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Sample records for trace level concentrations

  1. concentration levels of major and trace metals in onion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    like stews, soups, tomato sauces, cooked vegetables and meat by slicing, chopping, ... including metal concentrations in soils, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, ... determination was done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (Buck ...... Margen, S. Onions, The Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, ...

  2. Comparative study on TSPM levels, anions and trace metal concentrations at BARC during the years 2000-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Prathibha, P.; Kothai, G.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Venkat Raj, V.; Kumar, Shaji C.

    2003-01-01

    Both total and respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Mumbai have been identified as the single largest pollutant associated with the health impacts in the community. This study deals with the extensive monitoring work carried out at BARC, Trombay during the period 2000-2002. The paper also deals with the comparative status of the TSPM levels and select trace metal and anion concentrations. While Pb levels have stabilized over the years following the introduction of unleaded gasoline, sulphate as a major contributor in the fine fraction of SPM assumes importance. The possible source profiles are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Studies of cation exchange for the isolation and concentration of trace level components of complex aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczvinsky, J.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Trace level organic bases are concentrated from aqueous solution by cation exchange on a column of sulfonated macroreticular XAD-4 resin. Washing of the column with organic solvents removes neutrals and acids. Ammonia gas is introduced into the column prior to elution of the basic organics with either methanol or ether containing ammonia. After solvent evaporation, the concentrated sample is analyzed by gas chromatography. Recoveries of over 85% are found with at least one of the eluents for over 50 bases tested at levels < 1 ppm. Improved recoveries and reproducibility are seen over a simple ether extraction procedure. Samples of river water, shale oil process water, and supernatant from an agricultural chemical disposal pit are analyzed. Preliminary studies of functionalized poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)s, coated exchangers, and liquid ion exchangers as possible approaches to nuclear waste decontamination are performed

  4. Quantification of total aluminium concentrations in food samples at trace levels by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Braja B.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Total aluminium contents in various food samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) methods. A total of 16 rice samples, collected from the field, were analyzed by INAA using reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor. Whereas a total 17 spices collected from market, were analyzed by both INAA and PIGE methods in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Aluminium concentration values were found to be in the range of 19-845 mg kg -1 for spices and 15-104 mg kg -1 for rice samples. The methods were validated by analyzing standard reference materials (SRMs) form NIST. (author)

  5. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    The determination of trace level concentrations of elements, such as metal species, in complex matrices by atomic absorption or emission spectrometric methods often require appropriate pretreatments comprising separation of the analyte from interfering constituents and analyte preconcentration...... are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...

  6. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  7. Determination of elemental concentrations at trace levels in alumina by charged particle activation analysis using proton beam from VEC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    The elemental impurities have been determined in high purity alumina material used in nuclear reactors at ppb (μg kg -1 ) to ppm (mg kg -1 ) levels by CPAA using proton beam from VEC machine. Proton beam has the advantage of high cross section for (p, n) reaction to produce suitable nuclide for activation analysis by instrumental approach. The cross sections of higher reaction channels like (p, 2n), (p, pn) are found to be less than 1 mb below 13 MeV proton by theoretical calculation using ALICE 91 computer code. Therefore, 13 MeV proton beam was used to irradiate the alumina samples along with standards, Lake (IAEA-SL -1 ) and Marine (PACS-2) sediments, both in pellet and powder forms. The irradiation was carried out with 50 nA to 1μA beam current for 10 min to 10 h depending on types of samples and standards. The beam current was measured by Faraday cup and also checked by putting Ti monitoring foil before the target. Ni is determined by (p, pn) reaction using 18 MeV proton as there is no suitable product from (p, n) reaction. The counting measurements of irradiated samples were performed with a high resolution γ-spectrometer using HPGe detector (relative efficiency - 40%, resolution - 2.0 keV at 1332 keV) coupled to a PC based 8 k MCA. The validation of the CPAA results has been carried out by INAA with the same alumina samples, carried out in Dhruva reactor with neutron flux 10 14 cm 2 s -1 using standards IAEA-SL-1 and PACS-2

  8. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  9. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  10. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza

    2016-01-15

    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the details on the aspects of Coal quality such as proximate, ultimate, calorific value and trace element concentration and its impact on human health. Trace elements are present in very low percentage in coal but their concentration increases manifold after coal combustion and utilization.

  12. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase Creek in Niger ... arsenic, chromium, lead, molybdenum, bismuth and cadmium using atomic ... metal pollution, metal variation, environmental monitoring, bioaccumulation.

  13. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, Pdodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Radionuclides and selected trace elements in marine protein concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T M; Jokela, T A; Eagle, R J

    1971-12-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements and radionuclides have been measured in marine protein concentrates prepared from surface feeding fishes. As with concentrates prepared from benthic fishes, the /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Po pair are the most significant radionuclides present. Concentrations of stable Pb, Co and Ag in certain concentrates are sufficiently high to contribute substantially to estimated current intakes of these elements.

  15. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  16. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 μg/g, 49 μg/g, and 272 μg/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel

  17. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. Introduction. Ankobra basin is one of the main mining areas in Ghana. The major minerals mined in this area include gold, manganese, bauxite and diamond. Gold mining in this basin dates about 500 ...

  18. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) technology can offer rapid and cost-effective determination of the trace elements concentrations in soils. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of soil moisture content under different condition on PXRF measurement quality. For this purpose, PXRF was used to evaluate the soil ...

  19. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 . The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  20. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  1. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  2. Trace element concentrations in human bone using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amri, F.A.; El-Kabroun, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to analyze 23 bone samples obtained from Libyan patient aged (3-80) years for the study of the concentration levels of trace elements Ba, Br, Ca, Fe, Sr and Zn and their concentration patterns regarding to the age and sex of the patients. (author)

  3. Determination of Trace Concentration in TMD Detectors using PGAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomandl I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmutation detectors could be alternative to the traditional activation detector method for neutron fluence dosimetry at power nuclear reactors. This new method require an isotopically highly-sensitive, non-destructive in sense of compactness as well as isotopic content, precise and standardly used analytical method for trace concentration determination. The capability of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA for determination of trace concentrations of transmuted stable nuclides in the metallic foils of Ni, Au, Cu and Nb, which were irradiated for 21 days in the reactor core at the LVR-15 research reactor in Řež, is reported. The PGAA measurements of these activation foils were performed at the PGAA facility at Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII in Garching.

  4. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  5. Trace element concentrations of wild saltwater crocodile eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolis, S.C.; Webb, G.J.; Britton, A.R.; Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) accumulate trace elements from the environment into their flesh and bones (Jeffree et al., 2001a). Elevated levels of metals (e.g. Hg, Zn, Pb), organochlorines (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (e.g. radiocesium) have been recorded in blood, tissues and eggs of several crocodilian species (Manolis et al., this volume). In this study the concentrations of various elements (including metals) were measured in the yolk of C. porosus eggs collected from the Finniss River and two other distant nesting sites (Melacca Swamp, a spring-fed freshwater swamp; Adelaide River, a tidal river) during the 2000- 01 nesting season. Infertile eggs from 30 clutches (Adelaide 12, Melacca 8, Finniss 10) were opened and the yolk contents removed (after Webb et al., 1987) and frozen. Samples of yolk were then oven-dried, digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest solutions were then analysed for 20 elements (see Table 1) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Similarities between the elemental composition of eggs from the three areas suggests that downstream contamination from Rum Jungle Mine is not apparent in C. porosus nesting in the Finniss River. These nesting areas are some 60 km downstream of the mine site, and contaminants are probably greatly diluted during the wet season. C. porosus were also intensively hunted in the Finniss River area during the 1950s and 1960s, until their protection in 1971 (Webb et al. 1984). Some females would have been recruited into the population after the period of mining. Long-term effects of the mine may be apparent in areas with Australian freshwater crocodiles (C. johnstoni), mainly upstream of C. porosus nesting areas and up to the mine. Examination of tissues and eggs of C. johnstoni may provide more information on the historical effects of the mine

  6. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  7. Extraction chromatography of trace concentrations of mercury(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, Z.; Zepla, Z.; Tauferova, J.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of trace amounts of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions has been studied in mixtures of other metal ions (concentration Hg(II) 10 μg/100 ml). The Hg(II) separation was carried out in glass columns filled with Synachrom E-5 carrier impregnanted with a solution of bis(diethyldithiocarbamate)-copper(II) in a mixture of 1.2-dichlorbenzene and cyclohexane (1:1). Trapped Hg(II) was eluted by HCl. The course of the chromatographic process was followed by gamma spectroscopy. Separation yields of Hg(II) were about 90%. (author)

  8. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  9. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortasi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of trace metals in ground water from the Ankobra basin revealed high levels of iron, manganese and aluminium. Approximately 40% of boreholes had total iron concentration exceeding 1000 μ 1 -1 (maximum WHO permissible limit). Aluminium concentration varied from 0.1 μ to 2510 μ 1 -1 with a median value of 10.0 μ 1 -1 . Approximately 20% of the boreholes had aluminium concentration exceeding the WHO maximum acceptable limit (200 μ 1 -1 ) for drinking water. Manganese concentration was in the range 6-2510 μ 1 -1 with a median of 356 μ 1 -1 . Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentrations higher that 500 μ 1 -1 , which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentrations of mercury was higher than 1.0 μ 1 -1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in insignificant concentration in the boreholes, include lead, arsenic, nickel and selenium. Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. (au)

  10. Trace elements levels in centenarian ‘dodgers’

    OpenAIRE

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or ‘dodgers’ (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant ...

  11. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence.

  12. Serum concentrations of trace elements in patients with Crohn's disease receiving enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johtatsu, Tomoko; Andoh, Akira; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Masaya

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the trace element status in Crohn's disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental(R) (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 +/- 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 +/- 2.8 microg/dl, 71.0 +/- 14.8 microg/dl, and 112.0 +/- 25.6 microg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 microg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.

  13. Trace element concentration in head hair of the inhabitans of the Rawalpindi-Islamabad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Chaudhary, M.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique has been used to determine the concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from 105 individuals living in various areas of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. The data show that the average concentrations of Mn, Co, Ag and Au are higher in the female group as compared to the male group. Four individuals were found to have elevated levels of Se due to the use of anti-dandruff shampoos, whereas two individuals had elevated levels of Hg. (author)

  14. studies on trace metal concentration pseudotolithus elongatus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Trace metals, Lead Pollution, Pseudotolithus elongatus, Mbo coastal waters, ..... Analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and ... Pekey, H., Karakas, D., and Bakog'lu, M., 2004. Source apportionment of trace metals in the surface.

  15. Trace Metals Concentration Assessment in Urban Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Principal component analysis revealed that major sources of trace metals in ambient air ... contributed by earth crust and windblown soil .... Source Apportionment: To probe the origin of trace .... atmospheric accumulation of heavy metals and.

  16. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  17. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  18. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  19. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  20. Trace Metal Concentrations in Commercially Important Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Some trace metals such as zinc and copper are important in small quantities for ...... Cameroon: Institut de recherches meddicales et d'etudes des plantes edicinales, ... Determination of Total Cadmium, Zinc, Lead, Copper in Selected Marine ...

  1. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in newly diagnosed hypertensives (NDH) A total of 50 NDH subjects (24 males and 26 females) attending Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo ...

  2. Determination of trace elements concentrations in Grewia tenax plants collected from Darfur Region-Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzain, H. A; Ebrahim, A. M; Salih, A. M; Ali Altom, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine trace elements concentrations (Ca, Cu, Cr, K,Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn) in Grewia tenax collected from Darfur state western of Sudan. X- ray fluorescence (X RF) technique was used to determine elements concentration. A series of plant standard reference materials(ISE 2012-1) were used to check the reliability of employed technique by comparing the obtained results with the certified values, to estimate possible factors for correcting the concentration of some elements. The results showed that, X RF is a suitable method for measuring Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn elements. On the other hand, X RF for Cr and Ni determination in plant samples, these elements have showed a deviation from their certified values. Concentration of Fe was about 35 mg/kg in Grewia tenax samples where as K and Ca showed maximum levels about 16000 and 8500 mg/kg respectively, Cu showed minimum concentration about 10 mg/kg. The effect of geographical location on trace elements concentration in plants has been examined through determination of element in different species of Grewia tenax that collected from different locations in Darfur region. Most of the measured elements showed that there is no significant impact of locations on the difference of element contents.(Author)

  3. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  5. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  6. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez, Silvia [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Motas, Miguel, E-mail: motas@um.es [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: > We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. > Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. > Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. > Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. > Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  7. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco; Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 μg g -1 dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 μg g -1 dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: → We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. → Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. → Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. → Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. → Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  8. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  9. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  10. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  11. Trace metals and vitamin levels in Nigerian patients with sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of the higher levels of magnesium in the patients is unclear and needs further investigation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this observation. Keywords: ataxia, trace metals, vitamins, Nigerians Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 4(2) 2005: 156–160 ...

  12. Trace element concentrations in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) collected along the coast of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Haruta, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed 23 trace elements in barramundi collected along the coast of Vietnam. • Isotope signatures (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) helped us track the feeding habitats of barramundi. • We found clear geographic zone-dependent differences for Mn, As, Sr and Tl. • Consumption of barramundi may be safe for Vietnamese people. - Abstract: We determined concentrations of 23 trace elements (TEs), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) signatures in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) specimens collected along the coast of Vietnam in the Northern (NCZ), Central (CCZ) and Southern (SCZ) zones in the period 2007–2010. A combination of δ 13 C and δ 15 N signatures provided insight into ontogenetic shifts in barramundi foraging choices. There were clear zone-dependent differences in Mn, As, Sr and Tl concentrations; levels of Tl were highest in the NCZ, As in the CCZ, and Mn and Sr in the SCZ. Lowest concentrations of Rb occurred in the NCZ, Bi was lowest in the CCZ, and Cd and Cs were lowest in the SCZ. δ 15 N values significantly increased with increasing Zn, Se, Sn and Cs. Concentrations of TEs in barramundi from Vietnam were below worldwide guidelines for human consumption

  13. HAIR HEAVY METAL AND ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Kandelaki, E; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-11-01

    Our study aims evaluation of level of essential trace elements and heavy metals in the hair samples of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identification of changes that are associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Case-control study was conducted at Child Development Center of Iashvili Children's Central Hospital (LD).We studied 60 children aged from 4 to 5 years old. The concentrations of 28 elements among (Ca,Zn, K, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Mo, Sr, Ti, Ba, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Zr, Sn, Bi) them trace elements and toxic metals) were determined in scalp hair samples of children (n=30) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and from control group of healthy children (n=30) with matched sex and age. Micro-elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method (Method MBИ 081/12-4502-000, Apparatus ALVAX- CIP, USA - UKRAIN) .To achieve the similarity of study and control groups, pre and postnatal as well as family and social history were assessed and similar groups were selected. Children with genetic problems, malnourished children, children from families with social problems were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of ASD were performed by pediatrician and psychologist (using M-CHAT and ADOS) according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric association) criteria. The study was statistically analyzed using computer program SPSS 19. Deficiencies of essential trace microelements revealed in both group, but there was significant difference between control and studied groups. The most deficient element was zinc (92% in target and 20% in control), then - manganese (55% and 8%) and selenium (38% and 4%). In case of cooper study revealed excess concentration of this element only in target group in 50% of cases. The contaminations to heavy metals were detected in case of lead (78% and 16), mercury (43% and 10%) and cadmium (38% and 8%). The

  14. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  15. Trace gases over Northern Eurasia: background level and disturbing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, A.; Shumsky, R.; Pankratova, N.; Moiseenko, K.; Vasileva, A.; Berezina, E.; Elansky, N.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric air composition over the vast and low inhabited areas of Northern Eurasia is still poorly studied because of lack of the precise direct measurements. This harms to accuracy of both global and regional models which simulate climatological and ecosystem changes in that highly important region. In this work background trace gases (such as O3, NO, NO2, CO) concentrations and their variability are considered on base of results of continuous measurements at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia which have been carried out since March, 2007. Also factors implying background regime (like long-range transport, wild fires emissions) are analyzed. To compliment study data of TROICA train-based campaigns which have been regularly provided across Russia for many years (1995-2010) are used. The concentration of ozone has a pronounced seasonal variation with a clear peak in spring (40-45 ppbv in average and up to 80 ppbv in extreme cases) and minimum in winter. Average ozone level is about 20 ppbv that corresponds to the background conditions. Enhanced concentration in March-July is due to increased stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In autumn and winter distribution of ozone is close to uniform. Photochemical processes under low light and air temperature does not cause the generation of ozone. Sink on the snow surface is very small, and therefore the diurnal variations are absent. In general, seasonal variations correspond to the average seasonal course, which is typical for Russia. The analysis of diurnal ozone variations in Zotino in different seasons showed that the maximum rate of ozone formation is observed in summer from 9 to 15 h local time and is 1-2 ppbv/hour. It correlates well with the data on the isoprene emissions and others biogenic VOC reacting with OH- radical. Thus they are biogenic VOC emissions that seem to be the main factor of the lower troposphere oxidation power in summer. In other seasons it is significantly lower. NOx concentration does

  16. First assessment of trace metal concentration in mangrove crab eggs and other tissues, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Vianna; Kütter, Vinicius Tavares; Marques, Eduardo Duarte; da Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-07-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is widespread in the Brazilian coast, which has an important role in nutrient cycling. This species reproduces in summer and females carry eggs about a month, when they maintain contact with water and sediments. It remains unclear if trace metals can be absorbed or adsorbed by the eggs during development. The present study aims to investigate, for the first time, trace metal concentrations in ovigerous female tissues and eggs of U. cordatus in two areas with different metal pollution levels in the Southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in two different mangroves, Guanabara Bay (GB) highly polluted environment and Paraíba do Sul River (PSR). In both populations, we observed significant increase of V, Cr, and Mn concentrations along eggs maturation. The higher metals averages were found in PSR population. This trend was reported since the 1990s and lower concentrations in GB marine organisms were attributed to reducing conditions, high organic load, and the presence of sulfide ions. These conditions restrict the bioavailability of metals in the bay, with exception of Mn. No significant differences were observed in gills and muscles. In both populations of the present study, V, Zn, As, and Pb were higher in eggs of initial stage, whereas Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were higher in hepatopancreas. Beside this, V, Cr, Mn, As, and Pb showed an increase concerning egg development. Thus, V, As, and Pb in eggs come from two sources previous discussed: females and environment. Zinc came mainly from females due to essential function. Those new information should be considered as one of the mechanisms of trace metal transfer to the trophic chain, between benthonic and pelagic environment.

  17. Trace element concentrations in freshwater mussels and macrophytes as related to those in their environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily designed to contribute to the debate "Do accumulator species reflect the element contamination level of their environment?" This research was carried out: 1 to know the distribution of 15 trace elements and calcium in shell and soft tissues of three species of freshwater mussels and macrophytes; 2 to compare the accumulation capacity of each trace element by mussels and by eight species of macrophytes and 3 to test the relationships between the metal concentrations in the mussels and macrophytes and those in water and sediments. The variability of element residues in the mussels is the major limit to accumulator monitoring. The most important causes are: seasonal cycle, physical environment and biological factors such as the size, age and growth rate. This research was designed to eliminate the consequence of variability deriving from the season and the environment. To this end the mussels and macrophytes were collected at the same time from the same habitat: Ranco Bay, Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy. In addition, the element concentrations in more size-classes of the most abundant mussel species (Unio pictorum and Dreissena polymorpha were measured. Trace elements were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. By arranging the data in sequences of decreasing element concentrations in the organisms as well as in water and sediments, we were able to compare the accumulating ability of the tested species and evaluate their capacity to reflect environmental availability. Neither the sequences in the shell nor those in the tissues were similar to the sequence in the water. The differences between the sequences of the mussel tissues and those of the sediments were less striking than those between shells and sediments. Similar results were obtained by macrophytes. In conclusion, the results of this study (which mimics the monitoring practice prove that bioaccumulators cannot be used to evaluate the

  18. SOLFAST, a Ray-Tracing Monte-Carlo software for solar concentrating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccia, J P; Piaud, B; Coustet, C; Caliot, C; Guillot, E; Flamant, G; Delatorre, J

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, the software SOLFAST is presented. It is a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo method and accelerated Ray-Tracing techniques to evaluate efficiently the energy flux in concentrated solar installations.

  19. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  20. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  1. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  2. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  3. Determination of isoniazid concentration in rabbit vertebrae by isotope tracing technique in conjunction with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Fu, Zhaozong; Jiang, Jianming; Yuan, Liang; Lin, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Medications compounded with isoniazid (INH) are usually applied to surgical sites at the completion of surgery to locally kill postoperative residual tubercle bacilli. However, the distribution and elimination of INH in the vertebrae in vivo are not known. In this study, isotope tracing was used in conjunction with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to address this. INH and technetium-99 m-labeled INH were applied to the vertebrae of rabbits. After 2 and 6 h, osseous tissues containing INH, as determined by radionuclide imaging, were collected for detection with HPLC. The results showed that INH mainly stayed around the vertebrae 6 h after its application and did not permeate widely into the blood or other organs, except for the kidneys. The standard deviations of INH concentrations in the technetium-99 m-INH group were approximately four-fold smaller than those in the INH group. This method of coupling isotope tracing and HPLC can effectively limit experimental error during sample collection, allowing accurate and reliable identification of the concentration levels of INH in osseous tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Multi-element determination of metals and metalloids in waters and wastewaters, at trace concentration level, using electroanalytical stripping methods with environmentally friendly mercury free-electrodes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Georgina M S; Rocha, Luciana S; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, water is no longer regarded as an inexhaustible resource and the excessive release and proliferation of toxic metal(loid)s into aquatic environments has become a critical issue. Therefore, fast, accurate, simple, selective, sensitive and portable methodologies to detect multiple elements in natural waters is of paramount importance. Electrochemical stripping analysis is an efficient tool for trace metal(loid)s determinations and bring new prospects for answering the current environmental concerns. This review presents a survey of the advancements made between 2003 and 2016 on the development and application of non-toxic mercury free electrodes on the simultaneous analysis of metals and metalloids in waters and wastewaters by means of electroanalytical stripping techniques. The advantages, limitations, improvements and real applications of these "green" sensors are discussed from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n =100 pigs received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n =100 pigs received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P 0.05 by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  6. Trace Metal Concentrations in Commercially Important Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment was conducted on the concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, lead and cadmium in 10 different fish species caught from some coastal and inland waters in Ghana, as part of a project on monitoring of pollution in water bodies in. Ghana. Shellfish species (Egeria paradoxa galanata and Atya ...

  7. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    pollution of the Ase-creek. Metal concentrations in the fish species and aquatic plants in this study .... analysis of water, fishes and aquatic plants samples from Ase-Creek in the Niger .... Speciation in the Environment. Blackie A and P, New.

  8. Addictive drugs and their duration affecting on trace elements levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Iqbal, K.; Shafiq, T.; Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the drug addiction the blood biochemistry particularly level of trace elements in blood is widely affected. Eighty male addicts of various age groups along with seventeen normal subjects were studied. The plasma Zinc and manganese concentration was high in addict person as compared to normal subjects. Where as a significant decrease in iron concentration was observed in addicts. The plasma copper concentration was also low in addicts as compared to normal subjects. In conclusion drug addiction leads to many biochemical changes that may have detritus effects on health status of addicts. (author)

  9. Chronocoulometric determination of trace levels of uranium in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagallo, M.I.C.; Gutz, I.G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The chronocoulometric method for the determination of trace levels of uranium, based on the catalytic nitrate reduction was applied with real and synthetic samples. Reference materials with complex matrices like rocks were first solubilized by hot digestion under pressure in a PTFE bomb. When necessary, an adapted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used for previous separation of interferents. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values obtained with other techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry -isotope dilution and apithermal activation analysis. (author) [pt

  10. Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.; Jena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

  11. Trace elements in home-produced eggs in Belgium: Levels and spatiotemporal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Hoenig, Michel; Goeyens, Leo; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in home-produced eggs, soils and kitchen waste samples of private chicken owners in Belgium, and to determine spatiotemporal differences in trace element contents in eggs. Eggs were sampled in all provinces of Belgium in autumn 2006 and spring 2007. A total number of 59 private chicken owners participated in the study. Trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry except for mercury, which was determined by atomic absorption of mercury vapour. The mean fresh weight concentrations in eggs in autumn and spring respectively were < 8.0 and < 8.0 μg/kg for arsenic, 0.5 and < 0.5 μg/kg for cadmium, 116 and 74 μg/kg for lead, 0.43 and 0.52 mg/kg for copper, 20.3 and 19.2 mg/kg for zinc, and 3.15 and 4.44 μg/kg for mercury. Analysis of variance determined significant differences in some trace element concentrations in eggs among seasons and regions in Belgium. Average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and mercury corresponded well with values measured in other countries, while copper and zinc concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as in other countries. Average lead concentrations were high compared to concentrations in eggs from other countries and correlated well with lead concentrations in soil, indicating that the soil is an important source. Other sources of trace elements in eggs might be home-grown vegetables and forage (grass and herbs), and indirectly, air pollution.

  12. Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on determination of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown near of Manyoni uranium deposit. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from five sites namely Mitoo Mbuga, farming area, Miyomboni, Tambukareli and near water pump. The concentrations of heavy ...

  13. Modeling Trace Element Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Remote Measurement of Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended and dissolved trace elements are key determinants of water quality in estuarine and coastal waters. High concentrations of trace element pollutants in the San Francisco Bay estuary necessitate consistent and thorough monitoring to mitigate adverse effects on biological systems and the contamination of water and food resources. Although existing monitoring programs collect annual in situ samples from fixed locations, models proposed by Benoit, Kudela, & Flegal (2010) enable calculation of the water column total concentration (WCT) and the water column dissolved concentration (WCD) of 14 trace elements in the San Francisco Bay from a more frequently sampled metric—suspended solids concentration (SSC). This study tests the application of these models with SSC calculated from remote sensing data, with the aim of validating a tool for continuous synoptic monitoring of trace elements in the San Francisco Bay. Using HICO imagery, semi-analytical and empirical SSC algorithms were tested against a USGS dataset. A single-band method with statistically significant linear fit (p Arsenic, Iron, and Lead in the southern region of the Bay were found to exceed EPA water quality criteria for human health and aquatic life. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of monitoring programs using remote observation of trace element concentrations, and provide the foundation for investigation of pollutant sources and pathways over time.

  14. Trace metal concentrations in mussels in the outfall zones of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Many trace elements (TE) like Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, occur naturally in marine environments and these TE accomplish decisive functions in humans to maintain good health. Living organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis are a rich source of TE and are grown extensively near the industrial water outfalls. Some of these TE tend to be pollutants when their elevated levels produce deleterious effects on the ecological system. As chemical analysis for TE toxicity are expensive, organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis can be used as monitors of environmental contamination. Most studies reported so far are directed towards the effect of a single environmental factor on marine bivalves. However in the areas receiving mixed effluents from various point and non-point sources, the studies on combined effect of two or more stresses would be a more practical approach. In this paper, We investigate the heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis to provide information on the pollution of water bodies by thermal and nuclear power plants for the choice of sites from where edible mussels can be harvested. We also propose a chemometric approach developed by us using information theory to mitigate trace element toxicity in the edible part of Mytilus galloprovincialis harvested in these sites. (author)

  15. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  16. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  17. Trace contaminant concentration affects mineral transformation and pollutant fate in hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Rivera, Nelson; Thompson, Aaron; O’Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fate of Sr, Cs and I tracked during hydroxide-weathering of sediments. ► pCO 2 and contaminant concentration affected mineral transformation. ► Sodalite/cancrinite formed at μM levels, chabazite at mM levels. ► Absence of CO 2 resulted in calcite dissolution and strätlingite formation. ► Trace contaminant concentrations modified their own sequestration path. - Abstract: Prior work has shown that when silicaceous sediments are infused with caustic radioactive waste, contaminant fate is tightly coupled to ensuing mineral weathering reactions. However, the effects of local aqueous geochemical conditions on these reactions are poorly studied. Thus, we varied contaminant concentration and pCO 2 during the weathering of previously uncontaminated Hanford sediments over 6 months and 1 year in a solution of caustic waste (pH 13, high ionic strength). Co-contaminants Sr, Cs and I were added at “low” (Cs/Sr: 10 −5 m; I: 10 −7 m) and “high” (Cs/Sr: 10 −3 m; I: 10 −5 m) concentrations, and headspace was held at atmospheric or undetectable ( 2 partial pressure. Solid phase characterization revealed the formation of the zeolite chabazite in “high” samples, whereas feldspathoids, sodalite and cancrinite, were formed preferentially in “low” samples. Sr, Cs and I were sequestered in all reacted sediments. Native calcite dissolution in the CO 2 -free treatment drove the formation of strätlingite (Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 ·8H 2 O) and diminished availability of Si and Al for feldspathoid formation. Results indicate that pCO 2 and contaminant concentrations strongly affect contaminant speciation in waste-weathered sediments, and are therefore likely to impact reaction product stability under any remediation scenario.

  18. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  19. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  20. A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction procedure for pre-concentration and determination of ultra-trace levels of copper in selected beverages and foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Orhan, Ulaş

    2015-01-01

    A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of Cu(II) in selected beverage and food samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) analysis. For this purpose, Safranin T was used as an ion-pairing reagent based on charge transfer in the presence of oxalate as the primary chelating agent at pH 10. Non-ionic surfactant, poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7.5) was used as an extracting agent in the presence of NH4Cl as the salting out agent. The variables affecting UA-CPE efficiency were optimised in detail. The linear range for Cu(II) at pH 10 was 0.02-70 µg l(-)(1) with a very low detection limit of 6.10 ng l(-)(1), while the linear range for Cu(I) at pH 8.5 was 0.08-125 µg l(-)(1) with a detection limit of 24.4 ng l(-)(1). The relative standard deviation (RSD %) was in the range of 2.15-4.80% (n = 5). The method was successfully applied to the quantification of Cu(II), Cu(I) and total Cu in selected beverage and food samples. The accuracy of the developed method was demonstrated by the analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) as well as recoveries of spiked samples.

  1. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  2. Effects of trace metal concentrations on the growth of the coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Barra Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirement of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of S. kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal interreplacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  3. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  4. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haili; Zhang Zhengwang; Chang Chongyan; Wang Yong

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels

  5. Temperature and Concentration Traces of Spray Flows During Motion in a Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer models are developed on the base of experimental data and using Ansys Fluent software. These models allow prediction of the temperature and concentration traces of droplets. Transfer mechanisms of water droplets from different flames of flammable liquid (ethanol, kerosene И benzine with temperature gases 450–850 К are analyzed. The paper considers aerosol flows with droplets sizes of 0.04–0.4 mm and concentration of 3.8·10-5 –10.3·10-5 m3 of droplets/m3 of gas. The maximum gas temperature reduction in the trace of a moving liquid is ranged from 850 K to 600 K. The times of keeping the low temperature of the gas-vapor mixture in the droplets trace are from 13 s to 25 s relative to the initial gas temperature.

  6. Major and trace element geochemistry and background concentrations for soils in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig; Thomas, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Soil samples were collected throughout Connecticut (CT) to determine the relationship of soil chemistry with the underlying geology and to better understand background concentrations of major and trace elements in soils. Soil samples were collected (1) from the upper 5 cm of surficial soil at 100 sites, (2) from the A horizon at 86 of these sites, and (3) from the deeper horizon, typically the C horizon, at 79 of these sites. The Ca, Fe, K, Na, and Ti, but element concentrations showed a relatively similar pattern in A-horizon and surficial soil samples among the underlying geologic provinces. Trace element concentrations, including Ba, W, Ga, Ni, Cs, Rb, Sr, Th, Sc, and U, also were higher in C-horizon soil samples than in overlying soil samples. Concentrations of Mg, and several trace elements, including Mn, P, As, Nb, Sn, Be, Bi, Hg, Se, Sb, La, Co, Cr, Pb, V, Y, Cu, Pb, and Zn were highest in some A-horizon or surficial soils, and indicate possible contributions from anthropogenic sources. Because element concentrations in soils above the C horizon are more likely to be affected by anthropogenic factors, concentration ranges in C-horizon soils and their spatially varying geologic associations should be considered when estimating background concentrations of elements in CT soils.

  7. Log-stable concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Kuternoga, E.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, which follows our earlier observation that the asymmetric and long-tailed concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, measured by the X-ray fluorescence techniques, can be modeled by the log-stable distributions, further specific aspects of this observation are discussed. First, we demonstrate that, typically, for a quite substantial fraction (10-20%) of trace elements studied in different kinds of biomedical samples, the measured concentration distributions are described in fact by the 'symmetric' log-stable distributions, i.e. the asymmetric distributions which are described by the symmetric stable distributions. This observation is, in fact, expected for the random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in the biomedical samples. The log-stable nature of concentration distribution of trace elements results in several problems of statistical nature, which have to be addressed in XRF data analysis practice. Consequently, in the present paper, the following problems, namely (i) the estimation of parameters for stable distributions and (ii) the testing of the log-stable nature of the concentration distribution by using the Anderson-Darling (A 2 ) test, especially for symmetric stable distributions, are discussed in detail. In particular, the maximum likelihood estimation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used, respectively, for estimation of stable distribution parameters and calculation of the critical values for the Anderson-Darling test. The discussed ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, which were obtained by using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF, TXRF) methods

  8. Trace element and ΣDDT concentrations in horticultural soils from the Tasman, Waikato and Auckland regions of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaw, S.K.; Wilkins, A.L.; Kim, N.D.; Palmer, G.T.; Robinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term routine use of agrichemicals can result in elevated levels of trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in soils. Trace element concentrations and ΣDDT levels were measured in soil (0-7.5 cm) samples collected from horticultural and grazing properties in 3 regions of New Zealand (Auckland, Tasman and Waikato). Elevated levels of arsenic ( -1 ), cadmium ( -1 ), copper (5 to 523 mg kg -1 ), lead (5 to 243 mg kg -1 ) and ΣDDT ( -1 ) were detected in soils from all 3 regions. With the exception of cadmium and zinc, significantly higher levels of contaminants were generally detected in horticultural soils than in grazing soils. Our results have implications for the on-going use of agrichemicals as concentrations of cadmium, copper, tin and zinc in some samples exceeded ecotoxicity based soil criteria. The p,p'-DDE : DDT ratios indicate that the degradation of DDT in NZ horticultural soils may be inhibited by the co-contamination with trace elements

  9. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  10. Trace element concentration and speciation in selected urban soils in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, R; Hernandez, L; Shaw, R; Tunstead, R; Ferguson, R; Peaslee, S

    2014-01-01

    A long history of urbanization and industrialization has affected trace elements in New York City (NYC) soils. Selected NYC pedons were analyzed by aqua regia microwave digestion and sequential chemical extraction as follows: water soluble (WS); exchangeable (EX); specifically sorbed/carbonate bound (SS/CAR); oxide-bound (OX); organic/sulfide bound (OM/S). Soils showed a range in properties (e.g., pH 3.9 to 7.4). Sum of total extractable (SUMTE) trace elements was higher in NYC parks compared to Bronx River watershed sites. NYC surface horizons showed higher total extractable (TE) levels compared to US non-anthropogenic soils. TE levels increased over 10 year in some of the relatively undisturbed and mostly wooded park sites. Surface horizons of park sites with long-term anthropogenic inputs showed elevated TE levels vs. subsurface horizons. Conversely, some Bronx River watershed soils showed increased concentrations with depth, reflective of their formation in a thick mantle of construction debris increasing with depth and intermingled with anthrotransported soil materials. Short-range variability was evident in primary pedons and satellite samples (e.g., Pb 253 ± 143 mg/kg). Long-range variability was indicated by PbTE (348 versus 156 mg/kg) and HgTE (1 versus 0.3 mg/kg) concentrations varying several-fold in the same soil but in different geographic locations. Relative predominance of fractions: RES (37 %) > SS/CAR (22 %) > OX (20 %) > OM/S (10 %) > EX (7 %) > WS (4 %). WS and EX fractions were greatest for Hg (7 %) and Cd (14 %), respectively. RES was predominant fraction for Co, Cr, Ni, and Zn (41 to 51 %); SS/CAR for Cd and Pb (40 and 63 %); OM/S for Cu and Hg (36 and 37 %); and OX for As (59 %).

  11. The determination of some trace elements in sulphide concentrates by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, B.J.; Komarkova, E.; Josephson, M.; Cook, E.B.T.; Dixon, K.

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the determination of trace amounts (as low as 1 to 10 p.p.m. depending on the element) of arsenic, germanium, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, tin, and titanium in sulphide concentrates. The proposed methods, which are detailed in the appendices, are adaptations of established procedures that were modified to allow for the complex nature of the concentrates to be analysed

  12. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  13. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  14. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  15. Levels of aqueous humor trace elements in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohberger, Bettina; Chaudhri, M Anwar; Michalke, Bernhard; Lucio, Marianna; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Grieb, Pawel; Rejdak, Robert; Jünemann, Anselm G M

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of trace elements in aqueous humor samples of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Thirty-three aqueous humor samples were obtained from patients undergoing cataract surgery: 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3±10.50, female 8, male 4), 10 patients with PEXG (age 65.9±11.27, female 6, male 4) and 11 patients without glaucoma (age 69.5±13.70, female 7, male 4) serving as controls. Aqueous humor levels of cadmium, iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). From the statistical evaluation, we observed that patients with POAG had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of zinc (p=0.006) compared to controls. Increased aqueous humor levels of zinc were also observed in patients with PEXG in relation to control (p=0.0006). For iron we observed a significantly reduction in PEXG compared to control (p=0.002) and a significant difference between POAG and PEXG (p=0.0091). No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese, cobalt, copper, cadmium between glaucoma and control patients. No differences were seen for iron (POAG vs. controls). Analysis of trace element ratios was added. Significant differences in aqueous humor levels of zinc and iron between glaucoma and control patients support the hypothesis that these trace elements are involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical predictions of the separation of heavy components inside the trace gas concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The component with a heavier molecular weight can be separated from the one with a lighter molecular weight in a binary mixture by applying an appropriate pressure gradient. A centrifugal force field effectively generates the required pressure gradient and a favorable flow field along the radial direction in a trace gas concentrator for such an application. This paper presents the numerical predictions of the mass separation inside a trace gas concentrator, which enriches Xenon in air. A Navier-Stokes solver in primitive variables using a pressure based algorithm has been applied to solve for the flow fields. Subsequently, the transport equations with a strong centrifugal field are solved for the mass concentration. This study is the continued effort for the proof-of-concept of centrifugal separation of components with a considerable difference in their molecular weight in a binary mixture. The significant effects of rotational speed, flow field, and the geometrical configuration on the mass separation are presented in this paper

  18. Trace elements release from volcanic ash to seawater. Natural concentrations in Central Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, L. A.; Censi, P.; Saiano, F.; Zuddas, P.; Aricò, P.; Mazzola, S.

    2009-04-01

    Distributions and concentrations of many minor and trace elements in epicontinental basins, as Mediterranean Sea, are mainly driven to atmospheric fallout from surroundings. This mechanism supplies an estimated yearly flux of about 1000 kg km-2 of terrigenous matter of different nature on the whole Mediterranean basin. Dissolution of these materials and processes occurring at solid-liquid interface along the water column drive the distributions of many trace elements as V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb with contents ranging from pmol l-1 (Co, Cd, Pb) to nmol l-1 scale in Mediterranean seawater, with some local differences in the basin. The unwinding of an oceanographic cruise in the coastal waters of Ionian Sea during the Etna's eruptive activity in summer 2001 led to the almost unique chance to test the effects of large delivery of volcanic ash to a coastal sea water system through the analyses of distribution of selected trace elements along several seawater columns. The collection of these waters and their analyses about V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb contents evidenced trace element concentrations were always higher (about 1 order of magnitude at least) than those measured concentrations in the recent past in Mediterranean seawater, apart from Pb. Progressive increase of concentrations of some elements with depth, sometimes changing in a "conservative" behaviour without any clear reason and the observed higher concentrations required an investigation about interaction processes occurring at solid-liquid interface between volcanic ash and seawater along water columns. This investigation involving kinetic evaluation of trace element leaching to seawater, was carried out during a 6 months time period under laboratory conditions. X-ray investigations, SEM-EDS observations and analyses on freshly-erupted volcanic ash evidenced formation of alteration clay minerals onto glass fraction surfaces. Chemical analyses carried out on coexisting liquid phase demonstrated that trace

  19. Neural population-level memory traces in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guifen; Wang, L Phillip; Tsien, Joe Z

    2009-12-16

    One of the fundamental goals in neurosciences is to elucidate the formation and retrieval of brain's associative memory traces in real-time. Here, we describe real-time neural ensemble transient dynamics in the mouse hippocampal CA1 region and demonstrate their relationships with behavioral performances during both learning and recall. We employed the classic trace fear conditioning paradigm involving a neutral tone followed by a mild foot-shock 20 seconds later. Our large-scale recording and decoding methods revealed that conditioned tone responses and tone-shock association patterns were not present in CA1 during the first pairing, but emerged quickly after multiple pairings. These encoding patterns showed increased immediate-replay, correlating tightly with increased immediate-freezing during learning. Moreover, during contextual recall, these patterns reappeared in tandem six-to-fourteen times per minute, again correlating tightly with behavioral recall. Upon traced tone recall, while various fear memories were retrieved, the shock traces exhibited a unique recall-peak around the 20-second trace interval, further signifying the memory of time for the expected shock. Therefore, our study has revealed various real-time associative memory traces during learning and recall in CA1, and demonstrates that real-time memory traces can be decoded on a moment-to-moment basis over any single trial.

  20. Neural population-level memory traces in the mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental goals in neurosciences is to elucidate the formation and retrieval of brain's associative memory traces in real-time. Here, we describe real-time neural ensemble transient dynamics in the mouse hippocampal CA1 region and demonstrate their relationships with behavioral performances during both learning and recall. We employed the classic trace fear conditioning paradigm involving a neutral tone followed by a mild foot-shock 20 seconds later. Our large-scale recording and decoding methods revealed that conditioned tone responses and tone-shock association patterns were not present in CA1 during the first pairing, but emerged quickly after multiple pairings. These encoding patterns showed increased immediate-replay, correlating tightly with increased immediate-freezing during learning. Moreover, during contextual recall, these patterns reappeared in tandem six-to-fourteen times per minute, again correlating tightly with behavioral recall. Upon traced tone recall, while various fear memories were retrieved, the shock traces exhibited a unique recall-peak around the 20-second trace interval, further signifying the memory of time for the expected shock. Therefore, our study has revealed various real-time associative memory traces during learning and recall in CA1, and demonstrates that real-time memory traces can be decoded on a moment-to-moment basis over any single trial.

  1. Evaluation of local trace element status and 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations in patients with Tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraloglu, Meral; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan; Arican, Ozer

    2016-01-01

    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), concentration as oxidative stress biomarker and trace elements status have not been published in patients with TP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se), and to evaluate the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se in this disorder. Forty-three consecutive patients with a diagnosis of unilateral interdigital TP were enrolled in this study. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface. 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in scraping samples were determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of Se, Zn and Cu in scraping samples were determined on flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer using Zeeman background correction. Oxidative stress was confirmed by the significant elevation in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (p iso-PGF2α parameters, but negative correlations between Se-Cu; Se-8-iso-PGF2α parameters in lesional area. Furthermore, the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se were significantly higher on the lesional area than the non-lesional area (p iso-PGF2α and trace elements in patients with TP (p > 0.05). Our results showed that there is a possible link between oxidative stress (increased 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations) and imbalanced of trace elements status in lesional area of TP patients. The use of antifungal agents together with both Zn and Se drugs could be helpful in the both regression of disease and in shortening the duration of disease.

  2. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of some Trace Metals in Macroalgae from the Red Sea in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul-Naga, Wafiqa Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) in ten macroalgae species from the Red Sea coastal water varied widely and also the trend of abundance of each metal also differed from one group to another. Concentration factors varied among species for iron (Fe) copper (Cu) manganese (Mn), but with iron (Fe) showing generally high concentration factors. Highly significant (P<0.05) relationships were found between manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), and, Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Moreover, moderate correlations were observed between manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), indicating that manganese (Mn) is the most accumulated metal in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae, dominance is moderate relative to other sea areas subjected to intensive pollution. That is, the results indicated a nonpolluted environment. (author)

  4. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  5. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  6. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos J.S.; Mergler, Donna; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  7. Concentrations and distributions of trace and minor elements in Chinese and Canadian coals and ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingxin; Jervis, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 35 trace and minor elements including some of environmental significance were determined in each of a selection of 15 Chinese and 6 Canadian thermal coals and their ashes by using the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility of the University of Toronto. The concentrations and distributions of these constituents among the coals and their combustion products (viz. ash and volatile matter) are presented. The detailed results showed wide variations in trace impurity concentrations (up to a factor of 100 and more) among the coals studied. Values for elemental enrichment factors (EF) relative to normal crustal abundances indicated that only As(EF=13), Br(5.7), I(16), S(230), Sb(11) and Se(320) were appreciably enriched in coal. (author) 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  8. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  9. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  10. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic concentrators for solar collectors of enclosed design

    OpenAIRE

    YURCHENKO, VLADIMIR; YURCHENKO, EDUARD; ÇİYDEM, MEHMET; TOTUK, ONAT

    2015-01-01

    We present our developments in computer simulations and optimization of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) for solar heat collectors. Issues of both the optical and thermal optimization of CPC collectors of enclosed design are discussed. Ray tracing results for a CPC with a V-shaped absorber are presented. A range of optimal values for the apex angle of a V-shaped absorber is proposed for a CPC collector of typical design.

  11. Collection/concentration of trace uranium for spectrophotometric detection using activated carbon and first-derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.; Hamed, M.M.; El-Reefy, S.; Hmmad, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The need exists for preconcentration of trace and ultratrace amounts of uranium from environmental, geological and biological samples. The adsorption of uranium on various solids is important from the purification, environmental, and radioactivity waste disposal points of view. A method is described for the determination of traces of uranium using first-derivative spectrophotometry after adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon. Various parameters that influence the adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon, viz., pH, amounts of activated carbon and time of stirring and interference of metals have been studied. First-derivative spectrophotometry in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon is used for determining uranium at concentration levels down to 20 ppb (w/v). (orig.)

  12. Behaviour of trace element concentration in human organs in dependence of age and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Schicha, H.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behaviour of trace elements in dependence of age and environment, samples of skin, lung, heart, aorta, kidney, liver and brain were assayed for concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sc, Sb, Cs, Al and partly Eu. All samples were dried at 100 deg C for two days. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine the element concentrations. The neutron flux was 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After decay of the short lived radioisotopes, the Al-concentration was measured following a second irradiation of 1 minute and directly comparing with a standard sample. Nearly all element concentrations changed with processing age, but they showed no clear correlation to either parameter assessed. The non-essential elements Se, Sb and Sc were increasingly concentrated in all organs except the skin. Comparing lung samples of patients from highly industrialized regions with those of lesser industrialization, the elements Sc, Al, Sb, Eu and Co were accumulated by a factor of 10 to 100. Thus the concentrations of trace elements in human organism also depend on the degree of industrialization. (T.G.)

  13. Trace element concentration in soils and plants in the vicinity of Miduk copper mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High concentrations of metals are usually encountered in surface soil and vegetation in areas affected by mining activity (Liu et al., 2006. Different distribution of elements in chemical fractions result in different bioavailability; therefore knowledge of the total content of an element in soil is not a sufficient criterion to estimate the environmental implications of trace metal presence (Maiz et al., 2000. Sequential extraction analysis gives information on the element distribution among different phases of soil. Several schemes of sequential extraction are used for the determination of commonly distinguished metal species, which are in general: (1 easily exchangeable or water soluble; (2 specifically sorbed; e.g., by carbonates or phosphates; (3 organically bound; (4 occluded by Fe-Mn oxides and hydroxides; and (5 structurally bound in minerals or residual (Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee, 2007. The main objectives of this study are: (1 to describe the distribution pattern of elements in rocks and soils of the Miduk area; (2 to assess the fractionation of elements in soil and the mining impact on the mobility of trace elements; (3 to investigate the uptake of analyzed elements by selected indigenous plant species. Materials and Methods In this study, 32 soil samples at two depths (0-5 cm and 15-20 cm, were analyzed for total concentration of 45 elements. In order to assess the possible bioaccumulation of the elements, the roots and the overground parts of 3 plant species (Astragalus-Fabaceae, Acanthophyllum -Caryophyllaceae, Artemisia -Asteraceae were also collected and analyzed. Enrichment factors (EFs were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The Tessier et al. method (Tessier et al., 1979 was chosen for sequential extraction of 6 subsoil samples. Correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the analyzed elements in soil. The plant’s ability

  14. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  15. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels

  16. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  17. Differences in trace element concentrations between the right and left hemispheres of human brain using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Surrey Univ.; Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Ubertalli, L.C.; Part, P.

    2000-01-01

    Very few publications have quoted differences between the same regions in both the right and left hemispheres of the human brain. It may be possible that the two hemispheres have different trace elemental concentrations, since it is known that they both have different functions. In this study, three brain regions from both the right and left hemispheres of the cortex have been sampled from five elderly individuals (three 'normal' and two Alzheimer's disease) and their elemental concentrations have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (author)

  18. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  19. THE CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN GNIEWINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Karolina Milik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP serving rural areas are suggested for agricultural or natural usage. Before, however, sewage sludge is subjected to the several pre-treatments, which involve stabilization, hygienisation and pre-composting. These methods decrease mainly the amount of organic substances and presence of microorganisms, but hardly affects concentrations of heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. The addition of sewage sludge to soils could affect potential availability of heavy metals. Trace elements are distributed in the soil in various forms: solid phases, free ions in soil solution, soluble organic-mineral complexes, or adsorbed on colloidal particles. In the study the concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn, Al, As, Se, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ga, Li, Mo, Sr, Mg, K, Ru, Tl, V, U was tested in sewage sludge obtained from (WWTP serving rural areas (PE< 9 000. In each case, the tested sewage sludge was meeting the criteria of stabilization and was used for agriculture and land reclamation purpose. All the samples were collected in 2016 and were subjected to microwave mineralization in a closed system in aqua regia. The total amound of macro and microelements were determined with a ICP-OES. It was found that the total concentrations of trace metals in all of sewage sludge are the same than Polish regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. The trace elements (cadmium: 1,16 mg·kg-1/d.m. in polish sewage sludge, respectively, much higher than those in the other countries. As a most prevalent copper and zinc were observed (111,28 mg·kg-1/d.m. and 282,94 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The concentrations of copper in polish sewage sludge are much lower (49-130 mg·kg-1/d.m. than european sewage sludge (522-562 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The two out of tested heavy metals (beryllium, bismuth

  20. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Added, N [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzutto, M A [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Curado, J F [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Francci, C [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Markarian, R [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mori, M [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-15

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a {sup 35}Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy.

  1. Determination of trace concentration of uranium in soils by the nuclear track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, G.S.; Abdullah, M.N.A.

    1998-04-01

    Solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to estimate trace concentration of uranium in soil and sand samples from various places of Bangladesh. Uranium contents in soil samples have been found to vary from ∼3.79 to ∼8.63 ppm and in sand samples from ∼2.39 to ∼6.53 ppm. The mean concentration in soil and in sand samples were found to be ∼4.52 and ∼2.96 ppm respectively. The maximum uranium concentration in soil samples was observed in Sylhet while the uranium concentration of sand was found to be maximum in the sea beach of Cox's Bazar. The implication of results is briefly discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Added, N.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.; Mori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a 35 Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy

  3. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Curado, J. F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.; Mori, M.

    2006-08-01

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a 35Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy.

  4. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Statistical significance of biomonitoring of marine algae for trace metal levels in a coral environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinath, A.; Muraleedharan, N.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    towards essential elements, and the concentration of Fe seemed to be the highest in all the species, irrespective of their classification. The trace metal content reported in this study was much lower than the limit prescribed by Food and Agricultural...

  6. Trace concentrations of vitamin E protect radiation crosslinked UHMWPE from oxidative degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Dumbleton, J; Siskey, R S; Wang, A; Manley, M

    2009-08-01

    The effect of very low concentrations of Vitamin E on the stability and mechanical behavior of UHMWPE remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the oxidation resistance of Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE would be influenced by trace doses of antioxidant, resin, and radiation treatment. Trace concentrations (Vitamin E) were blended separately with GUR 1020 and 1050 resins and molded into disks. From each disk, three groups of 10 mm thick blocks were machined: (1) no irradiation (control); (2) 30 kGy of gamma irradiation in nitrogen; and (3) 75 kGy of gamma irradiation in air. Specimens were subjected to three aging protocols: (a) no aging (control); (b) two weeks and (c) four weeks of accelerated aging in accordance with ASTM F 2003 (i.e., 70 degrees C and 5 atm oxygen). The minimum concentration of Vitamin E needed to stabilize UHMWPE during our accelerated tests depended upon the method of radiation processing. For the 30 and 75 kGy irradiated materials, the addition of 125 ppm or more Vitamin E was sufficient to maintain baseline mechanical and chemical properties through two weeks of accelerated aging. For these groups, the addition of 375 ppm or 500 ppm, respectively, was necessary to maintain baseline mechanical and chemical properties throughout the four-week accelerated aging period. UHMWPE resin molecular weight did not have an effect on oxidation behavior. The results of this experiment therefore supported our hypotheses that trace concentrations of Vitamin E, coupled with radiation treatment-but not resin grade-influence the mechanical and oxidative degradation behavior of UHMWPE.

  7. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  8. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  9. Historical record of concentrations of atmospheric trace components deduced from a glacier in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doescher, A.

    1996-07-01

    A 109 m ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4440 m a.s.l., Switzerland) was used to reconstruct the history of atmospheric trace components. Concentrations of the anions chloride, nitrate, sulfate and the cations sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium were measured with 2.5-5.0 cm resolution in the top 70 m of a 109 m long of the ice core. Dating of the ice core was performed using stratigraphic markers such as historically known Saharan dust events, the atomic bomb horizon and volcanic eruptions and supplemented with the 210 Pb nuclear dating. The record covers the time period from about 1755-1981. The concentrations of nitrate and sulfate show an exponential increase from 1930 and 1870 until 1965, respectively. The factors of increase were 2.3±0.3 and 5.8±0.9, respectively. The chloride concentrations remained constant during this period. A good agreement between the concentrations of sulfate, which were corrected for the contribution of seasalt and mineral dust and the European SO 2 -emissions was found for the last 100 years. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium did not show a trend. The concentrations of ammonium increased exponentially between 1870 and 1960 by a factor of 2.2±0.4. The different sources of the trace components were identified using correlation analysis. Sodium and chloride originated from seasalt, magnesium and calcium from geologic erosion. For both, the industrial and pre-industrial period, the dominant source of ammonium and nitrate was conversion of the gaseous precursors NH 3 and HNO 3 . Sulfate concentrations in the industrial period originated from the anthropogenically emitted SO 2 , whereas in the pre-industrial period the geologic source dominated. The Colle Gnifetti accumulates mainly summer snow, and therefore, several test drillings were performed to find a new site with higher accumulation rate. (author) figs., 17 tabs., 50 refs

  10. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  11. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. II. Trace metal concentrations in the Magela Creek billabongs at the end of the 1978 dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.H.R.; Hart, B.T.

    1981-12-01

    Billabongs downstream of the Ranger uranium mining operation have been identified as potential deposition areas for released trace metals. Samples were taken at the end of the dry season and analysed for total and filterable concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu and Zn. There was an increase in the concentrations of total Fe, Zn, Cd and Cu in the backflow and flood plain billabongs compared with the concentrations recorded during the wet season. The increase was most noticeable for iron

  12. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea: use as a biological monitor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Marc

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within semi-closed areas like the Mediterranean Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in Mediterranean coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1 the spatial and 2 temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3 to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the Mediterranean Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue and in sheaths (dead tissue demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades, seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment

  13. Spatial variations in trace element concentrations of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, a first reference study in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternengo, S; Marengo, M; El Idrissi, O; Yepka, J; Pasqualini, V; Gobert, S

    2018-04-01

    A study on Trace Elements (TE) from sea urchin gonads has been conducted in the western Mediterranean Sea. Contamination data were used to determine a Trace Method Pollution Index (TEPI). TE concentrations varied considerably depending on the location of the sampling stations. The results showed that five trace elements (Zn, Fe, As, Al, Cu) are ubiquitous. The geographical area considered (Corsica) represents an important range of environmental conditions and types of pressure that can be found in the western Mediterranean Sea. TEPI was used to classify the studied sites according to their degree of contamination and allowed reliable comparison of TE contamination between local and international sites. TE contamination of the western Mediterranean Sea displayed a north-to-south gradient, from the Italian coasts down through the insular Corsican coasts to the north African littoral. Due to the increasing environmental pressure on the Mediterranean Sea, a regular monitoring of TE levels in marine organisms is necessary to prevent any further environmental deterioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of trace elements in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Sawako; Itai, Takaaki; Noguchi, Takako; Yasuda, Yusuke; Adachi, Haruki; Hyobu, Yuika; Riyadi, Adi S; Boggs, Ashley S P; Lowers, Russell; Guillette, Louis J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Concentrations of 28 trace elements (Li, Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl, Hg, Pb, and Bi) in the livers of juvenile and adult American alligators inhabiting two central Florida lakes, Lake Apopka (LA), and Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (LW) and one lagoon population located in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR; NASA), were determined. In juveniles from MINWR, concentrations of nine elements (Li, Fe, Ni, Sr, In, Sb, Hg, Pb and Bi) were significantly higher, whereas six elements (V, Fe, As, Sr, Hg and Bi) were elevated in adults (pLA, LW and MINWR were 1770 μg g(-1) DW, 3690 μg g(-1) DW and 5250 μg g(-1) DW, respectively. More than half of the adult specimens from LW and MINWR exhibited elevated hepatic Fe concentrations that exceed the threshold value for toxic effects in donkey, red deer and human. These results prompted us to express our concern on possible exposure and health effects in American alligators by some trace elements derived from NASA activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  16. Atmospheric CO{sub 2}, trace gas and CN concentrations in Vaerrioe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, T; Aalto, P; Kulmala, M; Rannik, U; Vesala, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Hari, P; Pohja, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The Vaerrioe environmental measurement station is founded in 1991. The aim of the station is to obtain more information on air quality influenced by Kola industrial areas and effects of pollutants on photosynthesis in subarctic climate. In the station air quality and meteorological quantities are measured together with photosynthesis, which makes it quite unique in comparison with other measurement stations located in northern Finland. The measurements also provide information of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in order to study the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. These measurements also increase the knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and deposition in subarctic conditions

  17. Atmospheric CO{sub 2}, trace gas and CN concentrations in Vaerrioe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, T.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rannik, U.; Vesala, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Hari, P.; Pohja, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1995-12-31

    The Vaerrioe environmental measurement station is founded in 1991. The aim of the station is to obtain more information on air quality influenced by Kola industrial areas and effects of pollutants on photosynthesis in subarctic climate. In the station air quality and meteorological quantities are measured together with photosynthesis, which makes it quite unique in comparison with other measurement stations located in northern Finland. The measurements also provide information of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in order to study the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. These measurements also increase the knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and deposition in subarctic conditions

  18. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  19. Levels of essential and potentially toxic trace metals in Antarctic macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia; Arisnabarreta, Sebastian Perez; Vodopivez, Cristian; Smichowski, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Antarctic algae were examined for their accumulation ability in the uptake of different metals and metalloids from the Antarctic aquatic environment. Macro algae were collected during the 2000 austral summer season at Jubany Station (Argentinean base) around Potter Cove, King George Island. The elements quantified were: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples and the elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A wide range of metal retention capacity among the different species was observed. The highest levels of trace elements were found in Monostroma hariotii and Phaeurus antarcticus, with concentrations up to 3095 μg g -1 for Fe. On the basis of the levels of trace elements observed in Monostroma hariotii and its wide distribution in the Antarctic Peninsula, this organism accomplishes a number of prerequisites to be considered as an adequate biomonitor for future studies

  20. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment ... mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  1. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil

  2. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chieh Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P=0.06. There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P<0.05. The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327.

  3. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  4. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Karius, Volker; Luettge, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  5. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Cornelius, E-mail: cornelius@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Karius, Volker [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Luettge, Andreas [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  6. Selected trace metal levels in common vegetables grown in NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, K.; Jaffar, M.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen vegetables procured from local markets of Peshawar and its suburbs were analyzed using wet digestion atomic absorption method for Fe, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The families investigated were: Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Umbelliferae and Zingiberaceae. The heavy metal data are reported at 99%(- + 2S) confidence level for triplicate measurements on sub samples of a given sample with an overall reproducibility of 2% compared with standard material samples. Comparison of averages through t-test indicates that each vegetable group is distinctly different from the other in terms of metal content. Maximum iron was present in garlic, at 4.585 mu g/g, dry weight (edible part-stem) of the Liliacease family. Arsenic was found to be below detection limit in all the vegetable groups. Lead levels were quite low, maximum concentration (0.0200 mu g/g, dry weight) was found in karaila (edible part-fruit). Mercury levels were relatively higher, with maximum concentration (2.590 mu g/g, dry weight) in gem (edible part-stem). The levels of nickel were moderately higher, being maximum (2.375 mu g/g dry weight) in karaila. The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within laid down internationally for safe human consumption, with only a few exceptions. (author)

  7. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  8. Analysis of trace gases at ppb levels by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.

    1996-01-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace gas components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H 3 O + ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of medical information obtained by means of breath analysis, of environmental trace analysis, and examples in the field of food chemistry demonstrate the wide applicability of the method. (Authors)

  9. Graphene–platinum nanocomposite as a sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor for trace level arsenic quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kempegowda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol for the chemical modification of graphene with platinum nanoparticles and its subsequent electroanalytical application toward sensitive and selective determination of arsenic has been described. Chemical modification was carried out by the simultaneous and sequential chemical reduction of graphene oxide and hexachloroplatinic acid in the presence of ethylene glycol as a mild reducing agent. The synthesized graphene–platinum nanocomposite (Gr–nPt has been characterized through infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction study, field emission scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV techniques. CV and square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry have been used to quantify arsenic. The proposed nanostructure showed linearity in the concentration range 10–100 nM with a detection limit of 1.1 nM. The proposed sensor has been successfully applied to measure trace levels of arsenic present in natural sample matrices like borewell water, polluted lake water, agricultural soil, tomato and spinach leaves.

  10. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  11. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  12. Calculation correlations for radioisotope level gages with relay tracing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship was examined between the operational and instrumental parameters of radioisotope tracking level indicators. The relationships were obtained permitting to check the reliability of the tracking regime, and also of the equilibrium state of the radioisotope tracking level indicator

  13. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on trace element concentration in serum and brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A; Gad, Shereen B

    2011-12-01

    As a vasodilator with good hemodynamic effects, sildenafil has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. By selectively inhibiting phosphodiestrase type 5 (PDE-5) and thus effectively reducing the breakdown of c GMP, sildenafil administration can markedly improve the erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil also elevates localized cerebral blood flow in rat brain. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on the level of trace elements (Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr)) in blood and brain of rats. Sixteen male albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into two groups (8 rats/group). Sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer Inc.) was dissolved in saline and administered at a dose of 10mg/kg i.p. (0.5 ml volume) to rats in the treated group every 72 h for 12 injections. Rats in the control group were administered the same volume of saline as in treated group. All rats were sacrificed 24h after the last injection. Blood samples were collected and serum was separated and stored at -20°C. Brains were dissected and stored frozen until analysis. Trace elements concentrations were determined by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that sildenafil injection significantly (P<0.05) increased serum and brain Se and Cu concentrations. Moreover, sildenafil increased the Cr concentration in the brain tissue. It was concluded that sildenafil citrate administration increased serum Se and Cu as well as, increased brain Se, Cu, and Cr concentrations in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    A sensor technique is described that captures analyte species on a preconcentrating minicolumn containing a selective solid phase sorbent. In this approach, the sample is pumped through the column until the sorbent phase is fully equilibrated with the sample concentration, and the exit concentration equals the inlet concentration. On-column detection of the captured analytes using radiometric and spectroscopic methods are demonstrated. In trace level detection applications, this sensor provides a steady state signal that is proportional to sample analyte concentration and is reversible. The method is demonstrated for the detection of Tc-99 using anion exchange beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; Sr-90 using SuperLig 620 beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; and hexavalent chromium detection using anion exchange beads with spectroscopic detection. Theory has been developed to describe the signal at equilibration, and to describe analyte uptake as a function of volume and concentration, using parameters and concepts from frontal chromatography. It is shown that experimental sensor behavior closely matches theoretical predictions and that effective sensors can be prepared using low plate number columns. This sensor modality has many desirable characteristics for in situ sensors for trace-level contaminant long-term monitoring where the use of consumable reagents for sensor regeneration would be undesirable. Initial experiments in groundwater matrixes demonstrated the detection of Tc-99 at drinking water level standards (activity of 0.033 Bq/mL) and detection of hexavalent chromium to levels below drinking water standards of 50 ppb

  15. Mass-produced lonophore-based fluorescent microspheres for trace level determination of lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telting-Diaz, Martin; Bakker, Eric

    2002-10-15

    The development and characterization of small, uniform, and mass-produced plasticized PVC-based sensing microspheres in view of rapid trace level analysis of lead ions is reported. Micrometer-sized particles obtained via an automated casting process were rendered selective for lead ions by doping them with highly selective components in a manner analogous to traditional optode sensing films. Single particles that contained the lipophilic ionophore N,N,N',N'-tetradodecyl-3-6-dioxaoctane-1-thio-8-oxodiamide (ETH 5493), the chromoionophore ETH 5418 together with a lipophilized indocarbocyanine derivative as internal reference dye (DiIC18), and lipophilic ion-exchanger sites sodium tetrakis[3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl]borate, yielded measurable lead responses at the low nanomolar level in pH buffered solutions. The detection limit for single particles was 3 x 10(-9) M at pH 5.7. The microspheres were fabricated via a reproducible formation of polymer droplets within a flowing aqueous phase followed by collection of spherical particles of approximately 13 microm in size. The particles were immobilized and assayed individually in a microflow cell via fluorescence microscopy. Selectivity patterns found were in agreement with those reported earlier for the lead-selective ligand ETH 5493, and all response functions were fully described by theory. In contrast to optode films that necessitated very long equilibration times and large sample volumes in diluted samples of analyte, particles exhibited extremely enhanced equilibrium response times. Thus, for lead sample concentrations at and above 5 x 10(-8) M, response times were approximately 3 min, whereas at the detection limit, complete equilibrium was recorded after just 15 min, with required sample volumes on the order of 1 mL This new class of microspheres appears to be suitable for rapid and sensitive ion detection at trace levels in environmental and biological applications.

  16. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  17. Serum levels of selected vitamins and trace elements in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid, vitamins and Zinc play essential role in DNA methylation but alcohol consumption is known to affect the levels of these micronutrients leading to risk of developing various illnesses and certain cancers. This study determined the levels of DNA methylation dependent-micronutrients (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, ...

  18. Measurement of the radon exhalation rate from the medium surface by tracing the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanliang Tan; Detao Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The paper will present a method based on the accumulation chamber technique for measuring of radon exhalation from the medium surface. A radon monitor traces the change of radon concentration in the accumulation chamber, and then the radon exhalation can be obtained accurately through linear fit. Based on our recent experiments, the radon exhalation rate from the medium surface obtained from this method is in good agreement with the actual exhalation rate of our simulation facility. This method is superior to the competition method which obtains the radon exhalation through the exponential fit by an external PC-system. The calculation for the exponential fit is very easy by computer and related software. However, for portable instruments, the single chip microcomputer can't calculate the exponential fit rapidly. Thus, this method is usable for developing the new portable instrument to classify building materials, etc. (author)

  19. Etude de la concentration des metaux traces chez "Hexaplex trunculus " (muricidae) le long du littoral tunisien

    OpenAIRE

    Tissaoui, Ch.; Chouba, L.; El Abed, O.

    2008-01-01

    La Tunisie dispose d’une ressource importante en coquillages, plusieurs espèces sont commercialisées et elles ont fait l’objet de programmes de qualité pour la sauvegarde de la santé humaine. Dans ce contexte, nous avons réalisé un suivi saisonnier de la concentration de trois métaux traces toxiques, le cadmium (Cd), le plomb (Pb), et le mercure (Hg) dans la totalité de la masse molle, dans le pied et dans les viscères d’un Mollusque Gastéropode, l’Hexaplex trunculus communément appelé en Tun...

  20. Trace Level Determination of Polyether Ionophores in Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, Mervi; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to determine six polyether ionophores (lasalocid sodium, monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, narasin, maduramicin ammonium alpha, and semduramicin sodium) in feed samples. The method developed was very straightforward, involving extraction with 84% acetonitrile of the coccidiostats from the feed samples and filtration of the raw extract prior to chromatographic analysis. Method validation included the determination of selectivity, linearity, specificity, repeatability, the limit of detection, limit of quantification, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), and recovery. Feed samples from the Finnish national feed control programme and suspected carry-over samples from a feed manufacturer were analysed in parallel with an existing liquid chromatography method coupled with ultraviolet detection. All feed control samples were negative in LC-UV, but with the developed MS method, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were detected at concentrations of <0.025–0.73 mg/kg, <0.025–0.027 mg/kg, and <0.025–1.6 mg/kg, respectively. In suspected carry-over samples after an output of 2.0 tonnes of unmedicated feed in the pelletizer line, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 16 mg/kg. In the mixer line, after 3.2 tonnes of unmedicated feed output, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 2.4 mg/kg. PMID:23484082

  1. Effects of trace element concentration on enzyme controlled stable isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia A; Hirschorn, Sarah K; Elsner, Martin; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sleep, Brent E; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood

    2006-12-15

    The effects of iron concentration on carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of toluene by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 were investigated using a low iron medium and two different high iron media. Mean carbon enrichment factors (epsilonc) determined using a Rayleigh isotopic model were smaller in culture grown under high iron conditions (epsilonc = -1.7+/-0.1%) compared to low iron conditions (epsilonc = -2.5+/-0.3%). Mean hydrogen enrichment factors (epsilonH) were also significantly smaller for culture grown under high iron conditions (epsilonH = -77 +/-4%) versus low iron conditions (EpsilonH = -159+/-11%). A mechanistic model for enzyme kinetics was used to relate differences in the magnitude of isotopic fractionation for low iron versus high iron cultures to the efficiency of the enzymatic transformation. The increase of carbon and hydrogen enrichment factors at low iron concentrations suggests a slower enzyme-catalyzed substrate conversion step (k2) relative to the enzyme-substrate binding step (k-l) at low iron concentration. While the observed differences were subtle and, hence, do not significantly impact the ability to use stable isotope analysis in the field, these results demonstrated that resolvable differences in carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation were related to low and high iron conditions. This novel result highlights the need to further investigate the effects of other trace elements known to be key components of biodegradative enzymes.

  2. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  3. Determination of the free ion concentration of trace metals in soil solution using a soil column Donnan membrane technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the free metal ion is difficult, especially for trace metals present in very small concentrations (less than micromolar) in natural systems. The recently developed Donnan membrane technique can measure the concentrations in solution in the presence of inorganic and organic

  4. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics and Trace Metal Levels of Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Results from this study showed that the industrial and human activities in this study ... health hazard to their well water, and are therefore fit for their domestic activities. ... Bangladesh were natural levels of arsenic in ground ... This problem of.

  6. Trace metal concentrations are higher in cartilage than in bones of scaup and pochard wintering in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Salicki, Wieslaw; Kavetska, Katarzyna M.; Ligocki, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Bones and cartilage of two species of diving ducks: the scaup Aythya marila (n = 24) and the pochard A. ferina (n = 24) were studied. Scaup is protected in Poland where it spends only the winter, while pochard is a game bird, abundant and breeding in Poland. In winter, the two species form large flocks off the southern coast of the Baltic, particularly in the Szczecin Lagoon where they were collected for this study. The bones and cartilage (trachea) were assayed for concentrations (dry weight-based) of three essential metals: iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn); concentrations of the two toxic metals: lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were assayed as well. These hard tissues of the two species showed the following order of metal concentrations Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Cd. In scaup and pochard bones, the respective geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, and Cd were 94.4 and 102.0; 20.2 and 24.7; 6.2 and 9.6; 0.19 and 0.26; 0.114 and 0.162 mg/kg. The levels of all the metals in cartilage (Zn 149.1 and 165.8; Fe 58.4 and 116.3; Pb 10.6 and 14.9; Cu 1.41 and 3.31; Cd 0.144 and 0.175 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than in the bones of A. marila and A. ferina. However, statistically significant differences were found in respect to the essential metals only (Zn, Fe, Cu). The inter-species comparisons showed the two species to differ in their cartilage concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd and in their bone concentrations of Pb and Cd. In each case, the pochard exhibited higher concentrations of metals. This study showed distinct differences between trace element accumulation by two heavily mineralised avian body parts: leg bones (tarsometatarsus) and cartilage (trachea). The results are in agreement with data reported by other workers who analysed trace metals in cartilaginous and bone components of the femoral head in homoiotherm vertebrates, including humans. Therefore it is important that intra- and inter-species comparisons of hard biological components be based on

  7. Concentrations of 137Cs and trace elements in zooplankton, and their vertical distributions off Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ishii, Toshiaki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected at about 50 m depth with a large ring net (160-cm mouth diameter, 0.5-mm mesh) in May, June, October 2005 and June 2006 off Rokkasho, Japan where a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant will be in full-scale operation in the near future. Plankters in each sample were separated based on their species. Eight samples were used for the determination of 137 Cs concentration and the other 21 samples were used for the determination of its stable isotope, Cs along with some other trace elements. All the samples were characterized by five dominant species, i.e. euphausiids, chaetognaths, copepods; Neocalanus spp., amphipods; Themisto spp. and Cyphocaris sp. Plankton samples were also taken at three to five discrete depths between the surface and ≤ 1,000 m in depth during daytime and nighttime for analysis of vertical distribution patterns of biomass, and for assessment of daily vertical migration activity. Integrated net zooplankton biomass at nighttime ranged from 0.85 to 8.74 g-DW m -2 in the 0-150 m layer without any appreciable day-night differences in the vertical distribution; below the layer, it decreased significantly. Only in spring, appreciable day-night differences in the vertical distribution were observed at the shallowest station. Concentrations of Cs and Co did not show significant difference among the five species. However, higher concentrations of Sr were observed in two amphipods. It is likely that amphipods had a different biological process in Sr metabolism from others. The concentration of 137 Cs in zooplankton was usually very low and sometimes under the detection limit. In the present study, the highest concentration of 137 Cs in zooplankton was 24 mBq kg-WW -1 , corresponding to the concentration factor (CF) of 14, if the value of 1.7 mBq L -1 was given to the 137 Cs concentration in seawater. The water-column inventory of 137 Cs in a zooplankton community is calculated to be 0.29 to 1.95 mBq m -2 , based on the data on

  8. Speciation of the plutonium at trace levels by capillary electrophoresis-ICP-MS coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambard, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The CE-ICP-MS coupling allowed the development of new analytical methods for the study of plutonium (Pu) speciation at trace levels including complexation studies of this element by organic and inorganic ligands. First, a method, called dual detection, based on the simultaneous use of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer integrated in the capillary electrophoresis and the ICP-MS was developed and validated. It allows the unambiguous determination of electrophoretic mobilities for separated chemical species and gives a powerful tool for speciation studies. Then, the influence on Pu redox speciation of the buffer from the background electrolyte was evaluated. This study showed the implications of the electrolyte constituents' choice on Pu redox equilibrium in the sample. Furthermore, the CE-ICP-MS coupling was used for studying the Pu complexation at trace levels by some organic (NTA and DTPA) and inorganic ligands (carbonates). The behaviour of Pu valence +III, +IV and +VI was studied in the presence of buffer at near neutral pH. Different species of Pu were observed depending on the initial oxidation state of the plutonium. The study showed the potential of poly-amino-carboxylic acids, such as NTA and DTPA, for dissolving Pu precipitates, regardless its initial speciation. Finally, the carbonation of pentavalent neptunium, as an analogue of Pu(V), was achieved at very low concentration of Np (10 -8 mol.L -1 ). The formation of NpO 2 (CO 3 ) - at 25 C and 2,5*10 -2 mol.L -1 ionic strength was measured by CE-ICP-MS and found to consistent with literature data. (author)

  9. Speciation of the plutonium at trace levels by capillary electrophoresis-ICP-MS coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambard, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The CE-ICP-MS coupling allowed the development of new analytical methods for the study of plutonium speciation at trace levels including complexation studies of this element by organic and inorganic ligands. First, a method, called dual detection, based on the simultaneous use of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer integrated in the capillary electrophoresis and the ICPMS was developed and validated. It allows the unambiguous determination of electrophoretic mobilities for separated chemical species and gives a powerful tool for speciation studies. Then, the influence on plutonium redox speciation of the buffer from the background electrolyte was evaluated. This study showed the implications of the electrolyte constituents' choice on plutonium redox equilibrium in the sample. Furthermore, the CE-ICP-MS coupling was used for studying the plutonium complexation at trace levels by some organic (NTA and DTPA) and inorganic ligands (carbonates). The behaviour of plutonium valence +III, +IV and +VI was studied in the presence of buffer at near neutral pH. Different species of plutonium were observed depending on the initial oxidation state of the plutonium. This study showed the potential of poly-amino-carboxylic acids, such as NTA and DTPA, for dissolving plutonium precipitates, regardless its initial speciation. Finally, the carbonation of pentavalent neptunium, as an analogue of Pu(V), was achieved at very low concentration of Np (10 -8 mol.L -1 ). The formation constant of NpO 2 (CO 3 )- at 25 deg. C and 2,5 x 10 -2 mol.L -1 ionic strength was measured by CE-ICP-MS and found to be consistent with literature data. (author)

  10. Concentration of Uranium levels in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, M. N. S.; Somashekar, R. K.; Kumar, S. A.; Shivanna, K.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Eappen, K. P.

    2008-01-01

    The uranium isotopes during their course of their disintegration decay into other radioactive elements and eventually decay into stable lead isotopes. The cause of environmental concern is the emanation of beta and gamma radiation during disintegration. The present study tends to estimate uranium in groundwater trapped in granite and gneiss rocks. Besides, the study aims at estimating the radiation during natural disintegration process. The water samples were collected and analyzed following inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique while water sample collection was given to the regions of Kolar District, South India, due to the representation. The significant finding was the observation of very high levels of uranium in groundwater compared to similar assays reported at other nearby districts. Also, the levels were considerable to those compared to groundwater levels of uranium reported by other scientists, On the basis of this study, it was inferred that the origin of uranium was from granite strata and there was a trend of diffusion observed in the course of flow-path of water in the region

  11. Trace metal levels in the sediments of the Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Remani, K.N.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Levels of Cu, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn at four stations in the northern arm of the Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India, which runs through an industrial belt is reported. All metals showed some degree of variation over the area studied. Co showed the lowest...

  12. Concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs around a municipal solid waste incinerator in Girona (Catalonia, Spain). Human health risks for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2018-07-15

    Previously to the modernization of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of Campdorà (Girona, Catalonia, Spain) two sampling campaigns (2015 and 2016) were conducted. In each campaign, 8 soil and 4 air samples (PM 10 and total particle phase and gas phase) were collected. The levels of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl and V, and PCDD/Fs were analysed at different distances and wind directions around the MSWI. Environmental levels of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were used to assess exposure and health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for the population living around the facility. In soils, no significant differences were observed for trace elements and PCDD/Fs between both campaigns. In air, significant higher levels of As, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl and V were detected in 2016. Regarding soil levels, only Cd (distances) and As, Cu, Mn, and Ni (wind directions) showed significant differences. No differences were noted in the concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs in air levels with respect to distances and directions to the MSWI. No differences were registered in air levels (elements and PCDD/Fs) between points influenced by MSWI emissions and background point. However some differences in congener profile were noted regarding from where back-trajectories come from (HYSPLIT model results), pointing some influence of Barcelona metropolitan area. The concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were similar -or even lower- than those reported around other MSWIs in Catalonia and various countries. Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety limit (HQ<1). In turn, carcinogenic risks due to exposure to trace elements and PCDD/Fs were in acceptable ranges, according to national and international standard regulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of trace levels of Pb2+ in tap water at boron-doped diamond electrodes with anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoe, Diana; Spataru, Nicolae; Kawasaki, Ryuji; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Spataru, Tanta; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used to investigate the possibility of detecting trace levels of lead by linear-sweep anodic stripping voltammetry. The low limit of detection (2 nM) is an advantage compared to other electrode materials, and it was found that at low pH values, copper concentrations that are usually present in drinking water do not affect to a large extent the detection of lead. These findings recommend anodic stripping voltammetry at the BDD electrodes as a suitable mercury-free method for the determination of trace levels of lead in drinking water. The results obtained for the lead detection in tap water real samples are in excellent agreement with those found by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), demonstrating the practical analytical utility of the method

  14. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1991-09-01

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  15. Analysis of commercial bouillons for trace levels of mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavric, B; Matula, T I; Klassen, R; Downie, R H

    1993-12-01

    A new method, developed specifically for the extraction of heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) type mutagens from different food matrices, was applied to various forms of commercially available bouillons. This procedure is based on liquid-liquid extraction of the sample at different pH values. Recovery and reproducibility of the procedure was determined by processing spiked samples using a mutagenicity bioassay technique as an endpoint. The mutagenicity was tested in the Salmonella/microsome assay using strain TA98 with metabolic activation. 22 bouillon samples in liquid, cube or powder forms from seven manufacturers were extracted and tested for potential mutagenicity. The mutagenic activity of these samples varied and ranged from non-detectable to about 1200 induced revertants per gram of solid material, with a median value of approximately 250 revertants/g. The mutagenic response appeared to be dependent on the source rather than the type or form of the product tested. A negative response was obtained from only one chicken bouillon, and the highest positive response was obtained from a beef bouillon in cube form. It appears that the average beef sample, regardless of form, has a higher mutagenic potency than chicken or chicken and turkey samples. Overall, the intake of mutagens from commercial bouillons (obtained as cubes, concentrates or dry mixes) to prepare one serving (as bouillon, soup, casseroles, etc.) is considerably less than that reported in the literature for one serving of fried beef or pork. The extractability and mutagenic characteristics of these samples indicate the presence of HAA-type mutagens. Work is in progress to identify the mutagenic factors in bouillons.

  16. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  17. Distribution and concentration evaluation of trace and rare earth elements in sediment samples of the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoir systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Larissa S.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo(Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica; Ferreira, Francisco J. [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Química Inorgânica

    2017-07-01

    Concentration and distribution of trace and rare earth elements in bottom sediment samples collected in the Billings System (including Rio Grande and Guarapiranga Reservoirs) were assessed by using Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA). To evaluate the sources of anthropogenic contamination the enrichment factor (FE) and the geoacumulation index (IGeo) were calculated using NASC and Guarapiranga Park Soil as Reference Values. Results were compared to the concentration guideline values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) environmental agency for As, Cr and Zn, and values in other published studies. Most points exceeded TEL values and, in some points, PEL values for these elements, indicating poor sediment quality in these reservoirs. In general terms, the elements As, Cr, Sb and Zn through EF and IGeo calculations present enrichment at all points analyzed, in both collection campaigns, except for the Rio Grande Reservoir points. The region where the reservoirs are located receive untreated sewage as well as pollution from urban occupation, industrial and mining activities, making it difficult to accurately identify the pollution sources. This study found higher concentrations of the elements analyzed in the Billings Reservoir, indicating a greater contamination level in relation to the other reservoirs. (author)

  18. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  19. Distribution and concentration evaluation of trace and rare earth elements in sediment samples of the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoir systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Larissa S.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and distribution of trace and rare earth elements in bottom sediment samples collected in the Billings System (including Rio Grande and Guarapiranga Reservoirs) were assessed by using Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA). To evaluate the sources of anthropogenic contamination the enrichment factor (FE) and the geoacumulation index (IGeo) were calculated using NASC and Guarapiranga Park Soil as Reference Values. Results were compared to the concentration guideline values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) environmental agency for As, Cr and Zn, and values in other published studies. Most points exceeded TEL values and, in some points, PEL values for these elements, indicating poor sediment quality in these reservoirs. In general terms, the elements As, Cr, Sb and Zn through EF and IGeo calculations present enrichment at all points analyzed, in both collection campaigns, except for the Rio Grande Reservoir points. The region where the reservoirs are located receive untreated sewage as well as pollution from urban occupation, industrial and mining activities, making it difficult to accurately identify the pollution sources. This study found higher concentrations of the elements analyzed in the Billings Reservoir, indicating a greater contamination level in relation to the other reservoirs. (author)

  20. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  1. Concentrations of major and trace elements in polished rice and paddy soils collected in Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Takeda, A.; Hisamatsu, S.

    2005-01-01

    Rice is a staple food in most Asian countries including Japan, and it is important to evaluate the intake of elements through polished rice ingestion in daily life. Rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from 20 sites throughout Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Rice grains were threshed and then polished to 90% of the total weight of brown rice. The polished rice samples for the determination of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) were dried at 50 degree C and those of the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were ashed at a temperature below 450 degree C to avoid loss of alkali metals. The soil samples were dried at 50 degree C and were pulverized with an agate ball mill. The concentrations of As, Cl and I in the polished rice and As, Cl, I, Ti and Zr in the soils were determined by the NAA. The concentrations of 22 elements in the polished rice and 28 elements in the soils were determined by the ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of essential elements in the polished rice such as K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Mo were 720, 270, 160, 54, 16, 9.7, 2.3, 21 and 0.47 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, and the range of each element was within one order of magnitude. However, the ranges of most trace elements in the polished rice including Al, Ni, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, I, Ag and Cs were more than one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of non-essential elements in the polished rice were as follows: Na, 11; Al, 3.9; Rb, 1.2; Ni, 0.11; As, Sr, Ba, Cd, V and Pb, 0.1-0.01; Cr, I, Co, Ag, Se and Cs, O.Ol-0.001 mg kg -1 dry weight. The concentration ranges of elements, except for I, in the paddy soils were within one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of elements in the soils were as follows: Al, Fe, Ca and Na, 100000-10000; Mg, K and Ti, 10000-1000; Mn, Ba, Cl, Zr, Sr and Zn, 1000-100; V, Ce, Cr, Rb, Cu, Pb, Sc, La, As and Ni, 100-10; Co, Th, Cs, I, U, Mo and Se, 10-1; Sb, Cd and Ag, 1-0.1 mg kg -1 . The mean concentrations of

  2. The significance of pancreatic juice trace-element concentration in chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Loeffler, A.; Hoeck, A.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of exocrine pancreas insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is still not easy. The best-suited method to confirm the diagnosis seems to be the secretin pancreozymin test (SPT). As previous results have shown, the determination of trace elements in the pancreatic juice can improve the diagnostic value of the SPT. During the SPT, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Cs, Sc and Ag were measured in the duodenal aspirate of 50 patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Of the 50 patients, 24 suffered from pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis and 26 had no signs of pancreatic insufficiency. Only the concentration of zinc differed significantly in the two groups; the other elements showed a similar behaviour. In patients without disease of the exocrine pancreas the zinc content of the pancreatic juice during the SPT ws 0.46+-0.13μg/ml, whereas in patients with pancreatic insufficiency it was only 0.18+-0.07μg/ml. The corresponding output was 171+-49.3μg zinc in controls and 41+-17.4μg in patients. After stimulation with pancreozymin the concentrations of zinc increased in normal patients to 1.13+-0.14μg/ml and to 0.22+-0.12μg/ml in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The data demonstrate that the measurement of zinc in the duodenal juice during the SPT improves the diagnostic value of the test and that zinc should also be determined in doubtful cases of pancreatic insufficiency. (author)

  3. The Effect of Smoking on the Serum Level of Some Trace Elements in Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghetany, SH.M.; Ahmad, M.H.; Marei, E.S.; Ashrey, H. A.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a cause of many adverse outcomes, not only during fetal life, but may also extend to childhood and even early adulthood. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on some trace elements on pregnant mothers who smoke and their newborns. The study was carried out on 150 pregnant women and their newborns; fifty smokers (group I), fifty passive smoker subjects (group II) and 50 non-smokers served as controls (group III). Their neonates were also categorized into three groups accordingly. Maternal urine cotinine was determined by radioimmunoassay as an indicator for the degree of influence of smoking, it confirmed a significant elevation among groups I and II. The serum levels of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) were measured in the serum of pregnant mothers and the cord serum of their newborns by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study demonstrated significant lower concentrations of serum Zn and Se in group I and II and their newborns when compared to the control group and control newborns. Significant increases in serum Cd and Cu were observed in-group I and II and their neonates versus the controls. As regards Mn and Mg no significant difference was established between the three studied groups. Our results suggested that tobacco smoking had definite effect on some trace elements that absolutely had drawbacks on both pregnant mothers and their babies. Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, mutagenic and teratogenic substances. Several epidemiological studies illustrated that cigarette smoking among females during the reproductive period have a direct insult on the nutritional and health status of their babies (Jauniaux et al, 1999). Cigarette smoking

  4. Quantification of trace-level DNA by real-time whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Yu, Hannah; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Park, Sang-Ryoul; Yang, Inchul

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of trace amounts of DNA is a challenge in analytical applications where the concentration of a target DNA is very low or only limited amounts of samples are available for analysis. PCR-based methods including real-time PCR are highly sensitive and widely used for quantification of low-level DNA samples. However, ordinary PCR methods require at least one copy of a specific gene sequence for amplification and may not work for a sub-genomic amount of DNA. We suggest a real-time whole genome amplification method adopting the degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP-PCR) for quantification of sub-genomic amounts of DNA. This approach enabled quantification of sub-picogram amounts of DNA independently of their sequences. When the method was applied to the human placental DNA of which amount was accurately determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), an accurate and stable quantification capability for DNA samples ranging from 80 fg to 8 ng was obtained. In blind tests of laboratory-prepared DNA samples, measurement accuracies of 7.4%, -2.1%, and -13.9% with analytical precisions around 15% were achieved for 400-pg, 4-pg, and 400-fg DNA samples, respectively. A similar quantification capability was also observed for other DNA species from calf, E. coli, and lambda phage. Therefore, when provided with an appropriate standard DNA, the suggested real-time DOP-PCR method can be used as a universal method for quantification of trace amounts of DNA.

  5. Ion chromatography separation of lanthanides at trace concentrations from Gd Matrix and quantification by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, V.V.; Jeyakumar, S.; Nagar, B.K.; Deb, S.B.; Saxena, M.K.; Tomar, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinium compounds are mainly used as burnable poison. The presence of certain impurities is undesirable in the nuclear grade Gd compounds. Gd 2 O 3 , a most common raw material used for the preparation of nuclear grade Gd compounds. Analysis of rare earth impurities in Gd-matrices is one of the important exercises carried out to ensure the purity of Gd 2 O 3 . Determination of lanthanides at trace concentrations in lanthanide (Gd) matrix is complicated and difficult to realize. This is because the selective separation of REE's in one of the lanthanide elements is a challenging task. The present study was carried out to explore the feasibility of separating trace level lanthanides from Gd matrix by ion interaction chromatography (IIC) and to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of lanthanides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the present investigation, the reversed phase column was dynamically modified into sulphonic acid functionalized surface by using 0.025 M n-Octane sulphonic acid (OSA). With α-HIBA eluent system, the elution order follows as Lu to La. The separations are employed with gradient elution mode. Since the sample has large excess of Gd, elution profiles with concentration gradient of HIBA were attempted. Separated fractions of Light lanthanides (LLn) and Heavy lanthanides (HLn) were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. During MS analysis, it was observed that due to high concentration of salt (Na salt of OSA) present in the collected fractions caused difficulty in ICP-MS . Hence the experiments were carried out using another ion interacting reagent viz. 0.03 M camphor-10-sulphonic acid (CSA). Initial concentration of HIBA was kept at 0.025 M up to 15 min for the elution of HLns i.e. from Lu to Tb and it was then increased to 0.05 M to 0.3 M in 30 min. After elution of Tb, outlet of the column was switched to drain for 7 min to separate bulk Gd fraction. From 22 to 35 min effluent fraction containing Eu

  6. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  8. Trace elements concentrations in aquatic biota from the Iron Gates wetlands in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matache M. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of four heavy metals was studied in living organisms from the wetlands ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park in Romania. Samples included aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum ssp., Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton natans, molluscs (Sinanodonta woodiana, Unio tumidus, Unio pictorum and fish (Silurus glanis, Sander lucioperca, Aspius aspius, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio. Metals organotropism in fish samples (gills, liver, muscle, eggs has been studied (Kojadinovici et al., 2007; Foata et. Al, 2009; Dutton and Fisher, 2011; David et al., 2012. Metal contamination of the wetlandecosystems in the Iron Gates Natural Park has been documented in the past for sediments (Matache et. al, 2002 and soils (Matache et al., 2003. This is a consequence of the mining and quarrying activities performed in the Moldova Noua region between 1960’s and 2000’s. Zinc is the main metal contaminant in all categories of collected samples. For fish muscle tissue (part of the fish mainly consumed by the local inhabitants, comparison with EU standards has been performed. Issues related to human health appear especially for cadmium (EC, 2006. Potamogeton pectinatus is the least accumulating plant species, whilst Potamogeton natans and Ceratophyllum ssp. had shown similar accumulation capacities of the trace elements.

  9. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Salimi, J.; Geranpayeh, L.; Perovani, H.

    2003-01-01

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  10. Effect of spatial resolution of soil data on predictions of eggshell trace element levels in the Rook Corvus frugilegus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2016-12-01

    Although a considerable research effort has gone into studying the dietary pathways of metals to the bodies of laying female birds and their eggs in recent years, no detailed investigations have yet been carried out relating the properties of the biogeochemical environment at large spatial scales to eggshell trace element levels in typical soil-invertebrate feeding birds under natural conditions. We used data from a large-scale nationwide monitoring survey of soil quality in Poland (3724 sampling points from the 43 792 available) to predict levels of five trace elements (copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd], nickel [Ni], zinc [Zn] and lead [Pb]) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 42 breeding colonies. Our major aim was to test whether differences exist in the explanatory power of soil data (acidity, content of elements and organic matter, and particle size) used as a correlate of concentrations of eggshell trace elements among four different distances (5, 10, 15 and 20 km) around rookeries. Over all four distances around the rookeries only the concentrations of Cu and Cd in eggshells were positively correlated with those in soil, while eggshell Pb was correlated with the soil Pb level at the two longest distances (15 and 20 km) around the rookeries. The physical properties of soil (primarily the increase in pH) adversely affected eggshell Cd and Pb concentrations. The patterns and factors governing metal bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates and eggshells appear to be coincident, which strongly suggests a general similarity in the biochemical pathways of elements at different levels of the food web. The increasing acidification of arable soil as a result of excessive fertilisation and over-nitrification can enhance the bioavailability of toxic elements to laying females and their eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace element, semivolatile organic, and chlorinated organic compound concentrations in bed sediments of selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, February-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Journey, Celeste A.; Stringfield, Whitney J.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Wellborn, John B.; Ratliff, Hagan; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    sediment samples from most nonreference sites exceeded concentrations in samples from reference sites at Fort Gordon. Bed sediments from one of the nonreference sites sampled contained the highest concentrations of copper and lead with elevated levels of zinc and chromium relative to reference sites. The percentage change of major ions, trace elements, and total organic carbon that had been detected at sites previously sampled in May 1998 and current bed sediment sites ranged from -4 to 8 percent with an average percentage change of less than 1 percent. Concentrations of major ions and trace elements in bed sediments exceeded probable effect levels for aquatic life (based on the amphipod Hyalella azteca) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at 46 and 69 percent of the current and previously sampled locations, respectively. The greatest frequency of exceedances for major ions and trace elements in bed sediments was observed for lead. Concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in bed sediment samples at 94 percent of the sites currently sampled. Detections of these organic compounds were reported with greater frequency in bed sediments at upstream sampling locations, when compared to downstream locations. The greatest number of detections of these compounds was reported for bed sediment samples collected from two creeks above a lake. The percentage change of semivolatile organic compounds detected at previously sampled and current bed sediment sites ranged from -68 to 100 percent with the greatest percentage increase reported for one of the creeks above the lake. Concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in bed sediments exceeded aquatic life criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at three sites. Contaminant compounds exceeding aquatic life criteria included fluoranthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene

  12. Use of neutron activation analysis to measure the variation in trace element concentrations in a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; Swaine, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were measured by neutron activation on 57 run-of-mine coal samples from several locations in seven mines located in the Lithgow seam in the Western Coalfield, Sydney Basin. Results were tabulated as ratios of the highest to the lowest variance for each element

  13. Comparison of serum trace element levels in patients with or without pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In developing countries, nutritional deficiency of essential trace elements is a common health problem, particularly among pregnant women because of increased requirements of various nutrients. Accordingly, this study was initiated to compare trace elements status in women with or without pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum trace elements including zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 patients and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu between two groups (P > 0.05. A significant difference in Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were observed between patients with pre-eclampsia and control group (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the levels of Zn, Se, Ca and Mg are significantly altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. This research shows that these deficiencies can not due to hemodilution.

  14. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen; Smith, Brian D.; DelValls, T. Angel; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  15. Determination of the levels of trace elements in ten years old children from Antofagasta city, Chile by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, N.; Munoz, A.L.; Jamett J, A.; Pena C, L.; Santander M, M.

    1988-01-01

    The levels of trace elements in scalp hair of ten years old children of Antofagasta city were determined. For this study, the city was divided in convenient areas. Comparisons between levels of concentrations considering residential areas, sex, values obtained for children of Santiago, and the ranges given in the literature were established. Fifty samples of hair were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analisis. The elements selected were: As, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na. Sb, and Zn. The effectiveness of wash procedure before irradiation was studied. Ten samples were taken with sufficient amount of hair and each was divided into two, only one of them was washed and both were analyzed. The levels of concentrations were compared. (author)

  16. Determination of Tetracycline and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics at Trace Levels in Sludge and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Virginie Salvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a sensitive analytical method to determine simultaneously traces of tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in sludge and soil, based on PLE extraction, followed by SPE purification and finally an analysis by LC-MS/MS. Recoveries were greater than 87% in the case of fluoroquinolones and between 25.4 and 41.7% for tetracyclines. Low relative standard deviations (<15% were obtained in both matrices. The limits of quantification were comprised between 1.1 and 4.6 ng/g and between 5 and 20 ng/g in soil and sludge, respectively. The method was then successfully applied to the analysis of the target antibiotics in sludge as well as soil that received spreading. The substances most frequently found and with the highest levels were fluoroquinolones with concentrations exceeding 1,000 ng/g in several samples of sludge and up to 16 ng/g in soil.

  17. Application of spectroscopic Techniques for the determination of trace element concentrations in some Sudanese vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A. H.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Osman, M. M.; Taha, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in Sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and international data. To achieve these objectives, food samples analyzed were collected from different localities in Sudan, and the samples were prepared for analysis by using dry ashing and wet digestion. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry were used for the determination of the concentrations of elements in the samples, samples were ashed using muffle furnace at temperature 550 C. The quality of the data was verified by the analysis of standard reference materials TDD-ID and Hay-9. The levels of the elemental contents (Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Na, Rb, Sr, and Zn) were determined in legumes, cereals, oil seeds, flour and cereals products, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, egg, meats and fish, and oils and fats. The Sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows. Concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show values which were higher in fruits(4709, 21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in vegetables (4094, 13, and 255 ppm, respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in vegetables (2 and 32 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 and 18 ppm) respectively). Na and Zn were higher in vegetables (3149 and 26 ppm, respectively) and lower fruits (269 and 13 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food.(Author)

  18. Application of spectroscopic techniques of analysis for the determination of trace elements concentrations in some sudanese food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A.H.; Eltayeb, M. A.; Ahmed, M.M.O

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and inter nation data. to achieve these objectives.Food samples were collected from different localities in sudan, and the samples were prepared for analysis using dry ashing and wet digestion. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (Aas), X-ray florescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry were used for the determination of the concentrations of elements in the samples. Samples were ashed using muffle furnace at temperature 55 degree C. The quality of the data was verified by the analysis of standard reference materials TDD-Id and hay-9. The levels of the elemental contents (Br,Ca,Co,Cu,Fe,Mg,Mn,P,Pb,Na,Rb,Sr, and Zn) were determined in legumes, cereals, oil seeds, flour and cereal products, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, egg, meats and fish, and oils and fats. The sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows:-concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show values which were higher in fruits (4709,21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in oils and fat s (25, 2, and 11 ppm, respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in flour and cereals products (4 and 34 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 ppm) and meats and fish (1 ppm and 4 ppm, respectively ). Na and Zn were higher in flour and cereals products and legumes (4970 and 39 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food. (Author)

  19. Minor and trace metals levels in human milk in north western cities of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahabbis, M. T.; Elkubat, M. S.; Kut, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of twelve minor and trace metals were determined by using (AAS, ES and ICP/MS) in breast milk obtained from 60 women living in north western cities of Libya. Samples were collected at one week up to two years after delivery. Women with age>21 years old to an age of <43 years old were investigated. (Author)

  20. Galvanic detection of sulfur dioxide in ambient air at trace levels by anodic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, F.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous method for the measurement of SO2 in ambient air at trace levels is described. The principle of detection is based on the anodic oxidation of SO2 in a galvanic cell. A differential measuring technique with a cell with two anodes and one cathode is used; background and noise current are

  1. Determination of Trace Level Triclosan in Water by Online Preconcentration and HPLC-UV Diode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantification of trace levels of triclosan in water is discussed. Triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent, and related compounds have been shown to reach municipal waste waters through the disposal ...

  2. Application of Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Trace Element Concentrations in some Sudanese vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A. H.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Othman, M. M.; Taha, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in Sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and international data. Food samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from different localities in Sudan. The samples were then prepared and their Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Na, Rb, Sr, and Zn content were determined using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry. Verified standards TDD-1D and Hay-9 (supplied by the IAEA) were measured using the techniques mentioned above for accuracy. The Sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows: - Concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show higher values in fruits (4709, 21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in vegetables (4094, 13, and 255 ppm , respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in vegetables (2 and 32 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 and 18 ppm) respectively). Na and Zn were higher in vegetables (3149 and 26 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (269 and 13 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food. (Authors)

  3. Determination of trace levels of nickel and manganese in soil, vegetable, and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Shemirani, Farzaneh [School of Analytical Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A simple and reliable method for rapid and selective extraction and determination of trace levels of Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} was developed by ionic liquid (IL) based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) detection. The proposed method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of nickel and manganese in soil, vegetable, and water samples. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 100 {mu}L of ethanol and aspirated into the FAAS using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 {mu}L of each analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. Effective parameters such as pH, amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent, concentration of the chelating agent, and effect of salt concentration were inspected by a (2{sup 5-1}) fractional factorial design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration of 10 mL sample solution permitted the detection of 0.93 {mu}g L{sup -1} Ni{sup 2+} and 0.52 {mu}g L{sup -1} Mn{sup 2+} with enrichment factors 77.2 and 82.6 for Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated by analysis of a certified reference material (CRM TMDW-500, drinking water). (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. On-line sample-pre-treatment schemes for trace-level determinations of metals by coupling flow injection or sequential injection with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR), solvent extraction-back extraction and hydride/vapor generation. It also addresses a novel, robust approach, whereby the protocol of SI-LOV-bead injection (BI) on-line separation and pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of metals by a renewable microcolumn...

  5. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part C. Trace element concentrations in granite and their impact on thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Huber, Thomas; Nolte, Eckehart; Kato, Kazuo; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements such as Li, B, Sm, and Gd can, despite their low elemental concentration in mineral materials, influence thermal neutron activation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki samples, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross sections. This was demonstrated for a granite core, where the addition of those trace elements to the elemental composition of granite reduces the production of 152 Eu by some 25% at a depth of 25 cm from the surface. If typical concentrations of those trace elements are added to DS02 reference soil, however, the production of 152 Eu one meter above ground is not changed significantly, because of the high water content of the soil. This indicates that DS02 soil represents a reasonable reference material for the air-over-ground transport calculations. It must be kept in mind, however, that the local environment of any sample investigated for thermal neutron activation might be characterized by other elemental compositions. In particular, trace element and hydrogen concentrations could be considerably different from those used for DS02 reference soil. As an example it was demonstrated that in a granite gravestone thermal neutron activation of 36 Cl close to the surface might be, in the worst case, reduced by some 30%, due to increased local granite concentration in this type of environment. Beside other parameters such as, for example, individual sample geometry, the variability of trace elements in soil might be one reason for the variability that is observed in the individual thermal neutron activation measurements (Gold 1995). It is necessary, therefore, to carefully model the exposure geometry of the exposed material, its chemical composition, and the surrounding interface materials in order to obtain the best possible agreement in comparisons between calculated and measured data for thermal neutrons. (author)

  6. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler Peltier, Gretchen; Meyer, Judith L.; Jagoe, Charles H.; Hopkins, William A.

    2008-01-01

    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 ± 0.2 and 13.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg. - C. fluminea collected downstream of CFPPs had elevated tissue concentrations of trace elements

  7. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  8. The determination of low level trace elements in coals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.; Krause, P.; Cox, A.G. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-11-01

    The rapid determination of elements present in low level concentrations in bituminous coals is possible using laser abalation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (l.a.-i.c.p.-m.s.). A wide range of trace elements can routinely be determined using this technique but it is for environmentally sensitive elements, such as As, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Hg, that it is of most use due to the low levels of detection. Calibration of the i.c.p.-m.s. was achieved using a series of uncertified coals and the method evaluated using the South African certified coals, Sarm 18, 19 and 20. A critical evaluation of the data obtained shows that for many of the elements studied the results obtained are both accurate and precise, even at very low concentrations, with the limits of detection for all of the elements being in the {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) range. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Tracing and dealing with dwellings with high radon and radon daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdwall, Hans

    1980-01-01

    In the late 1970s it was found that a number of buildings in Sweden, primarily those made from alum shale-based concretes, had elevated radon and radon daughter levels. A special commission investigated the problem and established provisional limiting values for radon daughter exposures, gamma radiation from the ground, and the concentrations of radioactive materials in building materials. With regard to gamma radiation from the ground the commission proposed that no building be built in an area where outside gamma radiation exceeds 100 μR/h. For building materials a gamma index (mγ) and a radium index (mRa) are suggested: mγ = Csub(K)/10000 + Csub(Ra)/1000 + Csub(Th)/700; mRa = Csub(Ra)/200 (Csub(K), Csub(Ra) and Csub(Th) are the concentrations of potassium, radium and thorium respectively). The proposed limiting values are such that the gamma index and the radium index be less than 1. It is also suggested that action should be taken to reduce radon levels in buildings with radon daughter concentrations of 0.27 WL within two years and 0.10 WL within 5 years

  10. Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on a group of 20 mares of the Hucul breed kept in free range system. The horses made use of pastures in summer periods while being fed with hay or silage during the winter. Mares that bore offspring regularly, in good conditions and healthy were involved in the analysis. Hair samples of about 500 mg were taken from areas around the neck under the mane of each horse four times a year. The concentration of 6 elements, i.e., B, Ni, Si, Mo, I and Cr were measured in each sample. Much higher concentrations of molybdenum and nickel were found in hair samples collected in spring, but more of boron in autumn while those from winter contained more of chromium, silicon and iodine. The concentration of all the analyzed minerals differed significantly in relation to the season. A significant positive relationship between levels of nickel and molybdenum on the one hand as well as between silicon and chromium on the other was demonstrated. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the levels of iodine and molybdenum as well as between iodine and nickel.

  11. Trace level detection of explosives in solution using leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

  12. Indoor radon concentration levels in Amman, Zarka and Sault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibeh, A.J.A.H.; Ahmad, N.; Matiullah, A.

    1997-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels in three main cities of Jordan have been measured using CR-39 polymeric nuclear track detectors. CR-39 detectors were placed in polyethylene bags and cups. These bag and cup dosimeters were installed in randomly selected houses. The average value of indoor radon concentration level in the city of Amman was found to be 41.3 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters and 42.6 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters. For the district of Zarka, the average value of indoor radon concentration level measured with bag dosimeters was 33.9 Bq m -3 , whereas with cup dosimeters the level was 30.7 Bq m -3 . For Sault and its suburbs, the average value of indoor radon concentration level was found to be 51.2 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters and 49.8 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters. (author)

  13. Temperature Programmed Desorption of Quench-condensed Krypton and Acetone in Air; Selective Concentration of Ultra-trace Gas Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taku T; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Selective concentration of ultra-trace components in air-like gases has an important application in analyzing volatile organic compounds in the gas. In the present study, we examined quench-condensation of the sample gas on a ZnO substrate below 50 K followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) (low temperature TPD) as a selective gas concentration technique. We studied two specific gases in the normal air; krypton as an inert gas and acetone as a reactive gas. We evaluated the relationship between the operating condition of low temperature TPD and the lowest detection limit. In the case of krypton, we observed the selective concentration by exposing at 6 K followed by thermal desorption at about 60 K. On the other hand, no selectivity appeared for acetone although trace acetone was successfully concentrated. This is likely due to the solvent effect by a major component in the air, which is suggested to be water. We suggest that pre-condensation to remove the water component may improve the selectivity in the trace acetone analysis by low temperature TPD.

  14. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.H.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.; Pignata, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO 2 and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO 2 regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO 2 and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO 2 and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO 2 and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health.

  16. Trace metal concentrations in marine zooplankton from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.

    on the interrelationships of zooplankton and phytoplankton. – Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K 32: 375-445. [2] Brooks, R.R., Presley, B.J., Kaplan, I.R. (1967): APDC-MIBK extraction system for the determination of trace elements in saline waters by Atomic... of contaminants in the food web dynamics as well as in the biogeochemical cycling of trace elements. Zooplanktons are the most abundant animals in the sea, which play an important role in the marine food chain. They mostly feed on phytoplankton and in turn...

  17. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  18. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  19. Development of a mass spectrometrical isotope dilution analysis for determination of trace iodine levels and its application for food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindlmeier, W.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometrical isotope dilution procedure for the determination of trace amounts of iodine in various materials was developed using 129 I as indicator isotope, based on the determination of the 129 I/ 127 I isotope relationship. Negative thermionization was used as ionization method. The analysis procedure, which worked with a standard deviation of between 0,1 and 10% (depending on material tested), was used to determine the iodine level of table salt - both iodized and normal salt (3-6 ppm and less than 0,006 ppm respectively), and food samples with an organic matrix. For comparison the iodine levels were also measured with an iodine-selective electrode. Special preparation and separation procedures were done to suit the sample material. A comparison of the levels of iodine concentration in various powdered milks which were measured by international collaborators using varying methods shows the superior reproducibility of the MS-IDA. (RB) [de

  20. Determination of trace element level in different tissues of the leaping mullet (Liza saliens, Mugilidae) collected from Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Eslami, Shahram; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn were determined in the brain, heart, liver, gill, gonad, spleen, kidney, and red and white muscles of Liza saliens (leaping mullet). Trace element levels in fish samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the non-essential metals, the levels of Ni and Pb in the tissues were higher than limits for fish proposed by FAO/WHO, EU, and TFC. Generally, the levels of the non-essential metals were much higher than those of manganese in the red and white muscles. Fe distribution pattern in tissues was in order of spleen > liver > heart > gill > brain > kidney > gonad > red muscle > white muscle. Red muscle was not within the safe limits for human consumption because non-essential metal (Ni, Pb) contents were higher than standard limits.

  1. Assessment of trace metal levels in size-resolved particulate matter in the area of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations at four sites in Leipzig (Germany) and its surrounding were assessed between the winter of 2013 and the summer of 2015. The measurements were performed in parallel at; traffic dominated (Leipzig - Mitte, LMI), traffic and residential dominated (Eisenbahnstrasse, EIB), urban background (TROPOS, TRO) and regional background (Melpitz, MEL) sites. In total, 19 trace metals, i.e. K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Sr, Sn, Sb, Co and Rb were analysed using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The major metals were Fe, K and Ca with concentrations ranging between; 31-440 ng/m3, 42-153 ng/m3 and 24-322 ng/m3, respectively, while the trace metals with the lowest concentrations were Co, Rb and Se with concentrations of; tire wear (Cu, Sb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Pb), biomass burning (K, Rb), oil and coal combustion (V, Zn, As, Pb). Crustal matter contributed 5-12% in winter and 8-19% in summer of the PM10 mass. Using Cu and Zn as markers for brake and tire wear, respectively, the estimated brake and tire wear contributions to the PM10 mass were 0.1-0.8% and 1.7-2.9%, respectively. The higher contributions were observed at the traffic sites while the lower contributions were observed at the regional background site. In total, non-exhaust emissions could account for about 10-22% of the PM10 mass in the summer and about 7-15% of the PM10 mass in the winter.

  2. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  3. Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koknaroglu, Hayati

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) ( 50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

  4. A new hybrid algorithm using thermodynamic and backward ray-tracing approaches for modeling luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Ch. K.; Lim, Y. S.; Tan, S. G.; Rahman, F. A. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Klang, 53300, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    A Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) is a transparent plate containing luminescent material with photovoltaic (PV) cells attached to its edges. Sunlight entering the plate is absorbed by the luminescent material, which in turn emits light. The emitted light propagates through the plate and arrives at the PV cells through total internal reflection. The ratio of the area of the relatively cheap polymer plate to that of the expensive PV cells is increased, and the cost per unit of solar electricity can be reduced by 75%. To improve the emission performance of LSCs, simulation modeling of LSCs becomes essential. Ray-tracing modeling is a popular approach for simulating LSCs due to its great ability of modeling various LSC structures under direct and diffuse sunlight. However, this approach requires substantial amount of measurement input data. Also, the simulation time is enormous because it is a forward-ray tracing method that traces all the rays propagating from the light source to the concentrator. On the other hand, the thermodynamic approach requires substantially less input parameters and simulation time, but it can only be used to model simple LSC designs with direct sunlight. Therefore, a new hybrid model was developed to perform various simulation studies effectively without facing the issues arisen from the existing ray-tracing and thermodynamic models. The simulation results show that at least 60% of the total output irradiance of a LSC is contributed by the light trapped and channeled by the LSC. The novelty of this hybrid model is the concept of integrating the thermodynamic model with a well-developed Radiance ray-tracing model, hence making this model as a fast, powerful and cost-effective tool for the design of LSCs. (authors)

  5. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  6. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  7. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun; Lee, Dongbum

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  8. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Resonant-Gravimetric Detection of Trace-Level Xylene Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xinxin

    2016-12-20

    As one of typical VOCs, xylene is seriously harmful to human health. Nowadays, however, there is really lack of portable sensing method to directly detect environmental xylene that has chemical inertness. Especially when the concentration of xylene is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb, people are indeed hard to be aware of and avoid this harmful vapor. Herein the metal-organic framework (MOF) of HKUST-1 is first explored for sensing to the nonpolar molecule of p-xylene. And the sensing mechanism is identified that is via host-guest interaction of MOF with xylene molecule. By loading MOFs on mass-gravimetric resonant-cantilevers, sensing experiments for four MOFs of MOF-5, HKUST-1, ZIF-8, and MOF-177 approve that HKUST-1 has the highest sensitivity to p-xylene. The resonant-gravimetric sensing experiments with our HKUST-1 based sensors have demonstrated that trace-level p-xylene of 400 ppb can be detected that is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb. We analyze that the specificity of HKUST-1 to xylene comes from Cu 2+ -induced moderate Lewis acidity and the "like dissolves like" interaction of the benzene ring. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is used to elucidate the adsorbing/sensing mechanism of HKUST-1 to p-xylene, where p-xylene adsorbing induced blue-shift phenomenon is observed that confirms the sensing mechanism. Our study also indicates that the sensor shows good selectivity to various kinds of common interfering gases. And the long-term repeatability and stability of the sensing material are also approved for the usage/storage period of two months. This research approves that the MOF materials exhibit potential usages for high performance chemical sensors applications.

  9. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N.G.K.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of the Marine Research-Living Resource program at 24 stations in the Bay of Bengal (November, 2002) and 29 stations in the Arabian Sea (September-October, 2003) during the Cruises...

  10. Laboratory actinide partitioning: Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, T.M.; Jones, J.H.; Heuser, W.R.; Burnett, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and alpha track radiography techniques have been used to measure partition coefficients (D) at trace (ppm) concentration levels for the actinide elements Th, U, and Pu between synthetic whitlockite and coexisting 'haplobasaltic' silicate liquid at 1 bar pressure and 1250 deg C at oxygen fugacities from 10 sup(-8.5) and 10sup(-0.7) bars. Pu is much more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than is U or Th under reducing conditions, because Pu is primarily trivalent, whereas U and Th are tetravalent. Definitive valence state assignments cannot be made, but our best estimates of corrected partition coefficients for Pu +3 , Pu +4 , Th +4 , U +4 , and U +6 are given for whitlockites. The effect of changing pressure and liquidus temperature is relatively small, which probably reflects a weak temperature dependence for D (whitlockite) but possibly could be due to cancellation of opposing temperature and pressure effects. Comparison of experiments at trace U levels with those containing percent concentrations of UO 2 indicate that Si is involved in the substitution of U in whitlockite with U + 2Si Ca + 2P being the most likely mechanism. Dsub(U) is lower, 0.3 vs 0.5, at percent levels compared to 20 ppm. This is best explained by the effect of U on melt structure or by a decrease in the fraction of tetravalent U at high concentrations. (author)

  11. Estimation of trace levels of plutonium in urine samples by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Prabhu, S.; Pendharkar, K.A.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Individual monitoring of radiation workers handling Pu in various nuclear installations requires the detection of trace levels of plutonium in bioassay samples. It is necessary to develop methods that can detect urinary excretion of Pu in fraction of mBq range. Therefore, a sensitive method such as fission track analysis has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of Pu in bioassay samples. In this technique, chemically separated plutonium from the sample and a Pu standard were electrodeposited on planchettes and covered with Lexan solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA reactor of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The fission track densities in the Lexan films of the sample and the standard were used to calculate the amount of Pu in the sample. The minimum amount of Pu that can be analyzed by this method using doubly distilled electronic grade (E. G.) reagents is about 12 μBq/L. (author)

  12. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  13. Determination of heavy metals at traces level in leached samples by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do; Inacio, Graziela R.; Navarro, Angela N.

    1996-01-01

    In landfill solid residues are disposed in the soil. When made based on technical criteria and specifically operation patterns a safe confinement is warranted according to environmental and public health protection. However, when the disposal is made by a random and unsuitable way serious problems can be caused as groundwater and superficial water contamination through leach action, indicating the usefulness of monitoring landfills. In this way energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with radioisotopic excitation was applied to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals at trace levels in leached samples from the Americana City Landfill with pre-concentration of the elements by a non-specific precipitating agent, called ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). (author)

  14. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  15. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, James C.W.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Chan, Simon K.F.; Lam, Michael H.W.; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  16. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, James C.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790-8556 (Japan); Chan, Simon K.F. [Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong, (China); Lam, Michael H.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Martin, Michael [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-12-15

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles.

  17. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations between atmospheric aerosol trace element concentrations and red tide at Port Aransas, Texas, on the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegalski, S.R.; Villareal, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed as an analytical technique to measure atmospheric aerosol concentrations of trace metals in Port Aransas, TX on the Gulf of Mexico. The sources of atmospheric aerosols and the seasonal variation of the sources are explored. High atmospheric iron concentrations are then shown to have a possible correlation to the occurrences of red tide in this region. The data shows that this correlation is plausible, but due to the many factors that affect red tide growth a definitive conclusion may not be reached. The period of study for these measurements was September 12, 2000 to January 4, 2002. (author)

  19. Trace Element Concentration and Speciation in Selected Mining-Contaminated Soils and Water in Willow Creek Floodplain, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term mining activities in the mountains around Creede, Colorado have resulted in significant contamination in soils and water in the Willow Creek floodplain. Total major and trace were determined for soils and water and sequential chemical extraction for soils. Objectives were to determine concentrations and potential reactivity of trace elements and investigate their relationship with other soil and water properties. Water trace elements showed significant variability among sites, ranging from 347 to 12108 μg/L. Relative trend showed (Zn > Sr > Ba > (Mn > W > Cd > (Sn > V ≈ Ni ≈ Cu > Co > (Ag. Soil trace elements showed significant short-range spatial variability, ranging from 2819 to 19274 mg/kg. Relative trend showed (Pb ≈ Zn > Mn > Ba > P > (As > Cu > Sr > V > Cd > Sb ≈ Ag > (Co ≈ Cr > Mo ≈ Sn ≈ Ni > (Be ≈ W > Se ≈ Hg. Predominant fractions were oxide, specifically-sorbed/carbonate bound, and residual. Water soluble and exchangeable fractions showed (Zn ≈ Cd > Pb and Cd > Zn > Pb, respectively. Mobility factors for highly contaminated soils showed Cd ≈ Zn > Pb > Cu > As.

  20. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  1. Assessment of trace metal concentrations and human health risk in clam (Tapes decussatus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Homa Lagoon (Eastern Aegean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mustafa; Uluturhan-Suzer, Esin

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal variations of trace metal concentrations (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu) were investigated in the hepatopancreas and soft tissues (remaining parts of bivalves such as gill, mantle, foot, and muscle) of Tapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Homa Lagoon. The highest metal concentrations were recorded frequently in February and July in M. galloprovincialis and T. decussatus, respectively. Trace metal levels (except Zn) in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in soft tissue for both bivalves. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Zn for M. galloprovincialis were higher compared to T. decussatus in both tissues. The metal concentrations in both bivalves from the Homa Lagoon were generally below the values of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) estimates, in terms of human health risk. According to hazard quotient (HQ), Cr values for both species and Cd values for only M. galloprovincialis were found greater than one. Also, total hazard index (THI) values were greater than one in both bivalves, having a potential risk for consumers.

  2. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  3. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  6. Accurate determination of ultra-trace levels of Ti in blood serum using ICP-MS/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Resano, Martín; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel method for determination of Ti at ultra-trace levels in clinical samples (serum). •Novel method based on Ti(NH 3 ) 6 + reaction product ion formation and double mass selection using recently introduced ICP-QQQ instrumentation. •Lowest limits of detection ever obtained using quadrupole-based instrumentation for Ti. •Accurate determination of basal levels of Ti in blood serum. -- Abstract: Ti is frequently used in implants and prostheses and it has been shown before that the presence of these in the human body can lead to elevated Ti concentrations in body fluids such as serum and urine. As identification of the exact mechanisms responsible for this increase in Ti concentrations, and the risks associated with it, are not fully understood, it is important to have sound analytical methods that enable straightforward quantification of Ti levels in body fluids (for both implanted and non-implanted individuals). Until now, only double-focusing sector field ICP-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) offered limits of detection that are good enough to deal with the very low basal levels of Ti in human serum. This work reports on the development of a novel method for the accurate and precise determination of trace levels of Ti in human serum samples, based on the use of ICP-MS/MS. O 2 and NH 3 /He have been compared as reaction gases. While the use of O 2 did not enable to overcome all spectral interferences, it has been shown that conversion of Ti + ions into Ti(NH 3 ) 6 + cluster ions by using NH 3 /He as a reaction gas in an ICP-QQQ-MS system, operated in MS/MS mode, provided interference-free conditions and sufficiently low limits of detection, down to 3 ng L −1 (instrumental detection limit obtained for the most abundant Ti isotope). The accuracy of the method proposed was evaluated by analysis of a Seronorm Trace Elements Serum L-1 reference material and by comparing the results obtained with those achieved by means of SF

  7. Optical remote sensing of properties and concentrations of atmospheric trace constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana

    application is the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere. Water vapor is an important greenhouse gas due to its high concentration in the atmosphere (parts per thousand), among the trace constituents, and its interaction with tropospheric aerosols particles. The upward convection of water vapor and aerosols due to intense heating of the ground lead to aggregation of water particles or ice on aerosols in the air forming different types of clouds at various altitudes. In this regard a reliable method of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles is presented in the third part of the paper. The proposed technique here is the Raman lidar procedure that is calibrated afterwards. The accuracy of the water vapor measurements is obtained by calibration techniques based on different techniques that where compared and validated. The calibration method is based on data fusion from different sources like: GPS (global positioning system) sunphotometer, radiosonde. The condensation of water vapor on aerosols is affecting their size, shape, refractive index and chemical composition. The warming or cooling effect of the clouds hence formed are both possible depending on the cloud location, cover, composition and structure. The effect of these clouds on radiative global forcing and therefore on the short and long term global climate is of high interest in the scientific world. In an effort to understand the hygroscopic properties of aerosols, a major interest is manifested in obtaining accurate vertical water vapor profiles simultaneously with aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles. A reliable method of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles and aerosols backscatter and extinction in the same atmospheric volume is presented in the fourth chapter of the paper. As mentioned above the determination of greenhouse gases and other molecular pollutants is important in process control as well as environmental monitoring. Since many molecular vibrational modes are in the infrared

  8. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg -1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg -1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  9. Trace metal concentration in some marine algae of the Maharashtra coast (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agadi, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Untawale, A.G.

    74 marine algal species representing Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from ten different stations along the Maharashtra Coast were analysed for the concentration of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb Concentration varies with species and also from...

  10. The Polypyrrole/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Modified Au Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Levels of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxing Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive detection of trace levels of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ is of significant importance due to the health hazard they pose. In this paper, we present a polypyrrole (PPy/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-modified Au microelectrode. The PPy/MWCNT composite film was electrochemically deposited on the microelectrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The composite film was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and the results show that this film presents a uniformly distributed and web-like entangled structure and good conductivity. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV was applied to determine trace levels of Pb2+. Experimental conditions including accumulation time and deposition potential were optimized. In optimal conditions, the PPy/MWCNT-modified microelectrode performed sensitive detection of Pb2+ within a concentration range from 1 to 100 μg·L−1, and the limit of detection was 0.65 μg·L−1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of three.

  11. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  12. Seasonally-resolved trace element concentrations in stalagmites from a shallow cave in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, N.; Banner, J.; Miller, N. R.; Carlson, P. E.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution (sub-annual/seasonal) paleoclimate records extending beyond the instrumental period are required to test climate models and better understand how climate warming/cooling and wetting/drying are manifested seasonally. This is particularly the case for areas such as the southwest United States where precipitation and temperature seasonality dictate the regional climate. Study of a 20thcentury stalagmite (Carlson et al., in prep) documented (1) seasonal variation in trace element compositions of a stalagmite from a shallow, well-ventilated cave and (2) demonstrated the seasonal variation in stalagmite Mg to be in agreement with predicted temperature-dependent fractionation between water and calcite. The seasonal nature of variability was constrained by monitoring the cave on a monthly basis (Casteel and Banner, 2015; Carlson et al., in prep). Here we expand on using stalagmites from shallow, well-ventilated caves as archives of seasonally-resolved climate recorders by studying trace element variations in two coeval modern stalagmites (SBFC-1 and SBFC-2) cored from Sitting Bull Falls, southern New Mexico. Seasonal cycles will be confirmed by analyzing Mg, Ba, and Sr in in-situ calcite precipitated on artificial substrates as available (July, Sept., and Nov. 2017). The chronology is constrained by semi-automated peak counting and 14C bomb-peak. In addition, principal component analyses of trace element data identify two primary underlying modes of trace element variability for soil-derived elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) and bedrock-derived elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba). We hypothesize that the soil-derived elements are transported by seasonal infiltration of organic colloids and the bedrock-derived elements are ­­controlled by variability in cave air temperature, drip water, and calcite growth rate. The two modes of variability will be calibrated against instrumental data over the 20th century. When complete, these new seasonally resolved proxy records will

  13. Trace metal concentrations in edible muscle tissues of some locally marketed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.M.; Ichokitar, M.Y.; Ashraf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Edible muscle tissues of five fish species marketed in Multan, i.e., Rohu (Labeo rohita). (Labeo calhasu). Mori (cirrina inrigala). Ichagga (Rita rita) and Singliaree (mystus (osteobagrus) nor) have been analyzed quantitatively for trace elements, essential as well as toxic, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Dry ashing procedure has been employed to prepare sample solutions. Result indicate that edible muscle tissue of these fish, in general, contain higher amounts of potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium, moderate quantities of zinc and iron and lessor amounts of copper and manganese. However, cadmium and lead were found to be below the limit of detection. (author)

  14. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  15. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, S., E-mail: suene@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Santos, I.D.A.O.; Oliveira, A.F.; Shie, J.N. [São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Sarkis, J.E.S.; Oliveira, T. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Laboratory of Chemical Characterization (LCQ), Center for Chemistry and the Environment - CQMA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients’ chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  16. Determination of trace element concentration in infant head hair of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area using INAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Gill, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in infant head hair was determined. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in head hair of infants of low- and medium-income group subjects. The statistical results show that there are significant correlations between some elements such as: Ca-Zn, Ca-Fe, Mg-Ca, Mg-Mn and Mg-Fe. The results obtained have been compared with the data reported in the literature. Our data show compatibility of elemental contents of infant head hair with those from some of the other geological regions but also deviate in some cases. (orig.)

  17. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei. Determination of trace element concentrations in selected plant material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renan, M.J.; Drennan, B.D.; Keddy, R.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analysis by instrumental neutron activation for the concentration of trace elements in plant materials from certain areas in the Transkei region of southern Africa are presented. These areas are selected for their characteristic high or low incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus. To broaden the suite of elements for which analysed and to overcome some of the limitations of neutron activation analysis, certain other nuclear analyses and methods are suggested which, if utilized, would increase the number of elements determined, and so improve the information available. (author)

  18. A new method to radiolabel fulvic acids with tritium for the purpose of tracing organic matter transport at low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinnacher, R.M.; Honeyman, B.D.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is increasingly evident that reactive transport models for radionuclides need to include the effects of natural organic ligands, such as bacterial exudates and humic and fulvic acids. Understanding the role of such ligands in radionuclide transport requires an ability to track ligand concentrations in time and space with an analytical resolution similar to that of the target radionuclide. Unfortunately, for many systems of interest for radioactive waste disposal and performance assessment, organic ligand concentrations are quite low (e.g., mg C/ L or less). Radiolabeling organic ligands can provide a means of tracing such species at low levels and for relatively low cost. Currently-used labeling methods, however, show some limitations with respect to the chemical stability of the radiolabel, the ability to produce high label specific activities and method reproducibility. In the procedure that we will describe, fulvic acid is radiolabeled with tritium by its reduction with tritiated sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) at alkaline pH and slightly elevated temperatures. The reactant selectively reduces the carbonyl groups of aromatic and aliphatic ketones as well as quinones. This results in the formation of tritium-labeled secondary alcohols. After completion of the labeling reaction, aerobically unstable reduction products of quinones and aromatic ketones are re-oxidized under controlled experimental conditions during an aeration step. Labeling efficiency in terms of reduced reactive fulvic acid groups is in the range of 100 percent with equal weights of fulvic acid and NaBH 4 in the reaction solution. This yields specific activities on the order of 50 to 100 μCi / mg fulvic acid. A quasi-chemical model of the labeling process allows the accurate prediction of the labeling efficiency based on a simplified mass action expression for the labeling reaction and the mass balance equations for fulvic acid and sodium borohydride. Such a

  19. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g -1 ), Mg (440-2490 µg g -1 ), Al (9-2030 µg g -1 ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g -1 ), Fe (32-41850 µg g -1 ), Zn (69-2610 µg g -1 ), As (0.4-120 µg g -1 ), Sr (101-815 µg g -1 ), Ba (8-880 µg g -1 ), Hg (7-78730 ng g -1 ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g -1 ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators. Migrating

  20. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentration higher than 500 mg l-1, which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentration of mercury was higher than 1.0 mg l-1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry ...

  1. Determination of trace level anions in reactor cooling water by ion chromatography using a resin of low capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, IC has been found to be one of the most versatile and efficient analytical technique because of its ability to provide a fast and sensitive analysis of anions. In this work, a separater column packed with a resin of very low capacity was used with a concentration column for the determination of low level of anions present as traces in reactor cooling water. The results of retention times and detection limits were determined using 2.4 mM Na2CO3 / 3mM NaHCO3 mixture as eluent. The interferences of cations and anions such as (Ca)2+, (UO2)2+, (SO4)2+, have been investigated

  2. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verthelyi, Daniela; Wang, Vivian

    2010-12-22

    Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st) dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  3. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verthelyi

    Full Text Available Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  4. Effect of kombucha on some trace element levels in different organs of electromagnetic field exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Gharib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have increased exponentially all over the world. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of kombucha (KT on some trace element levels of brain, spleen and intestine in male albino rats exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF. Four experimental groups labelled as controls, EMF group, KT group and KT + EMF group were formed with six randomly chosen animals in each group. After EMF exposure for eight weeks and the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Brain, spleen and intestine samples were collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves caused significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. Combined treatment of kombucha with EMF resulted in a successful attenuation of these adverse effects of EMF. From present findings we can state that kombucha as a supplement has an ameliorative signs against the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 {mu}g/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 {mu}g/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 {mu}g/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in the liver of Franciscana

  6. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 μg/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 μg/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 μg/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag 2 Se in the liver of Franciscana dolphin

  7. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) and proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mineral and trace element concentrations in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Solomons, Noel W; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2018-03-01

    The possibility that either subclinical mastitis (SCM), an inflammatory condition of the breast, or elevations in breast milk proinflammatory cytokines alter breast milk mineral and trace element composition in humans has not been investigated. In this cross-sectional study, breast milk samples (n=108) were collected from Guatemalan Mam-Mayan mothers at one of three stages of lactation (transitional, early and established), and categorized as SCM (Na:K >0.6) or non-SCM (Na:K ≤0.6). Milk concentrations of 12 minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium, strontium, and zinc) and 4 proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Lachat analyzer or Luminex multiplex bead cytokine assay. SCM was more prevalent during transitional (30%) than early (15.6%) and established (8.9%) lactation. Analysis of variance revealed that breast milk minerals differed by stage of lactation and SCM status. Breast milk minerals with the exception of magnesium were lower in established lactation, whereas SCM was associated with higher selenium and lower phosphorus. Regression models that controlled for lactation stage also confirmed that SCM was associated with lower milk phosphorus and higher milk selenium concentrations. Furthermore, cytokine concentrations were independently associated with several mineral concentrations: IL-1β with higher phosphorus and iron, IL-6 with higher calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese, IL-8 with higher calcium and zinc, and TNF-α with lower iron and manganese. We conclude that milk mineral and trace element concentrations are affected not only by the presence of SCM but also by proinflammatory cytokines in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry for pre-concentration and determination of trace amounts of silver ions in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiupei Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cloud point extraction (CPE method was used as a pre-concentration strategy prior to the determination of trace levels of silver in water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS The pre-concentration is based on the clouding phenomena of non-ionic surfactant, triton X-114, with Ag (I/diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC complexes in which the latter is soluble in a micellar phase composed by the former. When the temperature increases above its cloud point, the Ag (I/DDTC complexes are extracted into the surfactant-rich phase. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency including pH of the aqueous solution, concentration of the DDTC, amount of the surfactant, incubation temperature and time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, no interference was observed for the determination of 100 ng·mL−1 Ag+ in the presence of various cations below their maximum concentrations allowed in this method, for instance, 50 μg·mL−1 for both Zn2+ and Cu2+, 80 μg·mL−1 for Pb2+, 1000 μg·mL−1 for Mn2+, and 100 μg·mL−1 for both Cd2+ and Ni2+. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1–500 ng·mL−1 with a limit of detection (LOD at 0.3 ng·mL−1. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver in water samples such as river water and tap water.

  9. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry for pre-concentration and determination of trace amounts of silver ions in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiupei; Jia, Zhihui; Yang, Xiaocui; Li, Gu; Liao, Xiangjun

    2017-03-01

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method was used as a pre-concentration strategy prior to the determination of trace levels of silver in water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) The pre-concentration is based on the clouding phenomena of non-ionic surfactant, triton X-114, with Ag (I)/diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) complexes in which the latter is soluble in a micellar phase composed by the former. When the temperature increases above its cloud point, the Ag (I)/DDTC complexes are extracted into the surfactant-rich phase. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency including pH of the aqueous solution, concentration of the DDTC, amount of the surfactant, incubation temperature and time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, no interference was observed for the determination of 100 ng·mL -1 Ag + in the presence of various cations below their maximum concentrations allowed in this method, for instance, 50 μg·mL -1 for both Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ , 80 μg·mL -1 for Pb 2+ , 1000 μg·mL -1 for Mn 2+ , and 100 μg·mL -1 for both Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ . The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-500 ng·mL -1 with a limit of detection (LOD) at 0.3 ng·mL -1 . The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver in water samples such as river water and tap water.

  10. assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    pump. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil and edible vegetables samples were analyzed using Energy ... Keywords: Soil, Vegetables, Manyoni Uranium Deposit, Toxic Elements, EDXRF. ... fine radioactive particles prone to wind and.

  11. Levels of some trace elements in serum of esophageal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, D. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of six trace elements (Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb, Hg) in the serum of patients with esophageal cancer who were newly diagnosed before undergoing any type of treatment. Biopsy was taken from diseased esophagus and examined histologically. A total of 43 samples of patients and 36 samples from healthy control group was collected, which were then dried by freeze drying. Then analyzed by neutron activation analysis technology, using research reactor in Syria (the miniature neutron source, MNSR) with neutron flux of 1x10''1''2 n.cm ''-''2 s''-''1 was performed. Certified reference sample from the International Agency were obtained for quality control analysis to ensure the reliability of the device. All six elements were statistically analyzed, the study proved statistical significant difference concentration of following five elements, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb in the serum of patients compared to the serum samples of healthy people. The concentration of Zn and Se in patients serum were less compared to serum of healthy individuals, and the concentrations of Fe, Co, Rb in serum of patients were higher than its that the serum of healthy individuals. While the concentrations of Hg was found to be higher in serum of healthy individuals compared to patients serum, but without statistical significant. The concentration presented by means with standard deviation. The findings were compared to results obtained from literature. All five elements compatible with literature. Hg has not been investigated in such studies before. Selenium and zinc supplementation are need by cancer patient in order to enhance and increase the chances for natural immunological of cancer.(Author)

  12. Levels of some trace elements in serum of esophageal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, D M. A. [Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of six trace elements (Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb, Hg) in the serum of patients with esophageal cancer who were newly diagnosed before undergoing any type of treatment. Biopsy was taken from diseased esophagus and examined histologically. A total of 43 samples of patients and 36 samples from healthy control group was collected, which were then dried by freeze drying. Then analyzed by neutron activation analysis technology, using research reactor in Syria (the miniature neutron source, MNSR) with neutron flux of 1x10''1''2 n.cm ''-''2 s''-''1 was performed. Certified reference sample from the International Agency were obtained for quality control analysis to ensure the reliability of the device. All six elements were statistically analyzed, the study proved statistical significant difference concentration of following five elements, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb in the serum of patients compared to the serum samples of healthy people. The concentration of Zn and Se in patients serum were less compared to serum of healthy individuals, and the concentrations of Fe, Co, Rb in serum of patients were higher than its that the serum of healthy individuals. While the concentrations of Hg was found to be higher in serum of healthy individuals compared to patients serum, but without statistical significant. The concentration presented by means with standard deviation. The findings were compared to results obtained from literature. All five elements compatible with literature. Hg has not been investigated in such studies before. Selenium and zinc supplementation are need by cancer patient in order to enhance and increase the chances for natural immunological of cancer.(Author)

  13. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations and loads of sediment and chemicals delivered to Newark and Raritan Bays by five major tributaries: the Raritan, Passaic, Rahway, Elizabeth, and Hackensack Rivers. This study was initiated by the State of New Jersey as Study I-C of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor, working under the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP). The CARP is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the levels and sources of toxic contaminants to the tributaries and estuarine areas of the NY-NJ Harbor, including Newark and Raritan Bays. The Raritan and Passaic Rivers are large rivers (mean daily discharges of 1,189 and 1,132 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively), that drain large, mixed rural/urban basins. The Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers are small rivers (mean daily discharges of 25.9 and 49.1 ft3/s, respectively) that drain small, highly urbanized and industrialized basins. The Hackensack River drains a small, mixed rural/urban basin, and its flow is highly controlled by an upstream reservoir (mean daily discharge of 90.4 ft3/s). These rivers flow into urbanized estuaries and ultimately, to the Atlantic Ocean. Each of these tributaries were sampled during two to four storm events, and twice each during low-flow discharge conditions. Samples were collected using automated equipment installed at stations adjacent to U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations near the heads-of-tide of these rivers. Large-volume (greater than 50 liters of water and a target of 1 gram of sediment), flow-weighted composite samples were collected for chemical analysis using filtration to collect suspended particulates and exchange resin (XAD-2) to sequester dissolved contaminants. Composite whole-water samples were collected for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and for trace element analysis. Additional discrete grab samples were collected

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J H; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A; Pignata, M L

    2011-03-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO(2) and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO(2) regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO(2) and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO(2) and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO(2) and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health. Copyright © 2010

  15. Radon concentration levels in Fatima Jinnah women university Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ali, S.; Tufail, A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Public exposure to radioactive gas radon and its progeny present in the air results in the largest contribution to total effective dose received by human beings. It is therefore of great concern to monitor radon concentration in energy conserved air tight buildings. Measurements of radon in the Fatima Jinnah Women University (FJWU) have been carried out for investigation and comparison of radon concentration in the new and old buildings of the campus at Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study was done because according to the international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and know the radon levels, especially since most of the natural radiation dose to human beings comes from radon gas and its progeny. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) being efficient, therefore, the measurements were carried out by passive, time integrated method, using CR-39 detector in polythene bags. The detectors were exposed for more than six month in various locations indoors and outdoors. The detectors were etched using NaOH, the tracks were counted manually, and the track density was converted to radon concentration. Radon concentration varied from 31 to 213 Bq.m -3 in old building and from 27 to 143 Bq.m -3 in new buildings, showing slight elevated values in the old buildings. Radon concentration values were found to be less than the values quoted by radiation protection agencies. Radiation dose due to radon varied in the university campus depending on occupancy factor. (author)

  16. Feeding different levels of a barley based concentrate to Jersey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maryna

    there was no further increase when feeding the high level of concentrate. Live weight ... 33º 58′ 38″ S, 22º 25′ 16 ″E and at an altitude of 210 m. The milk ... detergent fibre was determined by heating a 0.5 g sample to boiling point in 100 mL of neutral detergent plus. 50 µL of heat ... of bags in cold water for 10 minutes.

  17. Quantification of trace metals in water using complexation and filter concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Japarov, Julia; Elish, Eyal; Edri, Elad; Schechter, Israel

    2010-06-15

    Various metals undergo complexation with organic reagents, resulting in colored products. In practice, their molar absorptivities allow for quantification in the ppm range. However, a proper pre-concentration of the colored complex on paper filter lowers the quantification limit to the low ppb range. In this study, several pre-concentration techniques have been examined and compared: filtering the already complexed mixture, complexation on filter, and dipping of dye-covered filter in solution. The best quantification has been based on the ratio of filter reflectance at a certain wavelength to that at zero metal concentration. The studied complex formations (Ni ions with TAN and Cd ions with PAN) involve production of nanoparticle suspensions, which are associated with complicated kinetics. The kinetics of the complexation of Ni ions with TAN has been investigated and optimum timing could be found. Kinetic optimization in regard to some interferences has also been suggested.

  18. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  19. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  20. Non-destructive determination of trace-element concentrations. Annual progress report, August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.

    1979-08-01

    Development and testing of the neutron-capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis method continued. A wide range of NBS Standard Reference Materials, USGS Standard Rocks, and other materials have been analyzed in order to identify elements whose lines can be observed, to determine interferences and detection limits for each important γ ray of observable elements and to measure concentrations of observable elements for comparison with certified or other previous results. In most crustal samples, concentrations of 16 to 20 elements can be determined

  1. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  2. Comparative study on serum levels of macro and trace elements in schizophrenia based on supervised learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-09-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) remain obscure. This study explored the associations between SCZ risk and serum levels of 39 macro and trace elements (MTE). A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted among 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls matched by age, sex and region. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of 39 MTE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Both supervised learning methods and classical statistical testing were used to uncover the difference of MTE levels between cases and controls. The best prediction accuracies were 99.21% achieved by support vector machines in the original feature space (without dimensionality reduction), and 98.82% achieved by Naive Bayes with dimensionality reduction. More than half of MTE were found to be significantly different between SCZ patients and the controls. The presented investigation showed that there existed remarkable differences in concentrations of MTE between SCZ patients and healthy controls. The results of this study might be useful to diagnosis and prognosis of SCZ; they also indicated other promising applications in pharmacy and nutrition. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size and the lack of potential confounding factors, such as alcohol, smoking, body mass index (BMI), use of antipsychotics and dietary intakes. In the future the application of the analyses will be useful in designs that have larger sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao estuarine system, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Matos, Rosa Helena Ribeiro; Kristosch, Giane Chaves; Machado, Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory birds, some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg) to 3.1 (Ga). Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatao river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrao river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb) showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.(author)

  4. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Ngole-Jeme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t. These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

  5. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  6. Evaluation of concentrations of major and trace elements in human lung using INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental concentrations of Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, F, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, O, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn in 15 human lung autopsy samples, taken from subjects aged more than fifty years old, were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons in conjunction with a high resolution detection system. Two modes of irradiation and counting were applied; namely cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) and conventional neutron activation analysis. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, using a proton beam emerging from a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, was additionally employed and Ge, Ni, P and Ti were also identified in the lung tissue. Detection of the X-ray spectra was performed using a high resolution Si(Li) semiconductor. The relevance of these results, including a comparison between the concentrations of elements measured in a pig's lung using CNAA and those found in the human lung is discussed. (author)

  7. Determination of trace concentrations of chlorine in aqueous solutions by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyňák, Ľubomír; Čacho, František; Němeček, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Trace concentrations of total chlorine were determined by means of molecular absorption of indium mono-chloride (InCl) at 267.217 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry. The effects of chemical modifiers and the amount of In on the sensitivity and accuracy were investigated. The optimum pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. The limit of detection and characteristic mass were found to be 0.10 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. Potential non-spectral and spectral interferences were tested for various metals and non-metals at concentrations up to 50 mg L- 1 and for phosphoric, sulphuric and nitric acids. No spectral interferences were observed. Significant non-spectral interferences were observed with F, Br, and I at concentrations higher than 1 mg L- 1, 5 mg L- 1 and 25 mg L- 1, respectively, which is probably caused by formation of competitive indium halogen molecules. Higher concentrations of mineral acids depressed the signal owing to the formation of volatile HCl. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.3 and 10 ng with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.993. The elaborated method was used for the chlorine determination in various waters and a drug sample.

  8. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, M.; Krejci, F.; Timulak, J.; Tibensky, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  9. Trace metal concentrations in sediments from the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Blasco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal sediment concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in surface sediments (0 to 5 cm from 11 sampling stations in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (the Ria Formosa and the Guadiana River, the Ría de Huelva and the Bay of Cadiz were determined in two seasonal periods (autumn 2006 and spring 2007. No seasonal metal concentration pattern was identified, as similar values were found in both periods. The highest concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were reported in the Ria of Huelva area, and those of mercury and nickel in the Bay of Cadiz. The hazard potential index (HPiM was determined to assess the potential risk associated with metal contamination (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, taking into account extractable (presumed bioavailable fractions of these metals and site-specific sediment quality values. When the HPiM is > 1 there is risk, and according to this index Ría de Huelva is polluted whereas the Bay of Cadiz is not.

  10. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here

  11. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  12. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-01-01

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming

  13. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Karuppiah, Chelladurai [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Palanisamy, Selvakumar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Padmavathy, S. [Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, P., E-mail: kmpprakash@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, R.; Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Padmavathy, S.; Prakash, P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM −1 cm −2 and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples

  16. Etude de la concentration des métaux traces chez (muricidae) le long du littoral Tunisien

    OpenAIRE

    Chouba, L.; Tissaoui, Ch.; El Abed, A.

    2008-01-01

    La Tunisie dispose d’une ressource importante en coquillages, plusieurs espèces sont commercialisées et elles ont fait l’objet de programmes de qualité pour la sauvegarde de la santé humaine. Dans ce contexte, nous avons réalisé un suivi saisonnier de la concentration de trois métaux traces toxiques, le cadmium (Cd), le plomb (Pb), et le mercure (Hg) dans la totalité de la masse molle, dans le pied et dans les viscères d’un Mollusque Gastéropode, l’Hexaplex trunculus communément appelé en Tun...

  17. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  18. Identification of trace levels of selenomethionine and related organic selenium species in high-ionic-strength waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kelly L; Ruzicka, Josef; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    A new anion-exchange chromatographic separation method was used for the simultaneous speciation analysis of selenoamino acids and the more ubiquitous inorganic selenium oxyanions, selenite and selenate. For quantification, this separation was coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to achieve an instrumental detection limit of 5 ng Se L(-1) for all species. This chromatographic method was also coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to observe the negative ion mode fragmentation of selenomethionine and one of its oxidation products. Low detection limits were achieved, which were similar to those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. An extensive preconcentration and cleanup procedure using cation-exchange solid-phase extraction was developed for the identification and quantification of trace levels of selenomethionine in environmental samples. Preconcentration factors of up to five were observed for selenomethionine, which in addition to the removal of high concentrations of sulphate and chloride from industrial process waters, allowed for an unambiguous analysis that would have been impossible otherwise. Following these methods, selenomethionine was identified at an original concentration of 3.2 ng Se L(-1) in samples of effluent collected at a coal-fired power plant's biological remediation site. It is the first time that this species has been identified in the environment, outside of a biological entity. Additionally, oxidation products of selenomethionine were identified in river water and laboratory algal culture samples. High-resolution mass spectrometry was employed to postulate the chemical structures of these species.

  19. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  20. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  1. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of trace level of fluoride content in uranium oxide produced by deconversion of HEX gas by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, E.K.; Padmakumar, P.R.; Shanmugavelu, P.; Sudhakar, T.M.; Bhowmik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride content in nuclear fuel is detrimental due to its corrosion behavior with cladding material. It is essential to monitor and control the fluoride concentration in nuclear material at various processing stages. Deconversion of upgraded HEX gas is carried out to produce uranium oxide. The performance of the deconversion process of HEX gas is evaluated for which trace level of fluoride concentration accompanying uranium oxide is considered as a marker. An analytical method has been developed for testing the uranium oxide produced from deconversion process of HEX gas. The method involves sample pretreatment followed by analysis using ion chromatography. The test method was validated for its performance using in house synthetic uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) standard solutions prepared with different level of fluoride content. The results are in agreement with the expected values with the recovery in the range of 80-95%. This method has been successfully implemented for routine analysis of samples at our lab. Since UO 2 F 2 reference material is not available to validate this method, in house UO 2 F 2 standards were prepared from U 3 O 8 prepared from nuclear grade uranyl nitrate solution. UO 2 F 2 standards were prepared by converting U 3 O 8 to UO 2 F 2 by the addition of HF followed by H 2 O 2 at 200°C on a hot plate. The entire yellow colored UO 2 F 2 was dissolved in nano pure water and recrystallised several times to ensure that all free HF is removed. The crystals dried in air oven at 120° for three hours. Samples containing 1000 mg kg -1 fluoride prepared from this UO 2 F 2 , and subsequently from this sample containing 5 mg kg -1 to 35 mg kg -1 fluoride samples were prepared and analysed against fluoride CRM and the fluoride concentration obtained was analysed

  3. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  4. Attenuation of concentration fluctuations of water vapor and other trace gases in turbulent tube flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Massman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies with closed-path eddy covariance (EC systems have indicated that the attenuation of fluctuations of water vapor concentration is dependent upon ambient relative humidity, presumably due to sorption/desorption of water molecules at the interior surface of the tube. Previous studies of EC-related tube attenuation effects have either not considered this issue at all or have only examined it superficially. Nonetheless, the attenuation of water vapor fluctuations is clearly much greater than might be expected from a passive tracer in turbulent tube flow. This study reexamines the turbulent tube flow issue for both passive and sorbing tracers with the intent of developing a physically-based semi-empirical model that describes the attenuation associated with water vapor fluctuations. Toward this end, we develop a new model of tube flow dynamics (radial profiles of the turbulent diffusivity and tube airstream velocity. We compare our new passive-tracer formulation with previous formulations in a systematic and unified way in order to assess how sensitive the passive-tracer results depend on fundamental modeling assumptions. We extend the passive tracer model to the vapor sorption/desorption case by formulating the model's wall boundary condition in terms of a physically-based semi-empirical model of the sorption/desorption vapor fluxes. Finally we synthesize all modeling and observational results into a single analytical expression that captures the effects of the mean ambient humidity and tube flow (Reynolds number on tube attenuation.

  5. Trace metal concentrations in Tilapia fed with pig and chicken manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Chan, K.M.; Liu, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of adding pig manure and chicken manure as supplementary feeds for rearing Sarotherodon mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica) in the laboratory. The feeding test lasted for four weeks under stable aerated conditions. Various portions (10%, 40%, 60% w/w) of the two types of manure were mixed with dried tubifex worm pellets, whilst the control group consisted of tubifex worm alone. The metals studied were Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb. The diets supplemented with 40% and 60% manure contained significantly (p < 0.05) greater amounts of all the metals tested except iron. The concentration of metals in the fish tissues (gill, viscera, flesh) was related to the amount of manure supplement. Harmful effects were reflected by significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein content in fish fed on manure-supplement diets, with the sole exception of the 10% pig manure supplement. Histological damage was also observed in the gills and the hepatopancreas of fish fed on diets supplemented with 60% pig manure and with 40% or 60% chicken manure. Of the two kinds of animal manure investigated as potential supplementary feeds for rearing tilapia, the results indicate that pig manure is likely to be the better choice.

  6. Determination of trace concentrations of aluminium in rice samples by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, B.B.; Biswal, R.R.; Acharya, R.; Pujari, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the toxic elements entering human body mainly through food and food products. Though its bioavailability is very less, it is necessary to evaluate its total concentrations in food and food products entering to the body through. In order to evaluate total aluminium contents in various food items for daily dietary intake of aluminum, authors have systematically planned to carry out experiments in various food items including rice. Rice is the main food in many parts of India as well as in Odisha. Rice samples under study belong to three categories; (i) various rice samples from local market, (ii) various rice samples grown in similar irrigation (soil and water) conditions and (iii) same variety of rice with different irrigation conditions. Solid samples (pre-cleaned) were powdered, homogenized and taken for analysis by two nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) namely instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons at BARC and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) using 4 MeV proton beam (20 nA current) from 3 MV Tandetron at IOP, Bhubaneswar in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples of 10-50 mg for INAA and 250 mg (pelletized in cellulose) for PIGE were used for experiments. For INAA, samples were irradiated at PCF, Dhruva reactor for 1 minute

  7. Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  8. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); CSIR Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra (Ghana); Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Biney, Charles Augustus [Volta Basin Authority (VBA), 10 P. O. Box 13621, Ouagadougou 10 (Burkina Faso); Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed [CSIR Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra (Ghana); Otsuka, Masanari [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, 8-234 Sanban-cho, Matsuyama 790-0003 (Japan); Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure status of trace elements in e-waste recycling workers was assessed in Ghana. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of the reference subjects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the first to investigate human contamination arising from primitive recycling of e-waste arguably from Africa.

  9. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. - Highlights: ► Exposure status of trace elements in e-waste recycling workers was assessed in Ghana. ► Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of the reference subjects. ► This study is the first to investigate human contamination arising from primitive recycling of e-waste arguably from Africa.

  10. Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of mercury species at trace levels in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Gürkan, Ramazan; Ulusoy, Songül

    2012-01-15

    A new micelle-mediated separation and preconcentration method was developed for ultra-trace quantities of mercury ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of Hg(II) ions with polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) in the presence of chelating agents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR). Hg(II) ions react with both PAN and TAR in a surfactant solution yielding a hydrophobic complex at pH 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. The phase separation was accomplished by centrifugation for 5 min at 3500 rpm. The calibration graphs obtained from Hg(II)-PAN and Hg(II)-TAR complexes were linear in the concentration ranges of 10-1000 μg L(-1) and 50-2500 μg L(-1) with detection limits of 1.65 and 14.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.85% and 2.35% in determinations of 25 and 250 μg L(-1) Hg(II), respectively. The interference effect of several ions were studied and seen commonly present ions in water samples had no significantly effect on determination of Hg(II). The developed methods were successfully applied to determine mercury concentrations in environmental water samples. The accuracy and validity of the proposed methods were tested by means of five replicate analyses of the certified standard materials such as QC Metal LL3 (VWR, drinking water) and IAEA W-4 (NIST, simulated fresh water). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A multielement trace mineral injection improves liver copper and selenium concentrations and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals (TM) are vital to health and growth of livestock, but low dietary concentrations and dietary antagonists may reduce mineral status and feeder cattle TM status is usually unknown at arrival. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of TM status on response to mineral injection in beef cattle. Forty steers were equally assigned to diets for an 84-d depletion period: control (CON; supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn) or deficient (DEF; no supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn plus Fe and Mo as TM antagonists). Lesser liver Cu and Se concentrations (79.0 ± 11.60 and 1.66 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) in DEF steers compared with CON steers (228.8 ± 11.60 and 2.41 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) on d 71 of depletion indicated mild deficiencies of these TM (P CON vs. DEF (P = 0.02), suggesting TM from injection were used rather than stored in DEF steers. Liver Se and Cu (P CON animals, total MPO was greater in animals that received TM injection, but injection did not affect MPO within DEF steers (P = 0.007). Overall, TM from an injectable mineral were used differently between TM adequate and mildly deficient steers.

  12. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of the variations of the concentration of trace elements in various organs of rat as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Loc'h, C.; Stulzaft, O.; Gaudry, A.; Comar, D.

    1976-01-01

    In order to know the normal distribution of trace elements in rats as accurately as possible, the composition of different organs and body tissues by neutron activation analysis was determined in animals from 15 days to 22 months old. The experiment conditions were described. Normal concentrations for more than 20 trace elements were obtained, some of them being less than a tenth of a part per billion. The experiment has shown that variations in elemental concentrations in terms of age were a general phenomenon and that for some elements a steady state is apparently never attained

  14. A compilation of silicon, rare earth element and twenty-one other trace element concentrations in the natural river water reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeghicheyan, Delphine; Cloquet, Christophe; Bossy, Cecile; Bouhnik Le Coz, Martine; Douchet, Chantal; Granier, Guy; Heimburger, Alexie; Losno, Remi; Lacan, Francois; Labatut, Marie; Pradoux, Catherine; Lanzanova, Aurelie; Candaudap, Frederic; Chmeleff, Jerome; Rousseau, Tristan C.C.; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Delpoux, Sophie; Tharaud, Mickael; Sivry, Yann; Sonke, Jeroen E.

    2013-01-01

    The natural river water certified reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC) was routinely analysed in this study for major and trace elements by ten French laboratories. Most of the measurements were made using ICP-MS. Because no certified values are assigned by NRC-CNRC for silicon and 35 trace element concentrations (rare earth elements, Ag, B, Bi, Cs, Ga, Ge, Li, Nb, P, Rb, Rh, Re, S, Sc, Sn, Th, Ti, Tl, W, Y and Zr), or for isotopic ratios, we provide a compilation of the concentrations and related uncertainties obtained by the participating laboratories. Strontium isotopic ratios are also given. (authors)

  15. Vertical distribution of trace-element concentrations and occurrence of metallurgical slag particles in accumulated bed sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S.E.; Bell, P.R.; Lowther, J.S.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from six locations in Lake Roosevelt to determine the vertical distributions of trace-element concentrations in the accumulated sediments of Lake Roosevelt. Elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc occurred throughout much of the accumulated sediments. Concentrations varied greatly within the sediment core profiles, often covering a range of 5 to 10 fold. Trace-element concentrations typically were largest below the surficial sediments in the lower one-half of each profile, with generally decreasing concentrations from the 1964 horizon to the surface of the core. The trace-element profiles reflect changes in historical discharges of trace elements to the Columbia River by an upstream smelter. All samples analyzed exceeded clean-up guidelines adopted by the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation for cadmium, lead, and zinc and more than 70 percent of the samples exceeded cleanup guidelines for mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although 100 percent of the samples exceeded sediment guidelines for cadmium, lead, and zinc, surficial concentrations of arsenic, copper, and mercury in some cores were less than the sediment-quality guidelines. With the exception of copper, the trace-element profiles of the five cores collected along the pre-reservoir Columbia River channel typically showed trends of decreasing concentrations in sediments deposited after the 1964 time horizon. The decreasing concentrations of trace elements in the upper half of cores from along the pre-reservoir Columbia River showed a pattern of decreasing concentrations similar to reductions in trace-element loading in liquid effluent from an upstream smelter. Except for arsenic, trace-element concentrations typically were smaller at downstream reservoir locations along the pre-reservoir Columbia River. Trace-element concentration in sediments from the Spokane Arm of the reservoir showed distinct differences compared to the similarities

  16. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  17. Application of chronocoulomentry for trace levels uranium determination using catalytic nitrate reduction on mercury electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagallo, M.I.C.

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of improving the sensitivity of the electro-analytical determination of uranium at trace levels, the uranium catalyzed reduction of nitrate on mercury electrodes was used and the technique of chronocoulometry was compared with other voltammetric techniques. The catalytic process offers high sensitivity in comparison with uranyl reduction in absence of nitrate. The chronocoulometry, virtually unexplored for analytical applications, was found to be specially well suited for determinations based on this kind of electrode process, when using current integration times in the range of several seconds. Under these conditions the interference from diffusion controlled faradaic processes is reduced to a minimum. Several experimental parameters were investigated (eletrolyte composition, potential program, integration time, blank correction, temperature, previous separation) and adequate conditions were selected for the analytical determination of pure and real samples. The proposed method was applied and evaluated with real and, when necessary, an adapted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used. Reference materials with complex matrices like rocks were first solubilized by hot digestion under pressure. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values obtained with other techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry-isotope dilution and epithermal netron activation analysis. (author) [pt

  18. Determination of trace levels of iodine in table salt by ICP-TOF MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waqar, F.; Muhammad, B.; Hakim, M.; Jan, S.

    2012-01-01

    An ion exchange method was established for the effective removal of sodium matrix for iodine determination by ICP-TOF-MS technique. Since the direct determination of trace level analytes in the presence of heavy matrix is not recommended by this technique. Therefore, the removal of matrix is essentially required to achieve better detection limits and to avoid memory effects. The extraction system was designed for the removal of matrix prior to the analysis by ICP-MS, various parameters were optimized to achieve efficient removal of matrix. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by spiking salt samples with known amount of iodine (50 mu g/g) and % recoveries were calculated. The recoveries obtained were > 98% with relative standard deviation (RSD) < 5%. The established method was applied for the analysis of commercially available iodized table salt samples. The results and % recoveries are given. The most commonly used iodo metric titration method is not satisfactory as it has 5-10 % quantitative error. Our method is reliable and could be conveniently applied for the determination of iodine in table salt samples. (Orig./A.B.)

  19. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  20. Soil concentrations and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and trace elements around a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants are transported by dry deposition, wet deposition, and gas exchange accumulated in soil. Therefore, soil is an important environmental medium reflecting the level and the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. Soil concentrations of seven PBDE congeners and 21 trace elements were determined in a heavily industrialized region (Dilovasi) in Kocaeli, Turkey. At all sites, Σ7PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 203 with a mean value of 26.3 μg kg(-1) (dry weight). The congener profiles and mass inventories of PBDEs and their interactions with soil organic matter (SOM) were also investigated. BDE-209 was the dominant congener at all sites, followed by BDE-99 and/or -47. The estimated inventory of PBDEs for the Dilovasi district was 310 kg. However, there are several additional industrial regions in Kocaeli city. Considering the total land area, the potential inventory would be much larger for this city. The relationship between the PBDE concentrations in soil and SOM content indicated that factors other than soil properties have a greater influence on soil concentrations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs) were determined; correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were also applied to generated data set to identify and apportion the sources polluting the soil. Sn, Mn, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd had significantly high average EF values, indicating that their soil concentrations were mainly influenced by anthropogenic activities. In FA, six factors were extracted with a cumulative variance of 84.4 % and industrial activities and traffic were found to be the main factors affecting the soil profile.

  1. Evaluation of trace element and mineral status and related to levels of amino acid in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Fazilet; Ekin, Suat; Dogan, Murat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb), minerals (Ca, Mg, K), amino acids status in children with phenylketonuria and also whether they were correlated with each other in phenylketonuric patients. It has been found out that the HPA group was significantly lower than the control group with regards to Zn, Se, K, Ca, Mg and Zn/Cr levels (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). In the patients with HPA, significantly strong positive correlations were observed between magnesium and calcium (r=0.791; p=0.001), also, indicates negative significant correlation between the concentrations of magnesium and phenylalanine (r=-0.591; p=0.026). The results of this study showed that, in the HPA group, phenylalanine-Mg relationship found, the presence of disease will in the evaluation of phenylalanine and other amino acids, together with the value of magnesium is required to consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrenoglou, Lefkothea; Partsinevelou, Sofia Aikaterini; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Eustratios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the exposure level of primary school children at three different towns in northern Attica, near the banks of the Kifissos River, defining referential values of toxic heavy metals. Concentrations of five toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and nickel) were analyzed in water samples from the Kifissos River as well as in the scalp hair of children aged 11 to 12 years old living in the study area. Chronic low-level toxicity of lead and cadmium came into view in recent years as a problem of our civilization. Exposure to concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) poses a potential threat to humans and can cause effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, a fact that reinforces the need to control all the potential heavy metal emissions into the environment in order to protect children's health. The results were analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 for Windows. The possible influence of sex and area was examined. Statistical differences were observed by t-test between the log-transformed hair concentrations of lead (p = 0.021), arsenic (p = 0.016) and nickel (p = 0.038) in children's scalp hair from the municipalities of Kifisia and Kryoneri. ANOVA one-way test confirmed the difference of Pb concentration in hair between girls and boys from the municipality of Kifisia (p = 0.038). The t-test confirms the difference of heavy metal concentrations in river samples between the municipalities Kifisia and Philadelphia in comparison with the samples from Kryoneri. The observations suggest that children living at the municipality of Kifisia are exposed to higher concentrations of heavy metals than the others. Despite all the confounding factors, hair can be used as a biomarker in order to determine the exposure to heavy metals, according to standardized protocols. - Highlights: ► The study area was the north zone of the Kifissos River which is characterized by

  3. Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrenoglou, Lefkothea [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Partsinevelou, Sofia Aikaterini, E-mail: partsi@hol.gr [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Stamatis, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Eustratios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece); Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni, E-mail: pnicolopouloustamati@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    This study evaluates the exposure level of primary school children at three different towns in northern Attica, near the banks of the Kifissos River, defining referential values of toxic heavy metals. Concentrations of five toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and nickel) were analyzed in water samples from the Kifissos River as well as in the scalp hair of children aged 11 to 12 years old living in the study area. Chronic low-level toxicity of lead and cadmium came into view in recent years as a problem of our civilization. Exposure to concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) poses a potential threat to humans and can cause effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, a fact that reinforces the need to control all the potential heavy metal emissions into the environment in order to protect children's health. The results were analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 for Windows. The possible influence of sex and area was examined. Statistical differences were observed by t-test between the log-transformed hair concentrations of lead (p = 0.021), arsenic (p = 0.016) and nickel (p = 0.038) in children's scalp hair from the municipalities of Kifisia and Kryoneri. ANOVA one-way test confirmed the difference of Pb concentration in hair between girls and boys from the municipality of Kifisia (p = 0.038). The t-test confirms the difference of heavy metal concentrations in river samples between the municipalities Kifisia and Philadelphia in comparison with the samples from Kryoneri. The observations suggest that children living at the municipality of Kifisia are exposed to higher concentrations of heavy metals than the others. Despite all the confounding factors, hair can be used as a biomarker in order to determine the exposure to heavy metals, according to standardized protocols. - Highlights: ► The study area was the north zone of the Kifissos River which is

  4. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137 Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  5. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CPUT

    trace metals from wastewater treatment plant effluents in Cape Town and .... Geographical locations and design .... The new. Bellville plant uses University of Cape Town design (UCT) ...... batteries, paints, fungicides, textiles, cosmetics, pulp,.

  6. Bromate and trace metal levels in bread loaves from outlets within Ile-Ife Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread loaves randomly sampled from nine outlets and bakeries within Ile-Ife were analysed to determine their safety levels for human consumption with respect to bromate and trace metal contents. Bromate determination was carried out via spectrophotometric method while trace metals in the digested bread samples were profiled using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Bromate levels in the analyzed bread samples ranged from 2.051 ± 0.011 μg/g to 66.224 ± 0.014 μg/g while the trace metal levels were of the order: 0.03–0.10 μg/g Co = 0.03–0.10 μg/g Pb < 0.23–0.46 μg/g Cu < 2.23–6.63 μg/g Zn < 25.83–75.53 μg/g Mn. This study revealed that many bread bakers around Ile-Ife had not fully complied with the bromate-free rule stipulated by NAFDAC contrary to the “bromate free” inscribed on the labels of the bread. The bread samples contained both essential and toxic trace metals to levels that could threaten the health of consumers over prolonged regular consumption.

  7. Method development for liquid chromatographic/triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis of trace level perfluorocarboxylic acids in articles of commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method to identify and quantify trace levels of C5 to C12 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in articles of commerce (AOC) is developed and rigorously validated. Solid samples were extracted in methanol, and liquid samples were diluted with a solvent consisting of 60...

  8. Graphite electrodes modified by 8-hydroxyquinolines and its application for the determination of copper in trace levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Eliane R. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification by 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (8-HQS or 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ on a graphite electrode through irreversible adsorption is reported in this paper. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the surface behavior. The modified surface exhibited an affinity to chelating Cu(II in the solution, forming a Cu(II complex, which was employed for Cu(II trace analysis. Of the metals Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, and Cd, none presented interference until excess concentration of 10 times. Significant interference could be observed from Co(II, Cd(II and Fe(II for an excess concentration of 100 times on the analyte. A differential pulse voltammetry, combined with a preconcentrating-stripping process and a standard addition method was used for the analysis. A detection limit for trace copper determination in water, such as 5.110-9 mol L-1, was obtained.

  9. Investigation of trace level binding of PtCl6 and PtCl4 to alfalfa biomass (Medicago sativa) using Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Batch laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of pH, chemical modification, time dependency, and interference studies on the binding of trace concentrations of hexachloroplatinate(IV) and tetrachloroplatinate(II) to alfalfa biomass. The pH profiles were measured between pH 2.0 and 6.0. It was found that the binding of trace concentrations of platinum(IV and II) to alfalfa biomass was dependent on pH with a maximum binding occurring at pH 3.0 and a minimum at pH 6.0. When the alfalfa biomass was chemically modified (esterified), maximum binding occurred at pH 6.0 for both oxidation states of platinum. From the batch time dependency experiments, it was found that binding took at least 20 min to level off for both platinum oxidation states. Batch experiments were performed with various concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm) and it was found that calcium affected the binding of platinum(II and IV) to the alfalfa biomass. It was determined that magnesium and sodium did not interfere appreciably with the binding of platinum in either of the oxidation states studied. Finally, batch experiments were performed with Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Na + in solutions at various concentrations, and it was observed that the binding was affected similarly to that by calcium alone

  10. Major, Trace Element Concentration and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Compositions of G- and I-Type Spherules from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soens, B.; Goderis, S.; Greenwood, R. C.; McKibbin, S.; Van Ginneken, M.; Vanhaecke, F.; Debaille, V.; Franchi, I. A.; Claeys, Ph.

    2017-07-01

    We present new major, trace element concentration (LA-ICP-MS) and triple-oxygen isotope (LF-IRMS) data for G- and I-type cosmic spherules. This study suggests that both types of micrometeorites may originate from ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of trace metal and oxyanion concentrations in water using diffusive gradients in thin films with a chelex-metsorb mixed binding layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.

    2014-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique with a mixed binding layer (Chelex-100 and the titanium dioxide based adsorbent Metsorb) is described for the simultaneous measurement of labile trace metal (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) and oxyanion (V, As, Mo, Sb, W, and P) concentrations i...

  12. Is trace element concentration correlated to parasite abundance? A case study in a population of the green frog Pelophylax synkl. hispanicus from the Neto River (Calabria, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, Carlo; Barca, Donatella; Milazzo, Concetta; Santoro, Raffaella; Giglio, Gianni; Tripepi, Sandro; Sperone, Emilio

    2017-06-01

    Bioaccumulation of 13 trace elements in the livers of 38 Pelophylax sinkl. hispanicus (Ranidae) and its helminth communities were studied and compared among three sites, each with a different degree of pollution along River Neto (south Italy) during September, 2014. Trace element concentrations in water and liver were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For most elements, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the third site, the one with the highest degree of pollution. The trend of trace element concentration in the liver can be represented as follows: Cu > Zn > Mn > Se > Cr. Concentrations of some elements in water and liver samples were significantly different among the three sites and this is evidenced by the bioaccumulation in the frogs. Four species of helminths, all belonging to Nematoda, were found: Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujarden, 1845), Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917). The parasite survey presents an important difference of prevalence and average number of helminths in frogs between the three sites. Correlating parasitological and ecotoxicological data showed a strong positive correlation between prevalence and number of parasites with some trace elements such as Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, and Cd.

  13. The influence of intestine-based treatment using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang on the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that “treating from the intestine” using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang and its modified formulae can regulate the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats. This may be one of the mechanisms for intestine-based treatment for COPD.

  14. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  15. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J.Gonzales; P.R. Fresquez; C.D.Hathcock; D.C. Keller

    2006-05-15

    The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a whole. Since the MAP is a requirement that was established under the regulatory framework of

  16. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Resuspension of trace metals in Belgrade under conditions of drastically reduced emission levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Z; Marendic-Miljkovic, J; Rajsic, S; Tasic, M; Novakovic, V [Institute of Physics, Belgrade-Zemun (Yugoslavia)

    1997-01-01

    Deposition rates of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the Meteorological Station in New Belgrade (H{sub s} = 74 m; {psi} = 44{degree}49{prime}N and {lambda} = 20{degree}24{prime}E) in the hydrological year 1992/93 (1 November-31 October). The dominant characteristics of the observation period were strong drought and drastically reduced pollutant emissions. Traffic and local sources operated at 0-10% of their capacities. Samples of dry and wet precipitation were taken by an automatic collector at a height of 2 m at weekly intervals. Two petri polycarbonate dishes of 93.5 mm diameter, facing upward, and one facing downward, were used for dry precipitation sampling. Determination in a `clean room` by differential pulse stripping voltammetry provided the low detection thresholds of 0.1, 1.0, 0.5 and 2.0 ng mL{sup -1}, i.e. the measurement of minimal dry deposition rates of 0.02, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 {mu}gm{sup -2}d{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn, respectively. The mean annual deposition rates, expressed in {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, were found to be as follows: 4.5 (down), 26 (up) and 37 (wet) for Pb, 2.1 (down), 13 (up) and 36(wet) for Cu, and 3.1 (down), 26 (up) and 95 (wet) for Zn. No values above 0.2 {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1} were found for the Cd dry deposition rate and no Cd concentration higher than 1 ng mL{sup -1} for precipitation with an amount {gt} 0.5 mm at the weekly interval was detected. Using the XREDS method with a scanning electron microscope, Si, Al, Fe matrix elements and Mg, Ca, S, K, P, Cu, Zn, W, were identified as minor constituents of the single spherical particles and of the agglomerates present. Pb could not be categorized as a minor constituent of the coarse particles suspended in the air of New Belgrade on the basis of the previous analysis. Results of the analysis are given. 44 refs., 14 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Changes of trace element concentrations in vegetables during the usual food processing in the household found out by means of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of processing of various vegetables and potatoes (cleaning, cutting, washing, cooking, steam-cooking) on the concentration of ingestion-physiologically important mineral- and trace elements has been studied by means of instrumental activation analysis. The leaching effects play a less important role in steam-cooking. Than in normal cooking. The most important loss already occurs when preparing the vegetables for cooking. This applies especially also to the essential trace elements; but also toxic elements such as arsenic are greatly reduced during this process. (RB) [de

  19. Ar39 Detection at the 10-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-03-01

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar39 (half-life=269yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8×10-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  20. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-12-15

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO 3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils differ greatly from natural ones as they are located in areas of intense anthropogenic activity (e.g. pollution, physical disturbance, surface transformation). Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, and contribute to many ecosystem services from the mitigation of urban heat island to recreational services. In the last decade, the study of urban soils has emerged as an important frontier in environmental research, at least because of their impact on the quality of life of urban populations, because of the services they deliver and because they are more and more recognized as a valuable resource. One of the key issues is the pollution of urban soils because they receive a variety of deposits from local (vehicle emissions, industrial discharges, domestic heating, waste incineration and other anthropogenic activities) and from remote sources (through atmospheric transport). Typical contaminants include persistent toxic substances, such as trace metals (TMs) that have drawn wide attention due to their long persistence in the environment, their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain and their toxicity for humans and other organisms. Concentrations, spatial distributions, dynamics, impacts and sources of TMs (e.g. industry or fossil fuels combustion) have attracted a global interest in urban soils and are the subject of ongoing research (e.g. ecotoxicological urban ecology). Some studies have already documented soil pollution with TMs at both the town and regional scales. So far, several monitoring programs (e.g. National Network for the long term Monitoring of Forest Ecosystem, Regional Monitoring Quality of Soil in France) and studies have been carried out on a national scale to measure the ranges of TM concentrations and natural background values in French soils. These studies have focused on French agricultural and forest soils and have not tackled urban soils. No study has described TM

  2. Effects of Different Levels of Molybdenum on Rumen Microbiota and Trace Elements Changes in Tissues from Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sihui; Zhang, Caiying; Xiao, Qingyang; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Xing, Chenghong; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for animals and human beings. However, the negative effects on rumen function and distribution of trace elements in tissues induced by excessive Mo have not been well understood. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of Mo on rumen microbiota, distribution of trace elements in various organs, and hematological parameters of goats. A total of 36 goats were randomly distributed into three groups with equal number and low-Mo and high-Mo groups were orally administered ammonium molybdate at 15 and 45 mg · Mo · kg -1  · BW respectively, while the control group received corresponding quantitative deionized water. The results showed that the total number of ciliate and protozoa protein concentration decreased significantly (P contents significantly decreased (P contents increased (P contents were not obvious (P > 0.05) in other tissues on days 25 and 50. Besides, there was no obvious variation in iron (Fe) contents during whole experiment period (P > 0.05). Furthermore, excessive Mo content had no significant effect on red blood cell (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration (P > 0.05) on days 25 and 50, while white blood cell (WBC) counts increased significantly (P content could impact the balance of ruminal microorganisms and interfere with the absorption and distribution of Mo and Cu mainly.

  3. Assessment of trace element concentration distribution in human placenta by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence: Effect of neonate weight and maternal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Yueksel; Boerekci, Buenyamin; Levet, Aytac; Kurudirek, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Trace element status in human placenta is dependent on maternal-neonatal characteristics. This work was undertaken to investigate the correlation between essential trace element concentrations in the placenta and maternal-neonatal characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from total 61 healthy mothers at gestation between 37 and 41 weeks. These samples were investigated with the restriction that the mother's age was 20-40 years old and the neonate's weight was 1-4 kg. Percent concentrations of trace elements were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The placenta samples were prepared and analyzed without exposure to any chemical treatment. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in placenta tissues were found statistically to vary corresponding to the age of the mother and weight of the neonate. In the subjects, the concentration of Fe and Cu were increased in heavier neonates (p<0.05) and the concentration of Zn was increased with increasing mother age (p<0.05). Consequently, the Fe, Cu and Zn elements appear to have interactive connections in human placenta.

  4. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, John H.; Hopkins, William A.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats

  5. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, John H. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkins@srel.edu; Jackson, Brian P. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats.

  6. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead.

  7. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V.; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N. [Department of Chemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead. (orig.)

  8. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  9. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. II. Inhabitants of a Japanese rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, S.; Tsunoda, H.; Terai, M.; Yukawa, M.; Tomura, K.; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair, as a route by which many metals are excreted, has advantages over other tissues as an indicator of body burden. However, as few data exist on trace element concentrations in hair, a study was made on a rural population in Japan. Hair was collected from 107 residents engaged mainly in dairy farming in a rural area in the northern part of the country. Samples were taken from subjects who had been born and bred in the area which is believed to be free from environmental pollution. A large number of the families had lived there for generations. Nineteen trace elements were detected. The mean values for Hg in hair were 6.8+-2.9 ppm for males and 4.5+-2.7 ppm for females. There was a low statistical correlation between Hg and Se. The mean value for Cu in hair was 17+-7.2 ppm for males and 16+-5.7 ppm for females and that for Zn was 140+-61 ppm for males and 130+-63 ppm for females. A comparison of the mean values of the trace elements in the hair of the subjects aged 20-39 and 40-59 years showed significant differences for Mn in males and Mn and Br in females. A comparison of the findings for the two sexes showed that the concentrations of Mn, Mg, Ca and Br were much higher in females than in males. In contrast, the concentrations of Hg were higher in males than in females. It is suggested that the values obtained for the trace elements in the present study are examples of normal values for trace elements in hair of the Japanese populations. (author)

  10. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Song; Chao Bian; Jianhua Tong; Yang Li; Shanghong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr)/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd) by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the curr...

  11. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. I. Inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, A.; Fukushima, I.; Shiobara, S.; Terai, M.

    1979-01-01

    By applying instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques, a survey was carried out to determine the levels of a variety of trace element concentrations in human hair of the inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants of the residential district in the western part of the Tokyo metropolitan area. The donors were divided into five age groups, ranging from pre-school age to sixty years and above. Each group consisted of twenty males and twenty or more females. The sampling method and washing procedure recommended by the IAEA Advisory Group on the applications of nuclear methods in environmental research were strictly followed. Irradiation of the samples was made in the Rikkyo University 100-kW TRIGA MARK II reactor. By using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, the following 37 elements were quantitatively analysed: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Te, Ti, U, V, W and Zn. NBS standard reference orchard leaves and bovine liver were also analysed in the course of the hair analysis to assess the precision of the analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

  13. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  15. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  16. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  17. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  18. Distribution of trace levels of therapeutic gallium in bone as mapped by synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockman, R.S.; Repo, M.A.; Warrell, R.P. Jr.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium nitrate, a drug that inhibits calcium release from bone, has been proven a safe and effective treatment for the accelerated bone resorption associated with cancer. Though bone is a target organ for gallium, the kinetics, sites, and effects of gallium accumulation in bone are not known. The authors have used synchrotron X-ray microscopy to map the distribution of trace levels of gallium in bone. After short-term in vivo administration of gallium nitrate to rats, trace (nanogram) amounts of gallium preferentially localized to the metabolically active regions in the metaphysis as well as the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of diaphyseal bone, regions where new bone formation and modeling were occurring. The amounts measured were well below the levels known to be cytotoxic. Iron and zinc, trace elements normally found in bone, were decreased in amount after in vivo administration of gallium. These studies represent a first step toward understanding the mechanism(s) of action of gallium in bone by suggesting the possible cellular, structural, and elemental targets of gallium

  19. Physical-mathematical model for cybernetic description of the human organs with trace element concentrations as input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report a physical-mathematical model for studying the organs and humans fluids by cybernetic principle. The input variables represent the trace elements which are determined by atomic and nuclear methods of elemental analysis. We have determined the health limits between which the organs might function. (authors)

  20. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  1. Ar-39 Detection at the 10^-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W. D.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S. -M.; Lu, Z. -T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-01-01

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar-39 (half-life = 269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10^-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, counting rate and efficiency of ATTA have been improved by two orders of magnitude over prior results. Significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the develop...

  2. Influence of local emissions on concentration and isotopic composition of trace gases (CO2 and CH4) under strong anthropopression: A case study from Krakow, southern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.; Korus, A.; Kuc, T.; Lasa, J.; Necki, J.M.; Zimnoch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Measurements of the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide and methane together with their concentrations in the atmosphere, yield useful information on the contribution of anthropogenic sources to regional budgets of these gases and their seasonal changes. Observed correlation between isotopic composition and inverse concentration of these gases is used for estimation of mean isotopic composition of the local source. Monitoring of atmospheric CO 2 has been initiated in Krakow in 1982. The sampling point is located in a polluted urban area with strong contribution of anthropogenic gases originating both from local sources (coal burning, car traffic, leakages from city gas network, landfills) and large distant emitters - industrial district located ca. 80 km to the west from Krakow (Silesia district). Quasi-continuous measurements of CO 2 , and CH 4 concentrations in the low atmosphere are performed using gas chromatographic method. For isotope measurements, the atmospheric CO 2 is continuously sampled by sorption on molecular sieve in be-weekly intervals and radiocarbon concentration is measured by liquid scintillation spectrometer, while δ 13 C is determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measurement error (1σ for single measurement) is in the order of 0.1 ppm for CO 2 concentration, ±8 per mille for δ 14 C, and ± 0.1 per mille for δ 13 C. In 1994, a new station for regular observations of greenhouse gases in lower atmosphere was set up in the High Tatra mountains, at Kasprowy Wierch (49 deg. N, 20 deg. E, 1980 m a.s.l., 300 m above the tree line). Kasprowy Wierch, with only small influences from local sources of trace gases can be considered as a reference station for this region of Poland. The record of CO 2 and CH 4 concentration and their isotope composition obtained at Kasprowy Wierch is considered as a background level for Krakow observations. The presented study was aimed at better characterisation and quantification of the local

  3. Effect of long-term intake of lanthanum chloride on the concentrations of some macro- and trace elements in rat brains using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tong; Li Yaming; Ren Yan; Wang Enbo; Xu Hongying; Wang Wenzhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of long-term intake of lanthanum in drinking water on the concentrations of twelve kinds of macro- and trace elements in rat brains were primarily studied by neutron activation analysis. The results show that, along with the elevation of the dose of lanthanum, more and more elements were affected in the rat brain tissues. Compared with control group, the concentrations of five elements were changed in the 1000 mg/L group. These elements have close relations with brain function. Accordingly, intake of lanthanum may have negative effects on brain function. (authors)

  4. Fibroin/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction for the preconcentration of trace levels of flavonoids in complex matrix samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Li, Jie; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong; Zhao, Haodong; Zhang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    A new fibroin/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction, coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, was developed and applied for enrichment and quantification of the trace flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine and biological samples. Also, fibroin sensibilization mechanism was described, and influence of sample matrix to enrichment factor was investigated. In this method, a homogeneous fibroin/dodecanol of dispersed solution was employed as microextraction phase to flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, chrysin, kaempferide), the several critical parameters affecting the performance, such as organic extractant, amount of fibroin in organic extractant, volume of extraction phase, dispersant, salt concentration, pH of sample phase, stirring rate, extraction time, and volume of sample phase were tested and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factor of flavonoids ranged from 42.4 to 238.1 in different samples, excellent linearities with r 2 ≥ 0.9968 for all analytes were achieved, limits of detection were less than or equal to 5.0ng/mL, average recoveries were 92.5% to 115.0% in different samples. The new procedure is simple, fast, low cost, environmentally friendly and high EF, it can also be applied to the concentration and enrichment of the trace flavonoids in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapile, F.A.; Makundi, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on determination of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown near of Manyoni uranium deposit. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from five sites namely Mitoo Mbuga, farming area, Miyomboni, Tambukareli and near water pump. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil and edible vegetables samples were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF).All vegetable samples were found to have higher concentrations (in μg/g) of trace elements such as Ni (67.3) in pea leaves, Cu (14.9) in pumpkin leaves, Fe (478.6), (200.5) and (337.1) in pea, pumpkin and spinach leaves respectively, than the maximum tolerable limits recommended by WHO/FAO. Mean concentration of Pb (1.6 μg/g) in pumpkin leaves collected from Miyomboni (area D) were observed to be higher than the safe limit of (0.3μg/g) set by Codex 2006. Toxic elements concentrations (in μg/g) such as Cd (10.4), Pb (23.2),Hg (4.1), Th (31.5) and U (23.9) were observed to be high in soil collected from Mitoo Mbuga and farming area. Therefore, vegetables in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit can expose people to toxic elements which are detrimental to their health.A more detailed study involving other foodstuffs is needed to establish conclusive results.

  6. Species- and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, J.H.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US)

    2005-07-01

    Information on species- and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged.

  7. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  8. Determination of base-line levels of trace amounts in pulses and spices using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    It has been established that essential trace elements are vitally important for biochemical systems, whereas toxic elements if present in relatively higher amounts adversely affect these systems. Trace elements reach the human body mainly through foodstuffs. The different articles contain varying amount of toxic and essential elements. It is therefore necessary to asses the adequacy and safety of the diet by determining the base-line levels of these elements. In continuation of our previous work, some varieties of pulses and spices were analyzed using neutron activation technique. Among the four varieties of pulses lentil (lens esculenta) was found to contain higher amounts of essential elements and lower amounts of toxic elements. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pulses was estimated and compared with the suggested values. The estimated intake of essential elements is adequate and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limit. In spices cumin and caraway seeds were found to contain relatively higher amounts of essential as well as toxic elements. The studies showed that food spices were additional source of trace element intake. (author)

  9. Radon-in-soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-in-soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospecting and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping covers the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neovolcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon-in-soil map covering one third of the territory of Mexico is presented. The lowest mean values occur in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (author)

  10. The correlation between (1)H MRS choline concentrations and MR diffusion trace values in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Dita; Jirů, F.; Dezortová, M.; Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva; Hájek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 19-31 ISSN 0968-5243 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:MZd(CZ) MZ0IKEM2005; EC FP6 project Angiotargeting(XE) 504743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : spectroscopic imaging * cholines * diffusion trace Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2009

  11. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  12. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  13. Development of an on-line electrochemical analyser for trace level aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Christopher W.K.; Thomas, Shaun D.; Davey, David E.; Mulcahy, Dennis E.; Drikas, Mary

    2003-01-01

    An in-house designed computerised flow injection (FI) system for low-level aluminium analysis is examined. A simple, low cost electrochemical detection system has been implemented with computerised control and data acquisition system. The system consists of a commercial electrochemical analyser, FI components (manifold, pumps and valves) and an in-house designed control system to perform automated analysis. This system was developed to study aluminium speciation in water, particularly for drinking water. The analytical technique was based upon the complexation reaction between aluminium and a ligand--DASA (1,2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid). 'Labile' and total aluminium concentrations, Al labile and Al total , respectively, were determined by measuring the sample before and after UV irradiation by amperometry at +0.6 V. The limit of detection for this technique was 10 μg/l (0.37 μM) and the linear calibration range was up to 1.6 mg/l (60 μM) with r 2 value of 0.999. The Al labile /Al total ratios of the water treated by 40, 80 and 100 mg/l of alum using a laboratory scale pilot plant to simulate conventional drinking water treatment processes were found to be 0.4, 0.5 and 0.8, respectively. These results indicated that when higher alum dose was employed, the residual aluminium was present mostly as the 'labile' species. Whereas, if the treatment process was not running at its optimum condition (underdosing), a large portion of aluminium was present as natural organic matter (NOM) - aluminium complexes in the treated water. The system offers a practical and effective means of providing extended knowledge of residual aluminium in drinking water

  14. Trace-metal concentrations in African dust: effects of long-distance transport and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia; Lamothe, Paul; Morman, Suzette; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Gilkes, Robert; Prakongkep, Nattaporn

    2010-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel lose billions of tons of eroded mineral soils annually to the Americas and Caribbean, Europe and Asia via atmospheric transport. African dust was collected from a dust source region (Mali, West Africa) and from downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad-Tobago (TT) and U.S. Virgin Islands (VI)] and analysed for 32 trace-elements. Elemental composition of African dust samples was similar to that of average upper continental crust (UCC), with some enrichment or depletion of specific trace-elements. Pb enrichment was observed only in dust and dry deposition samples from the source region and was most likely from local use of leaded gasoline. Dust particles transported long-distances (VI and TT) exhibited increased enrichment of Mo and minor depletion of other elements relative to source region samples. This suggests that processes occurring during long-distance transport of dust produce enrichment/depletion of specific elements. Bioaccessibility of trace-metals in samples was tested in simulated human fluids (gastric and lung) and was found to be greater in downwind than source region samples, for some metals (e.g., As). The large surface to volume ratio of the dust particles (<2.5 µm) at downwind sites may be a factor.

  15. Levels of trace elements in different varieties of wheat determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.E.; Taha, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements Ag, Au, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in six wheat samples purchased from the open market in different localities (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Dubai and Australia). The dried powdered samples were decomposed in HNO3-HClO4 acids mixtures and elements were determined using recording atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements. Certified biological standards, Brown's Kale (BK), Orchard Leaves (OL) and tomato leaves (TOML) were used to assure the accuracy of results. However, Co, Pb and Sr were absent from samples except the Egyptian samples. The obtained databases were statistically treated. Several significant and strong positive correlation coefficients (r=0.506-1.00) between the groups of elements were observed. On the other hand, strong negative correlations (r=0.492-0.873) between another group of elements were also shown. (author)

  16. Note: Possibilities of detecting the trace-level erosion products from an electric propulsion hollow cathode plasma source by the method of time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong-Xi; Zhang, Hai-Guang; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Jiang, Bin-Hao; Zhou, Zhong-Yue; Yu, Da-Ren; An, Bing-Jian; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2018-02-01

    A hollow cathode produces electrons which neutralize ions from electric propulsion thrusters. After hundreds to thousands of hours of operation in space, the cathode materials can be significantly eroded due to ion bombardment. As a result, the electric propulsion system performance will be obviously changed or even fail. In this work, the erosion products from a LaB6 hollow cathode (widely used presently in electric propulsion systems) are studied by using a specific detection system, which consists of a molecular beam sampler and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This system measures trace-level-concentration (10-6-10-3) products. Boron (B), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)—originating from the emitter, keeper, and orifice of the hollow cathode—are measured. It is found that the erosion rate is significantly influenced by the gas flow rate to the cathode.

  17. Historical record of concentrations of atmospheric trace components deduced from a glacier in the Alps; Historische Entwicklung von atmosphaerischen Spurenstoffkonzentrationen rekonstruiert aus Firn und Eis alpiner Gletscher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    A 109 m ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4440 m a.s.l., Switzerland) was used to reconstruct the history of atmospheric trace components. Concentrations of the anions chloride, nitrate, sulfate and the cations sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium were measured with 2.5-5.0 cm resolution in the top 70 m of a 109 m long of the ice core. Dating of the ice core was performed using stratigraphic markers such as historically known Saharan dust events, the atomic bomb horizon and volcanic eruptions and supplemented with the {sup 210}Pb nuclear dating. The record covers the time period from about 1755-1981. The concentrations of nitrate and sulfate show an exponential increase from 1930 and 1870 until 1965, respectively. The factors of increase were 2.3{+-}0.3 and 5.8{+-}0.9, respectively. The chloride concentrations remained constant during this period. A good agreement between the concentrations of sulfate, which were corrected for the contribution of seasalt and mineral dust and the European SO{sub 2}-emissions was found for the last 100 years. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium did not show a trend. The concentrations of ammonium increased exponentially between 1870 and 1960 by a factor of 2.2{+-}0.4. The different sources of the trace components were identified using correlation analysis. Sodium and chloride originated from seasalt, magnesium and calcium from geologic erosion. For both, the industrial and pre-industrial period, the dominant source of ammonium and nitrate was conversion of the gaseous precursors NH{sub 3} and HNO{sub 3}. Sulfate concentrations in the industrial period originated from the anthropogenically emitted SO{sub 2}, whereas in the pre-industrial period the geologic source dominated. The Colle Gnifetti accumulates mainly summer snow, and therefore, several test drillings were performed to find a new site with higher accumulation rate. figs., 17 tabs., 50 refs.

  18. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, A.H.; Maleki, A.; Alasvand, M.

    2010-01-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 μg/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R 2 = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  19. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  20. Distribution of energy levels of quantum free particle on the Liouville surface and trace formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.; Kosygin, D.V.; Sinai, Y.G.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the Weyl asymptotic formula [{E n ≤R 2 }=Area Q.R 2 /(4π)+n(R), for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a two-dimensional torus Q with a Liouville metric which is in a sense the most general case of an integrable metric. We prove that if the surface Q is non-degenerate then the remainder term n(R) has the form n(R)=R 1/2 θ(R), where θ(R) is an almost periodic function of the Besicovitch class B 1 , and the Fourier amplitudes and the Fourier frequencies of θ(R) can be expressed via lengths of closed geodesics on Q and other simple geometric characteristics of these geodesics. We prove then that if the surface Q is generic then the limit distribution of θ(R) has a density p(t), which is an entire function of t possessing an asymptotics on a real line, logp(t)∝-C ± t 4 as t→±∞. An explicit expression for the Fourier transform of p(t) via Fourier amplitudes of θ(R) is also given. We obtain the analogue of the Guillemin-Duistermaat trace formula for the Liouville surfaces and discuss its accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Levels of trace metals in soil and vegetation along major and minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... emission couple with waste dispose along the roads remain a threat. The findings in general indicate the levels of metals in soil and plant samples were within the EU limits with the exception of Cd. In addition, the high level of Cd appears to reach pollution levels and metal dynamics up the food chain is highly possible.

  2. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. Q.; Shu, J. N.; Zhang, P.; Li, Z.; Li, N. N.; Liang, M.; Yang, B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS) in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ) of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  3. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(II is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV. The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the current response was enhanced because the modified graphene extended the potential range of the electrode. The Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode showed high electrochemical conductivity, producing a marked increase in anodic peak currents (vs. the glass carbon electrode (GCE and boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. The calculated detection limits are 1.15, 0.30, and 1.42 µg/L, and the sensitivities go up to 0.18, 21.69, and 152.0 nA·mm−2·µg−1·L for, respectively, the BDD electrode, the GCE, and the Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode. It was shown that the Gr/l-cysteine/gold-modified electrode is an effective means for obtaining highly selective and sensitive electrodes to detect trace levels of cadmium.

  4. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.L., E-mail: ppmasb@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EPS, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Villa, M. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polluted sediment and NORM samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in <3 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element concentrations, Pb, Th and U isotope ratios with a single instrument. - Abstract: This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb/{sup 208}Pb, {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th/{sup 230}Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA{sup Registered-Sign} extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  5. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of essential and possibly-essential trace element levels in adipose tissue from an adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Vrhovnik, Petra; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Fernández, Mariana F; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Olea, Nicolás; Fiket, Željka; Kniewald, Goran; Arrebola, Juan P

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence linking levels of trace elements (TEs) in adipose tissue with certain chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes or obesity). The objectives of this study were to assess concentrations of a selection of nine essential and possibly-essential TEs in adipose tissue samples from an adult cohort and to explore their socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants. Adipose tissue samples were intraoperatively collected from 226 volunteers recruited in two public hospitals from Granada province. Trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V, and Zn) were analyzed in adipose tissue by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, diet, and health status by face-to-face interview. Predictors of TE concentrations were assessed by using multivariable linear and logistic regression. All TEs were detected in all samples with the exception of Se (53.50%). Iron, zinc, and copper showed the highest concentrations (42.60 mg/kg, 9.80 mg/kg, and 0.68 mg/kg, respectively). Diet was the main predictor of Cr, Fe, Mo, and Se concentrations. Body mass index was negatively associated with all TEs (β coefficients = -0.018 to -0.593, p = 0.001-0.090) except for Mn and V. Age showed a borderline-significant positive correlation with Cu (β = 0.004, p = 0.089). Residence in a rural or semi-rural area was associated with increased Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Mn, V and Zn concentrations and with β coefficients ranging from 0.196 to 0.544 (p V concentrations (β coefficients = 0.276-0.368, p = 0.022-0.071). This is the first report on the distribution of these TEs in adipose tissue and on their determinants in a human cohort and might serve as an initial step in the elucidation of their clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination and statistical analysis of trace element and active constituent concentrations in the medicinal plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (E. rostratus Schlecht)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Kilikoglou, V.; Tsitsa, E.; Loukis, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the leaves of the medicinal plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (E. rostratus Schlecht) collected from different sampling areas of Greece the trace elements antimony, cesium, chromium, cobalt, iron, europium, rubidium scandium, strontium, thorium and zinc were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. In the same samples, the essential oil was determined by steam distillation and the percent relative composition of the essential oil in 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, α-pinene by gas liquid chromatography. Also the refractive index of the essential oil was determined by a refractometer. Statistical analysis included the calculation of the correlation coefficient. Multiple correlation and cluster analysis was applied to all analytical data. The results showed that the trace elements iron, chromium, cobalt and zinc are correlated with the variation of the concentration of essential oil in the examined plant. These four elements along with rubidium and essential oil content could be used for the separation of the samples into groups related to the sampling areas. Statistically significant correlation between active constituents and some trace elements and a linear negative correlation between 1,8-cineole and refractive index were found. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general abundance distribution pattern for metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > As > Co > Cd > Hg. The removal efficiency ranged from 1.5% for Hg at Zandvliet WWTP plant during winter to 98.27% for Cu at Athlone WWTP treatment plant during summer. The final effluent concentration for most of the metals were within ...

  8. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  9. Analysis of bioaccessible concentration of trace elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Maharia, R.S.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    The total metal concentration and bioaccessible concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se in Momordica charantia, Asparagus racemosus, Terminalia arjuna and Syzyzium cumini were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (ICP-MS). The bioaccessible concentrations were determined in the gastrointestinal digest obtained after treating dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin at physiological conditions. The bioaccessible concentration of Fe was in the range of 58-67 mg kg -1 , Mn was 10.2-14.6 mg kg -1 , Cu was 3.7-4.8 mg kg -1 and Zn was 10.6-18.4 mg kg -1 , were within the safety limits set for vegetable food stuff set by Joint FAO/WHO. The bioaccessibility of Zn, an essential element, was high (40-50 %) in M. charantia and in S. cumini. In addition, the total metal contents and bioaccessible concentration of Ni, Se, Cd and Pb in these samples were measured by ICP-MS. The total Cd content in S. cumini (2.6 ± 0.2 mg kg -1 ) and its bioaccessible concentration (0.6 mg kg -1 ) were strikingly high as compared to the other samples. Though total Hg contents were determined by ICP-MS, but their bioaccessible concentrations were below the detection limit (0.036 mg kg -1 ). (author)

  10. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of metal and trace element concentrations in the Cananeia estuary, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Braga, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty six bottom sediment samples were collected from the Cananeia estuary in summer and winter of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption. As, Cr, Hg and Zn concentrations were compared to the Canadian oriented values (TEL and PEL). Sample points 4 and 9 presented higher concentration for most elements and As and Cr exceeded the TEL values. Organic matter (>10%) associated with siltic and clay sediments was observed. Climatic conditions, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes promote differences in seasonal concentrations of elements at some points, which contribute to special distributions. (author)

  12. Trace metal levels in soils and vegetation from some tin mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of soil and vegetation from some tin mining areas of Nigeria were analysed for lead, zinc, copper and cadmium content. The levels of Pb and Zn were found to be high in some samples. The mean levels of metal in the vegetation were: 86.6+ 36.0, 49.6+ 28.3, 12.6+4.8 and 1.4+0.8 µgg-1 dry weight for Pb, Zn, Cu ...

  13. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Malathi, N; Rajiniganth, M P; Murali, N; Swaminathan, P

    2010-06-11

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 microg L(-1) levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L(-1) levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 microg L(-1) levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 microg L(-1) O(2). Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L(-1) to microg L(-1) levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 microg L(-1) O(2) level is 0.14 (n=5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 microg L(-1) levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Malathi, N.; Rajiniganth, M.P.; Murali, N.; Swaminathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 μg L -1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L -1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 μg L -1 levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 μg L -1 O 2 . Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L -1 to μg L -1 levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 μg L -1 O 2 level is 0.14 (n = 5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 μg L -1 levels.

  15. Impact of geo-chemical environment of subsurface water on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium in ground water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Karpe, Rupali; Ajay Kumar; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    During the present work, impacts of cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ,), anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) and DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium (VI) in subsurface water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is studied. The concentrations of these anions, cations and DOC in subsurface water changes due to change in the geo-chemical environment at different locations. In AdSV, concentration of U was determined by forming an uranium-chloranilic acid complex (2,5-dichloro- 3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone). AdSV measurements were carried out in the differential pulse (DP) mode using a pulse amplitude of -50 mV, a pulse time of 30 ms and a potential step of 4 mV. The detection limit, was calculated to 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ) and anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) was carried out by using Ion Chromatography. Ground water samples were spiked with varying degree of cations, anions and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). DOC in ground waters were measured by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer. Various experiments show that analysis of uranium in the concentration range of 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- . In case of DOC there is no interference observed in the concentration range of 0.02-15 ppm but beyond 15 ppm the concentration of uranium decrease sharply. Further, if DOC exceeded 16 ppm it was not possible to do the analysis of uranium by AdSV without destruction of DOC, as DOC is surface active organic compound and accumulates on Hg electrode preferentially over uranium-chloroanailic complex. (author)

  16. Metal concentrations in Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Lamellibranchia from of 12 Northern Italian lakes in relation to their trophic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo LODIGIANI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test the reliability of environmental monitoring by bioaccumulators of pollutants; that is to establish a positive relationship between the pollutant concentrations in the bioaccumulator and those in the water in which it lives. To this end we analysed the contents of Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ca in the soft tissues and shell of Unio pictorum mancus. The filtered water samples from the mussel habitat were analysed for the same metals. The mussels were collected from 15 stations settled in 12 Northern Italian lakes during the first two weeks of July 2001. These results were obtained: a metal concentrations varied widely with mussel size and among stations; b a significant positive correlation between the concentration of calcium in the water and in the mussel tissues, but no relationship emerged for the other metals; c no relationship between the metal concentrations in the tissues and those in the shell was found; d there was a certain tendency for Mn, Fe and Zn concentrations in the soft tissues to increase with shell size; e the sequence of the decreasing metal concentrations arranged for the tissues was similar to that of the shell, but rather different from that in the water; and f the concentration factor values of the trace metals were high for the shell and soft tissues. In highly productive lakes large size mussels dominated, whereas small mussels were more abundant in low productive lakes. Although the metal concentrations in the water of productive lakes were greater than in low productive ones, the metal concentrations in the tissues of the mussels from the latter were generally higher than those in the mussels from the former. We propose some hypotheses to explain this paradox. Finally, our results show that the metal concentrations in the mussels do not reflect the metal concentrations in the water in which they live. It follows that this commonly used but oversimplified monitoring system cannot be recommended. On

  17. Determination of 210Pb at ultra-trace levels in water by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, D.; Reiber, K.M.; Evans, R.D.; Cornett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    210 Pb (t 1/2 = 22.26 years) is one of the most difficult naturally occurring radionuclides to analyze directly via radiometric measurement due to its low-energy radioactive decay. In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was investigated as a possible alternative to radiometric counting for the determination of 210 Pb. The formation of isobaric and polyatomic (molecular) interferences was studied and various strategies (i.e. co-precipitation, extraction chromatography, and derivatization) were tested to assess their usefulness in reducing these interferences. In addition, the potential of these strategies as pre-concentration methods was demonstrated. A 210 Pb pre-concentration of >300-fold and recoveries of 63-73% were obtained using a combined co-precipitation and extraction chromatography protocol followed by derivatization using an ethylating reagent. The abundance sensitivity at m/z = 210 in the presence of stable Pb was also investigated for three types of mass spectrometers (sector-field (ICP-SFMS), quadrupole-based (ICP-QMS), and quadrupole-based with a dynamic reaction cell (ICP-QMS (DRC))). Finally, the method was applied to determine 210 Pb in water samples and a detection limit of 90 mBq L -1 (10 pg L -1 ) was obtained

  18. Determination of Trace Anions in Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide by Direct Injection Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection after Pt-Catalyzed On-Line Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hee; Lee, Bo Kyung; Lee, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of trace anion impurities in concentrated hydrogen peroxide. The method involves on-line decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, ion chromatographic separation and subsequent suppressed-type conductivity detection. H 2 O 2 is decomposed in Pt-catalyst filled Gore-Tex membrane tubing and the resulting aqueous solution containing analytes is introduced to the injection valve of an ion chromatograph for periodic determinations. The oxygen gas evolving within the membrane tubing escapes freely through the membrane wall causing no problem in ion chromatographic analysis. Decomposition efficiency is above 99.99% at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min for a 30% hydrogen peroxide concentration. Analytes are quantitatively retained. The analysis results for several brands of commercial hydrogen peroxides are reported

  19. Trace gas concentrations, intertropical convergence, atmospheric fronts, and ocean currents in the tropical Pacific m(Paper 8C1060)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkniss, P.E.; Rodgers, E.B.; Swinnerton, J.W.; Larson, R.E.; Lamontagne, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Shipboard measurements of atmospheric 222 Rn, CO, and CH 4 and of dissolved CO in surface waters have been carried out in the equatorial Pacific on a cruise from Ecuador to Hawaii, Tahiti and Panama in March and April of 1974, and during transit from Los Angeles to Antarctica in November and December of 1972. The trace gas results, combined with conventional meteorological data and with satellite images from Nimbus 5 and the defense meteorological satellite project (DMSP), have provided descriptions of the intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ) near 04 0 N, 102 0 W and 03 0 N, 154 0 W in March of 1974, near 04 0 N, 86 0 W in April of 1974, and near 05 0 N, 139 0 W in November of 1972. In all cases the ITCZ seems to be located north of the south equatorial current (SEC) as shown by dissolved CO peaks in surface waters. In April of 1974 a 'second' ITCZ was observed near 01 0 S, 102 0 W just south of the SEC. A stationary front near Hawaii (20 0 N, 147 0 W) in March of 1974 was investigated. The ITCZ was marked by light shifting winds near a zone of heavy cloud cover and precipitation. In the eastern Tropical Pacific atmospheric 222 Rn increases distinctly north of the ITCZ and thus serves as an indicator for the ITCZ. CO and CH 4 do not always increase coincident with atmospheric 222 Rn. The atmospheric features of the stationary front near Hawaii are in many ways similar to those observed for the ITCZ. The front is marked by cloud cover, precipitation zone and light shifting winds. 222 Rn, CO and CH 4 increase signifantly behind the front in subsiding air which was traced back to the Asian continent. The variation of atmospheric 222 Rn, CO and CH 4 with time and geographical area over the equatorial Pacific seems to be a consequence of seasonal variations of the trade wind field and long range transport to the central Pacific from Asia and to the eastern equatorial Pacific from North and Central America

  20. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.H. [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A. [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), Plant Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Universitaet Hohenheim, August-von-Hartmann-Str. 3, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Pignata, M.L., E-mail: pignata@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-03-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO{sub 2} regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO{sub 2} and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO{sub 2} than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO{sub 2} and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human

  1. Estimation of {sup 60}Co activity in trace levels from aqueous medium using Ocimum basilicum seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangurdekar, P R [Radiation Safety System Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Melo, J S; D' Souza, S F [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    In the field of pollution control besides the need for devising techniques for remediation, it is equally essential to develop alternative techniques for monitoring pollution levels including radioactivity. In this perspective, a simple technique is described for determining radioactivity in aqueous samples using O. basilicum seeds based on its property to adsorb radionuclides

  2. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt

  3. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  4. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Josiane S., E-mail: josi.s@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuiM/IPT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica

    2017-07-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  5. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Josiane S.; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  6. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Christine E.; DeVol, Timothy A.; Husson, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L"−"1 uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L"−"1 uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. - Highlights: • Extractive scintillating resins synthesized with covalently bound fluor and ligand. • Methylphosphonic acid-derivitized resins characterized for optical properties. • Online detection of uranium in ground water demonstrated at near-neutral pH.

  7. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Christine E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); DeVol, Timothy A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, 342 Computer Court, Anderson, SC 29625 (United States); Husson, Scott M., E-mail: shusson@clemson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. - Highlights: • Extractive scintillating resins synthesized with covalently bound fluor and ligand. • Methylphosphonic acid-derivitized resins characterized for optical properties. • Online detection of uranium in ground water demonstrated at near-neutral pH.

  8. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christine E; DeVol, Timothy A; Husson, Scott M

    2016-12-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L -1 uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L -1 uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. trace metal level of human blood from dareta village, anka, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    either (or both) as essential or toxic or show a high ... Death from Lead poisoning has occurred in children at blood Lead levels of 1.25 mg/L or ... intake of Lead: adults, 3 mg per person or 50 µg/kg ... U.U. Udiba, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, P.M.B 1052, Zaria, .... workers exposed to this metal.

  10. Graphene/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction for the preconcentration of trace levels of cinnamic acid derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuang; Yang, Xiao; Xue, Jiao; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Zhi-Hui

    2017-07-01

    A novel graphene/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction followed by HPLC with diode-array detection has been developed to extract trace levels of four cinnamic acid derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines. Several parameters affecting the performance were investigated and optimized. Also, possible microextraction mechanism was analyzed and discussed. Under the optimum conditions (amount of graphene in dodecanol: 0.25 mg/mL; volume of extraction phase: 70 μL; pH of sample phase: 3; extraction time: 30   min; stirring rate: 1000 rpm; salt amount: 26.5% NaCl; volume of sample phase: 10 mL, and without dispersant addition), the enrichment factors of four cinnamic acid derivatives ranged from 26 to 112, the linear ranges were 1.0 × 10 -2 -10.0 μg/mL for caffeic acid, 1.3 × 10 -3 -1.9 μg/mL for p-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2.8 × 10 -3 -4.1 μg/mL for ferulic acid, and 2.7 × 10 -3 -4.1 μg/mL for cinnamic acid, with r 2 ≥ 0.9993. The detection limits were found to be in the range of 0.1-1.0 ng/mL, and satisfactory recoveries (92.5-111.2%) and precisions (RSDs 1.1-9.5%) were also achieved. The results showed that the approach is simple, effective and sensitive for the preconcentration and determination of trace levels of cinnamic acid derivatives in Chinese medicines. The proposed method was compared with conventional dodecanol floating solidification microextraction and other extraction methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokova, L S; Pokrovsky, O S; Moreva, O Yu; Chupakov, A V; Zabelina, S A; Klimov, S I; Shorina, N V; Vorobieva, T Ya

    2013-10-01

    The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 μm). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30°C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70-80% to only 20-30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90-98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60-70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (>30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved (organic matter by heterotrophic aerobic bacterioplankton and 3) photo-degradation of DOM and photo-chemical liberation of organic-bound TE. While the first process may have caused significant decreases in the total dissolved concentration of micronutrients (a factor of 2 to 5 for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd and a factor of >100 for Co), the second and third factors could have brought

  12. Human hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.

  13. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of molybdenum (Mo), a co-factor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, f...

  14. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bain, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. - Highlights: • Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. • Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb, likely due to lead paint. • Pb, As, and Cd all increased with proximity to road. • As and Cd reacted with organic matter to become more or less bioavailable to crops. - Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb due to lead paint, while all metals increased near the road

  15. Treatment technologies and mechanisms for three odorants at trace level: IPMP, IBMP, and TCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Odour episodes caused by algal metabolites are gaining more and more attention in recent years. Besides geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) have emerged to be important off-flavour sources. Their low odour threshold concentrations (several ng ·L(-1)), which are even lower than those of MIB and geosmin, pose challenges for treatment strategies. Hence, a practical and efficient mitigation technology is needed. The possible practical technologies, including powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and oxidation by chlorine and potassium permanganate, were investigated. The results indicated that chlorine and potassium permanganate oxidation of the three odorants were unfeasible while PAC adsorption was effective. As for adsorption, TCA, followed by IBMP and IPMP, was most easily removed by PAC. The Freundlich model could well describe the adsorption isotherm data. The adsorption capacities for IPMP, IBMP, and TCA were described as follows: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. For five earthy/musty odorants including geosmin and MIB, octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular weight, and polarizability all promoted adsorption while aqueous solubility showed a negative influence. The hydrophobic interaction was believed to be the dominant force in the adsorption mechanism while the π-electron interaction enhanced adsorption when a benzene ring was present. This result could be used to predict the adsorption performance of emerging odorants.

  16. A biomimetic absorbent for removal of trace level persistent organic pollutants from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huijuan; Qu Jiuhui; Dai Ruihua; Ru Jia; Wang Zijian

    2007-01-01

    A novel biomimetic absorbent containing the lipid triolein was developed for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. The structural characteristics of the absorbent were obtained by SEM and a photoluminescence method. Under optimum preparation conditions, triolein was perfectly embedded in the cellulose acetate (CA) spheres, the absorbent was stable and no triolein leaked into the water. Dieldrin, endrin, aldrin and heptachlor epoxide were effectively removed by the CA-triolein absorbent in laboratory batch experiments. This suggests that CA-triolein absorbent may serve as a good absorbent for those selected POPs. Triolein in the absorbent significantly increased the absorption capacity, and lower residual concentrations of POPs were achieved when compared to the use of cellulose acetate absorbent. The absorption rate for lipophilic pollutants was very fast and exhibited some relationship with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the analyte. The absorption mechanism is discussed in detail. - Triolein-embedded absorbent was developed and it could remove lipophilic pollutants from water effectively

  17. MEASUREMENT OF TRACE LEVELS OF DEUTERIUM OXIDE IN BIOLOGIC FLUIDS USING INFRARED SPECTROPHOTOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental data relevant to the assay of D2O in human serum, urine, and parotid fluid are presented. For serum, with triplicate scans, values of precision...and of accuracy of plus or minus 3% at the 250 p.p.m. D2O level are obtained. By use of parotid fluid the values are narrowed to plus or minus 2% at...aqueous compartments using values for serum water content. Parotid fluid appears to be particularly suitable for biomedical applications due to its ease

  18. SRXRF study of trace elements in hippocampus of pup rats after prenatal and postnatal exposure to low-level mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Wang Meng; Shi Junwen; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Since the pollution of mercury in the environment still keeps high, more and more concerns over mercury toxicity are focused on the potential risk associated with relatively low-dose and long-term mercury exposure in the environment. It is well known that fetus and developing children are the susceptive victims of mercury damage. Therefore, high attention is focused on whether the prenatal and postnatal exposure to relatively low level of mercury will be harmful to children development. Some epidemiological studies reported that the methylmercury-related neuropsychological deficits were mainly found in the domains of cognitional parts, such as language, attention, memory, and so forth, Our previous study found out that high level of mercury was accumulated in the pup hippocampus after their prenatal and postnatal exposure to low dose of inorganic mercury. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) is characterized of its simultaneous determination of multi-elements, high sensitivity, small sampling amount and microanalysis. SRXRF does not cause the damage of irradiated samples. Thus, it makes possible to measure the distributions of trace elements in a selected area. In this study, in order to study the effects of low-level mercury exposure to pup rat brain, some oxidation-related elements, e.g. Cu, Fe and Mn in pup hippocampus after in utero and weaning exposure to low-level inorganic mercury were determined by SRXRF. The experiment was performed at a synchrotron radiation facility at Institute of High Energy Physics. And the spot size of the beam irradiating on the sample was adjusted to about 100 x 200 μm 2 , Each spot was irradiated for about 100 s. The spectra were analyzed by the AXIL program. Additionally, the activities of some important antioxidant enzymes, such as GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, were also measured together with the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that mercury exposure could lead to significant increase of both

  19. Effects of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) polymorphism on toxic metal and trace element levels in placental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Tekin, Deniz; Aliyev, Vugar; Yalcin, Serap; Kurtay, Guelay; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-01-01

    The placenta is a crucial organ of fetal origin that functions in providing nutrients to the fetus from the mother. During pregnancy, the need for essential micronutrients, such as Fe and Zn, increases due to the requirements of the growing fetus. Maternal Fe deficiency induces an increase in Cu levels and can also affect cytokine levels in the placenta. On the other hand, Cu deficiency, although not as common, can also have destructive effects on the fetus. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities, including such as immune responses, acute-phase reactions, and inflammation. The placenta produces a significant amount of IL-6 during pregnancy. The effects of the IL-6 -174 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on IL-6 gene transcription and on plasma cytokine levels were assessed in the present study. We investigated the association between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and trace element/toxic metal levels in placental tissues. For the purposes of this study, 95 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Presence of the IL-6 polymorphism was determined using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, and metal levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Based on our data, there were no significant associations between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and Pb, Cd, Fe, or Zn levels in the placental tissues (p > 0.05), but a statistically significant association was detected between the polymorphism and Cu levels (p = 0.016). We determined that the mean Cu levels in the placental tissues from individuals with GG, GC and CC genotypes were 5.62 ± 1.98, 6.22 ± 3.22 and 8.00 ± 1.32 ppm, respectively, whereas the overall mean Cu level from the placental tissues was 5.98 ± 2.51 ppm. - Highlights: → We studied between the association of IL-6 polymorphism and metal levels in the placenta tissues. → It was the first report evaluating the association

  20. Increase in cyclic AMP concentration in a cerebral giant interneuron mimics part of a memory trace for conditioned taste aversion of the pond snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Emi; Matsunaga, Miho; Okada, Ryuichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Okuta, Akiko; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be classically conditioned in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and subsequently be consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The neural trace that subserves CTA-LTM can be summarized as follows: A polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential recorded in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell in the conditioned snails as a result of activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) is larger and lasts longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is ultimately activated by the CGC via the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell. That is, the inhibitory monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell are facilitated. The N1M and N3t cells are the members of feeding central pattern generator, whereas the CGC is a multimodal interneuron thought to play a key role in feeding behavior. Here we examined the involvement of a second messenger, cAMP, in the establishment of the memory trace. We injected cAMP into the CGC and monitored the potentials of the B3 motor neuron activated by the CGC. B3 activity is used as an index for the synaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. We found that the B3 potentials were transiently enlarged. Thus, when the cAMP concentration is increased in the CGC by taste aversion training, cAMP-induced changes may play a key role in the establishment of a memory trace in the N3t cell.

  1. Trace Element Concentrations in Tree Leaves and Lichen Collected Along a Metal Pollution Gradient Near Olkusz (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Klimek, Beata

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves.

  2. Does extensive agriculture influence the concentration of trace elements in the aquatic plant Veronica anagallis-aquatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroflič, Ana; Germ, Mateja; Golob, Aleksandra; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2018-04-15

    The present study describes the influence of extensive agriculture on the concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Cd, Se, Pb and Zn in sediments and in the aquatic plant Veronica anagallis-aquatica. The investigation, spanning 4 years, was conducted on three watercourses in Slovenia (Pšata, Lipsenjščica and Žerovniščica) flowing through agricultural areas. The different sampling sites were chosen on the basis of the presence of different activities in these regions: dairy farming, stock raising and extensive agriculture. The concentrations of the selected elements in sediments and V. anagallis-aquatica were below the literature background values. The distribution of the selected elements among different plant parts (roots, stems and leaves) were also investigated. The majority of the studied elements, with the exception of Zn and Cu, were accumulated mainly in root tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  5. Changes in trace element concentration in hair and other organs in relation to disease and metal burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesener, W.; Goerner, W.; Niese, S.

    1979-01-01

    With the help of reactor neutron activation analysis, the concentrations of F, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, I and Au in hair and other organs of normal and diseased persons and of persons occupationally or otherwise exposed to high concentrations of certain elements have been determined. When necessary, before gamma spectrometry, 24 Na interference was removed by hydrated antimony pentoxide or the elements of interest were separated by an anion-exchange resin. Short-lived nuclides were determined by a short activation with the help of a pneumatic irradiation facility and automatic correction of deadtime and decay. The hair of welders was found to contain considerably more Mn than that of normal persons. The concentration of F in the hair of people working with F compounds was also enhanced. The amount of Au in the serum of patients treated with sodium-gold-thiosulphate was determined. Goitre patients showed a small increase of Se and a decrease of I in the hair. Patients with mammary carcinoma showed an increase of Cu, Zn and I. The Zn content of tumorous mammary tissue was many times higher than that of neighbouring tissue. Muscle tissue of rats with a Yoshida ascites sarcoma showed an enhanced content of Zn as well. The content of Mn, Cu and Zn in fatty livers decreases with increasing content of fat. (author)

  6. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  7. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  8. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  9. Preparation of electrodeless discharge lamps for emission studies of uranium isotopes at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, G.K.; Verma, R.; Verma, M.K.; Raman, V.A.; Joshi, A.R.; Deo, M.N.; Gantayet, L.M.; Tiwari, A.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Kumar, Navin

    2010-01-01

    A simplified method for preparation of electrodeless discharge lamp for uranium isotopes with specific concerns for 232 U is described. Micro-gram quantities of solid uranium oxides and aqueous solution of uranium nitrate have been used as a starting material for in situ synthesis of uranium tetraiodide. High temperature iodination reaction is carried out in the presence of inert gas neon. By careful design, the preparation time and surface area of quartz reaction tubes have been reduced considerably. The latter decreases the level of contamination which has a direct bearing on the operational lifetime of the lamps. Incorporation of steps to purify the product from an unwanted material improved the stability of the lamps. The procedure provides a safe and convenient way of handling 232 U in particular but can be extended in general to any actinides having radioactivity similar to that of freshly separated 232 U. Characteristic emission of uranium isotopes have been recorded by Fourier Transform Spectrometer to show the satisfactory operation of the lamps as well as their usage for studying emission spectra of the specific isotope.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of trace and ultratrace levels of boron in silicon and chlorosilane samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.S.; Lin, H.M.; Yang, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of boron in the low μg/g and ng/g range in high-purity silicon and dichloro- and trichlorosilanes were investigated in detail. The procedures established involve dissolution of silicon samples and the hydrolyzed products of chlorosilane samples in hydrofluoric acid-containing reagents followed by evaporation of the silicon matrix as H 2 SiF 6 . The boron retained in the treated sample solution was then determined by a spectrophotometric method using carminic acid as a chromatic reagent. Special effort has been paid to the control of the analytical blank and reproducible determination of boron. The results indicate that addition of mannitol and proper control of the evaporation process are effective in preventing volatilization of boron during the evaporation of silicon matrix and can thus attain high recovery of boron and reproducible analysis. Through meticulous control of the analytical blank and experimental conditions, the limit of detection for boron determination with the established method can be as low as ng/g levels. Application of the methods to the determination of boron in various stages of purification of silicon and trichlorosilane as well as in borophosphosilicate film was conducted. (orig.)

  11. Comparative Analysis of Levels of Banking Sector Markets Concentration in CEE Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Tijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is an important development factor of the total financial and economic system. Number of banks and dispersion of their individual shares defines competitive structure of banking sector, manifested by its concentration. Market concentration may be presented as a function of a number of enterprises competing in a market and their individual comparative market shares. Concentration analysis is significant with regard to the fact that the level of concentration demonstrates relations among competitors in a market, as well as influence each competitor has on consumers, branch and economy as a whole. Starting from 2008 crisis, domino effect of which hit banking sector and has had a huge impact on it, authors of this paper aimed at establishing a level of market concentration of the banking sector in Serbia and countries in the region in 2015 by application of a large number of market concentration indicators.

  12. Determination of trace element levels in leaves of Nerium oleander using X-Ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Luis F.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollution by human activity has been one of the most concerns in the last years, principally due to rapid urban growth in the cities and the industrialization process. The air pollution can be increased due to several different kinds of emissions: urban traffic, industrial activities, burning fuel, civil industry of construction/demolition, fires and natural phenomena. Many of these emissions move from long distances due to convections currents and finally tend to deposit mainly in the plants leaves and in the soil. Thus, the plants leaves works as a natural sampler by the emissions deposit in these ones. In this study Nerium oleander leaves were used to measure the environmental pollutions levels in different sampling urban regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ: Andarai, Benfica, Bonsucesso, Caju, Engenho de Dentro, Engenho Novo, Estacio, Grajau, Inhauma, Lins, Maracana, Maria da Graca, Meier, Praca da Bandeira, Riachuelo, Rio Comprido, Sao Cristovao, Tijuca, Vila Isabel and city Center. The control samples were collected in Campo Grande near of Parque Nacional da Pedra Branca/RJ (National Park of Pedra Branca/RJ). The leaves were collected from adult plants and after the collection the samples were cleaned and placed in the greenhouse for drying, then were mashed and pressed into tablets forms. The analyses were performed using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), developed on the own laboratory and based in a SiPIN detector and a mini X ray tube. It was possible to detect 16 elements in the analyzed samples: K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The results shows that, in the studied areas, the analysis of the Nerium oleander plant shows a low-cost option and with a substantial efficiency as an environmental pollution biomonitor. (author)

  13. Determination of trace element levels in leaves of Nerium oleander using X-Ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Luis F.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2013-07-01

    The environmental pollution by human activity has been one of the most concerns in the last years, principally due to rapid urban growth in the cities and the industrialization process. The air pollution can be increased due to several different kinds of emissions: urban traffic, industrial activities, burning fuel, civil industry of construction/demolition, fires and natural phenomena. Many of these emissions move from long distances due to convections currents and finally tend to deposit mainly in the plants leaves and in the soil. Thus, the plants leaves works as a natural sampler by the emissions deposit in these ones. In this study Nerium oleander leaves were used to measure the environmental pollutions levels in different sampling urban regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ: Andarai, Benfica, Bonsucesso, Caju, Engenho de Dentro, Engenho Novo, Estacio, Grajau, Inhauma, Lins, Maracana, Maria da Graca, Meier, Praca da Bandeira, Riachuelo, Rio Comprido, Sao Cristovao, Tijuca, Vila Isabel and city Center. The control samples were collected in Campo Grande near of Parque Nacional da Pedra Branca/RJ (National Park of Pedra Branca/RJ). The leaves were collected from adult plants and after the collection the samples were cleaned and placed in the greenhouse for drying, then were mashed and pressed into tablets forms. The analyses were performed using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), developed on the own laboratory and based in a SiPIN detector and a mini X ray tube. It was possible to detect 16 elements in the analyzed samples: K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The results shows that, in the studied areas, the analysis of the Nerium oleander plant shows a low-cost option and with a substantial efficiency as an environmental pollution biomonitor. (author)

  14. Environmental Exposure of Children to Toxic Trace Elements (Hg, Cr, As) in an Urban Area of Yucatan, Mexico: Water, Blood, and Urine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Fargher, L; Quesadas-Rojas, M; Moo-Puc, R; Oceguera-Vargas, I; Noreña-Barroso, E; Yáñez-Estrada, L; Alvarado, J; González, L; Pérez-Herrera, N; Pérez-Medina, S

    2018-05-01

    Merida is the largest urban center in the Mexican State of Yucatan. Here domestic sewage is deposited in poorly built septic tanks and is not adequately treated. Because of contamination from such waste, water from the top 20 m of the aquifer is unsuitable for human consumption. Given this situation and because children are highly vulnerable to environmental pollution, including exposure to toxic trace elements, this study focused on evaluating the exposure of children to arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg) in water. It also evaluated the relationship between the levels of these elements in water and their concentrations in urine and blood. Among the 33 children monitored in the study, arsenic surpassed WHO limits for blood in 37% of the cases, which could result from the ingestion of poultry contaminated with organoarsenic compounds. In the case of WHO limits for Mercury, 65% of the water samples analyzed, 28% of urine samples, and 12% of blood samples exceeded them. Mercury exposure was correlated with biological sex, some lifestyle factors, and the zone in Merida in which children live. These data suggest that the levels of some toxic metals in children may be affected by water source, socioeconomic factors, and individual behavior.

  15. Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokova, L.S.; Pokrovsky, O.S.; Moreva, O.Yu.; Chupakov, A.V.; Zabelina, S.A.; Klimov, S.I.; Shorina, N.V.; Vorobieva, T.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 μm). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa–0.22 μm) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30 °C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70–80% to only 20–30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90–98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60–70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (> 30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved ( 100 for Co), the second and third factors could have brought about the decrease of allochthonous DOC concentration as well as the concentration and proportion of organic and organo-mineral colloidal forms of non-essential low-soluble trace elements present in the form of organic colloids (Al, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th, Pb, all REEs). It can be hypothesized that climate warming in

  16. The maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant and the effect of plume rise on concentration estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Azzam, A.

    1991-01-01

    The emission of an air pollutant from an elevated point source according to Gaussian plume model has been presented. An elementary theoretical treatment for both the highest possible ground-level concentration and the downwind distance at which this maximum occurs for different stability classes has been constructed. The effective height release modification was taken into consideration. An illustrative case study, namely, the emission from the research reactor in Inchas, has been studied. The results of these analytical treatments and of the derived semi-empirical formulae are discussed and presented in few illustrative diagrams

  17. Trace-element concentrations and water-soluble ions in size-segregated dust-borne and soil samples in Sistan, southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Reza Dahmardeh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Saeb, Keivan; Rajaei, Fatemeh

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the chemical composition (water-soluble ions and trace elements) of the total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in the Sistan basin, southeast Iran during the dusty and windy period June - October 2014. Extreme TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, means of 1624.8, 433.4 and 320.8 μgm-3, respectively, were recorded in the Zabol sampling site, while the examined water-soluble ions and trace metals constitute small fractions (∼4.1%-17.7%) of the particulate masses. Intense winds on the dust-storm days result in weathering of soil crust and deflation of evaporate minerals from the dried Hamoun lake beds in the Sistan basin. The soil samples are rich in Ca2+, SO42-, Na+ and Cl- revealing the existence of non-sea salts, as well as in Al, Fe and Mg, while the similarity in the chemical composition between soil and airborne samples indicates that the dust events over Sistan are local in origin. In contrast, low concentrations of secondary ions (i.e., nitrate) and heavy metals (i.e., Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu) indicate less anthropogenic and industrial emissions. Enrichment Factor analysis for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 reveals that the anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount in the heavy metals rather than soil crust, while Al, Fe, Sn, Mg are mostly of crustal origin. The results provide essential knowledge in atmospheric chemistry over Sistan and in establishing mitigation strategies for air pollution control.

  18. Double resonance long period fiber grating for detection of E. coli in trace concentration by choosing a proper bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforooshan, Y.; Celebanska, A.; Janik, M.; Mikulic, P.; Haddad, F.; Perreault, J.; Bock, W. J.

    2017-04-01

    There is a critical need of a fast, specific and reliable assay for biological species. To address this need, long period fiber gratings (LPFG) among other fiber optic sensors can be used because of their high sensitivity to changes in surrounding medium. In this work we fabricated and used two over-etched LPFGs. One of them was covered with T4 Phage and the other was covered with MS2 phage that both specifically bind with Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. This bacterium is a major cause of the food contaminations and outbreaks. We showed achieving a highest sensitivity region of the LPFG and the way to fine tune to that region by over-etching the grating. Finally, using the highly sensitive LPFG platform we could detect E. coli at concentrations as low as 100 colony forming units (CFU), by covering the LPFG with an optimized bio-functionalization of the fiber surface with MS2 bacteriophage.

  19. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  20. Ultrasonic energy enhanced the efficiency of advance extraction methodology for enrichment of trace level of copper in serum samples of patients having neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mariam S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Ali, Jamshed; Akhtar, Asma

    2017-07-01

    An innovative dual dispersive ionic liquid based on ultrasound assisted microextraction (UDIL-μE), for the enrichment of trace levels of copper ion (Cu 2+ ), in serum (blood) of patients suffering from different neurological disorders. The enriched metal ions were subjected to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In the UDIL-μE method, the extraction solvent, ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C 4 mim][PF 6 ], was dispersed into the aqueous samples using an ultrasonic bath. The(PAN) 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol was used as ligand for the complexation of Cu ion in IL (as extracting solvent). The various variables such as sonication time, pH, concentration of complexing agent, time and rate of centrifugation, IL volume that affect the extraction process were optimized. The enhancement factor (EF) and detection limit (LOD) was found under favorable condition was 31 and 0.36μgL -1 , respectively. Reliability of the proposed method was checked by relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be <5%. The accuracy of developed procedure was assured by using certified reference material (CRM) of blood serum. The developed procedure was applied successfully to the analysis of concentration of Cu ion in blood serum of different neurological disorders subjects and referents of same age group. It was observed that the levels of Cu ion was two folds higher in serum samples of neurological disorders patients as related to normal referents of same age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Highly selective micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (muSI-LOV) method for the determination of ultra-trace concentrations of nickel in saline matrices using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Jensen, Rikard; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-10-01

    A highly selective procedure is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace level concentrations of nickel in saline aqueous matrices exploiting a micro-sequential injection Lab-On-Valve (muSI-LOV) sample pretreatment protocol comprising bead injection separation/pre-concentration and detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Based on the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) reaction used for nickel analysis, the sample, as contained in a pH 9.0 buffer, is, after on-line merging with the chelating reagent, transported to a reaction coil attached to one of the external ports of the LOV to assure sufficient reaction time for the formation of Ni(DMG)(2) chelate. The non-ionic coordination compound is then collected in a renewable micro-column packed with a reversed-phase copolymeric sorbent [namely, poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone)] containing a balanced ratio of hydrophilic and lipophilic monomers. Following elution by a 50-muL methanol plug in an air-segmented modality, the nickel is finally quantified by ETAAS. Under the optimized conditions and for a sample volume of 1.8 mL, a retention efficiency of 70 % and an enrichment factor of 25 were obtained. The proposed methodology showed a high tolerance to the commonly encountered alkaline earth matrix elements in environmental waters, that is, calcium and magnesium, and was successfully applied for the determination of nickel in an NIST standard reference material (NIST 1640-Trace elements in natural water), household tap water of high hardness and local seawater. Satisfying recoveries were achieved for all spiked environmental water samples with maximum deviations of 6 %. The experimental results for the standard reference material were not statistically different to the certified value at a significance level of 0.05.

  2. Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level. (author)

  3. Radioisotope X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts ( Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level.

  4. Detection of Changes in Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations via Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone concentration is a key indicator of air quality. Theremay exist sudden changes in ozone concentration data over a long time horizon, which may be caused by the implementation of government regulations and policies, such as establishing exhaust emission limits for on-road vehicles. To monitor and assess the efficacy of these policies, we propose a methodology for detecting changes in ground-level ozone concentrations, which consists of three major steps: data transformation, simultaneous autoregressive modelling and change-point detection on the estimated entropy. To show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the methodology is applied to detect changes in ground-level ozone concentration data collected in the Toronto region of Canada between June and September for the years from 1988 to 2009. The proposed methodology is also applicable to other climate data.

  5. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Blaeuenstein, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  6. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  7. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Moniruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, while sodium (Na and potassium (K were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES. Trace elements such as arsenic (As, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and cobalt (Co were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.. The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.

  8. Determination of mineral, trace element, and pesticide levels in honey samples originating from different regions of Malaysia compared to manuka honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.

  9. Tracing the spatiotemporally resolved inactivation of optically arranged bacteria by photofunctional microparticles at the single-cell level (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso Peña, Alvaro; Grüner, Malte; Forbes, Taylor; Denz, Cornelia; Strassert, Cristian A.

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) represents an attractive alternative in the treatment of infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In PDI a photosensitizer (PS) is administered to the site of the biological target in order to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen which reacts with the biological membrane upon application of harmless visible light. Established methods for testing the photoinduced cytotoxicity of PSs rely on the observation of the whole bacterial ensemble providing only a population-averaged information about the overall produced toxicity. However, for a deeper understanding of the processes that take place in PDI, new methods are required that provide simultaneous regulation of the ROS production, monitoring the subsequent damage induced in the bacteria cells, and full control of the distance between the bacteria and the center of the singlet oxygen production. Herein we present a novel method that enables the quantitative spatio-time-resolved analysis at the single cell level of the photoinduced damage produced by transparent microspheres functionalized with PSs. For this purpose, a methodology was introduced to monitor phototriggered changes with spatiotemporal resolution employing holographic optical tweezers and functional fluorescence microscopy. The defined distance between the photoactive particles and individual bacteria can be fixed under the microscope before the photosensitization process, and the photoinduced damage is monitored by tracing the fluorescence turn-on of a suitable marker. Our methodology constitutes a new tool for the in vitro design and analysis of photosensitizers, as it enables a quantitative response evaluation of living systems towards oxidative stress.

  10. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper.

  11. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  12. Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

    2008-04-15

    Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental samples.

  13. Development and optimization of a nuclear method to determine the lead concentration as an ultra-trace element in ultra-pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, A.; Giovagnoli, A.; Barrandon, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Here we intend to perfect a nuclear analytical technique for the determination of lead concentration as an ultra-trace element in ultra-pure water Inmost cases the analysis of an aqueous solution is made by non-nuclear methods, therefore methods which are sensitive to the chemical form of the element to be determined. To ovoid this problem we developed a nuclear technique using a cyclotron,which allows the determination of the lead concentration in any of its chemical forms. We studied the possibilities of several incident beams, like neutral particles and charged particles. Proton activation showed to be the most sensitive of all the irradiation procedures. Several points have though be studied and developed: - an irradiation cell for liquids irradiation under a strong proton current; - the bismuth chemical separation. This element has two radio-isotopes allowing the determination of lead;-optimize the experimental irradiation and measurements parameters in order to reach the lower detection limit. At last an intercomparison of several techniques has been made for different standards. It clearly showed that, contrary to atomic,potentiometric or mass spectrometry methods,only activation technique give accurate and reproducible results. (author).1 fig., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  14. Enhanced trace element concentrations in tissues of the clam Ruditapes decussatus transplanted to areas influenced by human activities (Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Botelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which human activities near the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon influence the accumulation of trace elements (TE in Ruditapes decussatus, individuals were transplanted from a natural bank located in the lower lagoon to three sites located in clam growth grounds under the influence of a small city (Faro, a fish farming centre (Olhão and a site near the lagoon inlet (Lavajo. Concentrations were determined in substrate of the clam grounds and in the digestive gland, gills, mantle plus siphons, and remaining tissues of clams in four periods of the year. These measurements were accomplished with the monthly survey of the gametogenic stages, condition index, proteins, glycogen, total lipids, pH and osmolarity of hemolymph. Arsenic, Cu, Mn, V, Cr and Pb were preferentially linked to the digestive gland, while Cd was linked to the gills. TE concentrations in the digestive gland and remaining tissues were higher in winter, most likely reflecting additional inputs associated with rain. The lack of disruptions in biological parameters and the prolonged period of spawning and gonad recovery in clams suggest that the current TE availability in the lagoon has a minor influence on the reproductive cycle and hence on clam production.

  15. Online preconcentration and determination of trace levels cadmium in water samples using flow injection systems coupled with flame AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Songlin; Liang, Huading; Yan, Hua; Yan, Zhengzhong; Chen, Suqing; Zhu, Xiandi; Cheng, Miaoxian [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University (China)

    2010-02-15

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of trace levels cadmium in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. It is based on the online sorption of Cd(II) ions on a microcolumn packed with HCl treated bamboo charcoal. In a pH range of 5.0-7.5, Cd(II) ions were effectively retained on the microcolumn, which exhibited fast kinetics, permitting the use of high sample flow rates up to at least 12.8 mL/min without the loss of retention efficiency. The retained Cd(II) ions were quantitatively eluted with HCl (2.0 mol/L) for an online determination. With a preconcentration time of 80 s at a sample loading flow rate of 8.6 mL/min, a sensitivity enhancement factor of 63 was obtained compared with the slope of the linear portion of the calibration curves before and after preconcentration. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, at levels from 1-40 ng/mL. The precision (RSD) for 11 replicate measurements were 3.2% for the determination of 5 ng/mL Cd(II) and 1.8% for 20 ng/mL Cd(II), respectively, and the detection limit (3s) was 0.36 ng/mL. The accuracy was assessed through the determination of a certified reference material, and also through recovery experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  17. Magnesium and trace metals: risk factors for coronary heart disease - associations between blood levels and angiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthey, J.; Stoeppler, M.; Morgenstern, W.; Nussel, E.; Opherk, D.; Weintraut, A.; Wesch, H.; Kubler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A deficiency or an excessive intake of metals with cardiovascular effects is suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden death. Therefore, in 106 patients undergoing coronary arteriography, serum levels of six essential metals (magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) and whole blood concentrations of two elements without known essential function (cadmium and lead) were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, including the flameless technique, or neutron activation analysis. Our results suggest that a deficiency of magnesium but not of the other metals studied may be present in patients with severe CHD; elevated serum copper and manganese levels do not play a role in the development of CHD in the sample of patients studied; and cigarette smoking may be associated with increased serum cadmium levels, which may explain in part the contribution of smoking to the risk of sudden death in patients with CHD

  18. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  19. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Trace Metals in Particulate Matter in Urban New Jersey: Preliminary Results from the Newly Established Rutgers Newark Urban Air Quality Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O.; Gao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with health issues in general and respiratory diseases in particular. Some research has shown that higher concentration of fine particulate matter (PM) is found in lungs. However, why and what kind of PM plays the roles affecting the human health still need more investigations, and most of previous and current studies were limited to those focusing on PM2.5 or larger particles. The city of Newark in New Jersey is the largest metropolitan center in the state with dense population; it is a commerce and transportation hub surrounded by many highways and busy airports, in addition to numerous power plants, waste combustion treatment facilities, etc. in the area. Thus, the city is impacted by air pollution emissions In some areas of the city, the elevated records of respiratory illness were reported. Although some PM2.5 concentration studies were done in the past, the enrichment of toxic metals in PM with respect to their sizes have not been fully addressed. The Rutgers Newark Air Quality Observatory (RNAQO) was recently established to address urban air pollution and its impact on human health. During this study, both size-segregated PM and PM2.5 are collected in RNAQO, Newark, New Jersey. The samples are analyzed to evaluate the enrichment of trace metals focusing on Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in different sizes of PM that will be discussed in this presentation. Such data will be valuable to further investigations into the health effects of fine mode PM. Particularly, this data will be helpful in exploring the relationships between respiratory sickness and fine mode toxic metals' concentrations.

  20. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  1. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  2. Effect of different levels of concentrate on ruminal microorganisms and rumen fermentation in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury T; Ribeiro Júnior, Carlos S; de Jesus, Raphael B; Gomez-Insuasti, Arturo S; Rivera, Astrid R; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Berchielli, Telma T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein showed a linear association with concentrate proportion (p = 0.01), but the increased concentrate levels did not affect the digestibility of fibre. The lowest ruminal pH-values were observed in animals fed with Diet 80, remaining below pH 6.0 from 6 h after feeding, while in the other diets, the ruminal pH was below 6.0 not before 12 h after feeding. After feeding Diet 80, the ammonia concentration in the rumen was significantly the highest. Higher dietary concentrate levels resulted in a linear increase of propionic acid concentrations, a linear reduction of the ratio acetic acid to propionic acid (p ruminal pH-values as much as expected and inhibit some cellulolytic bacteria without impairing the dry matter intake and fibre digestibility in Nellore steers.

  3. Natural gamma radiation levels, indoor and water 222RN Concentrations in soil division of Kerio valley, kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nderitu, S.K.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to natural radioactivity. This radiation is mainly from natural gamma rays and radon and its decay products. The gamma rays are as a result of the decay of primordial nuclides and their daughter radioactive nuclides present in the earth's crust. Radon is produced from the decay of 226 Ra and it diffuses to the indoor environment through cracks on the floor or from building materials containing radium and hence radon problem is mainly indoors. In Kenya, some parts have been identified as having high gamma radiation causing exposure to the public. These areas include Mrima Hill (Kwale), Homa Bay, Bufayo, Weast Pokot, Kitui, Nanyuki, Kerio Valley and Tura. It is therefore necessary to carry out studies on the levels of radiation and determine whether they are within safe limits. Kerio valley, which is the area of study in this work, has been identified as one of the areas with uranium traces associated with fluorite mineralisation. In this study an assessment of the natural radiation levels in this area was carried out and in addition the radon concentrations indoor as well in water that the public is exposed were determined. To measure the radiation levels, soil samples were collected from the area of study, Kerio valley, and analysed for gamma levels using gamma spectroscopy technique. Indoor 222 Rn and radon in water concentrations were measured using the E-perm system. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides present, the doses as well as the annual effective dose equivalents were calculated for the soils using conversion factors adopted from the UNSCEAR (1988 and 1993) reports. Similarly, the dose equivalents and the annual effective doses for 222 Rn concentrations were evaluated. For natural gamma radiation 74 samples were analysed. The soil samples yielded activity concentrations ranging from 194.54??2.89 to 995.77??5.48 Bq Kg-1 for 40 K, 17.04??0.43 to 122.4??0.94 Bq Kg-1 for 232 Th which was evaluated from the 212

  4. From trace chemistry to single atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry in the vast majority of experimental works deals with the trace amount of radioactive matters. Accordingly, the concept of trace chemistry is at the heart of hot atom chemistry. Some aspects of the chemistry at trace scale and at subtrace scale are presented together with the related problems of speciation and the complication which may arise due to the formation of radio colloids. The examples of 127 I(n,γ) 128 I and 132 Te (β - ) 132 I are shown, and the method based on radioactivity was used. The procedure of separating the elements in pitchblende is shown as the example of the chemistry of traces. 13 27 Al+ 2 4 He→ 0 1 n+ 15 30 P and 15 30 P→ 14 30 Si+e + +V are shown, and how to recognize the presence of radioactive colloids is explained. The formation of radiocolloids is by the sorption of a trace radioelement on pre-existing colloidal impurity or the self-condensation of monomeric species. The temporal parameters of the nature of reactions at trace concentration are listed. The examples of Class A and Class B reactions are shown. The kinetics of reactions at trace level, radon concentration, anthropogenic Pu and natural Pu in environment, the behavior of Pu atoms and so on are described. (K.I.)

  5. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  6. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  7. Effect of climate conditions on the uptake and translocation of trace elements in plants an behavior of ions at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Yanai, Masumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation was performed in order to look at the effect of various climatic conditions on the uptake and translocation of radionuclides and trace elements in plants. So far we have investigated the following three items; the effect of climate conditions including Yamase (seasonal climatic condition of low temperature, low sunshine and high humidity.) on the elemental transfer factors in rice, the effect of light conditions on the metabolism of elements in plants, and the effect of environmental factors on elemental movement at a cell level, and searched for mutant plant strains to match the elemental requirement. Among these items this paper elaborates about the effect of light condition on the metabolism of elements in plants. Young radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown under various light conditions; white, blue+red and red fluorescent light. Under red light a marked spindly growth of the stem and petiole was observed. Adding blue light to red light reduced the growth to the level under control white light. The concentrations of elements, such as Fe, Cu and Zn, in the plants were affected by the light conditions. The effect of light condition on the spindly growth of hypocotyls with the plant was also studied with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), and the results showed that supplementation of blue light approximately 15% red light could control the growth. For a further investigation of the mechanism of these phenomena, several ion channel blockers and metabolic inhibitors were examined in hydroponic plants or protoplasts. The results suggested that both anion and cation channels were related to the elongation. (author)

  8. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  9. Trace determination of heavy metal concentrations in fauna, flora and salt samples from Black Sea waters by charged particles - induced X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Ciortea, C.; Dima, S.; Petrovici, A.; Popescu, I.; Serbanescu, O.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed on Black Sea pollution by charged particles induced X-rays spectra analysis, using alpha and 16 O beams. Fauna, flora and salt samples were analysed. We found some of the concentrations of pollutant elements to be below the accepted levels. (author)

  10. Effects of molting and environmental factors on trace metal body-burdens and hemocyanin concentrations in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.H.J.; Mercaldo-Allen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hemocyanin concentrations in the hemolymph of marine crustacea are dependent on the molt cycle and on environmental conditions. Studies in our laboratories have found that hemocyanin levels in blue crabs are reduced after ecdysis and under conditions of environmental stress (Engel, Brouwer, &

  11. Possibilities and limitations of dynamic headspace sampling as a pre-concentration technique for trace analysis of organics by capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, J.M.P.M.; Noij, T.H.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Rijks, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities, the limitations and the quantitative performance of dynamic headspace sampling, in particular closed-loop stripping, were investigated for various classes of organic substances in aqueous samples with concentrations down to the parts per 1012 (ppt) level. The effects of variations

  12. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  13. Influence of different levels of concentrate and ruminally undegraded protein on digestive variables in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, D S; Valadares Filho, S C; Tedeschi, L O; Barbosa, A M; Valadares, R F D

    2009-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of 2 levels of diet concentrate (20 and 40% of DM) and 2 levels of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP: 25 and 40% of CP) on nutrient intake, total and partial apparent nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal and physiological variables. Eight Nellore heifers (233 +/- 14 kg of BW) fitted with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulas were used. The animals were held in individual sheltered pens of approximately 15 m(2) and fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for ad libitum intake. Heifers were allocated in two 4 x 4 Latin square designs, containing 8 heifers, 4 experimental periods, and 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. All statistical analyses were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) were used to estimate digesta fluxes and fecal excretion. Purine derivative (PD) excretion and abomasal purine bases were used to estimate the microbial N (MN) synthesis. No significant interaction (P > 0.10) between dietary levels of RUP and concentrate was observed. There was no effect of treatment (P = 0.24) on DMI. Both markers led to the same estimates of fecal, abomasal, and ileal DM fluxes, and digestibilities of DM and individual nutrients. Ruminal pH was affected by sampling time (P RUP, whereas a quadratic effect (P RUP. The higher level of dietary concentrate led to greater MN yield regardless of the level of RUP. The MN yield and the efficiency of microbial yield estimated from urinary PD excretion produced greater (P RUP and concentrate were observed for ruminal and digestive parameters. Neither RUP nor concentrate level affected DMI. Titanium dioxide showed to be similar to Cr(2)O(3) as an external marker to measure digestibility and nutrient fluxes in cattle.

  14. Tracing groundwater with low-level detections of halogenated VOCs in a fractured carbonate-rock aquifer, Leetown Science Center, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Sibrell, Philip L.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Hunt, Andrew G.; Schlosser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of low-level concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and estimates of groundwater age interpreted from 3H/3He and SF6 data have led to an improved understanding of groundwater flow, water sources, and transit times in a karstic, fractured, carbonate-rock aquifer at the Leetown Science Center (LSC), West Virginia. The sum of the concentrations of a set of 16 predominant halogenated VOCs (TDVOC) determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC–ECD) exceeded that possible for air–water equilibrium in 34 of the 47 samples (median TDVOC of 24,800 pg kg−1), indicating that nearly all the water sampled in the vicinity of the LSC has been affected by addition of halogenated VOCs from non-atmospheric source(s). Leakage from a landfill that was closed and sealed nearly 20 a prior to sampling was recognized and traced to areas east of the LSC using low-level detection of tetrachloroethene (PCE), methyl chloride (MeCl), methyl chloroform (MC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE). Chloroform (CHLF) was the predominant VOC in water from domestic wells surrounding the LSC, and was elevated in groundwater in and near the Fish Health Laboratory at the LSC, where a leak of chlorinated water occurred prior to 2006. The low-level concentrations of halogenated VOCs did not exceed human or aquatic-life health criteria, and were useful in providing an awareness of the intrinsic susceptibility of the fractured karstic groundwater system at the LSC to non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs. The 3H/3He groundwater ages of spring discharge from the carbonate rocks showed transient behavior, with ages averaging about 2 a in 2004 following a wet climatic period (2003–2004), and ages in the range of 4–7 a in periods of more average precipitation (2008–2009). The SF6 and CFC-12 data indicate older water (model ages of 10s of years or more) in the low-permeability shale of the Martinsburg

  15. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  16. Arsenic, gold and mercury concentration levels in freshwater fish by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of arsenic, gold and mercury have been determined in flesh tissues of freshwater fish species from some Nigerian rivers. The technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation of the isotopes of interest has been applied. The concentrations of 0.04 to 0.87 μg g -1 and 0.4 to 1.33 μg g -1 obtained for gold and mercury, respectively, in the samples are much higher than the values reported in the literature for freshwater fish. The arsenic concentration range of 0.07 to 0.42 μg g -1 is within the reported range. The high concentration levels of these heavy metals can be attributed to local contamination of the rivers. (author)

  17. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  18. Gas dispersion concentration of trace inorganic contaminants from fuel gas and analysis using head-column field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Li, Meilan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-08-21

    The presence of inorganic elements in fuel gas generally accelerates the corrosion and depletion of materials used in the fuel gas industry, and even leads to serious accidents. For identification of existing trace inorganic contaminants in fuel gas in a portable way, a highly efficient gas-liquid sampling collection system based on gas dispersion concentration is introduced in this work. Using the constructed dual path gas-liquid collection setup, inorganic cations and anions were simultaneously collected from real liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect UV absorbance detection. The head-column field-amplified sample stacking technique was applied to improve the detection limits to 2-25 ng mL(-1). The developed collection and analytical methods have successfully determined existing inorganic contaminants in a real LPG sample in the range of 4.59-138.69 μg m(-3). The recoveries of cations and anions with spiked LPG samples were between 83.98 and 105.63%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 7.19%.

  19. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, J.L.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polluted sediment and NORM samples. ► An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb/ 208 Pb, 238 U/ 234 U and 232 Th/ 230 Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA ® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.