one hand contamination of the environment by radioactive substances is avoided, on the other even the smallest changes in concentrations of trace metals are detected unambigeously. The accuracy of the resulting quantitative data has been confirmed test measurements with other analytical methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Although there is no doubt that the greatest analytical capacity of field desorption mass spectrometry is in the field of high-molecular weight natural products, it has been possible in the last years to modify the method for qualitative and quantitative investigations of more than 60 metals. (orig./EF) [de

  13. Trace metal removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry organized the symposium, held at the University of Warwick, that gave rise to the 12 typescript papers in this softbound volume. Both biological and chemical methods of recovering or removing metals from water are discussed, and two papers are concerned solely with analysis. Not indexed.

  14. Assessment of a mussel as a metal bioindicator of coastal contamination: Relationships between metal bioaccumulation and multiple biomarker responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D.; Glover, Chris N.; Gaw, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to use a multiple biomarker approach on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus to test its feasibility as a bioindicator of coastal metal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels were collected from six low intertidal sites varying in terms of anthropogenic impacts, within two regions (West Coast and Nelson) of the South Island of NZ. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle, and in the surface sediments from where mussels were collected. Metal levels in the sediment were relatively low and there was only one site (Mapua, Nelson) where a metal (Ni) exceeded the Australian and New Zealand Interim Sediment Quality Guideline values. Metal levels in the digestive gland were generally higher than those from the other tissues. A variety of biomarkers were assessed to ascertain mussel health. Clearance rate, a physiological endpoint, correlated with metal level in the tissues, and along with scope for growth, was reduced in the most contaminated site. Metallothionein-like protein content and catalase activity in the digestive gland, and catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the gill, were also correlated to metal accumulation. Although there were few regional differences, the sampling sites were clearly distinguishable based on the metal contamination profiles and biomarker responses. P. canaliculus appears to be a useful bioindicator species for coastal habitats subject to metal contamination. In this study tissue and whole organism responses provided insight into the biological stress responses of mussels to metal contaminants, indicating that such measurements could be a useful addition to biomonitoring programmes in NZ. - Highlights: • Multiple biomarker responses were measured in mussels from 6 sites. • Metal content of mussel tissues correlated with specific biomarker responses. • Clearance rate

  15. Assessment of a mussel as a metal bioindicator of coastal contamination: Relationships between metal bioaccumulation and multiple biomarker responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-01

    This is the first study to use a multiple biomarker approach on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus to test its feasibility as a bioindicator of coastal metal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels were collected from six low intertidal sites varying in terms of anthropogenic impacts, within two regions (West Coast and Nelson) of the South Island of NZ. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle, and in the surface sediments from where mussels were collected. Metal levels in the sediment were relatively low and there was only one site (Mapua, Nelson) where a metal (Ni) exceeded the Australian and New Zealand Interim Sediment Quality Guideline values. Metal levels in the digestive gland were generally higher than those from the other tissues. A variety of biomarkers were assessed to ascertain mussel health. Clearance rate, a physiological endpoint, correlated with metal level in the tissues, and along with scope for growth, was reduced in the most contaminated site. Metallothionein-like protein content and catalase activity in the digestive gland, and catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the gill, were also correlated to metal accumulation. Although there were few regional differences, the sampling sites were clearly distinguishable based on the metal contamination profiles and biomarker responses. P. canaliculus appears to be a useful bioindicator species for coastal habitats subject to metal contamination. In this study tissue and whole organism responses provided insight into the biological stress responses of mussels to metal contaminants, indicating that such measurements could be a useful addition to biomonitoring programmes in NZ. - Highlights: • Multiple biomarker responses were measured in mussels from 6 sites. • Metal content of mussel tissues correlated with specific biomarker responses. • Clearance rate

  16. Seasonal comparison of trace metal residues in white-footed mice and soil from colliery stripmines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausbeck, J.S.; Husby, M.P.; McBee, K.

    1994-01-01

    Mine tailings of abandoned coal stripmines in Oklahoma and other regions of the US have been shown to contain slightly elevated levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Metalliferous stripmine spoil has been found to contain much higher levels of Cu and Zn than colliery stripmines, and many other trace metals including cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) among others. Although levels of trace metal contamination were lower for coal stripmines, research has shown small mammals exposed to low levels of trace metals may bioaccumulate trace metals. This study intended to determine the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in liver, kidney, and bone tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and examine the variance of these levels among sites and seasons. Preliminary results of soil analysis have indicated that mice collected from stripmine sites were exposed to slightly elevated levels of Zn and Cd in stripmine spoil collected from Okmulgee Co., OK. Kidney and liver tissues from mice collected at stripmine sites within this county have shown significantly greater levels of Cd and Zn than tissues collected from reference mice. Significant seasonal variation in renal and hepatic Zn concentrations was observed and possibly was related to a change in diet or reproductive activity

  17. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  18. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl 2 -soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. → Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. → Modelling with dilute CaCl 2 extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl 2 extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  19. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl{sub 2}-soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. Modelling with dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Amanullah; Wang, Ping; Ali, Amjad; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Wang, Quan; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-04-01

    Mining operations, industrial production and domestic and agricultural use of metal and metal containing compound have resulted in the release of toxic metals into the environment. Metal pollution has serious implications for the human health and the environment. Few heavy metals are toxic and lethal in trace concentrations and can be teratogenic, mutagenic, endocrine disruptors while others can cause behavioral and neurological disorders among infants and children. Therefore, remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil could be the only effective option to reduce the negative effects on ecosystem health. Thus, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to review the current status, challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation for remediating heavy metals from contaminated soils. The prime focus is given to phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most promising and alternative methods for soil reclamation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  2. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  3. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M. [Molten Metal Technology, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  4. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT's proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE's inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE's inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of DOE sites

  5. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High-Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen has been developed. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced-pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete, and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants, and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. A glow discharge is a plasma formed in a low-pressure (1 to 10 Torr) gas cell between two electrodes. Depending on the configuration, voltages ranging from 200 V and above are required to sustain the discharge. In the discharge region, the gas is ionized and a certain population is in the excited state. Light is produced by the transitions from the excited states formed in the plasma to the ground state. The spectrum consists of discrete, narrow emission lines for the atomic species, and broader peaks that may appear as a manifold for molecular species such as O2 and N2, the wavelengths and intensities of which are a characteristic of each atom. The oxygen emission is dominated by two peaks at 777 and 844 nm.

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  7. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, A.; Dawson, K.; Sassiat, N.; Quinn, A. J.; O'Riordan, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H2SO4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  8. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O'Riordan, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu 2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu 2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  9. Fate of alkali and trace metals in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, K.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of alkali metals (Na, K) and eleven toxic trace elements (Hg, Cd, Be, Se, Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni) in biomass gasification have been extensively investigated in Finland in the past ten years. The former due to the gas turbine requirements and the latter to comply with environmental regulations. In this paper the results of several experimental studies to measure Na and K in the vapor phase after the gas cooler of a simplified (air-blown) Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) system are reported. Also, trace element emissions from an IGCC plant using alfalfa as the feedstock are discussed and the concentration of a few toxic trace metals in the vapor phase in the gasifier product gas are reported. (author)

  10. Trace Metals and Mineral Composition of Harmattan Dust Haze in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... ABSTRACT: Trace metals and mineralogical composition of harmattan dust haze was carried out on samples collected at Ilorin (80 32'N, ... Sahara desert which transports the dust by wind. Junge (1979) reported that on the .... Schwela et al 2002, it was observed that road transport emission sources ...

  11. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. Introduction. Ankobra basin is one of the main mining areas in Ghana. The major minerals mined in this area include gold, manganese, bauxite and diamond. Gold mining in this basin dates about 500 ...

  12. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  13. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  14. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  15. An appraisal of physicochemical parameters and some trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluent samples collected from the disposal point of five different companies in Trans-Amadi industrial area of Port Harcourt were analyzed to investigate effect on the environment. The analyzed effluent samples showed results of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals in the ranges : (pH 3.60 - 6.90), ...

  16. 12 Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Water samples, bottom sediments, Tilapia, and Cat Fish from Okumeshi River in Delta state of Nigeria were analysed ... Keywords: Trace metals, Fish Tissues, Water, Bottom sediments, Okumeshi River. Introduction ..... Grey Mangroove Avicemmia marina (Forsk). ... sewage treatment plant oulet pipe extension on.

  17. Trace metals and vitamin levels in Nigerian patients with sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of the higher levels of magnesium in the patients is unclear and needs further investigation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this observation. Keywords: ataxia, trace metals, vitamins, Nigerians Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 4(2) 2005: 156–160 ...

  18. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, L.; Klimenko, N.; Rätsep, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 13 (2017), s. 4520-4525 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : white wine * Chardonnay * Vitis * Ukraine * vineyard * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  19. enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twelve (12) elements (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Sr, and Zr ) were detected in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) ..... Ni and V didn't show spatial variation (p>0.05). For K, ..... K.A. Wet deposition of trace metals to a remote.

  20. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Anthropometric characteristics, total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), Vit. E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and trace metals (Se, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) were determined in 40 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ...

  1. Resolving and modelling trace metal partitioning in a freshwater sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.; Boyer, P.; Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace metals in sediments pose toxicological risks to biota and may impair water quality. the sediment-water interface is the site where gradients in physical, chemical and biological properties are the greatest. Both chemical and microbiological transformation processes are responsible for cycling elements between water and sediments. (Author)

  2. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in newly diagnosed hypertensives (NDH) A total of 50 NDH subjects (24 males and 26 females) attending Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo ...

  3. Spectrochemical determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Carmi, U.; Harrel, A.

    1978-02-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed for the determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite by DC arc excitation. The investigated sample is brought to a standard form of potassium-magnesium sulphate mixed with graphite. Detection limits of 1-10 ppm were determined for 27 elements; the dynamical detection range is 1-400 ppm

  4. Bioavailability of metals-trace in sediments: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rafaela E. de A.V.; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Lima, Vanessa Lemos de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao

    2014-01-01

    The chemical association of metals in sediments provides an indication of its release by physical, chemical and biological processes, with toxic effects under certain environmental conditions. Knowing about their chemical bonds in sediments, can recognize specific sources of pollution, and speciation of trace metals is important for bioavailability and toxicity to animals and plants. The accumulation of these particles in the sediment occur by the following mechanisms: a) adsorption to the finest particles; b) precipitating of the element in the form of compounds; c) co-precipitating of the element with iron and manganese oxides; d) complexation with organic matter; e) incorporation into the crystal lattice of minerals. Currently, five phases are considered when studying the bioavailability of trace elements in sediments: a) the exchangeable phase, MgCl 2 (causes saltiness change); b) leachable phase, (acetic acid causes pH change); c) reducible phase (hydroxylamine hydrochloride causes release of the bound metals linked to Fe and Mn oxides); d) oxidized phase, the peroxide hydrogen (cause the degradation of organic matter); e) the residual pseudo-phase, the aqua regia (cause release of metals associated to minerals). The first three phases are considered the most bioavailable. In the last two fractions, the metals are linked to sediment constituents and not bioavailable. The organic phase is relatively stable and the metal present therein are removed under oxidative conditions. Metals present in the pseudo-phase residual measure the degree of environmental pollution, since great amount of metals at this stage indicates a lower degree of pollution

  5. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S. [INRA, UR 1119 Géochimie des Sols et des Eaux, F-13100 Aix en Provence (France); Pichat, S. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon (LGL-TPE), Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5276, 69007 Lyon (France)

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ{sup 65}Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ{sup 66}Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ{sup 65}Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ{sup 66}Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing

  6. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S.; Pichat, S.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ 65 Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ 66 Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ 65 Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ 66 Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing of the metal

  7. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  8. On nutrients and trace metals: Effects from Enhanced Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, T.; Hartmann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The application of rock flour on suitable land ("Enhanced Weathering") is one proposed strategy to reduce the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. At the same time it is an old and established method to add fertiliser and influence soil properties. Investigations of this method focused on the impact on the carbonate system, as well as on engineering aspects of a large-scale application, but potential side effects were never discussed quantitatively. We analysed about 120,000 geochemically characterised volcanic rock samples from the literature. Applying basic statistics, theoretical release rates of nutrients and potential contaminants by Enhanced Weathering were evaluated for typical rock types. Applied rock material can contain significant amounts of essential or beneficial nutrients (potassium, phosphorus, micronutrients). Their release can partly cover the demand of major crops like wheat, rice or corn, thereby increasing crop yield on degraded soils. However, the concentrations of considered elements are variable within a specific rock type, depending on the geological setting. High heavy metal concentrations are found in (ultra-) basic rocks, the class with the highest CO2 drawdown potential. More acidic rocks contain less or no critical amounts, but sequester less CO2. Findings show that the rock selection determines the capability to supply significant amounts of nutrients, which could partly substitute industrial mineral fertiliser usage. At the same time, the release of harmful trace element has to be considered. Through careful selection of regionally available rocks, benefits could be maximised and drawbacks reduced. The deployment of Enhanced Weathering to sequester CO2 and to ameliorate soils necessitates an ecosystem management, considering the release and fate of weathered elements in plants, soils and water. Cropland with degraded soils would benefit while having a net negative CO2 effect, while other carbon dioxide removal strategies, like

  9. Influence of dams on sediment continuity: A study case of a natural metallic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémion, Franck; Bordas, François; Mourier, Brice; Lenain, Jean-François; Kestens, Tim; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra

    2016-03-15

    Sediments play an important role on the quality of aquatic ecosystems, notably in the reservoir areas where they can either be a sink or a source of contaminants, depending on the management and hydrological conditions. The physicochemical properties of 25 surface sediments samples of a reservoir catchment (Vaussaire, Cantal, France) were studied. Results show a strong influence of dam presence, notably on the grain size and organic matter (OM) contents. The concentrations of trace metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were also measured and compared with worldwide reservoir concentrations and international sediment quality guideline levels in order to assess the intensity of the metallic contamination. Cr and Ni are the trace elements presenting the significantly highest values at the catchment scale. Enrichment Factors (EF), calculated using both local and national backgrounds, show that metals have mainly a natural origin, explaining especially the Cr and Ni values, linked with the composition of parental rocks. Unexpectedly, all the observed metal concentrations are lower in the reservoir than upstream and downstream, which might be related to the high fresh OM inputs in the reservoir, diluting the global metallic contamination. Multivariate statistical analyses, carried out in order to identify the relationship between the studied metals and sediment characteristics, tend to support this hypothesis, confirming the unusually low influence of such poorly-degraded OM on trace element accumulation in the reservoir. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  11. Source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments: A comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trace metal pollution in river sediment poses a significant threat to watershed ecosystem health. Identifying potential sources of sediment metals and apportioning their contributions are of key importance for proposing prevention and control strategies of river pollution. In this study, three advanced multivariate receptor models, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and multivariate curve resolution weighted-alternating least-squares (MCR-WALS), were comparatively employed for source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments and applied to the Le'an River, a main tributary of Poyang Lake which is the largest freshwater lake in China. The pollution assessment with contamination factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the river sediments in Le'an River were contaminated severely by trace metals due to human activities. With the three apportionment tools, similar source profiles of trace metals in sediments were extracted. Especially, the MCR-WALS and PMF models produced essentially the same results. Comparatively speaking, the weighted schemes might give better solutions than the unweighted FA-NNC because the uncertainty information of environmental data was considered by PMF and MCR-WALS. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned as the most important pollution sources influencing the sediment metals in Le'an River with contributions of about 90%. Among them, copper tailings occupied the largest contribution (38.4–42.2%), followed by mining wastewater (29.0–33.5%), and agricultural activities (18.2–18.7%). To protect the ecosystem of Le'an River and Poyang Lake, special attention should be paid to the discharges of mining wastewater and the leachates of copper tailing ponds in that region. - Highlights: • Three advanced receptor models were comparatively employed for source apportionment. • The MCR-WALS and PMF models produce essentially same source profiles. • Copper

  12. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Heavy metal, contamination, mining, soil, sediment. INTRODUCTION ... drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by mining activities and the ..... indicates that copper waste discharged into the upper reaches of the Kafue ...

  13. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H.; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. ► Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. ► Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. ► Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2–8.9 mg kg −1 ) than willow and poplar (5–80 mg kg −1 ), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300–6200 mg kg −1 ) and K (320–1250 mg kg −1 ), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  14. Macrobenthic community in the Douro estuary: relations with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, A.P.; Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D.; Bordalo, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study used a novel approach to detect a clear signature of metal contamination and biological impacts in an estuary. - The relationship between macrobenthic community structure and natural characteristics of sediment and trace metal contamination were studied in the lower Douro estuary (Portugal, NW, Iberian Peninsula), using an innovative threefold approach (SQG, Sediment Quality Guidelines), metal normalization to Fe, and macrobenthic community structure. This study allowed detection of a clear signature of anthropogenic contamination, in terms of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the north bank of the estuary, which experiences high urban pressure. Using the SQG approach, metal concentrations above ERM (effects range--median) were observed only at one sampling station, but several stations had levels above ERL (effects range-low). The macrobenthic community had a low diversity, with only 19 species found in the entire estuarine area, dominated by opportunistic species. The granulometric distribution of the sediments (estimated from the combination of organic matter, Fe and Al) seemed to be the major structuring factor for the communities, establishing the natural macrobenthic distribution pattern. The metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr) seemed to act as a disturbing factor over the natural distribution, with deleterious consequences for the macrobenthic communities

  15. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  16. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  17. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  18. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  19. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  20. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  2. Groundwater contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in an area of the Pampa, province of Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, H.B.; Suriano, J.M.; Gomez Peral, M.A.; Ferpozzi, L.H.; Baleani, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    A geochemical study of the groundwater of the pampa in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, is reported. Physical-chemical parameters, dissolved solids, and seven trace elements were determined in 60 selected water samples. Systematic and accurate measurements of arsenic, fluorine, and vanadium were performed for the first time. The geographic distribution of the seven trace elements was mapped and its correlation with the anion-cation composition of the water was studied. Eighty-four percent of the water analyzed showed arsenic contents over 0.05 mg/l. The maxima for arsenic, fluorine, vanadium, and uranium contents were found in the western part of the study area, in waters dominated by alkali metal cations. Maximum selenium and antimony contents were found in the eastern part of the areas, whereas molybdenum distribution showed no relationship to the other groups. The movements of the subsoil have disturbed surface and subsurface drainage, thus influencing the water salinity and trace element contents. To investigate the origin of contamination, 54 loess samples were collected at wells in depths ranging from the surface down to the water table. This loess, which has a high proportion of volcanic components, mainly rhyolitic glass, exhibits a chemical composition corresponding to that of a dacite. The loess and volcanic glass show anomalous contents of all contaminant trace elements, mainly arsenic and selenium. For this reason, loess is considered to be the most important source of contamination of this ground water area. 30 refs., 6 figs., 9 tab

  3. Predicting trace metal solubility and fractionation in Urban soils from isotopic exchangeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, L.C.; Young, S.D.; Tye, A.M.; Bailey, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Metal-salt amended soils (MA, n = 23), and historically-contaminated urban soils from two English cities (Urban, n = 50), were investigated to assess the effects of soil properties and contaminant source on metal lability and solubility. A stable isotope dilution method, with and without a resin purification step, was used to measure the lability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. For all five metals in MA soils, lability (%E-values) could be reasonably well predicted from soil pH value with a simple logistic equation. However, there was evidence of continuing time-dependent fixation of Cd and Zn in the MA soils, following more than a decade of storage under air-dried conditions, mainly in high pH soils. All five metals in MA soils remained much more labile than in Urban soils, strongly indicating an effect of contaminant source on metal lability in the latter. Metal solubility was predicted for both sets of soil by the geochemical speciation model WHAM-VII, using E-value as an input variable. For soils with low metal solution concentrations, over-estimation of Cd, Ni and Zn solubility was associated with binding to the Fe oxide fraction while accurate prediction of Cu solubility was dependent on humic acid content. Lead solubility was most poorly described, especially in the Urban soils. Generally, slightly poorer estimation of metal solubility was observed in Urban soils, possibly due to a greater incidence of high pH values. The use of isotopically exchangeable metal to predict solubility is appropriate both for historically contaminated soils and where amendment with soluble forms of metal is used, as in toxicological trials. However, the major limitation to predicting solubility may lie with the accuracy of model input variables such as humic acid and Fe oxide contents where there is often a reliance on relatively crude analytical estimations of these variables. Trace metal reactivity in urban soils depends on both soil properties and the original source material

  4. Novel, Vacuum-Regenerable Trace Contaminant Control System for Advanced Spacesuit Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a new material paradigm for the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) based upon its novel adsorbent nanomaterials that...

  5. A Nanoparticulate Photocatalytic Filter for Removal of Trace Contaminant Gases, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintaining a healthy atmosphere in closed life support systems is necessary for the well being of the crew and success of a space mission. Current trace contaminant...

  6. Novel, Vacuum-Regenerable Trace Contaminant Control System for Advanced Spacesuit Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trace contaminants that are introduced into the ventilation loop of a spacesuit (primarily ammonia and formaldehyde) via metabolic processes, off-gassing of...

  7. Next Generation Hybrid Photo-Catalytic Oxidation (PCO) for Trace Contaminant Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a primary candidate as an alternative to thermal-catalytic or sorbent- based technologies for VOC trace contaminant control due to...

  8. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  9. Assessment of trace metals pollution in estuarine sediments using SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the investigation of trace metals geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sergipe river estuary, northeast Brazil. Analyses were carried out by Flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS). Principal component analysis was applied to results to identify any groupings among the different sampling sites. In order to determine the extent of contamination, taking into account natural variability within the region, metal concentrations were normalized relative to aluminium. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn contamination was observed in sediments from the area receiving highest inputs of domestic wastes, while cadmium contamination occurred in sediments from the region affected by highest inflows of industrial effluents. Possible toxicity related to these metals was examined using the relationship simultaneously extracted metals/acid volatile sulfide and by comparing sediment chemical data with sediment quality guidelines ERL-ERM values. Results obtained using the two methods were in agreement and indicated that adverse effects on aquatic biota should rarely occur.

  10. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  11. Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Herting, Gunilla; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-01-01

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid-liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing 'dissolved' metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction. - Highlights: → Membrane filtration for trace metal analysis can introduce significant artifacts. → The dissolved metal fraction cannot be assessed by membrane filtration. → Non-specified filtration procedures are inadequate for scientific studies. → Artifacts caused by membrane filtration need to be addressed by regulators. - Membrane filtration cannot be used to assess the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media and needs to be defined in detail in standard tests.

  12. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Heavy metal contamination of selected spices obtained from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: In this study, the levels of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Mo, Pb,. Zn) in twenty ... can accumulate exceeding levels of toxic metals whose potential risk to human health should ..... toxicity of the metal (WHO, 1999b). In fact ...

  14. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiming; Qian, Xin, E-mail: xqian@nju.edu.cn; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yulei; Gao, Hailong

    2013-07-01

    The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied for partitioning and evaluating the mobility, availability and persistence of trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) in urban street dusts collected from different areas of Nanjing, China. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Sr (91.65%) > Pb (79.16%) > Zn (74.26%) > Cu (68.53%) > Co (45.98%) > Al (40.01%) ≈ V (38.45%) ≈ Ni (37.88%) > Cr (29.35%) > Cd (22.68%). Almost every trace metal had its highest total concentrations in the industrial area, except for Sr which had its highest concentration in the commercial area. Contamination factors (Cf), risk assessment code (RAC) and enrichment factor (Ef) were then calculated to further assess the environmental risk and provide a preliminary estimate of the main sources of trace metals in street dusts. Non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects due to exposure to urban street dusts were assessed for both children and adults. For non-carcinogenic effects, ingestion was the main route of exposure to street dusts for these metals, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1, and Pb exhibited the highest risk value (0.125) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for Cd, Co, Cr and Ni were all below the acceptable level (< 10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • This study assesses a comprehensive environmental risk of urban trace metal pollution. • This study evaluates human health risk combined with the speciation of trace metals. • This study points the critical contaminated metals that need to be paid special attention. • This study supplies useful information and reference on the application of BCR SPE method.

  16. Urban farming as a possible source of trace metals in human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olowoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have greatly increased the concentrations of trace metals as pollutants in the urban environment. These pollutants (trace metals are more likely to have an adverse effect on peri-urban agriculture which is now becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many urban cities in the world. This review reports on the concentrations of trace metals in crops, including leafy vegetables harvested from different urban areas, thus highlighting the presence of trace metals in leafy vegetables. Various pathways of uptake of trace metals by leafy vegetables, such as the foliar and roots, and possible health risks associated with urban faming are discussed and various morphological and physiological impacts of trace metals in leafy vegetables are described. Defensive mechanisms and positive aspects of trace metals in plants are also highlighted.

  17. Study of trace metals in evaporites of Sergipe, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals and others which form strong complexes must be present in the brine feed of electrolytic cells only at very low levels. Their occurrence in quantities above the established levels has a deleterious effect on the membranes of the cells and will produce interference on voltage, current efficiency and other factors. The waste resulting from decantation of the brine causes serious environmental problems. Thirty brine samples from different sites, provided by Petrobras Mineracao S.A. (Brazil) were studied. The sample preparation method and the analytical results obtained from semiquantitative determination of trace metals by optical emission spectrography are described. The toxicity of certain metals, their effects on the environment and on electrolytic cell membranes are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  19. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  20. Over one hundred years of trace metal fluxes in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, C.C.M.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Farmer, J.G.; Wai, O.W.H.; Li, Y.S.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid economic development in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China in the last three decades has had a significant impact on the local environment. Estuarine sediment is a major sink for contaminants and nutrients in the surrounding ecosystem. The accumulation of trace metals in sediments may cause serious environmental problems in the aquatic system. Thirty sediment cores were collected in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in 2000 for a study on trace metal pollution in this region. Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in the four 210 Pb-dated sediment cores were determined to assess the fluxes in metal deposits over the last one hundred years. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment layers were generally elevated when compared with the sub-surface layers. There has been a significant increase in inputs of Cu, Pb and Zn in the PRE since the 1970s. The results also showed that different sampling locations in the estuary received slightly different types of inputs. Pb isotopic composition data indicated that the increased Pb in the recent sediments was of anthropogenic origin. The results of trace metal influxes showed that about 30% of total Pb and 15% of total Zn in the sediments in the 1990s were from anthropogenic sources. The combination of trace metal analysis, Pb isotopic composition and 210 Pb dating in an estuary can provide vital information on the long-term accumulation of metals in sediments

  1. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  2. Method of melting decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the transfer efficiency of radioactive materials into slags. Method: Contaminated metals are melt with adding slagging agent in order to transfer the radioactive materials into the slag, where the slagging agent holds less free energy than that of metal oxides contaminated with radioactive materials in order to promote the transfer of the contaminated materials into the slag layer. This effect can also be attained on metals or alloys other than iron contaminated with radioactive materials. In the case of alloy, the slagging agent is to containing such metal oxide that free energy is less than that of the oxide of metal being the main ingredient element of the alloy. The decontamination effect can further be improved by containing halogenide such as calcium fluoride together with the metal oxide into the slagging agent. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Rafael, E-mail: rclemente@cebas.csic.e [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Hartley, William [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Riby, Philip [School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Lepp, Nicholas W. [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approx900, 200 and 500 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  4. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (∼900, 200 and 500 mg kg -1 , respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  5. Demonstration/Validation of a Surface Cleaning Control to Mitigate Storm Water Metal Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    added to a pre- weighed 125-ml low density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle. The particles were digested with 1.0 ml of concentrated trace metal grade (TMG...Sorenson. 2005. “ Residential Street-Dirt Accumulation Rates and Chemical Composition, and Removal Efficiencies by Mechanical- and Vacuum-Type...Bay, and M. Kayhanian. 2003. “A Review of the Contaminants and Toxicity Associated with Particles in Stormwater Runoff.” Caltrans CTSW-RT-03-059.73.15

  6. Demonstration/Validation of a Surface Cleaning Control Practice to Mitigate Storm Water Metal Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    added to a pre- weighed 125-ml low density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle. The particles were digested with 1.0 ml of concentrated trace metal grade (TMG...consideration to ensure completion of operations.   33 9. REFERENCES Breault, R. F., K. P. Smith, and J. R. Sorenson. 2005. “ Residential Street...of the Contaminants and Toxicity Associated with Particles in Stormwater Runoff.” Caltrans CTSW-RT-03-059.73.15. California Department of

  7. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail: f.melville@cqu.edu.au; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  8. Melting-decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Noboru; Iba, Hajime.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate uranium components remaining in metals even after the uranium-contaminated metals are melted. Method: Metal wastes contaminated with actinide element or its compound as nuclear fuel substance are melted in a crucible. Molten metals are fallen through a filter disposed at the bottom of the crucible into another receiving crucible. Uranium compounds are still left in the molten metal fallen in the receiving crucible. The residual uranium compounds are concentrated by utilizing the principle of the zone-refining process. That is, a displaceable local-heating heater is disposed to the receiving crucible, by which metals once solidified in the receiving crucible is again heated locally to transfer from solid to molten phase in a quasi-equibilized manner. In this way, by eliminating the end of the metal rod at which the uranium is segregated, the contaminating coefficient can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Phytoremediation trials on metal- and arsenic-contaminated pyrite wastes (Torviscosa, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamerali, Teofilo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: teofilo.vamerali@unipd.it; Bandiera, Marianna; Coletto, Lucia; Zanetti, Federica [Department of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Sciences, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Mosca, Giuliano [Department of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Sciences, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    At a site in Udine, Italy, a 0.7 m layer of As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn contaminated wastes derived from mineral roasting for sulphur extraction had been covered with an unpolluted 0.15 m layer of gravelly soil. This study investigates whether woody biomass phytoremediation is a realistic management option. Comparing ploughing and subsoiling (0.35 m depth), the growth of Populus and Salix and trace element uptake were investigated in both pot and field trials. Species differences were marginal and species selection was not critical. Impaired above-ground productivity and low translocation of trace elements showed that bioavailable contaminant stripping was not feasible. The most significant finding was of coarse and fine roots proliferation in surface layers that provided a significant sink for trace elements. We conclude that phytostabilisation and effective immobilisation of metals and As could be achieved at the site by soil amelioration combined with woody species establishment. Confidence to achieve a long-term and sustainable remediation requires a more complete quantification of root dynamics and a better understanding of rhizosphere processes. - In As- and metal-contaminated pyrite wastes, contaminant stripping is not feasible, and root foraging and quantification of root dynamics holds the key to stabilisation in woody species.

  10. Phytoremediation trials on metal- and arsenic-contaminated pyrite wastes (Torviscosa, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Coletto, Lucia; Zanetti, Federica; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Mosca, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    At a site in Udine, Italy, a 0.7 m layer of As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn contaminated wastes derived from mineral roasting for sulphur extraction had been covered with an unpolluted 0.15 m layer of gravelly soil. This study investigates whether woody biomass phytoremediation is a realistic management option. Comparing ploughing and subsoiling (0.35 m depth), the growth of Populus and Salix and trace element uptake were investigated in both pot and field trials. Species differences were marginal and species selection was not critical. Impaired above-ground productivity and low translocation of trace elements showed that bioavailable contaminant stripping was not feasible. The most significant finding was of coarse and fine roots proliferation in surface layers that provided a significant sink for trace elements. We conclude that phytostabilisation and effective immobilisation of metals and As could be achieved at the site by soil amelioration combined with woody species establishment. Confidence to achieve a long-term and sustainable remediation requires a more complete quantification of root dynamics and a better understanding of rhizosphere processes. - In As- and metal-contaminated pyrite wastes, contaminant stripping is not feasible, and root foraging and quantification of root dynamics holds the key to stabilisation in woody species

  11. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the ... Key words: Gold mining, tailings dam, trace elements, soil, Obuasi. INTRODUCTION ..... through soil might take considerably long time to manifest, probably ...

  12. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Bloody Cockle (Anadara senilis) from Ghana: Biokinetics and Human Bioaccessibility Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    A series of experimental studies has been carried out to study the kinetic of accumulation and human exposure to trace metals using the bloody cockle (Anadara senilis) as a model organism. This species is of ecological and economic importance in Ghana and other parts of Western Africa where they are commonly found. Trace metals mainly Mn, Co, Zn, Ag and Cd were studied using both laboratory mesocosm and field investigations. The laboratory experiments were carried out through the use of radiotracers: "5"4Mn, "5"7Co, "6"5Zn, "1"1"0"mAg and "1"0"9Cd, to study the kinetics of metal accumulation in the cockle through 2 different exposure pathways. The variability of metal bioaccumulation in the bloody cockle as a function of environmental and physiological conditions was also investigated. Metal subcellular fractionation, tissue distribution and simulating human digestion through the use of in vitro methodology were incorporated to understand the processes governing metal accumulation and human health risk assessment from the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Following a 2-hour single feeding and a 28-day depuration period, metals ingested with food (Isochrysis galbana or Skeletonema costatum) were moderate to highly assimilated in the cockle (11 to 72%), although, the degree of assimilation was dependant on the type of phytoplankton strain, the studied metals and the size of the cockle. Retention of assimilated metals was metal dependant being described as weak for Ag (T_b_1_/_2 of 2 to 6 days), moderate for Mn, Co and Zn (T_b_1_/_2 of 13 to 47 days) and strong for Cd (T_b_1_/_2 ≥ 97 days). Over a 28-day dissolved exposure period, bioconcentration kinetics of metals in two size classes of bloody cockles studied under different exposure conditions (high and low salinity) generally were best described by a saturation model assuming an apparent steady state concentration. The results showed strong variability on the kinetics of metal uptake among different size

  13. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  14. Interactive influences of bioactive trace metals on biological production in oceanic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Donat, J.R.; Hutchins, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the oceanic chemistries of the bioactive trace metals, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; the authors combine field data with results from laboratory phytoplankton culture-trace metal studies and speculate on the potential influences of these trace metals on oceanic plankton production and species composition. Most field studies have focused on the effects of single metals. However, they propose that synergistic and antagonistic interactions between multiple trace metals could be very important in the oceans. Trace metal antagonisms that may prove particularly important are those between Cu and the potential biolimiting metals Fe, Mn, and Zn. These antagonistic interactions could have the greatest influence on biological productivity in areas of the open ocean isolated from terrestrial inputs, such as the remote high nutrient regions of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. The emerging picture of trace metal-biota interactions in these oceanic areas is one in which biology strongly influences distribution and chemical speciation of all these bioactive trace metals. It also seems likely that many of these bioactive trace metals and their speciation may influence levels of primary productivity, species composition, and trophic structure. Future investigations should give more complete consideration to the interactive effects of biologically important trace metals

  15. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  16. History of metal contamination in Lake Illawarra, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Krikowa, Frank; Chariton, Anthony; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk; Gruber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Lake Illawarra has a long history of sediment contamination, particularly by metals, as a result of past and current industrial operations and land uses within the catchment. In this study, we examined the history of metal contamination in sediments using metal analysis and (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating. The distributions of copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and lead concentrations within sediment cores were in agreement with historical events in the lake, and indicated that metal contamination had been occurring since the start of industrial activities in Port Kembla in the late 1800 s. Most metal contamination, however, has occurred since the 1960s. Sedimentation rates were found to be 0.2 cm year(-1) in Griffins Bay and 0.3 cm year(-1) in the centre of the lake. Inputs from creeks bringing metals from Port Kembla in the northeast of the lake and a copper slag emplacement from a former copper refinery on the Windang Peninsula were the main sources of metal inputs to Lake Illawarra. The metals of highest concern were zinc and copper, which exceeded the Australian and New Zealand sediment quality guideline values at some sites. Results showed that while historical contamination persists, current management practices have resulted in reduced metal concentrations in surface sediments in the depositional zones in the centre of the lake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of trace metals by aquatic macrophytes and their possible use in phytoremediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hillermannová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed research was to obtain knowledge on the ability of aquatic plants naturally growing at a site to absorb trace metals contained in bottom sediments and surface water. Furthermore, we compared differences in the accumulation of trace metals by the individual groups of aquatic plants (submerged and emergent and assessed a possible use of the individual plant species in phytoremediation techniques. Representative samples of water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes were taken from three anthropogenically loaded streams in six monitoring cycles in several collection profiles differing in the distance from a source of contamination. The samples were analysed for the total content of selected trace metals (As, Cd, Pb, Al, Hg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Cu. For comparison, one profile at an unloaded site was sampled as well. The obtained results were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis of data. Increased contents of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Zn were detected in sediments and plant biomass at loaded sites, namely 2–3× higher than at the comparing site. The contents of metals in surface water samples were altogether below the detection limit of the analytical method. When evaluating the individual plant species, we can state that the lowest contents of metals were detected in shore species (reed canary grass Phalaroides arundinacea, wood club-rush Scirpus silvaticus and red dock Rumex aquaticus; plant species growing in the very water current (water star-wort Callitriche sp. and flote-grass Glyceria fluitans exhibited mean contents of metals. In species forming mats (Fontinalis antipyretica and Cladophora sp., these contents were several times higher as compared to the previous species. The results of the performed research show that one of important factors, which influence the accumulation of trace metals in plants, is their ecological group (emergent – submerged affiliation and the species classification within this group

  18. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  19. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2018-02-01

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo ) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  20. HAIR HEAVY METAL AND ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Kandelaki, E; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-11-01

    Our study aims evaluation of level of essential trace elements and heavy metals in the hair samples of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identification of changes that are associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Case-control study was conducted at Child Development Center of Iashvili Children's Central Hospital (LD).We studied 60 children aged from 4 to 5 years old. The concentrations of 28 elements among (Ca,Zn, K, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Mo, Sr, Ti, Ba, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Zr, Sn, Bi) them trace elements and toxic metals) were determined in scalp hair samples of children (n=30) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and from control group of healthy children (n=30) with matched sex and age. Micro-elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method (Method MBИ 081/12-4502-000, Apparatus ALVAX- CIP, USA - UKRAIN) .To achieve the similarity of study and control groups, pre and postnatal as well as family and social history were assessed and similar groups were selected. Children with genetic problems, malnourished children, children from families with social problems were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of ASD were performed by pediatrician and psychologist (using M-CHAT and ADOS) according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric association) criteria. The study was statistically analyzed using computer program SPSS 19. Deficiencies of essential trace microelements revealed in both group, but there was significant difference between control and studied groups. The most deficient element was zinc (92% in target and 20% in control), then - manganese (55% and 8%) and selenium (38% and 4%). In case of cooper study revealed excess concentration of this element only in target group in 50% of cases. The contaminations to heavy metals were detected in case of lead (78% and 16), mercury (43% and 10%) and cadmium (38% and 8%). The

  1. Trace metals in vegetables and fruits cultivated around the surroundings of Tummalapalle uranium mining site, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allabaksh Murad Basha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables (Tomato – Solanum lycopersicum, green chilli – Capsicum annum and bitter gourd – Momordica charantia and fruits (Banana – Musa acuminata colla, papaya – Carica papaya and mosambi – Citrus limetta from the cultivated areas around the Tummalapalle uranium mining site were analyzed for trace metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Be, V, Co, Cd and U using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. As per the estimated data, the concentrations of trace metals in vegetables and fruits are found in the range of 47.5–7.8 mg/kg for Al, 9.7–1.0 mg/kg for Cr, 3.8–1.0 mg/kg for Mn, 75.5–13.9 mg/kg for Fe, 1.4–0.2 mg/kg for Ni, 2.3–0.8 mg/kg for Cu, 9.2–3.1 mg/kg for Zn, 0.2–1.4 mg/kg for Pb, 19.2–1.9 μg/kg for Be, 96.1–15.8 μg/kg for V, 48.2–12.9 μg/kg for Co, 46.5–2.3 μg/kg for Cd and 16.4–2.7 μg/kg for U. The trace metals observed are compared to the literature reported values. Trace elemental data were subjected to statistical analysis to examine the interrelationship between the investigated trace elements and possible source identification of the trace metal contamination in vegetable and fruits. Daily intake of trace metals through ingestion of vegetables and fruits are also calculated.

  2. Assessing the bioavailability and risk from metal-contaminated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to contaminated soil and dust is an important pathway in human health risk assessment. Physical and chemical characteristics, as well as biological factors, determine the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants. Within a single sample, contamination may arise from multiple sources of toxic elements that may exist as different forms (species) which impact bioavailability. In turn, the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants has a direct impact on human health risk assessment and risk management practices. Novel research efforts focusing on development and application of in vitro and in vivo methods to measure the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of metal contaminated soils have advanced in the past few years. The objective of this workshop was to focus on recent developments in assessing the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of arsenic contaminated soils, metal contamination in urban residences in Canada and potential children’s exposures to toxic elements in house dust, a community-based study known as the West Oakland Residential Lead Assessment , studies of the bioavailability of soil cadmium, chromium, nickel and mercury and human exposures to contaminated Brownfield soils. These presentations covered issues related to human health and bioavailability along with the most recent studies on community participation in assessing metal contamination, studies of exposures to residential contamination, and

  3. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  4. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  5. Deciphering heavy metal contamination zones in soils of a granitic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ., Ba, Cr, Cu,. Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr ... metal contamination in soils of different regions. The study ... in the Hyderabad city. ... A network of first and second order streams ... In this case, redun- ...... strategy for developing countries; In: Lead, mercury, cad-.

  6. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium ...... consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia ... Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Bangalore Urban.

  7. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  8. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metals contamination of topsoil and dispersion in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing concern about reclamation of auto-repair workshop areas for residential and agricultural purposes makes risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of the study area imperative. In addition, the study is aimed at ascertaining the dispersion of contaminated Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, and Pb within the soil profile. A total of 75 ...

  10. Geospatial analyses in support of heavy metal contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an exploratory assessment of heavy metal contamination along the main highways in Mafikeng, and illustrates how spatial analyses of the contamination for environmental management purposes can be supported by GIS and Remote Sensing. Roadside soil and grass (Stenotaphrum sp.) samples were ...

  11. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High sensitivity detection and characterization of the chemical state of trace element contamination on silicon wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Pianetta, Piero A; Baur, K; Brennan, S; Homma, T; Kubo, N

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the speed and complexity of semiconductor integrated circuits requires advanced processes that put extreme constraints on the level of metal contamination allowed on the surfaces of silicon wafers. Such contamination degrades the performance of the ultrathin SiO sub 2 gate dielectrics that form the heart of the individual transistors. Ultimately, reliability and yield are reduced to levels that must be improved before new processes can be put into production. It should be noted that much of this metal contamination occurs during the wet chemical etching and rinsing steps required for the manufacture of integrated circuits and industry is actively developing new processes that have already brought the metal contamination to levels beyond the measurement capabilities of conventional analytical techniques. The measurement of these extremely low contamination levels has required the use of synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) where sensitivities 100 times better than conv...

  13. Measurements of trace contaminants in closed-type plant cultivation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Nitta, K.; Tako, Y.; Ashida, A.; Otsubo, K.; Saito, T.

    Trace contaminants generated in closed facilities can cause abnormal plant growth. We present measurement data of trace contaminants released from soils, plants, and construction materials. We mainly used two closed chambers, a Closed-type Plant and Mushroom Cultivation Chamber (PMCC) and Closed-type Plant Cultivation Equipment (CPCE). Although trace gas budgets from soils obtained in this experiment are only one example, the results indicate that the budgets of trace gases, as well as CO_2 and O_2, change greatly with the degree of soil maturation and are dependent on the kind of substances in the soil. Both in the PMCC and in the CPCE, trace gases such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and xylene were detected. These gases seemed to be released from various materials used in the construction of these chambers. The degree of increase in these trace gas levels was dependent on the relationship between chamber capacity and plant quantity. Results of trace gas measurement in the PMCC, in which lettuce and shiitake mushroom were cultivated, showed that ethylene was released both from lettuce and from the mushroom culture bed. The release rates were about 90 ng bed^-1 h^-1 for the shiitake mushroom culture bed (volume is 1700 cm^3) and 4.1 ~ 17.3 ng dm^-2h^-1 (leaf area basis) for lettuce. Higher ethylene release rates per plant and per unit leaf area were observed in mature plants than in young plants.

  14. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejon, Engracia; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Felipe, Efrain; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl 2 -soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. - Soil amendments affect soil chemistry and allow revegetation of soils contaminated by trace elements

  15. Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junhui; Hang Min

    2009-01-01

    Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg -1 ), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (209.85 mg kg -1 ). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.

  16. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  17. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  18. Terrestrial sedimentary pyrites as a potential source of trace metal release to groundwater – A case study from the Emsland, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, Georg J.; Sitnikova, Maria A.; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrite is a common minor constituent of terrestrial freshwater sediments and a sink for trace elements. Different amounts and morphological types (framboids and euhedral crystals) of sedimentary pyrites were found in the heavy mineral fraction of cores obtained from several drillholes located in the Emsland region, NW Germany. Their trace element contents were investigated to assess their potential for groundwater contamination after oxidation, e.g. induced by dewatering or autotrophic denitrification. Nickel, arsenic and cadmium were found in significant concentrations in pyrite. Geochemical modeling showed that elevated trace metal concentrations in groundwater, potentially exceeding drinking water standards, should preferentially occur in a less than 1 m thick zone situated around the depth of the redoxcline, where nitrate is reduced by pyrite. This was confirmed by depth-specific groundwater sampling in the Emsland and by previously published studies. The absolute concentration of released trace metals depends on their content in the pyrite but also strongly on the nitrate load of groundwater. - Highlights: • Pyrite from heavy mineral fraction of aquifer sediment analyzed for trace metal content. • Pyrites contain significant concentration of trace metals, such as nickel, arsenic, cadmium. • Trace elements are released by autotrophic denitrification. • Reactive transport model predicts small zone of trace element accumulation. • Release of trace elements strongly dependent on nitrate content of groundwater.

  19. Engineering hyporheic zones for the attenuation of urban pesticides and other stormwater trace organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, A. C.; Halpin, B. N.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor that can provide in-stream attenuation of various nonpoint source contaminants. Main contributions of nonpoint source pollution are coming from urban stormwater and agricultural runoff, which both adversely impact aquatic life. Stormwater pollutants of concern commonly include nutrients, metals, pathogens, and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs). Despite substantial water quality challenges, current stormwater management typically focuses on water quantity issues rather than pollutant removal. Furthermore, current HZ restoration best management practices do not explicitly control HZ residence times, and generally only induce localized effects. To increase hyporheic exchange and therefore improving water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds featuring modifications to subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) and reactivity - termed Biohydrochemical Enhancements for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST modifications comprise subsurface modules that employ 1) low-permeability sediments to drive hyporheic exchange and control subsurface residence times, and 2) permeable reactive geomedia to change reaction rates within the HZ. Here we present performance data collected in constructed stream experiments, comparing an all-sand control condition with a stream containing BEST modules and a mixture of 70/30 sand/woodchips (v/v). We evaluated the attenuation of a suite of TOrCs in the BEST versus the control system for two different streambed media: a coarse sand with K = 0.48 cm/s and a fine sand with K = 0.16 cm/s. The range of TOrCs investigated comprises urban pesticides and other stormwater relevant TOrCs. Benefits of applying BEST include increased exchange between streamwater and HZ water, leading to diverse redox conditions that are beneficial for aquatic organisms and will facilitate in-stream pollutant transformation. Future work will focus on tailoring the BEST design for specific pollutants, thereby controlling HZ

  20. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  1. Trace Contaminant Control During the International Space Station's On-Orbit Assembly and Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving acceptable cabin air quality must balance competing elements during spacecraft design, assembly, ground processing, and flight operations. Among the elements that contribute to the trace chemical contaminant load and, therefore, the cabin air quality aboard crewed spacecraft are the vehicle configuration, crew size and activities, mission duration and objectives, materials selection, and vehicle manufacturing and preflight ground processing methods. Trace chemical contaminants produced from pervasive sources such as equipment offgassing, human metabolism, and cleaning fluids during preflight ground processing present challenges to maintaining acceptable cabin air quality. To address these challenges, both passive and active contamination control techniques are used during a spacecraft's design, manufacturing, preflight preparation, and operational phases. Passive contamination control methods seek to minimize the equipment offgassing load by selecting materials, manufacturing processes, preflight preparation processes, and in-flight operations that have low chemical offgassing characteristics. Passive methods can be employed across the spacecraft's entire life cycle from conceptual design through flight operations. However, because the passive contamination control techniques cannot fully eliminate the contaminant load, active contamination control equipment must be deployed aboard the spacecraft to purify and revitalize the cabin atmosphere during in-flight operations. Verifying that the passive contamination control techniques have successfully maintained the total trace contaminant load within the active contamination control equipment's capabilities occurs late in the preflight preparation stages. This verification consists of subjecting the spacecraft to an offgassing test to determine the trace contaminant load. This load is then assessed versus the active contamination control equipment's capabilities via trace contaminant control (TCC) engineering

  2. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  3. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  4. Relation between tobacco trace metals and soil type in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; Saad, Z.; Kazpard, V.; El Samarani, A; Nabhan, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the concentration of nutrients in soil and tobacco samples from different agricultural regions. We studied the influence of soil type on tobacco quality and the transfer and accumulation of trace metals in tobacco leaves. The results showed that human activities in the Nabatiyeh region had a none pronounced effect on one agricultural plot than on its neighbor. The transfer factor of elements between soil and tobacco plants showed that major constituents are leached and absorbed from the soil, whereas some trace elements are finely absorbed from the alkaline soil. Statistical analysis of the micro nutrients in soil and plants confirmed the existence of two principal factors that control the distribution of elements in different compartments. Four tobacco plots in different regions were also studied as a functions of their pedologic and geologic characteristics. The major elements varied in all regions, but were always ordered Ca > Mg > Na > K. The highest transfer factor for nutrients was found in young soil layers. In the Akkar region, clay nutrients form complexes with micronutrients. Thereby reducing their absorption by tobacco plants. (author)

  5. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  6. Metal Hydride assited contamination on Ru/Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) residual tin, in the form of particles, ions, and atoms, can be deposited on nearby EUV optics. During the EUV pulse, a reactive hydrogen plasma is formed, which may be able to react with metal contaminants, creating volatile and unstable metal hydrides that

  7. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  8. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  9. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W.; Madejon, Engracia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: → By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. → Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. → The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. → Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  10. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  11. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  12. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  13. Alleviation of environmental risks associated with severely contaminated mine tailings using amendments: Modeling of trace element speciation, solubility, and plant accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Bes, Cleménce; Bernal, Maria Pilar; Clemente, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Tailings are considered one of the most relevant sources of contamination associated with mining activities. Phytostabilization of mine spoils may need the application of the adequate combination of amendments to facilitate plant establishment and reduce their environmental impact. Two pot experiments were set up to assess the capability of 2 inorganic materials (calcium carbonate and a red mud derivate, ViroBind TM ), alone or in combination with organic amendments, for the stabilization of highly acidic trace element-contaminated mine tailings using Atriplex halimus. The effects of the treatments on tailings and porewater physico-chemical properties and trace-element accumulation by the plants, as well as the processes governing trace elements speciation and solubility in soil solution and their bioavailability were modeled. The application of the amendments increased tailings pH and decreased (>99%) trace elements solubility in porewater, but also changed the speciation of soluble Cd, Cu, and Pb. All the treatments made A. halimus growth in the tailings possible; organic amendments increased plant biomass and nutritional status, and reduced trace-element accumulation in the plants. Tailings amendments modified trace-element speciation in porewater (favoring the formation of chlorides and/or organo-metallic forms) and their solubility and plant uptake, which were found to be mainly governed by tailing/porewater pH, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon content, as well as soluble/available trace-element concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2874-2884. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment ... mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  15. Bacterial metal resistance genes and metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wattiez, Ruddy; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Billon, Gabriel; Gillan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria a metal may be defined as bioavailable if it crosses the cytoplasmic membrane to reach the cytoplasm. Once inside the cell, specific metal resistance systems may be triggered. In this research, specific metal resistance genes were used to estimate metal bioavailability in sediment microbial communities. Gene levels were measured by quantitative PCR and correlated to metals in sediments using five different protocols to estimate dissolved, particle-adsorbed and occluded metals. The best correlations were obtained with czcA (a Cd/Zn/Co efflux pump) and Cd/Zn adsorbed or occluded in particles. Only adsorbed Co was correlated to czcA levels. We concluded that the measurement of czcA gene levels by quantitative PCR is a promising tool which may complement the classical approaches used to estimate Cd/Zn/Co bioavailability in sediment compartments. - Highlights: • Metal resistance genes were used to estimate metal bioavailability in sediments. • Gene levels were correlated to metals using 5 different metal extraction protocols. • CzcA gene levels determined by quantitative PCR is a promising tool for Cd/Zn/Co. - Capsule Bacterial czcA is a potential biomarker of Cd, Zn and Co bioavailability in aquatic sediments as shown by quantitative PCR and sequential metal extraction

  16. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  17. Algal-bacterial interactions in metal contaminated floodplain sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, M.E.Y.; Greve, G.D.; Garcia-Meza, J.V.; Massieux, B.; Sprenger, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Rutgers, M.; Admiraal, W.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate algal-bacterial interactions in a gradient of metal contaminated natural sediments. By means of multivariate techniques, we related the genetic structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) and the physiological structure (community-level physiological profiling, CLPP) of the bacterial communities to the species composition of the algal communities and to the abiotic environmental variables, including metal contamination. The results revealed that genetic and physiological structure of the bacterial communities correlated with the species composition of the algal community, but hardly to the level of metal pollution. This must be interpreted as an indication for a strong and species-specific linkage of algal and bacterial species in floodplain sediments. Metals were, however, not proven to affect either the algal or the bacterial communities of the Dutch river floodplains. - Algal and bacterial communities in floodplain sediments are interlinked, but are not affected by metal pollution

  18. Interactions of trace metals with hydrogels and filter membranes used in DET and DGT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmo, Oyvind A; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2008-08-01

    Equilibrium partitioning of trace metals between bulk solution and hydrogels/filter was studied. Under some conditions, trace metal concentrations were higher in the hydrogels or filter membranes compared to bulk solution (enrichment). In synthetic soft water, enrichment of cationic trace metals in polyacrylamide hydrogels decreased with increasing trace metal concentration. Enrichment was little affected by Ca and Mg in the concentration range typically encountered in natural freshwaters, indicating high affinity but low capacity binding of trace metals to solid structure in polyacrylamide gels. The apparent binding strength decreased in the sequence: Cu > Pb > Ni approximately to Cd approximately to Co and a low concentration of cationic Cu eliminated enrichment of weakly binding trace metal cations. The polyacrylamide gels also had an affinity for fulvic acid and/or its trace metal complexes. Enrichment of cationic Cd in agarose gel and hydrophilic polyethersulfone filter was independent of concentration (10 nM to 5 microM) but decreased with increasing Ca/ Mg concentration and ionic strength, suggesting that it is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. However, Cu and Pb were enriched even after equilibration in seawater, indicating that these metals additionally bind to sites within the agarose gel and filter. Compared to the polyacrylamide gels, agarose gel had a lower affinity for metal-fulvic complexes. Potential biases in measurements made with the diffusive equilibration in thin-films (DET) technique, identified by this work, are discussed.

  19. Determination of trace elements and heavy metals in agricultural products cultivated at the Rimac river valley in Lima city using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Torres, Blanca; Olivera, Paula; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillús, Marco; Creed-Kanashiro, H.; Penny, M.; Junco, J.; Ganoza, L.

    2004-01-01

    There are strong indications that the Rimac river valley is being contaminated with heavy metals and an excess of trace elements that come from some industrial and mining activities developed along the Rimac river valley. The agricultural products cultivated there in could be suffering the same effect. Nuclear and related analytical techniques will play an important role in the study of pollution by providing information concerning the degree of contamination in some agricultural products cul...

  20. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE's inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results

  1. Pollution characteristics and source identification of trace metals in riparian soils of Miyun Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Sun, Ke

    2017-10-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project, one of China's largest water diversion projects, has aroused widespread concerns about its potential ecological impacts, especially the potential release of trace metals from shoreline soils into Miyun Reservoir (MYR). Here, riparian soil samples from three elevations and four types of land use were collected. Soil particle size distributions, contents and chemical fractionations of trace metals and lead (Pb) isotopic compositions were analyzed. Results showed that soil texture was basically similar in four types of land use, being mainly composed of sand, with minor portions of clay and silt, while recreational land contained more abundant chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), suggesting a possible anthropogenic source for this soil pollution. The potential ecological risk assessment revealed considerable contamination of recreational land, with Cd being the predominant contaminant. Chemical fractionations showed that Cu, arsenic (As), Pb and Cd had potential release risks. Additionally, the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb values of soils were similar to those of coal combustion. By combining principal component analysis (PCA) with Pb isotopic results, coal combustion was identified as the major anthropogenic source of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb. Moreover, isotope ratios of Pb fell in the scope of aerosols, indicating that atmospheric deposition may be the primary input pathway of anthropogenic Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb. Therefore, controlling coal combustion should be a priority to reduce effectively the introduction of additional Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb to the area in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Smith, B.D.; Valls, T.A. del; Rainbow, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 deg. C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants (± SE) (l g -1 d -1 ) of 1.21 ± 0.11 (Ag), 0.026 ± 0.002 (Zn) and 0.012 ± 0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants (± SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037 ± 0.002 and 0.033 ± 0.006 d -1 whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003 ± 0.002 d -1 ). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042 ± 0.004 and 0.056 ± 0.012 d -1 for Zn and 0.044 ± 0.012 and 0.069 ± 0.016 d -1 for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the fast-exchanging compartment after the water

  3. Oxidation and metal contamination of EUV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) for printing smaller features on chips. One of the hallenges is to optimally control the contamination of the multilayer mirrors used in the imaging system. The aim of this project is generating fundamental understanding

  4. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  5. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  6. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  7. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  8. Trace metals in coastal sediments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Cespedes, J.; Acuna Gonzalez, J.; Vargas Zamora, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moin Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe> Zn> Cu> Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 μg / g, respectively) and lower in Moin Bay (3.4% and 52 μg / g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 μg / g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 μg / g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moin Bay (6.4 μg / g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 μg / g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moin Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition. (Author) [es

  9. Fingerprinting Marcellus Shale waste products from Pb isotope and trace metal perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jason D.; Graney, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry drilled, uncontaminated cuttings from Marcellus Shale and surrounding units. • Unoxidized and oxidized samples leached short and long term with H 2 O or dilute HCl. • Pb isotope ratios have distinctly different values from Marcellus Shale samples. • Mo and other trace metals can be used as Marcellus Shale environmental tracers. • Marcellus Shale leachate concentrations can exceed EPA contaminant screening levels. - Abstract: Drill cuttings generated during unconventional natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A., generally contain a very large component of organic-rich black shale because of extensive lateral drilling into this target unit. In this study, element concentrations and Pb isotope ratios obtained from leached drill cuttings spanning 600 m of stratigraphic section were used to assess the potential for short and long term environmental impacts from Marcellus Shale waste materials, in comparison with material from surrounding formations. Leachates of the units above, below and within the Marcellus Shale yielded Cl/Br ratios of 100–150, similar to produced water values. Leachates from oxidized and unoxidized drill cuttings from the Marcellus Shale contain distinct suites of elevated trace metal concentrations, including Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V and Zn. The most elevated Mo, Ni, Sb, U, and V concentrations are found in leachates from the lower portion of the Marcellus Shale, the section typically exploited for natural gas production. In addition, lower 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios within the lower Marcellus Shale (0.661–0.733) provide a distinctive fingerprint from formations above (0.822–0.846) and below (0.796–0.810), reflecting 206 Pb produced as a result of in situ 238 U decay within this organic rich black shale. Trace metal concentrations from the Marcellus Shale leachates are similar to total metal concentrations from other black shales. These metal concentrations can exceed screening

  10. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  11. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  12. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  13. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  14. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline; Billon, Gabriel; Ouddane, Baghdad; Boughriet, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. → Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. → Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. → Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? → Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water quality data recommended

  15. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  16. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  17. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  18. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... found to be highest in the bone of L. niloticus, copper recorded the least of all the metals. There is ... adequate enough to turn turbine engines to supply 6 megawatts of electricity .... demand of dissolved oxygen. Thus, a lot of ...

  19. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    emissions from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, land disposal of wastes, use of .... of total organic carbon increased from 2.0 ± 1.5 % in the top soil to 3.42 ± 0.83 ..... Thus, accumulation of heavy metals in the soil has potential to restrict.

  20. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  1. Heavy metals contamination: implications for health and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth C. Reyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals in water resources, soil and air poses one of the most severe problems that compromise food safety and public health at global and local level. In this review, the specific problem of contamination by mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the environment and food is presented. A description of the sources of contamination, exposure in living beings, accumulation and retention in food and consumer products is carried out. Study cases and results in some countries included Colombia are discussed.

  2. Accumulation of Trace Metals in Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis from Pattani Bay and the Setiu Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradit, Siriporn; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Towatana, Prawit; Saengmanee, Wuttipong

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.

  3. Differential Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Mobilization of Soil-Borne Arsenic and Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia

    2017-08-21

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As. Apart from acidification and complexation, reductive dissolution played a dominant role in the dissolution of iron oxides in the presence of oxalic acid, while acidification tended to be more important for dissolving iron oxides in the presence of other organic acids. The unique capacity of oxalic acid to solubilize iron oxides tended to affect the mobilization of other elements in different ways. For Cu, Mn, and Zn, acidification-driven mobilization was likely to be dominant while complexation might play a major role in Pb mobilization. The formation of soluble Fe and Pb oxalate complexes could effectively prevent arsenate or arsenite from combining with these metals to form solid phases of Fe or Pb arsenate or arsenite.

  4. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review methods for testing toxicity of sediments affected by metals. • Toxicity testing provides site-specific assessment of impacts on resident biota. • Goals are to document extent of toxicity and associations with metal exposure. • Need to characterize bioavailability of metals in sediment and pore water. • Toxicity data is basis for guidelines used to predict hazards of metal toxicity. - Abstract: This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate

  5. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  6. Challenges in the Management of Potentially Contaminated Scrap Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, R.W., E-mail: meehanrw@em.doe.gov [US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This paper describes the background and current status of the management of potentially contaminated metals and materials at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the USA. The current DOE policy prohibiting the release of metal scrap for recycling from radiation areas is explained. Finally, a potential path forward to competently assess, characterize and clear material from radiological control is proposed that uses a combination of administrative processes and empirical techniques that are valid irrespective of the standard used for clearance. (author)

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations, contamination/pollution index, anthropogenic input and enrichment factors for metals in soil in the vicinity of cassava processing mills in sub-urban areas of Delta State of Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of metals in all sites and depths ranged from 0.1 to 383.2 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4.0 to 11.3 mg ...

  8. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fraction-specific controls on the trace element distribution in iron formations : Implications for trace metal stable isotope proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Paul B.H.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Mason, Paul R.D.; Henkel, Susann; Staubwasser, Michael; Fryer, Lindi; Poulton, Simon W.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron formations (IFs) are important geochemical repositories that provide constraints on atmospheric and ocean chemistry, prior to and during the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. Trace metal abundances and their Mo-Cr-U isotopic ratios have been widely used for investigating ocean redox processes

  10. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  11. Analytical analysis of soil-moisture and trace-contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Reeves, M.

    1976-03-01

    A transport model is presented which predicts the coupled movement of both water and trace contaminants through a layered and unsaturated soil-moisture zone. In order to achieve computation speeds suitable for watershed implementations, moisture properties are approximated as exponential functions of pressure head, and lateral flows are treated as sinks in a basically vertical one-dimensional analysis. In addition, only advection by the Darcy-flow velocities and linear adsorption by the soil matrix are considered in depicting movement of the trace contaminant. Formal solution of the resulting transport equations is obtained through use of both eigenfunction-expansion and coordinate-transformation methods. Numerical solution is effected by means of a program written in FORTRAN IV and implemented on an IBM 360/91 computer. Two example calculations illustrate both strengths and weaknesses of our model

  12. Trace contaminants of agriculture, fisheries and food with particular reference to isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Growing world population, industrilization and intensification of agricultural and fisheries practices have greatly increased the need during recent decades to protect the resources concerned, and the quality of food and agricultural environment. These trends have also resulted in a growing range of trace contaminants and excessive nutrient problems of agriculture and fisheries. Isotopic tracer and nuclear analytical techniques are powerful and often unique tools for the study and control of the problems, especially in relation to trace elements, nutrients and contaminants. In addition to the conventional use of radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers there appears to be considerable scope for the use of environmental or natural isotope ratio techniques and the use of labelled reagents and substrates as monitoring tools. Representative applications are described. (author)

  13. Economic comparison of management modes for contaminated metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janberg, K.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents an economic study of the three following management modes for contaminated metal scrap: - decontamination of scrap metal followed by release, - direct melting of scrap metal, followed by release or restricted reuse, - super-compaction followed by disposal as radioactive waste. The present study, which refers to conditions prevailing in Germany, includes reviews of the contaminated scrap arisings, of experience with scrap management and of the licensing conditions for metal recycling. The results obtained during the treatment of more than 140 t of contaminated scrap metal show that: - super-compaction is the best procedure for all mixed metallic wastes of small dimensions and complex geometries, as decontamination is very costly in such a case and the melting would lead to undefined metallurgical products; - decontamination is recommendable for simple geometries and activities higher than the regulatory upper limit for melting in an industrial foundry (74 Bq/g); - direct melting for lower activity levels is gaining in competitiveness and has a good chance to be the best solution, in particular when the free use levels will be reduced below the currently accepted levels in Germany

  14. Functioning of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelusic, Masa; Grcman, Helena; Vodnik, Dominik; Suhadolc, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of remediation using three EDTA doses (10, 30, 60 mmol kg −1 ) on soil functioning was assessed using column experiment and Brassica rapa. Soil washing removed up to 77, 29 and 72% of metals from soil contaminated with 1378, 578 and 8.5 mg kg −1 of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Sequential extraction indicated removal from the carbonate soil fraction. Metal oral-accessibility from the stomach phase was reduced by up to 75 and from the small intestine by up to 79% (Pb). Part of metals (up to 0.8% Cd) was lost due to leaching from columns. Remediation reduced toxic metal soil-root transfer by up to 61% but did not prevent metal accumulation in leaves. The fitness of plants grown on EDTA washed soils (gas exchange, fluorescence) was not compromised. Remediation initially reduced the soil DNA content (up to 29%, 30 mmol kg −1 EDTA) and changed the structure of microbial population. -- Highlights: ► Toxic metals contaminated garden soil was remediated in a pilot-scale. ► EDTA washing reduced soil Pb, Zn and Cd content and bioavailability. ► Remediated soil preserved the function of plant and microbial substrate. ► Remediation didn't prevent the accumulation of toxic metals in the test plant. -- EDTA soil washing effectively removed toxic metals and reduced their transfer from the soil to plant roots but did not prevent their accumulation in leaves

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-29

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  16. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10"3 mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K_s_p_(_M_e_S_)/K_s_p_(_p_y_r_)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r"2 = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  17. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  18. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F.; Bonten, Luc T.C.; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still

  19. Past 140-year environmental record in the northern South China Sea: Evidence from coral skeletal trace metal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yinxian; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Huiling; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2014-01-01

    About 140-year changes in the trace metals in Porites coral samples from two locations in the northern South China Sea were investigated. Results of PCA analyses suggest that near the coast, terrestrial input impacted behavior of trace metals by 28.4%, impact of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) was 19.0%, contribution of war and infrastructure were 14.4% and 15.6% respectively. But for a location in the open sea, contribution of War and SST reached 33.2% and 16.5%, while activities of infrastructure and guano exploration reached 13.2% and 14.7%. While the spatiotemporal change model of Cu, Cd and Pb in seawater of the north area of South China Sea during 1986–1997 were reconstructed. It was found that in the sea area Cu and Cd contaminations were distributed near the coast while areas around Sanya, Hainan had high Pb levels because of the well-developed tourism related activities. -- Highlights: • Geochemical behaviors of trace elements in corals from South China Sea were investigated. • Terrestrial input, SST, war and infrastructure explain about 77.4% of elements behaviors in coral. • Changes of trace elements in coral of Xisha Islands were mainly impacted by local activities. • Spatial change of elements in seawater by was evaluated in 1986–1997 using distribution coefficient K D of coral. -- 140-year changes in the trace metals in corals from South China Sea were investigated. The spatiotemporal change model of the metals in seawater was reconstructed using coral record

  20. Trace metal concentrations in mussels in the outfall zones of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Many trace elements (TE) like Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, occur naturally in marine environments and these TE accomplish decisive functions in humans to maintain good health. Living organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis are a rich source of TE and are grown extensively near the industrial water outfalls. Some of these TE tend to be pollutants when their elevated levels produce deleterious effects on the ecological system. As chemical analysis for TE toxicity are expensive, organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis can be used as monitors of environmental contamination. Most studies reported so far are directed towards the effect of a single environmental factor on marine bivalves. However in the areas receiving mixed effluents from various point and non-point sources, the studies on combined effect of two or more stresses would be a more practical approach. In this paper, We investigate the heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis to provide information on the pollution of water bodies by thermal and nuclear power plants for the choice of sites from where edible mussels can be harvested. We also propose a chemometric approach developed by us using information theory to mitigate trace element toxicity in the edible part of Mytilus galloprovincialis harvested in these sites. (author)

  1. Effects of heavy metal contamination on the macrobenthic fauna in estuaries: The case of the Seine estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination levels are generally higher in estuaries than in the open sea. Some estuaries, the Seine estuary for example, have particularly high pollution levels of metals, yet continue to support a very high benthic biomass and remain quite productive. Measurements of sediment contamination are highly variable due to diverse chemical analysis methods, sediments origin and sources of contaminants found in the estuaries. Salinity appears to be the principal factor controlling contaminant distribution in the sediment and the overlying and/or interstitial waters; it also affects the bioavailability of contaminants in estuarine sediments. Of course, the response to contaminants varies greatly among species and assemblages. Trace metals explain only a small part of the variation in benthic community structure. Some species, such as the shrimp Crangon crangon, appears vulnerable to metal pollution, while other species, such as Scrobicularia plana, are able to tolerate quite high levels of cadmium in their tissue. This paper demonstrates the wide variability of benthic responses to contamination, which is probably due to the high spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the estuary. To reduce the problems due the heterogeneity and variability observed to date in the available results, it will be necessary to encourage integrated estuarine studies, in which sedimentologists, chemists, and biologists work together on the same campaigns at the same sites

  2. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  3. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  4. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic

  5. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the calculated individual contamination factors, Ni and Zn followed by Cd and Pb posed the highest risk to sewage water contamination. Based on this study, the human health is at risk, since sewage water from the drainage basin has been the source for irrigation water during dry seasons, which might lead to trace ...

  6. Biomonitoring of some heavy metal contaminations from a steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil and plants growing in the vicinity of industrial areas display increased concentrations of heavy metals and give an indication of the environmental quality. The contamination source for aluminum, iron, nickel and lead in the Botanical garden of Mobarakeh Steel Company was recognized by analyzing the leaves and ...

  7. Soil microbial effects of smelter induced heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, A

    1986-01-01

    The soil concentrations of Cu and Zn at the secondary smelter were 20 00 mu g/g dry soil. Close to the primary smelter the soil was contaminated with more than ten elements including Pb, Zn, Cu and As at levels ranging between 6000 and 1000 mu g/g dry soil. The correlations between the concentrations of the metals were high at both smelters. Soil respiration rate decreased by about 75% close to both smelters. Total and fluorescein diacetate stained mycelial lengths decrease with increasing heavy metal pollution at the secondary but not at the primary smelter. The fungal community structure was strongly affected by the contamination. General common in coniferous forest soils such as Penicillium and Oidiodendron virtually vanished, while less frequent species like Paecilomyces farinosus and Geomyces pannorum dominated the site close to the smelter. Colony forming units of a number of functional groups of bacteria were found to be very sensitive to metal contamination. The urease activity of the soil was inhibited. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the metal contamination was the major environmental influence on the microbiotain the soils studied. A study of about 200 decomposition curves resulting from glutamic acid additions to the different soils produced four microbially related parameters: basal respiration rate, initial respiration rate after the addition of the glutamic acid, specific respiration rate during the exponential increase of the respiration rate and the lag time before the exponential phase. With 53 refs.

  8. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  9. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediments in the gold mining area of Atakunmosa West local Government, Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve villages of prominence in illegal gold mining were selected for the study covering dry and wet seasons of 2012. Stream water ...

  10. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  11. Short communication Assessment of heavy metal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human consumption ... Long-term exposure to lower levels of Cd and Cr leads to stomach ... Toxicity by Pb can result in decreased performance, and damage to the ...

  12. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  13. Interpretation of aerosol trace metal particle size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, T.B.; Van Grieken, R.E.; Winchester, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is capable of rapid routine determination of 10--15 elements present in amounts greater than or equal to 1 ng simultaneously in aerosol size fractions as collected by single orifice impactors over short periods of time. This enables detailed study of complex relationships between elements detected. Since absolute elemental concentrations may be strongly influenced by meteorological and topographical conditions, it is useful to normalize to a reference element. Comparison between the ratios of concentrations with aerosol and corresponding values for anticipated sources may lead to the identification of important sources for the elements. Further geochemical insights may be found through linear correlation coefficients, regression analysis, and cluster analysis. By calculating correlations for elemental pairs, an indication of the degree of covariance between the elements is obtained. Preliminary results indicate that correlations may be particle size dependent. A high degree of covariance may be caused either by a common source or may only reflect the conservative nature of the aerosol. In a regression analysis, by plotting elemental pairs and estimating the regression coefficients, we may be able to conclude if there is more than one source operating for a given element in a certain size range. Analysis of clustering of several elements, previously investigated for aerosol filter samples, can be applied to the analysis of aerosol size fractions. Careful statistical treatment of elemental concentrations as a function of aerosol particle size may thus yield significant information on the generation, transport and deposition of trace metals in the atmosphere

  14. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  15. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (μg/g) PuO 2 and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (μg/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (μg/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  16. Comparison of trace metals in South Carolina floodplain and marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, L.R.; Chen, H.S.; Settlemyre, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of trace metals (copper, zinc, lead, and molybdenum) in sediment cores from a pristine marsh near North Inlet, S.C., a polluted marsh near Charleston Harbor, S.C., and South Carolina river floodplains indicates that the Charleston Harbor marsh samples have significantly higher concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead than either North Inlet samples or river floodplain samples. It is not clear, however, whether this result can be attributed to industrial contamination because the peak concentrations of copper and zinc in cores from the Charleston Harbor marsh occur at depths between 10 and 60 cm rather than at or near the sediment surface, as is the case for well-documented occurrences of contaminated marine sediments. Also, both marsh areas show similar linear relationships for copper vs. zinc, which suggest that both areas received the same relative inputs of copper and zinc from similar or identical sources and that the differences in concentrations between the two areas are due to differences in the rates of accumulation. Natural mechanisms are suggested to explain the higher content of copper and zinc in Charleston Harbor vs. North Inlet marsh sediments and the variable depth of peak copper and zinc concentrations

  17. Metal bioaccumulation and oxidative stress profiles in Ruditapes philippinarum – insights towards its suitability as bioindicator of estuarine metal contamination

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Ana

    2017-11-09

    The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an invasive bivalve in Europe, widely distributed, with a great ability to tolerate a broad range of environmental conditions. Despite the ability to reflect contamination, its suitability as bioindicator is not consensual. This study provided clarification on this issue by evaluating the ability of R. philippinarum to signalise trace element contamination in an estuary chronically impacted by metals and metalloids (Tagus estuary, Portugal). A multidimensional approach was carried out in two differently contaminated sites (Barreiro – BAR; Alcochete – ALC) in warm and cold periods, combining sediment contamination, bioaccumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Pb and Hg), and a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers in two R. philippinarum organs (digestive gland and gills). Sediments from BAR exhibited higher concentrations of all the elements than those from ALC, in line with the anthropogenic pressures identified for both estuarine areas. Likewise, clams from BAR showed higher concentrations of As and Pb in the digestive gland (cold period) and Pb in the gills (warm and cold periods) in comparison with ALC. These results suggest the capacity of R. philippinarum to reflect external levels of exposure to those elements into tissue loads. However, an opposite spatial variation was consistently found for Hg accumulation in the digestive gland and gills in both periods, as well as for Cd in the gills in the warm season. The results reinforce the idea that trace element accumulation patterns depend not only on the external bioavailability, but also on the toxicokinetics that is trace element-specific. Despite the two contrasting patterns found for bioaccumulation in R. philippinarum (mainly Pb vs. Hg), oxidative stress parameters were able to signalise BAR as the most impacted area. In fact, the digestive gland of BAR clams exhibited higher GST activity and GSHt levels (in both sampling periods) and SOD activity (warm season

  18. Adsorption of trace metals to plastic resin pellets in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Luke A.; Turner, Andrew; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic production pellets collected from beaches of south west England contain variable concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) that, in some cases, exceed concentrations reported for local estuarine sediments. The rates and mechanisms by which metals associate with virgin and beached polyethylene pellets were studied by adding a cocktail of 5 μg L −1 of trace metals to 10 g L −1 pellet suspensions in filtered seawater. Kinetic profiles were modelled using a pseudo-first-order equation and yielded response times of less than about 100 h and equilibrium partition coefficients of up to about 225 ml g −1 that were consistently higher for beached pellets than virgin pellets. Adsorption isotherms conformed to both the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and adsorption capacities were greater for beached pellets than for virgin pellets. Results suggest that plastics may represent an important vehicle for the transport of metals in the marine environment. - Highlights: ► Beached plastic production pellets contain considerable concentrations of trace metals. ► In laboratory experiments trace metals are shown to adsorb to both virgin and beached pellets. ► Metal adsorption is greater on aged pellets. ► Pellets may represent an important vehicle for metal transport in the marine environment. - Trace metals accumulate on plastic resin pellets in the marine environment through adsorption to the polymer and to chemical and biological attritions thereon.

  19. Measuring hypoxia induced metal release from highly contaminated estuarine sediments during a 40 day laboratory incubation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Joanne L., E-mail: jlbanks@student.unimelb.edu.au [Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 Australia (Australia); Ross, D. Jeff, E-mail: Jeff.Ross@utas.edu.au [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, Nubeena Crescent, Taroona, Tasmania, 7053 Australia (Australia); Keough, Michael J., E-mail: mjkeough@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 Australia (Australia); Eyre, Bradley D., E-mail: bradley.eyre@scu.edu.au [Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, 2480 Australia (Australia); Macleod, Catriona K., E-mail: Catriona.Macleod@utas.edu.au [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, Nubeena Crescent, Taroona, Tasmania, 7053 Australia (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Nutrient inputs to estuarine and coastal waters worldwide are increasing and this in turn is increasing the prevalence of eutrophication and hypoxic and anoxic episodes in these systems. Many urbanised estuaries are also subject to high levels of anthropogenic metal contamination. Environmental O{sub 2} levels may influence whether sediments act as sinks or sources of metals. In this study we investigated the effect of an extended O{sub 2} depletion event (40 days) on fluxes of trace metals (and the metalloid As) across the sediment-water interface in sediments from a highly metal contaminated estuary in S.E. Tasmania, Australia. We collected sediments from three sites that spanned a range of contamination and measured total metal concentration in the overlying water using sealed core incubations. Manganese and iron, which are known to regulate the release of other divalent cations from sub-oxic sediments, were released from sediments at all sites as hypoxia developed. In contrast, the release of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc was comparatively low, most likely due to inherent stability of these elements within the sediments, perhaps as a result of their refractory origin, their association with fine-grained sediments or their being bound in stable sulphide complexes. Metal release was not sustained due to the powerful effect of metal-sulphide precipitation of dissolved metals back into sediments. The limited mobilisation of sediment bound metals during hypoxia is encouraging, nevertheless the results highlight particular problems for management in areas where hypoxia might occur, such as the release of metals exacerbating already high loads or resulting in localised toxicity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal contaminated sediments exposed to long-term hypoxia released Mn and Fe pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As flux increased under anoxic conditions Cd, Cu and Zn fluxes occurred only during the first week of hypoxia. Black

  20. Measuring hypoxia induced metal release from highly contaminated estuarine sediments during a 40 day laboratory incubation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, Joanne L.; Ross, D. Jeff; Keough, Michael J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Macleod, Catriona K.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient inputs to estuarine and coastal waters worldwide are increasing and this in turn is increasing the prevalence of eutrophication and hypoxic and anoxic episodes in these systems. Many urbanised estuaries are also subject to high levels of anthropogenic metal contamination. Environmental O 2 levels may influence whether sediments act as sinks or sources of metals. In this study we investigated the effect of an extended O 2 depletion event (40 days) on fluxes of trace metals (and the metalloid As) across the sediment–water interface in sediments from a highly metal contaminated estuary in S.E. Tasmania, Australia. We collected sediments from three sites that spanned a range of contamination and measured total metal concentration in the overlying water using sealed core incubations. Manganese and iron, which are known to regulate the release of other divalent cations from sub-oxic sediments, were released from sediments at all sites as hypoxia developed. In contrast, the release of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc was comparatively low, most likely due to inherent stability of these elements within the sediments, perhaps as a result of their refractory origin, their association with fine-grained sediments or their being bound in stable sulphide complexes. Metal release was not sustained due to the powerful effect of metal-sulphide precipitation of dissolved metals back into sediments. The limited mobilisation of sediment bound metals during hypoxia is encouraging, nevertheless the results highlight particular problems for management in areas where hypoxia might occur, such as the release of metals exacerbating already high loads or resulting in localised toxicity. - Highlights: ► Metal contaminated sediments exposed to long-term hypoxia released Mn and Fe pulses. ► As flux increased under anoxic conditions Cd, Cu and Zn fluxes occurred only during the first week of hypoxia. ► Flux of these metals from 3 sites was not related to total sediment metal

  1. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  2. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  3. Disintegration and size reduction of slags and metals after melt refining of contaminated metallic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Melting under an oxidizing slag is an attractive method of decontaminating and reducing the volume of radioactively contaminated metal scrap. The contaminants are concentrated in a relatively small volume of slag, which leaves the metal essentially clean. A potential method of permanently disposing of the resulting slags (and metals if necessary) is emplacing them into deep shale by grout hydrofracture. Suspension in grout mixtures requires that the slag and metal be granular. The feasibility of size-reducing slags and disintegrating metals and subsequently incorporating both into grout mixtures was demonstrated. Various types of slags were crushed with a small jaw crusher into particles smaller than 3 mm. Several metals were also melted and water-blasted into coarse metal powder or shot ranging in size from 0.05 to 3 mm. A simple low-pressure water atomizer having a multiple nozzle with a converging-line jet stream was developed and used for this purpose. No significant slag dust and steam were generated during slag crushing and liquid-metal water-blasting tests, indicating that contamination can be well contained within the system. The crushed slags and the coarse metal powders were suspendable in group fluids, which indicates probable disposability by shale hydrofracture. The granulation of slags and metals facilitates their containment, transport, and storage

  4. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  5. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Chen Yuwei; Gunn, John M.; Dixit, Sushil S.

    2004-01-01

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (C p ) and surface (C s ) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  6. Evaluating a 5-year metal contamination remediation and the biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod along the Xiangjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Xiang; Fraser, Dylan J

    2018-05-16

    Effective remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is desired in many regions, but it requires integrative assessments of sediments, water, and biota that can serve as robust biomonitors. We assessed the effects of a 5-year metal contamination remediation along the Xiangjiang River, China, by comparing concentrations of trace metals in water and surface sediments between 2010-2011 and 2016. We also explored the trace metal biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa). Metal concentrations in water (means and ranges) dropped over time to within permissible limits of drinking water guidelines set by China, USEPA, and WHO in 2016. Although sediment means and ranges of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn also diminished with remediation, those for Cr and Cu slightly increased, and all six metals retained concentrations higher than standards set by China. All metals in sediments could also be associated with anthropogenic inputs using a hierarchical clustering analysis, and they generate high potential ecological risks based on several indices, especially for Cd and As. The bio-sediment accumulation factors of all measured trace metals in gastropod soft tissues and shells were lower than 1.0, except for Ca. Trace metal contents in gastropods were positively correlated with those in water and surface sediments for As (soft tissues) and Cr (shells). Collectively, our results do not yet highlight strong beneficial effects of 5-year remediation and clearly illustrate the heavy metal pollution remaining in Xiangjiang River sediment. Additional physical, chemical, and biological measurements should be implemented to improve sediment quality. We further conclude that gastropod soft tissues and shells can be suitable biomonitors of spatial differences in some heavy metals found within river sediments (e.g., As, Cr).

  7. A Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis for trace metal assessment of sediments in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragbirsingh, Y.; Norville, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is a semi-enclosed shallow basin with increasing coastal development activities along Trinidad's west coast. Sediments present a host for trace metal pollutants from overlying waters, therefore determination of their content is critical in evaluating and detecting sources of marine pollution. This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of geochemical assessment for trace metals in coastal sediments of the Gulf of Paria. This GIS approach facilitates interpretation of the spatial relationships among key environmental processes. The GIS development involves the integration of spatial and attribute data pertaining to bathymetry, current systems, topography, rivers, land use/land cover and coastal sediments. It employs spatial interpolation and retrieval operations to analyze the total trace metal concentrations of aluminum, copper and lead in the sediments and the clay-enriched sediments, to determine whether they are related to sediment type or are affected by the discharge from anthropogenic sources. Spatial distribution modeling of element concentrations are produced to indicate contamination plumes from possible anthropogenic sources such as rivers entering the Gulf of Paria, and to reveal potential hot spots and dispersion patterns. A direct spatial correlation between clay-enriched sediments and high concentrations of aluminum and lead is detected, however regions of high concentrations of copper and lead indicate a relationship to anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of GIS for visualization, spatial query and overlay of geochemical analysis is demonstrated [es

  8. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  9. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CPUT

    trace metals from wastewater treatment plant effluents in Cape Town and .... Geographical locations and design .... The new. Bellville plant uses University of Cape Town design (UCT) ...... batteries, paints, fungicides, textiles, cosmetics, pulp,.

  10. Guidelines for the determination of selected trace metals in aerosols and in wet precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and analytical procedures suitable for the collection and analysis of representative samples of atmospheric aerosols and wet precipitation for selected trace metals. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Statistical significance of biomonitoring of marine algae for trace metal levels in a coral environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinath, A.; Muraleedharan, N.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    towards essential elements, and the concentration of Fe seemed to be the highest in all the species, irrespective of their classification. The trace metal content reported in this study was much lower than the limit prescribed by Food and Agricultural...

  12. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  13. Trace Metal and Ancillary Data in Puget Sound, 1980 - 1986 (NODC Accession 9100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In first of three data reports on the trace metal and ancillary data in Puget Sound and its watershed (Paulson et al., 1991a), all water column, sediment, and...

  14. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  15. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  16. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  17. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  18. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Huque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them.

  19. Effects of trace metal concentrations on the growth of the coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Barra Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirement of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of S. kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal interreplacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  20. Phytoremediation trials on metal- and arsenic-contaminated pyrite wastes (Torviscosa, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Coletto, Lucia; Zanetti, Federica; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Mosca, Giuliano

    2009-03-01

    At a site in Udine, Italy, a 0.7m layer of As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn contaminated wastes derived from mineral roasting for sulphur extraction had been covered with an unpolluted 0.15m layer of gravelly soil. This study investigates whether woody biomass phytoremediation is a realistic management option. Comparing ploughing and subsoiling (0.35m depth), the growth of Populus and Salix and trace element uptake were investigated in both pot and field trials. Species differences were marginal and species selection was not critical. Impaired above-ground productivity and low translocation of trace elements showed that bioavailable contaminant stripping was not feasible. The most significant finding was of coarse and fine roots proliferation in surface layers that provided a significant sink for trace elements. We conclude that phytostabilisation and effective immobilisation of metals and As could be achieved at the site by soil amelioration combined with woody species establishment. Confidence to achieve a long-term and sustainable remediation requires a more complete quantification of root dynamics and a better understanding of rhizosphere processes.

  1. Facilitation drives the positive effects of plant richness on trace metal removal in a biodiversity experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoextraction is an environmentally acceptable and inexpensive technique for mine tailing rehabilitation that uses metallophyte plants. These plants reduce the soil trace metal contents to environmentally acceptable levels by accumulating trace metals. Recently, whether more trace metals can be removed by species-rich communities of these plants received great attention, as species richness has been reported having positive effects on ecosystem functions. However, how the species richness affects trace metals removal of plant communities of mine tailing is rarely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of species richness on soil trace metal removal in both natural and experimental plant communities. The root lengths and stem heights of each plant species were measured in order to calculate the functional diversity indices. Our results showed that trace metal (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in mine tailing soil declined as species richness increased in both the natural and experimental plant communities. Species richness, rather than functional diversity, positively affected the mineralomass of the experimental plant communities. The intensity of plant-plant facilitation increased with the species richness of experimental communities. Due to the incremental role of plant-plant facilitation, most of the species had higher biomasses, higher trace metal concentrations in their plant tissues and lower malondialdehyde concentrations in their leaves. Consequently, the positive effects of species richness on mineralomass were mostly attributable to facilitation among plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide clear evidence that, due to plant-plant facilitation, species richness positively affects the removal of trace metals from mine tailing soil through phytoextraction and provides further information on diversity conservation and environmental remediation in a mine tailing environment.

  2. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai-Hong; Qiu, Hao; Tian, Tian; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Chaney, Rufus L; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and 40gkg(-1)) and steel slag (3 and 6gkg(-1)) increased soil pH from 4.0 to 5.0-6.4, decreased the phytoavailability of heavy metals by at least 60%, and further suppressed metal uptake by rice. Diffusion gradient in thin-film measurement showed the heavy metal diffusion fluxes from soil to solution decreased by greater than 84% after remediation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the mobile metals were mainly deposited as their silicates, phosphates and hydroxides in amended treatments. Moreover, it was found metal translocation from stem to leaf was dramatically restrained by adding amendments, which might be due to the increase of silicon concentration and co-precipitation with heavy metals in stem. Finally, a field experiment showed the trace element concentrations in polished rice treated with amendments complied with the food safety standards of China. These results demonstrated fly ash and steel slag could be effective in mitigating heavy metal accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal contaminated acidic soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy's increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations

  4. How functional traits of estuarine macrobenthic assemblages respond to metal contamination?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2016-08-06

    The effects of metal contamination on estuarine macrobenthic communities were investigated using the Biological Traits Analysis (BTA). The study was carried out in the Tagus estuary (western Portugal). Samples of macrobenthic communities and associated environmental variables were taken in four surveys (September 2012, and February, May and October 2013) across the contamination gradient from three main zones: a slightly contaminated, a moderately contaminated and a highly contaminated zone. Functional traits for the most abundant species were assigned using seven categories based on “Feeding mode”, “Life span”, “Body size”, “Motility”, “Position in sediments”, “Larval type” and “AMBI ecological group”. To investigate whether the macroinvertebrate community structure was associated with the environmental parameters and biological traits an integrative multivariate analysis, combining the RLQ analysis and the fourth-corner method, was applied. Within this analysis, human-induced estuarine variables (metals) were rendered independent from natural ones (sediment fine particles) through partial correlations. Following this approach, it was possible to decouple the effects of two typically highly correlated environmental descriptors with different origins. Overall, the study identified significant relationships between sediment environmental descriptors and the functional traits of macrobenthic communities. Further, RLQ/Fourth-corner combined analysis successfully isolated the traits and corresponding species that were most correlated with the measured concentration of trace metals in sediments, supporting the knowledge that benthic organisms exhibit distinct responses to different levels of disturbance. A shift in species dominance occurred along the contamination gradient with epifaunal tolerant species with very small size, long life span, and crawling motility dominating the highest contaminated area. This area was also related with

  5. Modified interstitial water squeezer for trace metal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Hydraulic squeezer of Manheim, used in the extraction of pore water of sediments, has been modified by providing teflon inner lining and increasing the volume of squeezer. The modified version facilitates collection of pore water sample, for trace...

  6. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  7. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-12-15

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioleaching of multiple metals from contaminated sediment by moderate thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Zhu, Jianyu; Liu, Xinxing

    2015-08-15

    A moderately thermophilic consortium was applied in bioleaching multiple metals from contaminated sediment. The consortium got higher acidification and metals soubilization efficiency than that of the pure strains. The synergistic effect of the thermophilic consortium accelerated substrates utilization. The utilization of substrate started with sulfur in the early stage, and then the pH declined, giving rise to making use of the pyrite. Community dynamic showed that A. caldus was the predominant bacteria during the whole bioleaching process while the abundance of S. thermotolerans increased together with pyrite utilization. Solubilization efficiency of Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd reached 98%, 94%, 95%, and 89% respectively, while As, Hg, Pb was only 45%, 34%, 22%. Logistic model was used to simulate the bioleaching process, whose fitting degree was higher than 90%. Correlation analysis revealed that metal leaching was mainly an acid solubilization process. Fraction analysis revealed that metals decreased in mobility and bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial distribution of trace metals in sediments from urban streams of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widianarko, B.; Verweij, R.A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated environmental concentrations of metals are usually associated with the impact of urbanization. The present study is focused on metal contamination in urban sediments. A field survey was carried out to determine the distribution of four metals, i.e., cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and

  10. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D.; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. - Highlights: • Trace metals measured in blood and feathers. • Arsenic, Mercury and Lead significantly higher at urban colony. • Correlations found between trace metals in feathers and blood. • Little Penguins are suitable bioindicators for coastal metal pollution. - This study confirms the suitability of the Little Penguin as a bioindicator of coastal metal pollution in coastal areas using non-destructive sampling methods

  11. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  12. Decontamination method for radiation-contaminated metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi; Kuribayashi, Nobuhide; Yasumune, Taketoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In immersing radiation-contaminated metal wastes into a sulfuric acid solution thereby peeling and removing radioactive deposition cruds and dissolving the surface of the matrix metals to eliminate radioactive contaminants, when the potential of the sulfuric acid solution is shifted to a higher direction by more than a certain level due to the increase of the amount of metal ions leached from the cruds and the matrix material, the leached metal ions are electrolytically reduced to control the potential of the sulfuric acid solution to less than a predetermined potential level. Although the dissolving rate is increased as the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution is higher, it is preferably from 0.5 to 2 mol/l, since higher concentration increases the load on the waste liquid processing. Further, the temperature for solution is set to higher than a room temperature and, preferably from 50 to 90degC. Further, the potential level of the solution, although varies somewhat depending on the concentration of the leached metal ions and the temperature, is preferably controlled to less than 0.1 to 0.2 V. This can attain high decontaminating effect in a short period of time by using a sulfuric acid solution alone. (T.M.)

  13. Distributions of traces of metals on sorption from solutions of vanadium(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, N.K.; Turnaov, A.N.; Telegin, G.F.; Kremenskaya, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the distributions of traces of metals between aqueous solutions of vanadium(V) and a solid reagent made by introducing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid into an inert matrix: a nonionic macroporous copolymer of polystyrene with divinyl benzene (wofatit Y 29). As regards degree of extraction, the trace components fall in the series zinc > cadmium > manganese > copper > cobalt, which resemble the extractability series. The vanadium content of the solution and the concentrations of the trace components have virtually no effect on the sorption. The process is effective in concentrating trace components from solutions containing vanadium(V)

  14. Trace contaminant concentration affects mineral transformation and pollutant fate in hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Rivera, Nelson; Thompson, Aaron; O’Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fate of Sr, Cs and I tracked during hydroxide-weathering of sediments. ► pCO 2 and contaminant concentration affected mineral transformation. ► Sodalite/cancrinite formed at μM levels, chabazite at mM levels. ► Absence of CO 2 resulted in calcite dissolution and strätlingite formation. ► Trace contaminant concentrations modified their own sequestration path. - Abstract: Prior work has shown that when silicaceous sediments are infused with caustic radioactive waste, contaminant fate is tightly coupled to ensuing mineral weathering reactions. However, the effects of local aqueous geochemical conditions on these reactions are poorly studied. Thus, we varied contaminant concentration and pCO 2 during the weathering of previously uncontaminated Hanford sediments over 6 months and 1 year in a solution of caustic waste (pH 13, high ionic strength). Co-contaminants Sr, Cs and I were added at “low” (Cs/Sr: 10 −5 m; I: 10 −7 m) and “high” (Cs/Sr: 10 −3 m; I: 10 −5 m) concentrations, and headspace was held at atmospheric or undetectable ( 2 partial pressure. Solid phase characterization revealed the formation of the zeolite chabazite in “high” samples, whereas feldspathoids, sodalite and cancrinite, were formed preferentially in “low” samples. Sr, Cs and I were sequestered in all reacted sediments. Native calcite dissolution in the CO 2 -free treatment drove the formation of strätlingite (Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 ·8H 2 O) and diminished availability of Si and Al for feldspathoid formation. Results indicate that pCO 2 and contaminant concentrations strongly affect contaminant speciation in waste-weathered sediments, and are therefore likely to impact reaction product stability under any remediation scenario.

  15. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air separation of heavy metal contaminants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, M.E.; Harper, M.J.; Buckon, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Several heavy metal separation techniques are currently being developed for soil remediation at various Department of Defense and Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities. The majority of these techniques involve a wet process using water, pH modifiers or other compounds. The US Naval Academy (USNA) has developed a dry process for heavy metal separation. The process uses air classification technology to concentrate the metal contaminant into a fraction of the soil. The advantages of this dry process are that it creates no contaminated byproduct and uses commercially available technology. The USNA process is based on using a Gayco-Reliance air classifier. Tests have been conducted with the system at the Naval Academy and the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). The USNA tests used soil from the Nevada Test Site mixed with bismuth at a concentration of 500--1,000 ppm. The UNR tests used soil from four DOE sites mixed with uranium oxides and plutonium at an activity level of 100--700 pCi per gram. Concentration of activities and volume reduction percentages are presented for the various soils and contaminants tested

  17. Radiation protection aspects of the trafficking radionuclides contaminated metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper covers the legal base of the release in the environment of radionuclides containing materials and the radiation protection aspects of trafficking in radionuclides contaminated materials. Materials, substance and objects containing radionuclides or contaminated by them may be released into the environment, if they do not exceed values authorized by SONS (State Office of Nuclear Safety). Legislative measures should be taken against illicit trafficking of the nuclear material in all the areas. The creation of a sophisticated system for the control and regulation of all important radionuclides released into the environment should be based on the radiation protection limits, constraints, reference and exemption levels which are introduced in the legislative documents; the strong supervision of producers and users of the sealed sources by SONS side, in addition to the requirements of the licensing process of their sources; a complete data-base and information exchange system related to illicit trafficking in contaminated material; in this system all the authorities with jurisdiction should be involved. The responsibilities of the persons involved in metal scrap trafficking should include arrangement of appropriate monitoring, rules for transport of the metal scrap, an adequate measuring system to monitor metal scrap including monitoring to prevent processing or smelting of the radioactive material, control measures, etc. All of the above items of legislation are an important challenge for the Czech Republic. (author)

  18. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Urquiza, Esmeralda; Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan; Wu, Bing; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2017-09-01

    Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide. Using mussel haemocytes, a well-known model system to assess nanomaterial toxicity, we simultaneously assessed zinc accumulation and multiple cellular response endpoints. We found that intracellular zinc uptake was strongly enhanced by inulin coating, in comparison to the uncoated nanoparticles, while no significant effects on cell death, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane integrity, production of reactive oxygen species or lysosome abundance were observed at concentrations up to 20 ppm. Since no significant increments in toxicity were observed, the coated nanomaterials may be useful to increase in vivo zinc uptake for nutritional applications.

  19. Microlith-based Structured Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide, Humidity, and Trace Contaminant Control in Manned Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, SUbir; Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.

    2011-01-01

    To support continued manned space exploration, the development of atmosphere revitalization systems that are lightweight, compact, durable, and power efficient is a key challenge. The systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of habitats and should offer operational functionality to either expel removed constituents or capture them for closedloop recovery. As mission durations increase and exploration goals reach beyond low earth orbit, the need for regenerable adsorption processes for continuous removal of CO2 and trace contaminants from cabin air becomes critical. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA Marshall (MSFC) have been developing an Engineered Structured Sorbents (ESS) approach based on PCI s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future, extended human spaceflight explorations. This technology offers the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other sorbents with greater structural integrity, regenerability, and process control, thereby providing potential durability and efficiency improvements over current state-of-the-art systems. The major advantages of the ESS explored in this study are realized through the use of metal substrates to provide structural integrity (i.e., less partition of sorbents) and enhanced thermal control during the sorption process. The Microlith technology also offers a unique internal resistive heating capability that shows potential for short regeneration time and reduced power requirement compared to conventional systems. This paper presents the design, development, and performance results of the integrated adsorber modules for removing CO2, water vapor, and trace chemical contaminants. A related effort that utilizes the adsorber modules for sorption of toxic industrial chemicals is also discussed. Finally, the development of a 4-person two-leg ESS system for continuous CO2 removal is also presented.

  20. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  1. Spatial distribution of trace metals in water resources impacted by PGM activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the aquatic environment from natural and anthropogenic sources (such as industrial effluents and mining wastes). Trace metals can accumulate in fish (which are often at the top of the aquatic food chain) either through water or the food chain (1), and metals...

  2. Metal and nutrient dynamics in decomposing tree litter on a metal contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nevel, Lotte; Mertens, Jan; Demey, Andreas; De Schrijver, An; De Neve, Stefaan; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verheyen, Kris

    2014-01-01

    In a forest on sandy, metal polluted soil, we examined effects of six tree species on litter decomposition rates and accompanied changes in metal (Cd, Zn) and nutrient (base cations, N, C) amounts. Decomposition dynamics were studied by means of a litterbag experiment lasting for 30 months. The decomposition peak occurred within the first year for all tree species, except for aspen. During litter decomposition, high metal litter types released part of their accumulated metals, whereas low metal litter types were characterized by a metal enrichment. Base cations, N and C were released from all litter types. Metal release from contaminated litter might involve risks for metal dispersion towards the soil. On the other hand, metal enrichment of uncontaminated litter may be ecologically relevant as it can be easily transported or serve as food source. - Highlights: • Litter decomposition peak occurred within the first year for all tree species, except for aspen. • Base cations, N and C were released from all litter types during decomposition. • Cd and Zn were released from the high metal litter types. • Low metal litter types were characterized by a net Cd and Zn enrichment. • Metal and nutrient releases were reflected in topsoil characteristics. - Litter decomposition rates, as well as enrichment and release dynamics of metals and nutrients in decomposing litter were divergent under the different tree species

  3. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  4. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination.

  5. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination. PMID:26368503

  6. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  7. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kyle E.; Thomas, Sheeba M.; Bodour, Adria A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, βE2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  8. Use of zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha) to assess trace metals in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzano, J.; Lasheras, R.J.; Bonilla, A.; Anwar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ebro river (Spain) has been fairly contaminated by industrial effluents: The toxicity level of the river due to heavy metals has been monitored by analyzing zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) samples as bioindicator. To access the level of toxicity ten metals (AI, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn and Zn) were determined by Voltamperometry. The conditions of determination were optimized for each metal prior to determination. Aqueous solutions of metals concerned were used as standards in detenpinations. (author)

  9. A pilot test of methods for determination of trace metals bound to colloids in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kersti (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    Two methods have been tested for the determination of trace metals associated with colloid species in surface waters, using test water from Eckarfjaerden (PFM000070) in Forsmark; 1) fractionation (ultra filtration) using special membrane filters with cut-offs of 1 kD and 5 kD and 2) filtration using a system of standard membrane filters with varying pore sizes connected in series. Both methods were somewhat modified compared to previous methods for colloid determination in groundwater within the site investigations at Forsmark and Laxemar (PLU). The results show that, in general, the largest amounts of metals associated with a colloid phase were recovered in the fraction between 1kD and 5 kD which indicates that the metal ions are associated with low molecular weight organic acids. Similar amounts were recovered on the filters in the filtration experiment. A minor part of the colloidal phase metals was recovered in the fraction larger than 5 kD i.e. metal ions associated with larger organic acids or colloidal size clay minerals. The metals present preferably as colloids in the fractionation experiment were: iron, thorium, cerium, uranium, neodymium, titanium, zirconium and yttrium. The filtering experiment showed larger parts of titanium and aluminum in the colloid phase than the fractionation experiment while the iron and cerium portions were equal and the uranium, yttrium and neodymium portions were lower. The results from the fractionation test showed that the dissolved parts were large for barium, manganese, strontium and rubidium. In the filtration test, uranium, yttrium and rubidium, were also present mainly as dissolved ions. The detection limit for filter analysis of thorium was high, and the part of thorium present as colloids was determined to <50%. Issues and methodological problems: - Severe contamination caused interpretation difficulties for several metal ions, especially chromium, nickel and zinc. - Both methods are time consuming and difficult to

  10. Trace Metals in Groundwater and the Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment and Stabilization of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption)

  11. Characterisation of contaminated metals using an advanced statistical toolbox - Geostatistical characterisation of contaminated metals: methodology and illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Desnoyers, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Radiological characterisation plays an important role in the process to recycle contaminated or potentially contaminated metals. It is a platform for planning, identification of the extent and nature of contamination, assessing potential risk impacts, cost estimation, radiation protection, management of material arising from decommissioning as well as for the release of the materials as well as the disposal of the generated secondary waste as radioactive waste. Key issues in radiological characterisation are identification of objectives, development of a measurement and sampling strategy (probabilistic, judgmental or a combination thereof), knowledge management, traceability, recording and processing of obtained information. By applying advanced combination of statistical and geostatistical in the concept better performance can be achieved at a lower cost. This paper will describe the benefits with the usage of the available methods in the different stages of the characterisation, treatment and clearance processes aiming for reliable results in line with the data quality objectives. (authors)

  12. Studies of trace metals in fish, sediment and water from kpong reservior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yikpo, Wisdom Kwasi

    2014-06-01

    Water of good quality is indispensable to human survival on earth. The provision of potable water to both the rural and the urban populations is necessary to prevent health hazards. The aim of this research was to assess water quality with respect to physicochemical parameters and trace metals levels in the water, the sediment and the fish species from the Kpong Reservoir on the Lower Volta River. The water, the sediment and the fish samples were collected monthly for six (6) months from November 2011 to February 2012 (dry season) and from May to July 2012 ( wet season). The water, the sediment and the fish samples were analyzed for Hg, Se, Fe, Mn and Pb using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury was determined using a cold vapour technique with the AAS equipped with a hydride generator. Selenium was also determined by hydride generation. A mixture of nitric acid (HNO3 65%), hydrochloric acid ( HCl 35%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 30%) was used for complete oxidation of the organic sample in a fume chamber. The samples were loaded on a Milestone microwave Labstation ETHOS 900, INSTR:MLS -1200 MEGA. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in concentrations of the physicochemical parameters between the two seasons. Domestic, municipal and Agricultural waste might have contributed to the release of higher contaminants into the sediment in both seasons. Coefficients of variation for the physicochemical parameters were below 50%, while iron and lead in addition to phosphate and sulphate were more than 50%. The mean concentration of trace metals in the water were 0.008 mg/L for Hg, 0.0035 mg/L for Se, 0.255 mg/L for Fe, 0.087 mg/L for Mn and 0.135 mg/L for Pb. Levels of all trace metals were below the WHO guideline values, except Pb which exceeded at 0.05 mg/L. Levels of nutrients were also below the WHO guideline value except phosphate which recorded a standard deviation of ±0.02 for the WHO guideline value of 0.3 mg/ L. The

  13. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  14. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: dermonge@gmail.com [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  15. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Richer-Laflèche, M; Mercier, G

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions >250microm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor>2.5), and volume reduction (>80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (>5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 microm) showed the best flotation selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermont, G.; Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G.

    2010-01-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 μm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles ( 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 μm) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  17. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  18. Evaluation of Heavy and Trace Metals in Fingernails of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAHAB

    These elements have been produced by alteration and distribution via wind blow. The result indicates that soil or road dust plays an important role in the concentration buildup of the road side dust near automobile workshops. Table 2: Concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples in the automobile workshop. Metals.

  19. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  20. Johor strait as a hotspot for trace elements contamination in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Ismail, Ahmad; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies.

  1. Metal contamination and post-remediation recovery in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Church, Stanley E; Nimick, David A.; Fey, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The legacy of acid mine drainage and toxic trace metals left in streams by historical mining is being addressed by many important yet costly remediation efforts. Monitoring of environmental conditions frequently is not performed but is essential to evaluate remediation effectiveness, determine whether clean-up goals have been met, and assess which remediation strategies are most effective. Extensive pre- and post-remediation data for water and sediment quality for the Boulder River watershed in southwestern Montana provide an unusual opportunity to demonstrate the importance of monitoring. The most extensive restoration in the watershed occurred at the Comet mine on High Ore Creek and resulted in the most dramatic improvement in aquatic habitat. Removal of contaminated sediment and tailings, and stream-channel reconstruction reduced Cd and Zn concentrations in water such that fish are now present, and reduced metal concentrations in streambed sediment by a factor of c. 10, the largest improvement in the district. Waste removals at the Buckeye/Enterprise and Bullion mine sites produced limited or no improvement in water and sediment quality, and acidic drainage from mine adits continues to degrade stream aquatic habitat. Recontouring of hillslopes that had funnelled runoff into the workings of the Crystal mine substantially reduced metal concentrations in Uncle Sam Gulch, but did not eliminate all of the acidic adit drainage. Lead isotopic evidence suggests that the Crystal mine rather than the Comet mine is now the largest source of metals in streambed sediment of the Boulder River. The completed removal actions prevent additional contaminants from entering the stream, but it may take many years for erosional processes to diminish the effects of contaminated sediment already in streams. Although significant strides have been made, additional efforts to seal draining adits or treat the adit effluent at the Bullion and Crystal mines would need to be completed to

  2. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  3. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  4. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ducamorim@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  5. Composition of Trace Metals in Dust Samples Collected from Selected High Schools in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olowoyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential health risks associated with trace metal pollution have necessitated the importance of monitoring their levels in the environment. The present study investigated the concentrations and compositions of trace metals in dust samples collected from classrooms and playing ground from the selected high schools In Pretoria. Schools were selected from Pretoria based on factors such as proximity to high traffic ways, industrial areas, and residential areas. Thirty-two dust samples were collected from inside and outside the classrooms, where learners often stay during recess period. The dust samples were analysed for trace metal concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The composition of the elements showed that the concentrations of Zn were more than all other elements except from one of the schools. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the schools (p<0.05. Regular cleaning, proximity to busy road, and well maintained gardens seem to have positive effects on the concentrations of trace metals recorded from the classrooms dust. The result further revealed a positive correlation for elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Sb, indicating that the dust might have a common source.

  6. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  7. Variations in atmospheric PM trace metal content in Spanish towns: Illustrating the chemical complexity of the inorganic urban aerosol cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; Artiñano, Begoña; de la Rosa, Jesús; Gibbons, Wes

    The majority of the Spanish urban population breathe air containing inhalable ambient airborne particles at average concentrations of 30-46 μg m -3 (PM 10) and 20-30 μg m -3 (PM 2.5). Even though the average weight of inhaled urban aerosol is commonly similar, however, there can be large chemical differences between the ambient dusts from different towns, including the more bioreactive elements such as some metals. In this context, we compare the source-apportioned trace metal content of airborne PM 10 and PM 2.5 collected daily over a 1-year period from six population centres in Spain: Barcelona, Alcobendas, Llodio, Huelva, Tarragona and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Total average trace metal (ΣTM) PM 10 and PM 2.5 contents vary by up to a factor of around 3, reaching a maximum of ΣTM 10 811 ng m -3 and ΣTM 2.5 503 ng m -3 at Llodio, an industrial but humid site with the lowest PM 10 mass levels but high contamination by Zn, Pb, Mn, Sn, Ni and Cr. In contrast, pollution at Huelva, although another industrially influenced site, instead emphasises Cu and As, whereas Barcelona, where traffic emissions and resuspension contribute to some of the highest average PM 10 levels in Spain, has unusually raised levels of Ti, V and Ba. Such variations in both daily and annual average PM bulk chemistry, particularly in potentially toxic trace metals concentrated in the finer aerosols (such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Ni), predict that PM health effects on resident populations from different towns are unlikely to be the same.

  8. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kefeng; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal soubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  9. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kefeng [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Ramakrishna, Wusirika, E-mail: wusirika@mtu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal soubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  10. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  11. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  12. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  13. DETERMINATION OF TRACE HEAVY METALS IN SOME TEXTILE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    the environmental and industrial samples including textile products [1-5]. Textile is one of the ... Toxic and allergic metals including cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and chemicals like formaldehyde and chlorinated hydrocarbons can exist in ...

  14. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JohnDOCTOR;OFFIONG, edu

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... Edu Inam*, John B. Edet, and Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong. Department of ... as they are difficult to metabolize (Pezzarossa et al.,. 2011). ... Metals from this source get leached into ..... Besnard E, Chenu C, Robert M (2001).

  15. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, as well as ... solids, (2) separation of suspended solids by chemical ... Total Metal Concentration Of The Wastewater: The .... Copper adsorption by esterifies and unesterified fractions of sphagnum peat ...

  16. Trace metals in pelagic organisms from the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of current interest in heavy metal pollution in the marine environment much information is accruing on the present levels of metals in certain marine species. By far the majority of the studies have involved elemental analysis of coastal organisms which are relatively easy to collect. However, due to inherent problems in sampling, far less information exists on element concentration in pelagic organisms, species which are important in terms of total marine biomass, their position in the food web, and their ability to concentrate and transport relatively large amounts of metals in various ways. Microplankton and larger zooplanktonic and nektonic species were sampled over a wide geographical range throughout the Mediterranean as well as along selected transects to assess possible gradients in metal concentrations in plankton communities

  17. Estuarine modification of dissolved and particulate trace metals in major rivers of East-Hainan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Tang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jing; Balzer, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Wenchang/Wenjiao river estuary significant trace metal contamination was observed.

  18. Trace metal uptake by garden herbs and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C; Mather, F

    1986-12-01

    In many regions of Iran, crops are irrigated with municipal and industrial wastewater that contain a variety of metals. The purpose of this study was to simulate the level of metals that may be presented to plants over a growing season in a controlled laboratory setting. Cadmium, lead, arsenic, chromium, mercury, nickel, copper, zinc, and selenium were applied to plants at the high rate of 200 g metal/ha/wk. The following plants were examined for metal accumulation and effects on yield: garden cress (Lipidium sativum), leek (Allium porrum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), mint (Mentha arvensis L.), onion (Allium capa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and tarragon (Artemisia draculus L.). All plants showed significant uptake of all metals when compared to control (p=0.05), and growth was significantly reduced (p=0.05). Cadmium and chromium levels of 85±7.4 and 47.6±8.9 μg/g); selenium levels were highest in tarragon (16.5±5.8 μg/g). Zinc levels were similar (p=0.05) in all species tested, as were mercury and lead. The remaining metals (nickel and copper) showed significant differences in uptake, depending on plant species.

  19. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  20. Distribution of particulate trace metals in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, D.; Murty, P.V.S.P.; Sarma, V.V.

    continuous increase from surface to bottom in the case ofFe, Ni, which appeared to be related to a combination offactors suchas authigenicprecipita tion/scavenging, rcsuspension of bottom rich sediments, and diffusion followed by precipitation at sedimcnt... ), most of these studies do not provide information onthe interaction of trace elements with particulate matter. The present study deals with the distribution of particulate trace metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and their possible interactions...

  1. trace metals in selected fish species from lakes awassa and ziway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    were collected from six sampling stations in Lakes Awassa and Ziway, Ethiopia. The edible ... Concentrations of trace elements in the fishes ranged (µg element/g dry mass): Zn. 23.04–30.92; Fe ...... water and soil sediments from some fishponds. Int. J. Environ. ... radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environ- ment and ...

  2. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  3. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  5. Assessment of Heavy and Trace Metals in Surface Soil Nearby an Oil Refinery, Saudi Arabia, Using Geoaccumulation and Pollution Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh; El-Taher, A

    2018-04-30

    The present study deals with the measurement of heavy and trace metals in the soils of Ras Tanura city nearby one of the oldest and largest oil refineries located on Arabian Gulf, eastern Saudi Arabia. Metals were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples using plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPE-9820). The result showed that the mean values of the metals concentrations were in the order: Cd > Mo > Tb > Ce > Hf > Eu > Yb > U > Sm > Rb > Cr > Ni > Pb > Sc > Cs > Zn > Lu > Co. The mean values of Cd (39.9 mg/kg), Mo (13.2 mg/kg), Eu (4.01 mg/kg), Hf (6.09 mg/kg), Tb (8.23 mg/kg), and Yb (3.88) in soil samples were higher than the background values in soil and the world average. The obtained results indicated to elevated levels of Cd and Mo in most samples, with mean concentrations exceeded the background levels by 113 times for Cd and 5 times for Mo. Pollution index (PI) and Geoaccumulation (I geo ) for each metal were calculated to assess the metal contamination level of surface soil in the study area. The assessment results of PI and I geo revealed a significant pollution by Cd, Mo, Eu, Hf, Tb, and Yb in most of sampling sites nearby Ras Tanura refinery.

  6. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1999-04-23

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple

  7. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction

  8. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. II. Trace metal concentrations in the Magela Creek billabongs at the end of the 1978 dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.H.R.; Hart, B.T.

    1981-12-01

    Billabongs downstream of the Ranger uranium mining operation have been identified as potential deposition areas for released trace metals. Samples were taken at the end of the dry season and analysed for total and filterable concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu and Zn. There was an increase in the concentrations of total Fe, Zn, Cd and Cu in the backflow and flood plain billabongs compared with the concentrations recorded during the wet season. The increase was most noticeable for iron

  9. Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Husain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Nidhi

    2017-12-01

    Surface water samples from Godavari river basin was analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of eight heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analyzed data revealed that iron and zinc metals were found to be the most abundant metals in the river Godavari and its tributaries. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest, while cadmium (Cd) had the least concentration. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron and zinc metals are within the acceptable limit of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 1050 (2012) Specification for drinking water, pp 1-5). The analysis of Godavari river and its tributary's water samples reveals that the water is contaminated at selected points which are not suitable for drinking. Nickel and Copper concentration is above acceptable limit and other metal concentration is within the acceptable limit. Comprehensive study of the results reveals that out of 18 water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 7 water quality stations are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes. While Rajegaon, Tekra, Nandgaon, P. G. Bridge, Bhatpalli, Kumhari, Pauni, Hivra, Ashti, Bamini, and Jagda stations were beyond the desirable limit due to presence of copper and nickel metals. The contents of copper metal ions were higher at some water quality stations on Wunna river (Nandgaon); Wardha river (Hivra) and Wainganga river (Kumhari, Pauni, Ashti) during Feb. 2012, while nickel concentration during Feb. 2012, June 2012, March 2013 and Aug. 2013 at some water quality stations on rivers Bagh, Indravati, Pranhita, Wunna, Penganga, Peddavagu, Wainganga and Wardha. It can be concluded that rapid population growth and industrialization have brought about resource degradation and a decline in environmental quality.

  10. Comprehensive large-scale investigation and assessment of trace metal in the coastal sediments of Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjun; Gao, Xuelu; Gu, Yanbin; Wang, Ruirui; Xie, Pengfei; Liang, Miao; Ming, Hongxia; Su, Jie

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is characterized as a semi-closed sea with limited water exchange ability, which has been regarded as one of the most contaminated regions in China and has attracted public attention over the past decades. In recent years, the rapid industrialization and urbanization around the coastal region has resulted in a severe pollution pressure in the Bohai Sea. Although efforts from official government and scientific experts have been made to protect and restore the marine ecosystem, satisfactory achievements were not gained. Moreover, partial coastal areas in the Bohai Sea seemingly remain heavily polluted. In this study, we focused on five coastal regions around the Bohai Sea to study the spatial distribution pattern of trace elements in the sediments and their ecological risk. A total of 108 sediment samples were analyzed to determine the contamination degree of trace elements (Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Hg). Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were utilized to assess the pollution extent of these metals. Spatial distribution patterns revealed that the sedimentary environments of coastal Bohai were in good condition, except Jinzhou Bay, according to the Marine Sediment Quality of China. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were considerably higher than the average upper crust value and presented high potential ecological risk and considerable potential ecological risk, respectively. The overall environment quality of the coastal Bohai Sea does not seem to pose an extremely serious threat in terms of metal pollution. Thus, the government should continue implementing pollution control programs in the Bohai Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of contaminated areas by trace elements: mechanisms and major benefits of their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lucélia; Soares, Claúdio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Giachini, Admir José; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of trace elements has increased in soil and water, mainly by industrialization and urbanization. Recovery of contaminated areas is generally complex. In that respect, microorganisms can be of vital importance by making significant contributions towards the establishment of plants and the stabilization of impacted areas. Among the available strategies for environmental recovery, bioremediation and phytoremediation outstand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered the most important type of mycorrhizae for phytoremediation. AMF have broad occurrence in contaminated soils, and evidences suggest they improve plant tolerance to excess of certain trace elements. In this review, the use of AMF in phytoremediation and mechanisms involved in their trace element tolerance are discussed. Additionally, we present some techniques used to study the retention of trace elements by AMF, as well as a summary of studies showing major benefits of AMF for phytoremediation.

  12. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric [Division of Community, Environment, and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1656 E. Mabel St., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Ela, Wendell [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eduardo Sáez, A., E-mail: esaez@arizona.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A laboratory dust fractionator was developed for the production of respirable dust. • The size-dependent distribution of arsenic and lead in mine tailings dust is reported. • Metal and metalloid contaminants are enriched in particles smaller than 10 μm. • Lead isotope signatures show spread of mine tailings particles onto surrounding soils. - Abstract: The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of <10 μm aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure.

  13. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A laboratory dust fractionator was developed for the production of respirable dust. • The size-dependent distribution of arsenic and lead in mine tailings dust is reported. • Metal and metalloid contaminants are enriched in particles smaller than 10 μm. • Lead isotope signatures show spread of mine tailings particles onto surrounding soils. - Abstract: The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of <10 μm aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure

  14. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  15. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils...... from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42– radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of 142 ± 20 nmol cm–3 day–1. Concentrations...... of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone...

  16. Hazard potential of widespread but hidden historic offshore heavy metal (Pb, Zn) contamination (Gulf of Cadiz, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J J; King, Mary Lee; Mendes, Isabel; Lebreiro, Susana; Lobo, Francisco J; Oberle, Ferdinand K; Antón, Laura; Ferreira, Paulo Alves; Reguera, Maria Isabel

    2018-05-10

    Natural and human-induced seabed sediment disturbances affect wide areas of the global coastal ocean. These recurrent to chronic disturbances mobilize significant amounts of material, including substances that have the potential to significantly harm the environment once re-released. This very challenging issue is difficult to deal with if sub-surface contaminant concentrations are unknown. Based on the analysis of 11 new, up to 5-m long sediment cores taken offshore in the Gulf of Cadiz, the contamination history (using the trace elements lead and zinc) is well documented over major parts of the gulf. Ore mining and metal processing industries on the southwestern Iberian Peninsula started five thousand years ago and experienced a first peak during the Roman Period, which can be detected over the entire gulf. The Industrial Era added a massive, shelf-wide heavy metal excursion of unprecedented dimension. This metal contamination to the coastal ocean decreased in the 1990s and appears to be today limited to larger areas off the Tinto/Odiel and Guadiana River mouths. The unforeseen, significant finding of this study is that the gulf-wide, peak heavy metal concentration, stemming from the Industrial Era, is widely overlain by a modern sediment veneer just thick enough to cover the contaminant horizon, but thin enough to have this layer within the reach of natural or human-induced sediment mobilization events. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparative analysis of trace metal accumulation in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.R.; Lindberg, S.E.; Coe, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wet- and dry-deposition inputs and streamflow outputs of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn were measured at four forested watersheds in the southeastern United States. Atmospheric inputs to each site were similar, varying by a factor of 1.1 to 2.2. Dry deposition dominated input of Mn, while wet deposition was the major process for the other metals (54 to 85% of total). Except for Mn, the metals were strongly retained by each system: only 2% of the Pb, 8 to 29% of the Cd, and 8 to 34% of the Zn inputs were transported in annual streamflow. Metal export is related to stream pH, dissolved organic carbon, and bedrock geology at each site

  18. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-01-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  19. Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon and trace element contaminants in coastal waters of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, E E M; Wright, S R; Barry, J; Bolam, T P C; Ghareeb, K; Ghaloom, M; Al-Kanderi, N; Harley, B F M; Le Quesne, W J F; Devlin, M J; Lyons, B P

    2017-07-15

    Nine trace elements including As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed from water samples collected from 23 stations since 1984 from Kuwaiti coastal waters. Here it was investigated whether concentrations of these determinants are at levels above Kuwaiti and internationally established assessment criteria (AC). The results indicate that Cu and Cd had the most Kuwaiti AC breaches over time. Comparing the data of the last sampled year to the least stringent international AC, then Cu and Cd showed breaches at all stations. The trends for trace metals are significantly downwards, especially for Cd and Hg. No determinant measured showed a significant upward trend, indicating that water pollution for these contaminants is not a worsening situation. However, further sampling should be carried out to confirm these findings, especially at shoreline locations, where routine monitoring ceased in 2011 to investigate any recent changes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  1. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  2. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  3. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  4. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  5. Study of particle size and trace metal distribution in atmospheric aerosols of islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.H.; Shaheen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on glass fibre filters using high volume air samplers Half of each aerosol sample was solubilized in nitric acid/hydrochloric acid based wet digestion method and the concentration of trace metals was determined through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the eight trace metals analyzed, mean concentration recorded for Zn (844 ng/m3), Fe (642 ng/m3) and Pb (253 ng/m3), was found to be higher than mean levels of Mn, Cr and Co. The size distribution of the collected particulate samples was carried out on mastersizer, which revealed PM/sub 100-10/ as the major fraction (55 %) followed by PM/sub 2.5-10/ (28 %). The correlation study evidenced a strong tendency of trace metals to be associated with fine particulate fractions. The atmospheric trace metal levels showed that the mean metal concentrations in the atmosphere of Islamabad are far higher than background and European urban sites mainly due to the anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  6. Molecular Speciation of Trace Metal Organic Complexes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R. M.; Bundy, R. M.; Babcock-Adams, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial production across approximately one third of the surface ocean is limited by extraordinarily low (picomolar) concentrations of dissolved iron, essentially all of which is complexed to strong organic ligands of unknown composition. Other biologically important trace metals (cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel) are also complexed to strong organic ligands, which again have not been extensively characterized. Nevertheless, organic ligands exert a strong influence on metal bioavailability and toxicity. For example, amendment experiments using commercially available siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, show these ligands can both facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on the siderophore composition and available uptake pathways. Over the past few years we have developed analytical techniques using high pressure liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify and quantify trace metal organic complexes in laboratory cultures of marine microbes and in seawater. We found siderophores to be widely distributed in the ocean, particularly in regions characterized by low iron concentrations. We also find chemically distinct complexes of copper, zinc, colbalt and nickel that we have yet to fully characterize. We will discuss some of our recent work on trace metal organic speciation in seawater and laboratory cultures, and outline future efforts to better understand the microbial cycling of trace metal organic complexes in the sea.

  7. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  8. Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... of Calabar River are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 4, 5 and 6 present the correlation matrices for sediment, surface water and N. lotus samples respec- tively, showing values of Pearson's correlation coefficient. (p<0.05, n=4) for pairs of heavy metals at the four locations. The concentrations of As, Cd, ...

  9. LEVELS OF MAJOR AND TRACE METALS IN THE LEAVES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    to meet some of their primary health care needs. In Africa, up to ... of children with high fever resulting from malaria is the use of herbal medicines at home [3]. Many of the .... Blending device (Moulex, France) and ceramic pestle and mortar were used for grinding and ..... minimize the risk of these two heavy metal toxicity.

  10. Trace metal levels in the sediments of the Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Remani, K.N.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Levels of Cu, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn at four stations in the northern arm of the Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India, which runs through an industrial belt is reported. All metals showed some degree of variation over the area studied. Co showed the lowest...

  11. concentration levels of major and trace metals in onion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    like stews, soups, tomato sauces, cooked vegetables and meat by slicing, chopping, ... including metal concentrations in soils, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, ... determination was done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (Buck ...... Margen, S. Onions, The Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, ...

  12. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  13. Fingerprinting two metal contaminants in streams with Cu isotopes near the Dexing Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shiming [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China); Mathur, Ryan, E-mail: mathurr@juniata.edu [Department of Geology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA (United States); Ruiz, Joaquin [Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chen, Dandan [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China); Allin, Nicholas [Department of Geology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA (United States); Guo, Kunyi; Kang, Wenkai [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-15

    Transition metal isotope signatures are becoming useful for fingerprinting sources in surface waters. This study explored the use of Cu isotope values to trace dissolved metal contaminants in stream water throughout a watershed affected by mining by-products of the Dexing Mine, the largest porphyry Cu operation in Asia. Cu isotope values of stream water were compared to potential mineral sources of Cu in the mining operation, and to proximity to the known Cu sources. The first mineral source, chalcopyrite, CuFeS{sub 2} has a ‘tight’ cluster of Cu isotope values (− 0.15‰ to + 1.65‰; + 0.37 ± 0.6‰, 1σ, n = 10), and the second mineral source, pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), has a much larger range of Cu isotope values (− 4‰ to + 11.9‰; 2.7 ± 4.3‰, 1σ, n = 16). Dissolved Cu isotope values of stream water indicated metal derived from either chalcopyrite or pyrite. Above known Cu mineralization, stream waters are approximately + 1.5‰ greater than the average chalcopyrite and are interpreted as derived from weathering of chalcopyrite. In contrast, dissolved Cu isotope values in stream water emanating from tailings piles had Cu isotope values similar to or greater than pyrite (>+6‰, a common mineral in the tailings). These values are interpreted as sourced from the tailings, even in solutions that possess significantly lower concentrations of Cu (< 0.05 ppm). Elevated Cu isotope values were also found in two soil and two tailings samples (δ{sup 65}Cu ranging between + 2 to + 5‰). These data point to the mineral pyrite in tailings as the mineral source for the elevated Cu isotope values. Therefore, Cu isotope values of waters emanating from a clearly contaminated drainage possess different Cu isotope values, permitting the discrimination of Cu derived from chalcopyrite and pyrite in solution. Data demonstrate the utility of Cu isotopic values in waters, minerals, and soils to fingerprint metallic contamination for environmental problems. - Highlights:

  14. Human impact on fluvial sediments: distinguishing regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, T.; Matys Grygar, T.; Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2012-04-01

    Industrial pollution can provide a useful tool to study spatiotemporal distribution of modern floodplain sediments, trace their provenance, and allow their dating. Regional contamination of southern Moravia (the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic) by heavy metals during the 20th century was determined in fluvial sediments of the Morava River by means of enrichment factors. The influence of local sources and sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in overbank fines with different lithology and facies. For this purpose, samples were obtained from hand-drilled cores from regulated channel banks, with well-defined local sources of contamination (factories in Zlín and Otrokovice) and also from near naturally inundated floodplains in two nature protected areas (at 30 km distance). The analyses were performed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF), ICP MS (EDXRF samples calibration, 206Pb/207Pb ratio), magnetic susceptibility, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and 137Cs and 210Pb activities. Enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) and magnetic susceptibility of overbank fines in near-naturally (near annually) inundated areas allowed us to reconstruct historical contamination by heavy metals in the entire study area independently on lithofacies. Measured lithological background values were then used for calculation of EFs in the channel sediments and in floodplain sediments deposited within narrow part of a former floodplain which is now reduced to about one quarter of its original width by flood defences. Sediments from regulated channel banks were found stratigraphically and lithologically "erratic", unreliable for quantification of regional contamination due to a high variability of sedimentary environment. On the other hand, these sediments are very sensitive to the nearby local sources of heavy metals. For a practical work one must first choose whether large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination should be reconstructed

  15. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  16. Interpretation of complexometric titration data: An intercomparison of methods for estimating models of trace metal complexation by natural organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pižeta, I.; Sander, S.G.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Omanovic, D.; Baars, O.; Barbeau, K.A.; Buck, K.N.; Bundy, R.M.; Carrasco, G.; Croot, P.L.; Garnier, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Gledhill, M.; Hirose, K.; Kondo, Y.; Laglera, L.M.; Nuester, J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Takeda, S.; Twining, B.S.; Wells, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the common goal of more accurately and consistently quantifying ambient concentrations of free metal ions and natural organic ligands in aquatic ecosystems, researchers from 15 laboratories that routinely analyze trace metal speciation participated in an intercomparison of statistical methods

  17. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6< EF<4.0), mainly at sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5< EF<1.0 was obtained, indicating that they mostly originate from crustal contribution. The Igeo Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0< EF<2.0) were obtained, and, according to this criteria, these sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  18. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6contaminated. (author)

  19. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  20. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E; Scheinost, Andreas C; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the (35)SO(4)(2-) radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that approximately 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [(13)C]acetate- and [(13)C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems.

  1. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of the rivers of Sundarban mangrove forest, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Al-Mamun, A; Hossain, F; Quraishi, S B; Naher, K; Khan, R; Das, S; Tamim, U; Hossain, S M; Nahid, F

    2017-11-15

    In this study, total concentrations of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th and U) in sediments of the rivers of the Sundarban mangrove forest, after the catastrophic oil spill accident in the Sela river of Sundarban, were determined. The overall mean concentrations of V, Cr, Fe and Cd in surface sediments of the Sundarban are remarkably higher than available literature data of those elements. Trace element contamination assessment, using different environmental contamination indices, reveals that As, Sb, Th and U are low to moderately contaminated while Cd is moderately to severely contaminated in the sediments of this area. The multivariate statistical analyses were applied to reveal the origin and behavior of the elements during their transport in the mangrove ecosystem. High Cr, Ni, Cu and As concentrations suggest the risk of potentially adverse biological effects in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strippable gel for decontamination of contaminated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.; Wattal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Periodic decontamination of radioactive laboratories including fume hoods, glove boxes and all surfaces used for handling, processing and transporting radioactive materials is mandatory in all nuclear installations as this reduces spread of