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Sample records for trace element analyses

  1. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  2. Multivariant analyses of trace element patterns for environmental tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Ko, M.M.C.; Junliang Tian; Puling Liu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear-based analytical techniques: INAA, PIXE and photon activation permit simultaneous multielemental determination of concentrations in environmental materials, which data are often found sufficiently precise and free of uncontrolled, random errors among the various elements such that the data sets can yield valuable information on elemental communality through multi-variant statistical 'factor' analysis. Characteristic factor patterns obtained in this way can provide clues to the likely sources in the environment of various components. Recent studies in three different environmental situations: solid waste incinerators , Chinese soils, and iron and steel industry, involving measurements of 30-35 elements, have yielded distinct elemental patterns or, environmental signatures, with factor loading coefficients ranging mostly in the ranges: 0.7-0.96. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 9 tabs

  3. Potential sources of analytical bias and error in selected trace element data-quality analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Garbarino, John R.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Struzeski, Tedmund M.

    2016-09-28

    Potential sources of analytical bias and error associated with laboratory analyses for selected trace elements where concentrations were greater in filtered samples than in paired unfiltered samples were evaluated by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Quality Specialists in collaboration with the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and the Branch of Quality Systems (BQS).Causes for trace-element concentrations in filtered samples to exceed those in associated unfiltered samples have been attributed to variability in analytical measurements, analytical bias, sample contamination either in the field or laboratory, and (or) sample-matrix chemistry. These issues have not only been attributed to data generated by the USGS NWQL but have been observed in data generated by other laboratories. This study continues the evaluation of potential analytical bias and error resulting from matrix chemistry and instrument variability by evaluating the performance of seven selected trace elements in paired filtered and unfiltered surface-water and groundwater samples collected from 23 sampling sites of varying chemistries from six States, matrix spike recoveries, and standard reference materials.Filtered and unfiltered samples have been routinely analyzed on separate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments. Unfiltered samples are treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) during an in-bottle digestion procedure; filtered samples are not routinely treated with HCl as part of the laboratory analytical procedure. To evaluate the influence of HCl on different sample matrices, an aliquot of the filtered samples was treated with HCl. The addition of HCl did little to differentiate the analytical results between filtered samples treated with HCl from those samples left untreated; however, there was a small, but noticeable, decrease in the number of instances where a particular trace-element concentration was greater in a filtered sample than in the associated

  4. Utilization of synchrotron radiation for trace-element analyses in toxicology of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of SXRF will nicely complement other more widely used analytical techniques for trace elements. The experiments at CHESS showed minimum detectable limits for 1-mm thick organic matrices with monochromated photon beams to be on the order of 160 to 300 ppB for Ni to Sr with minimal structural damage to the material being irradiated. Extrapolations to operating conditions at the NSLS, with a facility designed for XRF, indicate the MDL limits of 10 to 100 ppB should be achievable. The utilization of wavelength dispersive detectors should gain an order of magnitude in sensitivity, but with trade-off of some flexibility in multielemental analyses

  5. Characterization of frictional melting processes in subduction zone faults by trace element and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    . These results demonstrate that trace element and isotope analyses are useful not only to detect preexistence of pseudotachylytes but also to evaluate the frictional melting in subduction zone faults quantitatively.

  6. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soupioni, M.J.; Symeopoulos, B.D.; Papaefthymiou, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  7. Determination of trace elements in BCR single cell protein via destructive neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Nooijen, J.L.; Kroon, J.J.

    1978-10-01

    The amount of some trace elements in single cell protein (SCP), a product of BP Research Centre at Sunbury-at-Thames, England, was determined by neutron activation analysis. The SCP-samples were irradiated in the reactor of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute at Delft in a neutron flux of 1.0x10 13 n/cm 2 s for 12 hours. Samples of Bowen's Kale were used as reference material. After a decay of two or three days the samples were chemically destroyed, and the trace elements were separated. The quantity of the following elements was determined by measuring the γ-activity by means of a scintillation counter: antimony, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and selenium. The amounts of these elements in the SCP and in the reference material were tabled

  8. Trace element analyses of fluid inclusions using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-ying Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions are records of the physico-chemical conditions of fluid–rock interactions during magmatism, mineralization and fluid percolation and mixing processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS is a powerful tool for in situ analyses of small samples at micrometer levels. Here we report in situ analyses of fluid inclusions using LA-ICP-MS method. NIST SRM glasses and 23Na are generally used as external and internal standards for LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusion, respectively, although the RSD of microthermometric estimation of 23Na is about 20% and even worse, the background signal of Na is high for most ICP-MS. Using well-characterized natural fluids inclusion, we show that RESOlution S-155 laser system analyze fluid inclusions in quartz and determine the trace element concentrations. Resonetics RESOlution S-155 laser has the advantage of the motorized Z stage can be used to accommodate variation of sample height or sample topography and height difference between samples, which is very important for analyzing the fluid inclusion in quartz. Our results suggest laser energy density is 25 J/cm2, laser pulse repetition rates are commonly between 6 and 10 Hz to avoid the fissuring of quartz and obtain adequate results. For this LA-ICP-MS analysis, uncertainty on 35Cl content is around 40% because of intensity of the 35Cl signal is three orders of magnitude less intense than the intensity of the 23Na signal. Nevertheless, it is still a useful reference for fluid inclusion analyses in addition to 23Na. This technique can be applied to a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  9. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  10. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. A literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, and S contents have positive correlations. (Refs. 290).

  11. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni and S contents have positive correlations.

  12. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P.; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-01-01

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  13. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Magali, E-mail: m.lucia33@laposte.net [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bocher, Pierrick [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cosson, Richard P. [Mer Molecules Sante (MMS), Universite de Nantes, EA 2663, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frederic; Bustamante, Paco [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2012-04-15

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  14. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    1999-01-01

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  15. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  16. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  17. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  18. Applying of factor analyses for determination of trace elements distribution in water from Vardar and its tributaries, Macedonia/Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  19. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Ngole-Jeme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t. These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

  20. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  1. Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level. (author)

  2. Radioisotope X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts ( Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level.

  3. Preconcentration of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu. A.; Kuz'min, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph deals with the theory and practical applications of trace metals preconcentration. It gives general characteristics of the process and describes in detail the methods of preconcentration: solvent extraction, sorption, co-precipitation, volatilization, and others. Special attention is given to preconcentration in combination with subsequent determination methods. The use of preconcentration in analysis of environmental and biological samples, mineral raw materials, high purity substances, and various industrial materials is also considered

  4. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  5. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of

  6. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  7. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  8. Trace elements in human pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabrocki, E.L.; Greco, J.; Graham, L.A.; Kaplan, E.; Rubnitz, M.E.; Oester, Y.T.; Brar, S.; Gustafson, P.S.; Nelson, D.M.; Molinari, F.; Moore, C.E.; Kanabrocki, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine several trace elements in human pituitaries from adult subjects aged 42 to 83 years who had died of ischemic heart disease, carcinoma and cirrhosis of the liver. None of these subjects suffered from mental disease. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Se, Br, Cr, Hg, Cs and Co in dried tissue showed no correlation with the diseases, and the results may therefore be representative of the general population. These elements may play a very fundamental role in pituitary function. (U.K.)

  9. Brain trace elements and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques de

    1999-01-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process

  10. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  11. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  12. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  13. Trace element content of precipitation in a remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Rain and snow, sampled over a period of 18 months at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, were analysed for 40 elements by thermal neutron activation analysis. Correlation analysis revealed that the elements detected could be divided into groups of similar behaviour. Storm tracks for the events sampled were obtained, but only generalizations as to the probable origin of the trace elements could be made. Deuterium content of the samples was not correlated with levels of trace elements. (author)

  14. Zinc: a multipurpose trace element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanidou, M.; Maravelias, C.; Dona, A.; Spiliopoulou, C. [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Athens (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the most important trace elements in the body and it is essential as a catalytic, structural and regulatory ion. It is involved in homeostasis, in immune responses, in oxidative stress, in apoptosis and in ageing. Zinc-binding proteins (metallothioneins, MTs), are protective in situations of stress and in situations of exposure to toxic metals, infections and low Zn nutrition. Metallothioneins play a key role in Zn-related cell homeostasis due to their high affinity for Zn, which is in turn relevant against oxidative stress and immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell activity and ageing, since NK activity and Zn ion bioavailability decrease in ageing. Physiological supplementation of Zn in ageing and in age-related degenerative diseases corrects immune defects, reduces infection relapse and prevents ageing. Zinc is not stored in the body and excess intakes result in reduced absorption and increased excretion. Nevertheless, there are cases of acute and chronic Zn poisoning. (orig.)

  15. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  16. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country. PMID:24587756

  18. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ilić Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES. Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  19. Toxic and trace elements in foodstuffs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Sumiya, M.; Ohmomo, Y.

    1988-01-01

    From the viewpoint of environmental safety assessment it is important to have information on the levels of toxic and trace elements in foodstuffs. It is also essential to develop suitable analytical methods for these elements in order to obtain accurate analytical data. In this paper, two analytical methods were used, inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for analysing toxic and trace elements in several food samples. 3 tabs

  20. Trace element studies at University of Pittsburgh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Chan, K.C.; Shabason, L.; Wedberg, G.; Rudolph, H.

    1974-01-01

    Seven areas of research are discussed. A method was developed for analyzing samples for their major constituent elements by irradiating with protons and detecting prompt gamma rays, mostly produced in (p,p'γ) reactions. Among other applications, the method was used to analyze air particulates for C, N, O, Al, Si, S, Co, and Fe. Trace element analysis by proton or alpha particle induced x-ray fluorescence was used on thin samples in a study of the variations of Pb, Br, Fe, and Zn in air particulates as a function of time. Among other applications this method was also used in studying trace elements in rainwater. An x-ray fluorescence method that is effective in the analysis of thick samples was developed. A method based on measuring energies of elastically scattered protons was developed for the analysis of light elements. The use of proton and neutron activation analyses, as well as methods for studying depth profiles for hydrogen and helium in materials are discussed

  1. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  2. Investigation of trace elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.J.; Cahil, R.A.; Miller, W.G.; Ruch, R.R.; Shimp, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of coal samples is currently being extensively analyzed for constituents, including many trace elements, at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The samples include whole coals, washed coals, and bench samples. Among the many determinations made on each sample are analyses for approximately 60 elements, almost twice the number of elements previously determined. The increase is in part the result of the addition of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) equipment to the laboratory. Twenty-five samples of Herrin (No. 6) Coal that had been analyzed previously were subjected to INAA analysis and were found to include Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, I, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, W, U, and Yb, none of which were reported by previous techniques. These elements generally are present in very small amounts and, with the exception of barium, exhibit no wide range in concentration. The rare earth elements are among those having the narrowest ranges. Wide variations in element content have been observed in bench sets of coals (samples of vertical segments of the coal seam). Many elements, notably germanium, are concentrated at the top and/or bottom of the seam, the high concentrations of Ge being found there in all four bench sets analyzed to date

  3. Trace element metabolism in man and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake, distribution, storage, excretion of different trace elements and resulting disturbances are investigated in blood and organs in animal experiments and in human diagnostics with the aid of radioisotopes. Apart from this, untritional disturbances are mentioned. Finally, future aspects of physiological trace element examinations are listed. (AJ) 891 AJ [de

  4. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  5. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  6. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  7. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  8. Trace elements in ancient ceramics: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Yongjun; Zhang Xiangdong

    1987-01-01

    In the last period of Tong Dynasty, Jingdezhen began its production of ceramics. During the Song Dynasty, the ceramic industry greatly developed and produced fine white ware at Hutian. In the Yuan Dynastry, Hutian became the centre of production making the world famous blue and white wares. Here are reported results of analyses of ancient porcelians of Hutian in Jiangdezhen by reactor neutron activation analysis. The results show that the patterns of eight rare earth elements are apparently different for products in different periods, indicating that methods for producing ceramics or kinds of clay used were different. The contents of some other trace elements such as hafnium, tantalum, thorium and uranium show the same regularity in difference of composition also

  9. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  10. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, G. S. [Turner Dental School, University Of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, H.; Livingston, H. D. [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  11. Subcellular trace element distribution in Geosiphon pyriforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur; Wallianos, Alexandros; Traxel, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme is a unique endosymbiotic consortium consisting of a soil dwelling fungus and the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. At present this symbiosis becomes very interesting because of its phylogenetic relationship to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Geosiphon pyriforme could be an important model system for these obligate symbiotic fungi, which supply 80-90% of all land plant species with nutrients, in particular phosphorous and trace elements. Combined PIXE and STIM analyses of the various compartments of Geosiphon give hints for the matter exchange between the symbiotic partners and their environment and the kind of nutrient storage and acquisition, in particular related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism. To determine the quality of our PIXE results we analysed several geological and biological standards over a time period of three years. This led to an overall precision of about 6% and an accuracy of 5-10% for nearly all detectable elements. In combination with the correction model for the occurring mass loss during the analyses this holds true even for biological targets

  12. Subcellular trace element distribution in Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetz, Mischa E-mail: mischa.maetz@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Schuessler, Arthur; Wallianos, Alexandros; Traxel, Kurt

    1999-04-02

    Geosiphon pyriforme is a unique endosymbiotic consortium consisting of a soil dwelling fungus and the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. At present this symbiosis becomes very interesting because of its phylogenetic relationship to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Geosiphon pyriforme could be an important model system for these obligate symbiotic fungi, which supply 80-90% of all land plant species with nutrients, in particular phosphorous and trace elements. Combined PIXE and STIM analyses of the various compartments of Geosiphon give hints for the matter exchange between the symbiotic partners and their environment and the kind of nutrient storage and acquisition, in particular related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism. To determine the quality of our PIXE results we analysed several geological and biological standards over a time period of three years. This led to an overall precision of about 6% and an accuracy of 5-10% for nearly all detectable elements. In combination with the correction model for the occurring mass loss during the analyses this holds true even for biological targets.

  13. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  14. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  15. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  16. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  17. Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R [World Health Organization, Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Medical Applications Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1973-07-01

    For the past four years the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy-Agency have been jointly coordinating investigations at an international level on the role possibly played by stable trace elements in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases, and the use of nuclear techniques in studying these elements. (author)

  18. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  19. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  1. Newer trace elements measured by RNAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, quite attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intake. These traces are: aluminum, nickel, vanadium and tin. Al and Ni have been measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the two latter ones measured by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in few references laboratories. Here, scandium was also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These measurements were made for the most of the Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets under the framework of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA during the period 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of above mentioned trace elements are given and discussed while the results of 20 other nutritionally important trace elements appeared somewhere else. (author)

  2. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  3. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  4. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  5. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  6. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, Pdodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  8. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  9. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  10. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  11. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  12. Comparative evaluation of trace elements in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Tjioe, P.S.; Pries, C.; Zwiers, J.H.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Interuniversitair Reactor Instituut and the Centraal Laboratorium TNO have carried out a common investigation on neutron-activation-analytical procedures for the determination of trace elements in blood. A comparative evaluation of five methods, destructive as well as non-destructive, is given. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the procedures are discussed. By combining some of the methods it is possible, starting with 1 ml blood, to give quantitative information on 14 important trace elements: antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, cobalt, gold, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, iron and zinc. The methods have also been applied to sodium, chromium and potassium

  13. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  14. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. ... of the fine fraction (under 2 mm) were conserved away from light for ... To assess the migration and accumulation of trace elements ..... metals from sewage sludge in an agricultural soil. ... Pesticides and heavy metals in drinking water, soils.

  15. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  16. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  17. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  18. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  19. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  20. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  1. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  2. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J L; Jamieson, D N; Weiser, P S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  3. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  4. Assessment of trace element stabilization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpiene, Jurate

    2005-01-01

    The thesis deals with the remediation of trace element contaminated soil by the chemical stabilization technique. The objective is to complement the knowledge about possibilities of applying the stabilization either (1) as an alternate soil remediation method to excavation and landfilling or (2) for a pre-treatment of contaminated soil before landfilling. The work is based on two case studies of the stabilization of 1) Cr, Cu, As, and Zn contaminated soil using metallic iron and 2) Pb and Cu ...

  5. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  6. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  7. Trace Elements in Teeth by ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.F.; Helal, A.I.; Amr, M.A.; Amr, M.A.; Al-saad, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are reported to be suitable indicators of trace element exposure from environment and nutritional status. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to compare the trace element content of children's primary teeth and adult teeth. Primary teeth are collected from 28 children and 42 adult from non-industrial City. The data are assessed statistically using t-tests. The adult teeth contained significantly greater concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U and significantly less Mn, Co, As, Se, Mo and Bi than the children teeth. Additional measurements on adult teeth pulps are performed. Comparison between trace element concentrations in health and caries teeth pulps show that the mean concentrations of Na, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Bi and U are lower in caries than healthy teeth pulps. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of Mg, Cd and Pb are higher in caries samples than healthy teeth pulps

  8. The Role of Trace Elements in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Mehmet; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Karakükçü, Çiğdem; Güneri, Erhan; Doğan, Murat; Sağıt, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of three trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, and lead, in tinnitus by analyzing the serum level of copper and lead and both the serum and tissue level of zinc. Eighty patients, who applied to outpatient otolaryngology clinic with the complaints of having tinnitus, and 28 healthy volunteers were included. High-frequency audiometry was performed, and participants who had hearing loss according to the pure tone average were excluded; tinnitus frequency and loudness were determined and tinnitus reaction questionnaire scores were obtained from the patients. Of all the participants, serum zinc, copper, and lead values were measured; moreover, zinc levels were examined in hair samples. The levels of trace elements were compared between tinnitus and control groups. The level of copper was found to be significantly lower in the tinnitus group (p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of zinc, neither in serum nor in hair, and lead in serum (p > 0.05). The lack of trace elements, especially that of "zinc," have been doubted for the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus in the literature; however, we only found copper levels to be low in patients having tinnitus.

  9. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  10. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  11. Survey of trace elements in hair of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in hair has been performed on normal Japanese to define the base-line levels with which the levels of various elements found in hair samples of individuals in a given area, where significant pollution is suspected or known to be present, can be compared. Among the hair samples collected from various places in Japan, 342 samples were selected so as to represent a cross-section of the Japanese population and were analysed in accordance with the standardized procedure. Errors introduced by volatilization losses from standard samples during and after neutron irradiation for the volatile elements such as Cl, Br, I and Hg were examined and minimized. The range, the arithmetic and geometric means, the median for the detected samples and the median for all analysed samples are given for each of 28 detected elements. A cumulative frequency distribution curve relative to the number of analysed samples is also given for each element. For elements that were detected in less than 50% of the analysed samples, the median was estimated from the distribution curve. The geometric means of the detected concentrations were calculated for each element on the basis of permanent waving, age, sex and residence and then compared with each other. The detected elements were classified according to the effect of permanent waving. The elements are given which show remarkably different characteristics between the sexes, with age and residence. (author)

  12. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  13. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistavros, V.S.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  14. Trace elements in the atmosphere over South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.B.; Van As, D.

    1976-01-01

    Natural sources of trace elements in the atmosphere are suspended soil particles, the evaporation of sea spray and smoke from veld fires. In urban and industrialised areas the main sources are fossil-fuel power plants, metallurgical smelters, blast furnaces, incinerators, automobiles, fossil-fueled locomotives and open fires in the Black townships. Often a source can be recognised by the relative concentrations of particular trace elements. A monitoring programme was established in 1974 by the Air Pollution Research Group of the CSIR and the Isotope and Radiation Division of the Atomic Energy Board in order to study the levels of trace elements in urban areas such as Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban, to measure the effects of industrialisation on trace elements levels in developing areas such as Richards Bay and Saldanha Bay and also to determine baseline values in rural areas. Extremely sensitive analytical techniques, e.g. neutron activation and atomic absorption were used for the analyses of filter samples. Methods of sampling and analysis are discussed and the preliminary results of this programme are presented

  15. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  16. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  17. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  18. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation (r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease (r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients

  19. Determining trace element in hair of children with mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilan; Gu Bomei; Jia Meixiang

    1992-01-01

    Seven trace elements in the hair come from 29 mental retardation children and 29 normal children have been analysed by INAA and XRF. There are significant differences for Fe and Sc between the two groups. The average value of Pb in the hair of the mental retardation children is higher than that of the normal children. Although Zn is very important for children growing, there is no significant difference between two children groups

  20. Network application of PIXE trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.

    2003-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)

  1. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of

  2. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  3. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig

  4. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  5. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  6. The major and trace element chemistry of fish and lake water within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... and Abanoz (2011), De La Calle et al. (2012) and Sannac et al. (2012) of the same reference material. Dilution factors were cho- sen to include both major and trace elements in the same analy- ses, which implies that the method was not sensitive enough to analyse some elements at ultra-trace levels.

  7. Molybdenite Mineral Evolution: A Study Of Trace Elements Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M. M.; Downs, R. T.; Stein, H. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Beitscher, B. A.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Papineau, D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral evolution explores changes through time in Earth’s near-surface mineralogy, including diversity of species, relative abundances of species, and compositional ranges of major, minor and trace elements. Such studies elucidate the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. Accordingly, we investigated trace and minor elements in molybdenite (MoS2) with known ages from 3 billion years to recent. Molybdenite, the commonest mineral of Mo, may prove to be a useful case study as a consequence of its presence in Earth’s early history, the effects of oxidation on Mo mobility, and the possible role of Mo mineral coevolution with biology via its role in the nitrogen fixation enzyme nitrogenase. We employed ICPMS, SEM and electron microprobe analyses to detect trace and minor elements. We detected significant amounts of Mn and Cu (~100 ppm) and greater amounts of Fe, W, and Re (to ~4000 ppm). Molybdenites commonly contain micro inclusions, resulting in local concentrations in otherwise homogeneous samples. Inhomogeneities in Fe, Zn and Sn concentrations, for example, point to the presence of pyrite, sphalerite and cassiterite inclusions, respectively. Analyses examined as a function of time reveal that samples containing significant concentrations (>200 ppm, compared to average values < 100 ppm) of W and Re formed primarily within the last billion years. These trends may reflect changes in the mobility of W and Re in oxic hydrothermal fluids at shallow crustal conditions following the Great Oxidation Event.

  8. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  9. Environmental aspects of coal trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaine, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing use of coal, especially for power production, means that more attention is being given to environmental aspects. Some matters, for example, acid mine drainage, acid deposition and the relevance of coal-derived carbon and nitrogen oxides to the greenhouse effect are still being investigated in order to find methods of mitigation. However, much less attention has been given to possible untoward effects from trace elements in coal during mining, preparation and use. Occasional emotional outbursts, based on insufficient evidence, focus attention on arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and uranium. The best way to counter such claims is to provide proper information as a basis for more informed judgments. The comments contained in this article are mostly based on work done at the Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)

  10. Toxic trace elements in Chilean seafoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gregori, I.; Delgado, D.; Pinochet, H.; Gras, N.; Thieck, M.; Munoz, L.; Bruhn, C.; Navarrete, G.

    1992-01-01

    Chile is a well known producer and exporter of shell fish. These seafoods, like other specimens of marine origin, are susceptible to environmental and other contaminations like trace elements, including toxicants. Therefore adequate analytical quality assurance is mandatory before accepting analytical results. In this context, use of at least 2 independent methods of determination and validation with certified reference materials (CRM) provides acceptable criteria for judging the reliability of the data. This paper describes sample treatments and analytical procedures for Cd, Cu and Hg determinations in mollusc samples. Three independent analytical techniques, namely differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry, were used. CRM standards of the IAEA, NIST and BCR were analyzed to evaluate quality assurance. Following the quality control phase, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, and mercury in fresh and canned mollusc samples Tagelus dombeii and Semelle solida (Navajuelas and Almejas chilenas respectively) from different locations were determined. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  15. Trace elements levels in centenarian ‘dodgers’

    OpenAIRE

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or ‘dodgers’ (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant ...

  16. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.

    1975-04-01

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  17. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  18. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Dutta, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  19. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  20. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng; Sun Weidong; Huang Yunlan

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  1. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  2. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  3. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; MacArthur, J.D.; Roeder, P.L.; Mariano, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, >0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found. (orig.)

  4. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  5. Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats administered with Paracetamol & Paracetamol/Methionine. AA Iyanda, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. A number of therapeutic agents are known to alter serum trace element levels with dangerous consequences. An earlier study had demonstrated significant alteration in the ...

  6. Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the details on the aspects of Coal quality such as proximate, ultimate, calorific value and trace element concentration and its impact on human health. Trace elements are present in very low percentage in coal but their concentration increases manifold after coal combustion and utilization.

  7. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  8. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  10. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  11. Multielement trace analyses of SINQ materials by ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, R.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used to analyse 70 elements in various materials used for construction of the SINQ. Detection limits for individual elements depend strongly on the matrix and had to be determined separately. (author) 1 tab.

  12. Trace elements in oral health and disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of trace elements are an important part of certain biological and chemical reactions. They work in harmony with proteins and often with certain other co enzymes. They attract substrate molecules and enable their conversion to a specific end product. Some trace elements are involved in redox reactions. Modern day diet, comprising of refined foods is a cause of concern, as it may not have a sufficient amount of these trace elements. Dietary supplements may be of required to combat this shortage. The present paper has thoroughly discussed trace elements, as this area of research has not received the deserved attention. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of these trace elements is essential and significant for disease control and for maintaining optimal health.

  13. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  14. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejon, Engracia; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Felipe, Efrain; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl 2 -soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. - Soil amendments affect soil chemistry and allow revegetation of soils contaminated by trace elements

  15. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong

    2002-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  16. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  17. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  18. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  19. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Pyrovan, H.; Raoffi, N.J.; Taherpoor, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work is part of project with the IAEA in a coordinated program on 'Trace Elements in Human and Bio-environmental Systems' to evaluate their nutritional requierements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk is regarded to be one of the most important and most nutritious foodstuffs of mankind. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out: a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of the project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. AAS, PIXE and NAA are presented here. The latter was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. PIXE analysis is very fast and rather routine, but the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and improvement. (author)

  20. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  1. Distribution of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments of Maslinica Bay, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic, Nenad; Orescanin, Visnja; Elez, Loris; Pavicic, Ljiljana; Pezelj, Durdica; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Lulic, Stipe

    2008-02-01

    Spatial distributions of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments and water of Maslinica Bay (Southern Adriatic), Croatia and possible changes in marine flora and foraminifera communities due to pollution were investigated. Macro, micro and trace elements’ distributions in five granulometric fractions were determined for each sediment sample. Bulk sediment samples were also subjected to leaching tests. Elemental concentrations in sediments, sediment extracts and seawater were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations of the elements Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb in bulk sediment samples taken in the Maslinica Bay were from 2.1 to over six times enriched when compared with the background level determined for coarse grained carbonate sediments. A low degree of trace elements leaching determined for bulk sediments pointed to strong bonding of trace elements to sediment mineral phases. The analyses of marine flora pointed to higher eutrophication, which disturbs the balance between communities and natural habitats.

  2. Evaluation of trace element status of food articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Zaidi, S.J.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Rahman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Food is the main source of major, minor and micro nutrients required for human beings. Food articles, due to environmental pollution may also contain some toxic elements which would adversely affect their health. In order to assess the adequacy and safety of human diet main food items were analyzed for the measurement of essential and toxic trace elements employing neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The data so obtained will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace element contents of these items in future. The dietary intake of essential and toxic trace elements through these items was estimated and compared with the recommended values. This study indicates that the intake of essential elements except for co is fairly adequate and that of toxic elements in well well within the permissible limits. (author)

  3. Trace Elements Removal from Waster water by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of Trace elements. The aim of this study was ... such as electroplating, metal finishing, textile, storage batteries, lead .... metals, Randomized Complete Block Design was used. Statistical ...

  4. Nutritional values of trace elements in dried desserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, A.; Kanias, G.D.; Tzia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream> creme caramel> jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium. (author)

  5. Trends in trace element emission legislation - an international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloss, L.L.

    2003-07-01

    Emissions of trace elements have decreased for a variety of reasons in many developed countries. However, the application of more successful control strategies in other industry sectors means that coal combustion is still a relatively important source of some trace elements, especially mercury. International and national legislation is increasingly being applied to trace element emissions. International programmes for trace element reduction are generally in the form of voluntary action plans with recommendations and targets for reduction. National legislation in Europe is commonly in the form of emission limits for specific sources. New legislation in the USA may take the form of best available technology or a minimum emission reduction requirement. It is also possible that mercury could be included in multi-pollutant emissions trading schemes. 52 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase Creek in Niger ... arsenic, chromium, lead, molybdenum, bismuth and cadmium using atomic ... metal pollution, metal variation, environmental monitoring, bioaccumulation.

  7. Trace Elements in Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for the Prescribing Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jennifer; Mulesa, Leanne; Carrilero Rouillet, Mariana

    2017-04-28

    Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of the effects of deficiencies and toxicities of certain trace elements. Despite this heightened awareness, much is still unknown in terms of trace element monitoring, the accuracy of different assays, and current TE contamination of solutions. The supplementation of TEs is a complex and important part of the PN prescription. Understanding the role of different disease states and the need for reduced or increased doses is essential. Given the heterogeneity of the PN patients, supplementation should be individualized.

  8. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  9. The separation and determination of trace elements in iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in iron ores are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the iron is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with a liquid cation-exchanger, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The trace elements aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, potassium, sodium, vanadium, and zinc are determined in the aqueous phase by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

  10. K-AR AGES, MINERALOGY, MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mafic rocks are characterised by high Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO, CaO and variable enrichment in compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni, Co) all of which abruptly decrease with increase in fractionation. Na2O, K2O and Al2O3 and the LILE increase with magma differentiation. Normalised incompatible trace elements show marked ...

  11. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Quantitative numerical method for analysing slip traces observed by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselý, J; Cieslar, M; Coupeau, C; Bonneville, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used more and more routinely to study, at the nanometre scale, the slip traces produced on the surface of deformed crystalline materials. Taking full advantage of the quantitative height data of the slip traces, which can be extracted from these observations, requires however an adequate and robust processing of the images. In this paper an original method is presented, which allows the fitting of AFM scan-lines with a specific parameterized step function without any averaging treatment of the original data. This yields a quantitative and full description of the changes in step shape along the slip trace. The strength of the proposed method is established on several typical examples met in plasticity by analysing nano-scale structures formed on the sample surface by emerging dislocations. (paper)

  13. Composition of bracken: some major- and trace-element constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J G

    1953-01-01

    Periodic samples of bracken taken during the growing season have shown that the concentration of major elements (except calcium and sodium) decreases with age in fronds, and remains relatively constant in rhizomes, whereas trace-element concentration varies widely. Soil type has little effect on the mineral composition of fronds. Examination of three rhizome types revealed no wide differences in the content of major elements; pinnules generally contained higher concentrations of major and trace elements than fronds. Comparison of results with those published elsewhere for moorland plants grown under similar conditions indicates that bracken contains more potassium and less molybdenum.

  14. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Cigna Rossi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  15. Influence of trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhri, M A [Austin Hospital, Heidelberg (Australia). Dept. of Medical Physics; Melbourne Univ., Austin (Australia). Dept. of Medicine); Crawford, A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). School of Physics

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations of F and other trace elements have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the /sup 19/F(p,..cap alpha gamma..)/sup 16/O reaction, C by activation through the /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He,n)/sup 14/O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has-ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth.

  16. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  17. Sensitivity and accuracy of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for trace elements in marine biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of 1974-75 atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) has been used extensively in our laboratory for measuring various trace elements in marine biological materials in order to conduct homogeneity tests on the intercalibration samples for trace metal analysis as well as to obtain baseline data for trace elements in various kinds of marine organisms collected from different locations in the Mediterranean Sea. Several series of test experiments have been conducted on the current methodology in use in our laboratory to ensure satisfactory analytical performance in measuring a number of trace elements for which analytical problems have not completely been solved. Sensitivities of the techniques used were repeatedly checked for various elements and the accuracy of the analyses were always critically evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials. The results of these test experiments have uncovered critical points relevant to the application of the AAS to routine analysis

  18. Newer trace elements measured by RNNA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, special attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as newer essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intakes. These traces are namely: Aluminium, Nickel, Vanadium and Tin. A1 and Ni have been measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and two latter ones measured by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in some references laboratories. Here also scandium was analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis as well. These measurements were made for the most of Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets in frame of coordinated research project led by International Atomic Energy Agency period of 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of aforesaid trace elements are given and discussed while the results of other 20 more nutritionally important trace elements were appeared somewhere else

  19. Non-destructive determination of trace elements. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1984-05-01

    In the course of this project we have successfully designed, built, and tested the first neutron beam facility dedicated to routine multielement neutron capture prompt-γ activation analysis (PGAA). This technique is capable of accurately measuring concentrations of up to 20 elements in a number of sample types, and is an extremely valuable complement to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods. We have found PGAA to have some major advantages over INAA: (1) the sample is subjected to neutron fluxes about five orders of magnitude less than in PGAA, with essentially no radiation or heating damage; (2) as the data are taken during sample irradiation, analyses can be performed immediately instead of waiting up to four weeks as in INAA; (3) it is capable of measuring all major elements, except oxygen, in many samples, including H, C, N, and Si, which cannot be done by INAA; and (4) it is especially sensitive for the trace elements B, Cd, Sm and Gd. In addition, we have characterized the overall capabilities of PGAA and the corrections necessary to make it an extremely accurate technique. We have applied PGAA in a number of studies in which it has proved to be extremely valuable and, at times, even providing crucial information that other techniques were incapable of supplying. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  20. Trace elements determination in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Jose

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cd and Al, in human hair sampled from 23 young men during 24 months were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additional determination of mercury and volatile elements were made by using accessory MHS-10. Statistical treatment of data is presented for each person and element. The pre-treatment of hair carried out with an organic solvent to remove the superficial pollutants is explained. (The author)

  1. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  2. The role of high-energy synchrotron radiation in biomedical trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Long, G.J.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will present the results of an investigation of the distribution of essential elements in the normal hepatic lobule. the liver is the organ responsible for metabolism and storage of most trace elements. Although parenchymal hepatocytes are rather uniform histologically, morphometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and microdissection with microchemical investigations have revealed marked heterogeneity on a functional and biochemical level. Hepatocytes from the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver parrenchyma differ in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose uptake and output, unreagenesis, biotransformation, bile acid secretion, and palsma protein synthesis and secretion. Although trace elements are intimately involved in the regulation and maintenance of these functions, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of trace element localization of the liver parenchyma. Histochemical techniques for trace elements generally give high spatial resolution, but lack specificity and stoichiometry. Microdissection has been of marginal usefulness for trace element analyses due to the very small size of the dissected parenchyma. The characteristics of the high-energy x-ray microscope provide an effective approach for elucidating the trace element content of these small biological structures or regions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  4. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  6. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  7. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  8. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  9. Loess as an environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, T.; Winkel, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental archives such as ice cores, lake sediment cores, and peat cores have been used extensively to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition of trace elements. These records have provided information about how anthropogenic activities such as mining and fossil fuel combustion have disturbed the natural cycles of various atmospherically transported trace elements (e.g. Pb, Hg and Se). While these records are invaluable for tracing human impacts on such trace elements, they often provide limited information about the long term natural cycles of these elements. An assumption of these records is that the observed variations in trace element input, prior to any assumed anthropogenic perturbations, represent the full range of natural variations. However, records such as those mentioned above which extend back to a maximum of ~400kyr may not capture the potentially large variations of trace element input occurring over millions of years. Windblown loess sediments, often representing atmospheric deposition over time scales >1Ma, are the most widely distributed terrestrial sediments on Earth. These deposits have been used extensively to reconstruct continental climate variability throughout the Quaternary and late Neogene periods. In addition to being a valuable record of continental climate change, loess deposits may represent a long term environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition and may be combined with paleoclimate records to elucidate how fluctuations in climate have impacted the natural cycle of such elements. Our research uses the loess-paleosol deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) to quantify how atmospheric deposition of trace elements has fluctuated in central China over the past 6.8Ma. The CLP has been used extensively to reconstruct past changes of East Asian monsoon system (EAM). We present a suite of trace element concentration records (e.g. Pb, Hg, and Se) from the CLP which exemplifies how loess deposits can be used as an

  10. Mantle End-Members: The Trace Element Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Stracke, A.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of their isotopic composition, ocean island basalts (OIB) have been classified into three to four end-members; HIMU with the most radiogenic Pb isotope ratios of OIB and Enriched Mantle 1 and 2 (EM1, EM2) with less radiogenic but variable Pb isotope and highly radiogenic Sr isotope signatures. It has also been argued that each of these isotopic families has common trace element characteristics that distinguish them from one another and so substantiated this classification. Here, we present new high-precision trace element data for samples from St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Gough in the Atlantic Ocean. The overall data-set is augmented by OIB data from the GEOROC database and includes data from all major isotopic families (HIMU: St. Helena, Mangaia, Tubuai, and Rururtu; EM1: Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Pitcairn; and EM2: Samoa, Marquesas, and Society). For each locality we use only islands defining the most extreme isotopic compositions. The entire data-set has been screened to exclude altered and highly differentiated samples. HIMU basalts have a very uniform trace element composition. Compared to HIMU-type basalts, EM-type basalts are enriched in Rb, Ba, and K, and depleted in U, Nb, and Ta, relative to La. Different EM-type OIBs from the same isotopic family (EM1 or EM2), have distinct trace element characteristics that can ultimately only be caused by different source compositions. For example, Ba/Th ratios in samples from both Tristan da Cunha (EM1) and Samoa (EM2) are similarly high (ca. 110) whereas Ba/Th ratios in samples from Pitcairn (EM1) and Society (EM2) samples are consistently lower (ca. 70). Thus on the basis of their trace element composition, EM-type OIB cannot be classified into EM1 and EM2 type basalts, nor can any other grouping be identified. The remarkably uniform isotopic and trace element composition of HIMU-type basalts suggests derivation from a single common source reservoir, most likely subduction-modified oceanic crust

  11. A study on human hair element content as monitor for trace elements pollution in Eg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.; Metwally, E.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element content in human is a suitable indicator of exposure to trace element pollutants. Concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from more than 23 individuals have been determined. The collected hair samples were classified into four groups collected from workers at nuclear research center and others far away from the center. Neutron activation analysis technique was used in the preset study. The data reported for trace elements content in different hair samples were discussed. Significant differences were observed for several elements levels. comparative studies demonstrated that the concentration of some elements in hair of exposed workers, are greater than those corresponding to non exposed workers. Also, there was no clear significant correlation between the elements content of different hair samples and the age of the donors

  12. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  13. Trace Element Characteristics of the New Shergottite LEW88516

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M.; Crozaz, G.

    1992-07-01

    LEW88516, a meteorite collected in Antarctica, has recently been identified as a shergottite (Mason and Satterwhite, 1991). The shergottites belong to a group of unique achondritic meteorites, the SNCs, for which Mars has been suggested as the parent body. From preliminary petrologic and geochemical studies, it appears that LEW88516 is closely related to the shergottite ALHA77005. Like ALHA77005, LEW88516 is composed of two distinct lithologies; one consists of large (mm-sized) pyroxenes poikilitically enclosing olivine crystals, and the other is represented by interstitial areas that contain small pyroxenes, olivine, maskelynite, whitlockite, and opaques (Lindstrom et al., 1992). Besides mineralogy and texture, whole rock chemical characteristics of these two shergottites also appear to be strikingly similar (Lindstrom et al., 1992; Boynton et al., 1992). We measured REE and other selected trace elements in individual mineral phases present in LEW88516, and compared the results with similar data obtained for ALHA77005 by Lundberg et al. (1990). Analyses were made on a thin section of LEW88516 with an ion microprobe; trace elements concentrations were measured in poikilitic and interstitial pyroxenes (augites and pigeonites), maskelynite, whitlockite, and glass. The total REE inventory of LEW88516 is dominated by whitlockite, although this mineral, as in ALHA77005, is present in only small modal abundance. Maskelynite in LEW88516 is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly that is approximately twice as large as that present in the maskelynite in ALHA77005, although the rest of the REE are present in lower abundances. The homogeneous, crystallite-free glass in LEW88516 is slightly enriched relative to LEW88516 bulk rock REE abundances, and has a REE pattern that is parallel to the ALHA77005 whole rock REE pattern. Pyroxenes in LEW88516 are zoned in their trace element concentrations, as are the pyroxenes in ALHA77005. Elemental abundances (e.g., REE, Y, Ti, Zr, Cr, V

  14. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by radioisotope injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Schwarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of trace elements is subject to certain mechanisms of homeostatic regulation. The supply status of the trace elements, iron, copper, zinc and manganese has definite effects on their respective extent of intestinal absorption, retention and intestinal excretion. Experimental studies show that there is an increase in intestinal absorption and retention, and a decrease in turnover rate and endogenous excretion of these trace elements in response to deficient dietary intake. On the basis of these results, three models are discussed for the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of situations of trace element deficiency: (1) Determination of the intestinal absorption of an orally administered radioisotope dose by measuring the activity of blood; (2) Determination of the retention of a parenterally administered dose in blood or plasma; and (3) Determination of the endogenous faecal excretion of a parenterally administered dose. The advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed. Determination of the endogenous secretion of the trace element after intravenous injection of its radioisotope may be considered as the simplest and most informative method. (author)

  15. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Trace metallic elements in Helix aspersa terrestrial snails of a semiarid ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Zarazua, G.; Montes, F.; Morton, O.; Armienta, M.A.; Hernandez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of some major elements and traces in soil samples and of Helix aspersa eatable terrestrial snails were analysed at the Radioactive Wastes Storage Center (CADER) and in other reference sites. The methodology includes the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an X-ray fluorescence equipment and an Icp-mass spectroscope. The concentrations of some toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and V) in the soft tissue of the snails were greater than the toxic levels reported in the literature for such trace elements. The snails compared with another wild eatable foods present transfer coefficients soil-snail high relatively. (Author)

  17. Potential for acid emissions affecting trace element nutrition of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The role of sour gas emissions in trace element nutrition of livestock is discussed. Trace mineral nutrition and the evaluation of factors affecting it is very complex. Some trace minerals are antagonistic to each other, for example a dietary sulfur content of greater than 0.4% will suppress the availability of copper to ruminants. Dietary plants, age, pregnancy, and disease can all alter trace element concentrations. Species and breed of animal play a significant role in copper metabolism. Clinical signs associated with copper and zinc deficiency are discussed. These symptoms include lameness, lack of hair pigmentation, infertility, and scouring. Some of these symptoms may be caused by excess molybdenum. Clinical features associated with zinc deficiency include parakeratosis and inflammation of the skin. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Gouveia, M.A.; Prudencio, M.I.; Ferreira, P.; Morgado, I.; Amaro, A.; Fernandes, T.; Dionisio, I.; Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Trace element concentrations of wild saltwater crocodile eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolis, S.C.; Webb, G.J.; Britton, A.R.; Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) accumulate trace elements from the environment into their flesh and bones (Jeffree et al., 2001a). Elevated levels of metals (e.g. Hg, Zn, Pb), organochlorines (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (e.g. radiocesium) have been recorded in blood, tissues and eggs of several crocodilian species (Manolis et al., this volume). In this study the concentrations of various elements (including metals) were measured in the yolk of C. porosus eggs collected from the Finniss River and two other distant nesting sites (Melacca Swamp, a spring-fed freshwater swamp; Adelaide River, a tidal river) during the 2000- 01 nesting season. Infertile eggs from 30 clutches (Adelaide 12, Melacca 8, Finniss 10) were opened and the yolk contents removed (after Webb et al., 1987) and frozen. Samples of yolk were then oven-dried, digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest solutions were then analysed for 20 elements (see Table 1) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Similarities between the elemental composition of eggs from the three areas suggests that downstream contamination from Rum Jungle Mine is not apparent in C. porosus nesting in the Finniss River. These nesting areas are some 60 km downstream of the mine site, and contaminants are probably greatly diluted during the wet season. C. porosus were also intensively hunted in the Finniss River area during the 1950s and 1960s, until their protection in 1971 (Webb et al. 1984). Some females would have been recruited into the population after the period of mining. Long-term effects of the mine may be apparent in areas with Australian freshwater crocodiles (C. johnstoni), mainly upstream of C. porosus nesting areas and up to the mine. Examination of tissues and eggs of C. johnstoni may provide more information on the historical effects of the mine

  20. Determination of refractory trace elements in Chinese meteorites by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Burger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Some refractory trace elements are important target elements for spallation reactions in meteorites. These elements also serve to characterize the investigated meteorites. The elements Ti, Y, Zr, Hf, W and Ta were measured after radiochemical separation in chondrites from China. After acid digestion of the irradiated samples, the group separations were obtained by precipitation reactions. The necessary radiochemical purification of the pure β emitter Y was realized on a Lewatite OC 1026 column. For all the other elements discrete gamma radiation was measured. (orig.)

  1. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  2. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 . The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  3. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  4. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  5. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  6. Wet deposition flux of trace elements to the Adirondack region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Keskin, S.S.; Gullu, G.; Olmez, I.

    2001-01-01

    Wet deposition samples from two locations in the Adirondack region of New York were analyzed for trace elemental composition by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Annual fluxes of the measured species were determined by precipitation-weighted and linear-regression methods. Despite several episodes of high deposition fluxes, the cumulative areal wet deposition of trace elements increased fairly linearly (r 2 > 0.9) over the two year sampling period at both sites. This implies that short duration sampling programs may be used to estimate long-term fluxes and cumulative wet deposition impacts. Based on the magnitude of their fluxes, the measured species have been divided into four groups: acidic anions, electroneutral balancing cations, and minor and trace elements of anthropogenic origin. (author)

  7. Uptakes of trace elements in Zn-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, T.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshida, T.; Maetsu, H.; Suganuma, H.; Omori, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multitracer technique was used to obtain uptake rates of essential trace elements in various organs and tissues in Zn-deficient mice. A multitracer solution, containing more than 20 radioisotopes, was injected intraperitoneally into Zn-deficient state mice and control ones. Uptake rates of the radioisotopes were compared with concentrations of trace elements determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to study a specific metabolism of Zn and other essential trace elements, such as Mn, Co, Se, Rb, and Sr. The result suggests that Zn is supplied from bone to other organs and tissues and an increase in Co concentration in all organs and tissues depends on its chemical form, under the Z-deficient state. (author)

  8. Trace elements in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durosinmi, M.A.; Ojo, J.O.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akanle, O.A.; Arshed, W.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis (employed as a complementary technique) have been used to determine the concentration of 11 elements in blood samples and its components erythrocytes and plasma obtained from three groups of subjects in Nigeria viz: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects, subjects with sickle cell trait and normal control subjects. The results suggest that SCA subjects have significantly higher concentrations of Na, Cl, Ca and Cu in their whole blood and erythrocytes and a higher concentration of Cl and Cu in their plasma relative to control subjects. Furthermore, a significantly lower concentration of K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were found in the whole blood and erythrocytes of the SCA subjects as compared to the controls while the concentration of K and Fe in the plasma of the SCA subjects were however, found to be significantly higher than that of the control group. The study also shows that there were no significant differences between the concentration of these 11 elements in the group with sickle cell trait and the normal control group. (author) 20 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Trace element characterisation of Cretaceous Orange Basin hydrocarbon source rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Adekola, S.A.; Swakamisa, O.; Fadipe, O.A.; Akinyemi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vanadium and nickel contents indicate that the rock samples from the Orange Basin have marine organic matter input. → The organic matter of the Orange Basin source rocks were deposited in reducing conditions. → Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal their subtle differences. → Cluster analysis classified the samples into three groups based on subtle differences in their .thermal maturity. - Abstract: Trace elements in the kerogen fraction of hydrocarbon source rock samples from two wells obtained from the Cretaceous units of the Orange Basin, South Africa were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in order to determine their distribution and geochemical significances. The concentrations of the elements (As, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and V) determined ranged from 0.64 to 47,300 ppm for the samples analysed. The total organic carbon (TOC) values indicate that the samples are organic rich but did not show any trend with the distribution of the trace metals except Ce, Mo and Pb. Dendrogram cluster analysis discriminated the samples into three groups on the basis of their level of thermal maturity. Thermal maturity has a significant effect on the distribution of the trace metals. Cobalt/Ni and V/Ni ratios and cross plots of the absolute values of V and Ni indicate that the samples had significant marine organic matter input. The V and Ni contents and V/(V + Ni) ratio indicate that the organic matter of the source rocks had been deposited in reducing conditions. Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the organic matter of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal subtle differences. Cluster analysis of the samples was also able to reveal the subtle

  10. Report on the intercomparison run Soil-5 for the determination of trace elements in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R; Tugsavul, A; Suschny, O

    1978-01-01

    he knowledge of the elemental composition of soil, and especially its trace element content is of interest to many investigators active in various fields of research. Among these concerned are not only agricultural chemists and soil scientists, but also biochemists, environmentalists, nutritionists and others. The increased recognition of the essentially on one hand and toxicity on the other, of certain trace elements towards animals and man, has led to intensified studies of the pathways of trace elements in nature, particularly in the environmental research. Not only atmosphere, hydrosphere and biological tissues, but also soil is examined. Essential and toxic trace elements may pass from soil to plants (by which they are sometimes effectively concentrated) and further through food chains to Man. The interest in the analysis of soil for the content of many trace and also some major elements is therefore rapidly increasing. Hence, there seems to be an obvious need for a reference material with established 'recommended values' of as many elements as possible which could be used for checking the quality of analytical work of the laboratories engaged in soil analyses. At the same time well-characterized soil, containing high levels of minerals can be also of interest for geochemists as a complement to already existing geochemical reference samples.

  11. Trace elements and radioactivity in aerosol particles, produced in the area of Ptolemais (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Zoumi, K.; Nikolakaki, S.; Kritidis, P.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the Greek lignite power plants have been installed in the area of Ptolemais, and a major part of them during the period 1981-1990. Aerosol filters collected in the first and the last years of the decade have been analysed for trace elements as well as for radioactivity (total beta) content. Analysis was performed by radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, and 17 elements were determined. A special interest is focused on lead concentrations, an element whose environmental concentrations are regulated by the Greek law; the results for lead were validated by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace element and radioactivity levels were found significantly lower than the current limit. Enrichment factors and correlation among the analysed elements were also estimated. (author)

  12. Determination of trace elements in chicken feeds in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Salma Yahya Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Trace elements are very important for chicken because thy contribute in biochemical processes required for normal growth, development and formation of the eggshell. The deficiency or the elevation of these trace elements may affect the normal physiological activity and biochemical process of their bodies. In this study the concentrations of trace elements in chicken feed samples were determined by X RF spectrometry. The results showed that there were 9 trace elements in sample ( K, Ca Mn, Fe Cu Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr) the mean concentration were K ( 2.12 x 10 4 ), Ca (2.22x10 4 ), Mn (48.1). Fe (191), Cu(9.81), Zn (24.6), Pb (1.63), Rb (7.79), Sr(4.09) ppm. Comparing the trace elements concentrations obtained in this study with the recommended values showed that some of them e.g Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe were found higher concentration than the recommended values, which stipulated by national research council NRC European Union. While lead concentration was in the permissible limit (5mg/kg). However, the statistical Alan's revealed than there were no significant difference between all concentrations of trace elements in the two types of chicken feeds i.e layer and broiler. The pearson correlation test displayed a strong correlation between K-Rb (0.885), Mn-Zn (0.874). The negative correlation between Mn-Rb (0.680), K-Mn (0.6000), K-Ca (0.565), Zn-Rb (-0.541). Ca-Rb (0.458) were found . Further investigations were performed using the principal component analysis (PCA) which involved the extraction of principal factor to study the total variance in the feed samples in terms of the trace elements concentrations in each. The obtained results revealed that the first principal component have a positive correlation with the elements Ca, Mn, Pb, and Zn, while K and Rb showed negative correlation with it. Similarly, the second principal compound showed positive correlation with the elements Mn, PB and Zn, while Ca and Sr showed negative, on the perth hand the third component was found to

  13. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  15. Trace element geochemistry of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windom, H.L.; Wallace, G.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes research conducted during the past year under DOE Contract EY-76-S-09-0890. During this time, studies have been continued in the mid to outer continental shelf region. We have also initiated nearshore studies designed to elucidate processes influencing the fate of trace elements in estuaries and the coastal frontal zone. A smaller effort has been concerned with preliminary geochemical studies of uranium-thorium natural decay series radionuclides and with improvement, calibration, and expansion of our trace element laboratory procedures

  16. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''trace elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk is regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments.

  18. Amount of trace elements in marine cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Suzuki, Hamaji.

    1979-01-01

    For the estimation of internal radiation to human beings, the amounts of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co and Cs in 5 species of marine cephalopods were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis, and then the concentration factors were calculated. The average amount and the concentration factor of the elements in the edible parts (mantle, arms and tentacles) of cephalopods are as follows: 0.14 mg, 2 x 10 2 for Mn, 1.8 mg, 2 x 10 2 for Fe, 2.0 mg, 7 x 10 2 for Cu, 12.2 mg, 1 x 10 3 for Zn, 5.3 μg, 6 x 10 1 for Co and 3.4 μg, 7 for Cs. The amounts of Fe, Co, Cu and Zn in the liver and the branchial heart were much higher than those in the edible parts, although those of Cs and Mn were almost the same. The Co content in the visceral organs of O. Vulgaris showed extremely high value, particularly in the branchial heart. (author)

  19. Trace elements in natural drugs determined by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kehshaw; Tseng Chialiang; Lin Tehsien

    1993-01-01

    Natural drugs are widely used for diuretic, phlegm elimination and stomach invigoration purposes. Seventy-five of the most common remedies used by Chinese people have been subjected to trace element survey analysis by instrumental neutron activation. Within this large number of different natural products, fourteen trace elements (K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, La, Sm, Eu, Au and Th) are commonly detected. Among these elements, Fe had the highest concentration followed by Zn, and Rb, Sm, Eu and Au were found to have the lowest concentrations. Although the three groups of natural drugs exhibit a widely different therapeutic action, the concentration ranges of the fourteen elements were very similar. While this suggests no apparent specific role for the trace elements in the drug function, parallels are drawn between the known drug related functions of Rb, Zn, Br, Fe, Co and K and the levels of elements found in the natural drugs. It is concluded that the various natural drugs also provide human benefits through supplements of essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Cr, Sc, Rb and Co. (author) 13 refs.; 5 tabs

  20. A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.; Biswas, S.K.; Akhter, S.

    1995-05-01

    Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 μC irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

  1. Fertiliser characterisation: Major, trace and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, N.; Vitoria, L.; Soler, A.; Canals, A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the chemical impact of agricultural activities on the environment so it is necessary to identify contaminants, and/or characterise the sources of contamination. In this study, a comprehensive chemical characterisation of 27 fertilisers of different types used in Spain has been conducted; major, minor and trace elements were determined, including rare earth elements. Results show that compound fertilisers used for fertigation or foliar application have low content of heavy metals, whereas fertilisers used for basal and top dressing have the highest content of both REE and other heavy metals. REE patterns of fertilisers have been determined in order for them to be used as tracers of fertilisers in future environmental studies. Furthermore in this work REE patterns of fertilisers are used as tracers of the source of phosphate in compound fertilisers, distinguishing between phosphorite and carbonatite derived fertilisers. Fertilisers from carbonatites have higher contents of REE, Sr, Ba and Th whereas fertilisers from phosphorites have higher contents of metals of environmental concern, such as Cd, U and As; and the sum of the heavy metals is higher. Some of the analysed fertilisers have Cd concentrations that exceed maximum values established in some countries and can be expected to produce long-term soil accumulation. Furthermore, other elements such as U, As and Cr are 10-50 times higher in concentration than those of Cd, but there is no legislation regarding them, therefore it is necessary to regulate fertiliser compositions in order to achieve environmental protection of soils and waters

  2. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  3. Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in trace element concentration in the head and facial hair of five individuals with ever-increasing amounts of white hair were examined. Hair was collected from the scalp, cheeks, and chin from one donor on a regular basis since 1984. Samples were separated into white and pigmented fractions, and analyzed at SLOWPOKE-Toronto by INAA for the short-lived, isotope-producing elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, and Zn. Temporal concentration variations of these elements over time, and variations of the elemental concentrations in pigmented and white hair were established

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  5. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale ampersand Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Trace elements in Taiwanese diet in different seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng-Ming Liu; Chien Chung

    1992-01-01

    The trace element contents of Taiwanese diet were determined using conventional neutron activation analysis. Sample were prepared with duplicate portion technique by collecting food items ate and drank during a 3 day period in winter. Samples were homogenized, freeze-dried, and elemental concentration of trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The interference from fast neutron induced reactions were corrected. Concentrations and daily dietary intake of the elements were compared with those collected in the summer, resulting less daily intake of K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn among Taiwanese than the values recommended by WHO and RDA. Alarming low intake of Fe for females and Zn among Taiwanese were indicated. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. ICP-AES determination of trace elements in carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Rajeswari, B.; Kadam, R.M.; Babu, Y.; Godbole, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Carbon steel, a combination of the elements iron and carbon, can be classified into four types as mild, medium, high and very high depending on the carbon content which varies from 0.05% to 2.1%. Carbon steel of different types finds application in medical devices, razor blades, cutlery and spring. In the nuclear industry, it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. A strict quality control measure is required to monitor the trace elements, which have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon steel. Thus, it becomes imperative to check the purity of carbon steel as a quality control measure before it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. Several methods have been reported in literature for trace elemental determination in high purity iron. Some of these include neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is widely recognized as a sensitive technique for the determination of trace elements in various matrices, its major advantages being good accuracy and precision, high sensitivity, multi-element capability, large linear dynamic range and relative freedom from matrix effects. The present study mainly deals with the direct determination of trace elements in carbon steel using ICP-AES. An axially viewing ICP spectrometer having a polychromator with 35 fixed analytical channels and limited sequential facility to select any analytical line within 2.2 nm of a polychromator line was used in these studies. Iron, which forms one of the main constituents of carbon steel, has a multi electronic configuration with line rich emission spectrum and, therefore, tends to interfere in the determination of trace impurities in carbon steel matrix. Spectral interference in ICP-AES can be seriously detrimental to the accuracy and reliability of trace element determinations, particularly when they are performed in the presence of high

  8. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  9. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  10. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, E.K.; Saiki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  11. Radionuclides and selected trace elements in marine protein concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T M; Jokela, T A; Eagle, R J

    1971-12-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements and radionuclides have been measured in marine protein concentrates prepared from surface feeding fishes. As with concentrates prepared from benthic fishes, the /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Po pair are the most significant radionuclides present. Concentrations of stable Pb, Co and Ag in certain concentrates are sufficiently high to contribute substantially to estimated current intakes of these elements.

  12. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of trace elements in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheek, D.B.; Hay, H.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Proton induced x-ray emission has been used for quantitative analyses of trace elements in blood serum samples. This work is part of a survey concerned with Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn and Se in Australian Aboriginal people not receiving optimal diet. Special attention is being directed to Cr because of the high incidence of diabetes mellitus in these people

  13. Trace Elements as Indicators of Quality of Drinking Water in Offa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study involved the determination of trace elements in drinking water in Offa Metropolis. Drinking water samples were collected from tap, well, borehole, stream and sachet water and analysed for Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show the concentration ranges ...

  14. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the present study we have made an attempt to accomplish this by modeling the trace element con- tents of carbonatites ... fact that they represent a very small fraction of all the magmatic ... 2km north of the Narmada river in the state of. Gujarat ...

  15. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river system with anomalous value of trace element concentrations are those where mine tailings have been deposited close to the river channel or places where run off from adjoining ...

  16. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the ... Key words: Gold mining, tailings dam, trace elements, soil, Obuasi. INTRODUCTION ..... through soil might take considerably long time to manifest, probably ...

  17. Trace elements in brazilian soils; Micronutrientes nos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    1995-03-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties. 76 refs.

  18. Measurement of trace elements in liver biopsy samples from cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Moen, A.; Counotte, G.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper, zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however, these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper,

  19. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  20. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  1. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  2. Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  3. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, P.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron

  4. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.S.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2001-01-01

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  5. Statistical equilibrium equations for trace elements in stellar atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kubat, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    The conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and statistical equilibrium are discussed in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and the supplementary equations are shown together with the expressions for radiative and collisional rates with the emphasize on the solution for trace elements.

  6. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) technology can offer rapid and cost-effective determination of the trace elements concentrations in soils. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of soil moisture content under different condition on PXRF measurement quality. For this purpose, PXRF was used to evaluate the soil ...

  7. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  8. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...

  9. Determination of trace elements in urban airborne particulates (PM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the air quality in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne particulates (PM10). Samples were collected over a 12 month period (March 2011 to April 2012) using two high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 size selective inlet. The concentrations of ...

  10. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of trace metals in sediment can cause severe ecological impacts. In this study, determination of elemental concentrations in water and sediment was done. Shadegan wetland is one of the most important wetlands in southwest of Iran and is among the Ramsar-listed wetlands. Wastewaters from industries ...

  11. Minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma mushroom species were determined. The results show that fiber content was found highest with 45 g/100 g of dry weight, followed by calcium with 23 g/100 g, carbohydrate with 23 g/100 g, protein with 18.2 g/100 g, iron with 6.41 g/100 g, copper with ...

  12. Trace elements in the urban aerosol of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.M.Q.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1983-07-01

    The first trace-element data-set measured on the atmosphere aerosol of Sao Paulo City, Brazil, is presented. These measurements have been based on samplings by 6-stage cascade impactors combined with the analytical procedure by the PIXE method of elementary analysis. (L.C.) [pt

  13. The status of trace elements in lymphoma and esophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer is a life threatening disease. Many people die of cancer every year. Epidemiological studies suggest that alteration of trace elements in the body can contribute to the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and ...

  14. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  15. Horizontal variation in trace elements and soil characteristics at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Soil indicators – pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil water retention (SWR) – were also ... The determination of total extractable trace element concen- ..... Tshipise soil. Factor 1. Factor 2. Factor 1. Factor 2. Li. −0.497. 0.176 ..... KABANDA TA (2003) Climate in A first synthesis of the environmental, bio-.

  16. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements, namely lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), found in kidney tissues were analyzed and compared between wild/fattened and female/male bluefin tuna (BFT) in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred (that is, 50 female and 50 male) individual ...

  17. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  18. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  19. Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, M A

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludges and effluents on agricultural land is becoming a widespread practice. Most sludge samples disposed on soils contain large quantities of various trace elements. Studies of 20 trace elements commonly found in sludge samples showed that they inhibit the activity of urease in soils and that their order of effectiveness as inhibitors of urease depends on the soil. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol . g/sup -1/ soil, however, some of them showed the same order of effectiveness as urease inhibitors in the six soils studied i.e., for the monovalent and divalent ions. Ag/sup +/ greater than or equal to Hg/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cd/sup 2 +/ > Zn/sup 2 +/ > Sn/sup 2 +/ > Mn/sup 2 +/, and generally, Fe/sup 3 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup +/. Other trace element ions that inhibited urease were Ni/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, As/sup 3 +/, B/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, V/sup 4 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, and Mo/sup 6 +/. Of the trace element ions studied, only As/sup 5 +/ and W/sup 6 +/ did not inhibit urease activity in soils. Studies on the distribution of urease activity showed that it is concentrated in surface soils and decreases with depth. Urease activity was proportional to organic C distribution in each soil profile and was significantly correlated with organic C in the surface soils studied.

  20. Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Hodge, V.F.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. PCA results reflect the similarities in the concentrations of trace elements in the water samples resulting from different geochemical processes. QFA results reflect similarities in the trace element compositions, whereas CA reflects similarities in the trace elements that are dominant in the waters relative to all other groundwater samples included in the dataset. These differences are mainly due to the ways in which data are preprocessed by each of the three methods. The highly concentrated, and thus possibly more mature (i.e. older), groundwaters are separated from the more dilute waters using principal component 1 (PC 1). PC 2, as well as dimension 1 of the CA results, describe differences in the trace element chemistry of the groundwaters resulting from the different aquifer materials through which they have flowed. Groundwaters thought to be representative of those flowing through an aquifer composed dominantly of volcanic rocks are characterized by elevated concentrations of Li, Be, Ge, Rb, Cs, and Ba, whereas those associated with an aquifer dominated by carbonate rocks exhibit greater concentrations of Ti, Ni, Sr, Rh, and Bi. PC 3, and to a lesser extent dimension 2 of the CA results, show a strong monotonic relationship with the percentage of As(III) in the groundwater suggesting that these multivariate statistical results reflect, in a qualitative sense, the oxidizing/reducing conditions within the groundwater. Groundwaters that are relatively more reducing exhibit greater concentrations of Mn, Cs, Co, Ba, Rb, and Be, and those that are more oxidizing are characterized by greater concentrations of V, Cr, Ga

  1. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  2. Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Jackson, B.P.; Kling, D.E.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Compared with birds, mammals, fish, and even amphibians, very little is known about the effects of contaminants on reptiles. The current study experimentally evaluated the utility of shed skins, tail clips, and blood samples as nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata. For 13.5 months, snakes were either fed fish from a coal ash-contaminated site or uncontaminated food from a reference site. Snakes fed contaminated prey accumulated As, Cd, Se, Sr, and V in various organs (i.e. liver, kidney, and/or gonads). Moreover, non-parametric discriminant function analysis revealed that snakes could be placed in two groups that reliably reflected their experimental diet based upon Se, Sr, and As concentrations in tail clips, blood, and/or shed skins. It is suggested that nondestructive sampling techniques, particularly analyses of blood and tail clips, may be easily applied in evaluations of contaminant exposure in the field and laboratory and may prevent excessive destructive sampling of potentially threatened reptile species.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  4. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  5. Determination of toxic trace elements in body fluid reference samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; McClendon, L.T.; Maienthal, E.J.; Becker, D.A.; Durst, R.A.; LaFleur, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The measurement of elemental concentration in body fluids has been widely used to give indication of exposures to certain toxic materials and/or a measure of body burden. To understand fully the toxicological effect of these trace elements on our physiological system, meaningful analytical data are required along with accurate standards or reference samples. The National Bureau of Standards has prepared for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) a number of reference samples containing selected toxic trace elements in body fluids. The reference samples produced include mercury in urine at three concentration levels, five elements (Se, Cu, As, Ni and Cr) in freeze-dried urine at two levels, fluorine in freeze-dried urine at two levels and lead in blood at two concentration levels. These reference samples have been found to be extremely useful for the evaluation of field and laboratory analytical methods for the analysis of toxic trace elements. In particular the use of at least two calibration points (i.e., ''normal'' and ''elevated'' levels) for a given matrix provides a more positive calibration for most analytical techniques over the range of interest for occupational toxicological levels of exposure. (U.S.)

  6. Determination of trace elements in electronic materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Trace amounts of elements in electronic materials were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), re-activation analysis and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis using gamma-ray spectrometry. Ten elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Ir, Sb, Sc, Tb) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. Trace level of chromium (10 13 atoms/cm 3 ) and zinc (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA. The chromium concentrations in horizontal Bridgmangrown semi-insulating gallium arsenide ingot were ranged from 1.2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at seed end to 3.5 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at tail end. The trace determinations of iron (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) and copper (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phoshide single crystals were carried out by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The reactivation analysis for the multielement determination of indium phosphide single crystal was carried out and nineteen elements were determined simultaneously by gamma-ray spectrometry. Eleven elements (Ag, As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Sb, Sc, Zn) in four NIES standard reference materials (Pond Sediment, Chlorella, Mussel and Tea Leaves) and seven elements (Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Sc, Tb, Yb) in two NBS glasses (SRM-615 and SRM-613) were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis and the analytical results obtained by the methods were in good agreement with certified values by NIES and NBS. (author)

  7. The content of minerals and trace elements in meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.; Schelenz, R.; Gruenewald, T.; Frahm, H.; Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1981-07-01

    Within the frame work of the research programme 'School Feeding', 68 menu items of different producers were investigated for the content of the minerals calcium, chlorine, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, and for the trace elements antimony, barium, bromine, cesium, chromium, hafnium, iridium,cobalt, copper, manganese, mercury, rubidium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tin and zinc. For the analytical determination of the elements, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorometry were applied. The studies showed that a calculation of the content of minerals and trace elements in meals on the basis of recipes and nutritive tables for raw foods is not justified, expect for sodium and phosphorus, because incorrect results can be obtained for the majority of meals. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  9. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkanl, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.; Gunel, U.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  10. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  11. Sources of trace elements in total diet. A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Chatt, A.

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen total diet samples have been collected from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and fiber and phytate in total diets have been determined. Daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations have been determined. (author)

  12. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in groundwater in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.; Huang Jianmin; Huang Runqiu

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are efficient ways to display complex relationships among many objects. An attempt was made to study the data of trace elements in groundwater using multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis. The original matrix consisted of 17 trace elements estimated from 55 groundwater samples colleted in 27 wells located in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China. PCA results show that trace elements of V, Cr, As, Mo, W, and U with greatest positive loadings typically occur as soluble oxyanions in oxidizing waters, while Mn and Co with greatest negative loadings are generally more soluble within oxygen depleted groundwater. Cluster analyses demonstrate that most groundwater samples collected from the same well in the study area during summer and winter still fall into the same group. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in hydrochemical studies. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate relationships among trace elements and factors controlling trace element distribution in groundwater

  14. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  15. Scandium - problem of ultra-trace-element essentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A.A.; Zkuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.; Makhmudov, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    manifestations of the dysfunction after addition of deficient element. This is very convincing criterion but hardly acceptable for ultra trace elements as follows from the model given in the present paper. It is very simple to prepare diet with decreased level for constitutional essential and some trace-elements according to this criterion. It is enough to reduce some constitutional elements uptake for 50% to observe the organism dysfunction. For such trace elements like Mn, Cu, Zn it is enough to reduce its intake 1.5 - 5 times to reach the same effect. For Sc the factor of removal for humans should be about 500-1000. It is clear that preparation of nutrition which removal of ultra-trace elements with a purification factor of hundreds and thousands is practically impossible and there is a necessity to elaborate additional criteria for ultra-trace elements. (author)

  16. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  17. Trace elements release from volcanic ash to seawater. Natural concentrations in Central Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, L. A.; Censi, P.; Saiano, F.; Zuddas, P.; Aricò, P.; Mazzola, S.

    2009-04-01

    Distributions and concentrations of many minor and trace elements in epicontinental basins, as Mediterranean Sea, are mainly driven to atmospheric fallout from surroundings. This mechanism supplies an estimated yearly flux of about 1000 kg km-2 of terrigenous matter of different nature on the whole Mediterranean basin. Dissolution of these materials and processes occurring at solid-liquid interface along the water column drive the distributions of many trace elements as V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb with contents ranging from pmol l-1 (Co, Cd, Pb) to nmol l-1 scale in Mediterranean seawater, with some local differences in the basin. The unwinding of an oceanographic cruise in the coastal waters of Ionian Sea during the Etna's eruptive activity in summer 2001 led to the almost unique chance to test the effects of large delivery of volcanic ash to a coastal sea water system through the analyses of distribution of selected trace elements along several seawater columns. The collection of these waters and their analyses about V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb contents evidenced trace element concentrations were always higher (about 1 order of magnitude at least) than those measured concentrations in the recent past in Mediterranean seawater, apart from Pb. Progressive increase of concentrations of some elements with depth, sometimes changing in a "conservative" behaviour without any clear reason and the observed higher concentrations required an investigation about interaction processes occurring at solid-liquid interface between volcanic ash and seawater along water columns. This investigation involving kinetic evaluation of trace element leaching to seawater, was carried out during a 6 months time period under laboratory conditions. X-ray investigations, SEM-EDS observations and analyses on freshly-erupted volcanic ash evidenced formation of alteration clay minerals onto glass fraction surfaces. Chemical analyses carried out on coexisting liquid phase demonstrated that trace

  18. Distribution of Selected Trace Elements in the Bayer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve an understanding of the distribution of selected bauxite trace elements (gallium (Ga, vanadium (V, arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, rare earth elements (REEs, scandium (Sc in the Bayer process. The assessment was designed as a case study in an alumina plant in operation to provide an overview of the trace elements behaviour in an actual industrial setup. A combination of analytical techniques was used, mainly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that Ga, V and As as well as, to a minor extent, Cr are principally accumulated in Bayer process liquors. In addition, Ga is also fractionated to alumina at the end of the Bayer processing cycle. The rest of these elements pass to bauxite residue. REEs and Sc have the tendency to remain practically unaffected in the solid phases of the Bayer process and, therefore, at least 98% of their mass is transferred to bauxite residue. The interest in such a study originates from the fact that many of these trace constituents of bauxite ore could potentially become valuable by-products of the Bayer process; therefore, the understanding of their behaviour needs to be expanded. In fact, Ga and V are already by-products of the Bayer process, but their distribution patterns have not been provided in the existing open literature.

  19. Speciation of trace elements in the environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Elements present at trace levels, often referred as trace elements, play an important role in the environment and in the functioning of life on our planet. Trace elements in environment present as free metal ions or incorporated into colloids or attached to particulate matter or exist in different physical and chemical forms. It is well established that some elements are highly toxic and some are essential, but can become toxic at higher doses. It is also now known that the forms of elements (speciation) and their amounts are more important than the chemical dose of the elements as their interaction depends on different species. For example, Cr(VI) ions are considered far more toxic than Cr(III), whereas As(III) is more toxic than As(V). Similarly, in the case of mercury, both methylmercury and inorganic mercury are toxic but they show different levels of toxicity. Thus the adverse effects depend on the nature of species of the elements and therefore speciation studies are of paramount importance in many areas like toxicology, environmental chemistry and geochemisty. In view of this, speciation studies is a challenge to analytical chemists as the measurement methodologies have to be carefully developed, validated and applied. The grand challenge is to obtain quality data ensuring traceability, as the data obtained will be used in modeling for predicting the environmental impacts. In this talk importance of speciation and challenges to environmental analytical chemists will be discussed along with the following three speciation studies on Cr, U and Hg which were carried out in our laboratories

  20. Studies of trace element imbalances in Alzheimer's disease using sequential NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Markesbery, W.R.; Thompson, C.M.; Vance, D.E.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated in the literature that trace elements may be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurological diseases. Even if elemental imbalances do not prove to be causative factors, observed perturbations may be markers that could aid in diagnosis, or help elucidate pathological processes. In this paper the authors present new data for trace element levels in three areas of the human brain most severely affected by AD (hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis) and in AD hair and nail samples. In some cases the specific imbalances seen previously in the bulk brain analyses are amplified in these regions. Elevated bromine levels seen in AD brain are also observed in AD hair and nail. Significant alkali metal and mercury imbalances with respect to controls occur in AD nail samples. The role of these trace element alterations in the etiology of AD has still not been determined. However, some possible physiological effects include: membrane dysfunction (alkali metals), enzyme inhibition (mercury and bromine), and interference with neurotransmitter functions (mercury, bromine, and alkali metals). The simultaneous multielement capability of this sequential NAA procedure also permits interelement correlation studies. Elemental associations may help identify potential environmental factors that could contribute to the observed trace element imbalances

  1. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, S.; Pulhani, V.; Dahiya, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  2. Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG

  3. Trace element geochemistry of the South Atlantic Bight: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windom, H.L.

    1987-12-01

    Our major field effort involved participation in FLEX. Approximately 350 samples were collected for trace metal analyses. All of the SPREX data has been reduced and interpreted. One proposed paper describes a model for the flux of particulate material across the continental shelf. This model was applied to the particulate aluminum data collected during SPREX and will be used to estimate cross-shelf fluxes of particulate trace metals. The model will also serve as a basis for developing further models for freshwater, PON and POC fluxes during SPREX and FLEX. Another manuscript describes the estuarine behavior of plutonium and lead 210. A third manuscript describes trace metal behavior in the Savannah River estuary. All analyses and data reduction for Phase 1 and 2 sediment sampling campaigns have been completed. One paper, submitted for publication, shows that the major metal bearing phase in these sediments is aluminosilicate minerals. We will be interpreting these results during the coming year to estimate nearshore sediment removal of trace metals and nutrients and their cycling. Analyses of all pre-FLEX suspended sediment samples have been completed and will be used, with SPREX and FLEX data, to elucidate temporal variability on the composition of nearshore particles. Phase 3 sediments that were collected during our pre-FLEX Blue Fin cruise have been partially completed. 1 fig

  4. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  5. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  6. Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings

  7. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  8. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.

    2000-01-01

    health and hygiene. The network covers a number of important issues including organotin compounds, chromium and nickel species, chemical characterisation of environmental and industrial particulate samples, risk assessment, selenium and a series of other essential and toxic elements in food, as well......The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational...

  9. Trace Elements and Vitamin D in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Mariana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, one of the most common pregnancy complications, is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Its prevalence varies worldwide in dependence on characteristics of the underlying population and applied diagnostic criteria. The etiology is multifactorial and not sufficiently elucidated. Available evidence suggests that the base of pathogenesis is relatively diminished insulin secretion coupled with pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for development have been identified. Trace elements and vitamin D could be contributed to modifiable factors for prediction the risk in a large population. Essential trace elements in pregnancy are necessary to overcome systemic oxidative, metabolic and inflammatory stress. Evidence, still inconclusive, has been accumulated about the relation between higher incidence of vitamin D failure/deficiency during pregnancy and GDM. The lower level of 25-OH vitamin D could be associated with increased risk for anemia development, also including pregnant women. This review intends to provide an overview of the possible link between both vitamin D and trace elements as risk factors for GDM development.

  10. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Trace element composition in sediments of the Amazonian Lake Cristalino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Lake Cristalino is a small lake adjacent to the Negro River near Manaus and not far from the Amazonas River, in the central Amazon basin. The lake is fed seasonally by waters of the Negro River, a blackwater river with low levels of nutrients and suspended solids (7 g m -3 ). However, some investigations have established that Lake Cristalino has a high sedimentation rate (0.4-0.5 cm year -l ) similar to those in the alluvial floodplain lakes of the Amazonas River (suspended solids 200-300 g m -3 ). Sediment cores were taken during the low-water period and the trace-element composition and the natural radioactivity in the lake were examined. The results show a core (31 cm length) relatively uniform in concentrations of trace elements (Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and Zn), and the presence of 137 Cs in the first half. Concentrations of trace elements in Lake Cristalino sediments were not correlated with concentrations in the sediments of its parent river, the Negro River, or with concentrations in soils of the local area. However, significant correlation was found between the sediments of the lake and those of the Amazonas River. On the basis of these results, and water-level data at Manaus port, it is concluded that the lake occasionally receives variable amounts of sediment from the Amazonas River. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. [Determination and correlation analysis of trace elements in Boletus tomentipes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-li; Liu, Hong-gao

    2011-07-01

    The contents of eleven trace elements in Boletus tomentipes were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the fruiting bodies of B. tomentipes were very rich in Mg and Fe (>100 mg x kg(-1)) and rich in Mn, Zn and Cu (>10 mg x kg(-1)). Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, and As were relatively minor contents (0.1-10.0 mg x kg(-1)) of this species, while Hg occurred at the smallest content (< 0.1 mg x kg(-1)). Among the determined 11 trace elements, Zn-Cu had significantly positive correlation (r = 0.659, P < 0.05), whereas, Hg-As, Ni-Fe, and Zn-Mg had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.672, -0.610, -0.617, P < 0.05). This paper presented the trace elements properties of B. tomentipes, and is expected to be useful for exploitation and quality evaluation of this species.

  13. Trace elements in the human endometrium and decidua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenfeldt, K.; Landgren, B.-M.; Plantin, L.-O.; Diczfalusy, E.

    1977-01-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, 25 trace elements, which are usually present in biological material, were estimated in 31 specimens of human endometrial tissue obtained at various phases of the menstrual cycle and in 14 specimens of decidua from the 12th to 18th week of pregnancy. Among the 13 trace elements invariably found in all specimens, the levels of copper, potassium, rubidium, antimony and zinc were significantly higher and those of bromine, selenium and sodium significantly lower in the endometrium than in the decidua. No difference was found in the levels of gold, calcium, cobalt, cesiuj and iron. Among the 12 trace elements which were found only occasionally, chromium, mercury, silver and cadmium were detected in approximately half and cerium and scandium in approximately one-fourth of the 45 samples studied. Arsenic, barium, lanthanum, molybdenum, samarium and strontium were detected only rarely. The cyclic variations in the endometrial levels of calcium, rubidium and copper were highly significant and those in the levels of gold, cesium, iron, potassium and zinc probably significant. (author)

  14. Selected trace elements in Stockton, New Zealand, waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon Leon, E.; Anstiss, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ni, Mn, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, Al, Zn, Fe, SO 4 2- , hardness (calc.) in addition to pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured at 18 (11 surface and 7 subsurface) sampling sites (which were each assigned a semi-quantitative Mudstone Index (MI)) from 20 days over 9 months in the waters which drain the Stockton coal mine area on the Stockton Plateau, New Zealand. Trace element, TDS and TSS concentrations were found to be elevated and pH depressed consistent with acid mine drainage (AMD) and were characterised by significant variability due to environmental processes. Frequent concentration spikes in surface and subsurface waters occurred which sometimes exceeded maximum acceptable values (MAV) and/or aesthetic guideline values (GV) including a number of toxic trace elements. Mean concentrations of Ni and Mn in both surface and subsurface waters and As and Cd in subsurface waters exceeded MAVs. Mean concentrations of Mn, Al, Fe, SO 4 2- , and pH in both surface and subsurface waters exceeded GVs. There tends to be higher trace element and TDS concentrations where there are more mudstones (higher MI) with lower pHs. It is recommended that any further studies focus on geographic distribution, concentration fluctuation factors, movement, and possible exposure issues. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. An investigation of trace and radioactive elements in Elgash area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, Babikir Ali

    1997-08-01

    In this study an evaluation of nutrients and other trace elements content in soil, plants and water samples in addition to radionuclides levels were conducted in Elgash area-eastern Sudan. An area which is located between latitude 15.3-16.5 degree and longitude 36-37degree. Investigated area during the winter season january 1995 extends from (Al-lafa) to (Wager) at the flood season september-october 1996. Analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry for soil and plant samples collectedd during winter season, in addition to the water, and x-ray fluorescence for soil and plant samples collected in both seasons. During the flood season, it is foundd that no considerable difference of elemental content in soil and correspondingly in the same types of plants. Macronutrients (potassium, calcium and iron) contents in soil samples during the flood season were found to range from 2.50% to 5.42%. While micronutrients (zinc, copper and cobalt) contents ranged between 40 and 206 ppm. For different plant types, macronutrients concentration such as (potassium and calcium) ranged from 0.18 to 5.11%, where as micronutrients and other minor elements (iron, zinc, copper, bromine and strontium) ranged between 04 and 2742 ppm. Average values of potassium and calcium for most samples of soil and plant were differed within the seasons, in soil the average concentration of potassium during the winter and flood season was found to be 1.53 and 3.47%, and calcium was 1.58 and 2.98% where as in plant samples the average concentration of the elements during the winter season was 1.46, 0.97% and 2.76, 1.11% during the flood season, respectively. The results of the study showed that no markedd differences in the concentrations of individual elements, in water samples due to the seasonal and geographical variations, with exception to iron which is altered in the flood season from 2.5 ppm to 13 ppm, with 400% relative to the winter season. Results also showed that water of

  16. An investigation of trace and radioactive elements in Elgash area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Rahman, Babikir Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-08-01

    In this study an evaluation of nutrients and other trace elements content in soil, plants and water samples in addition to radionuclides levels were conducted in Elgash area-eastern Sudan. An area which is located between latitude 15.3-16.5 degree and longitude 36-37degree. Investigated area during the winter season january 1995 extends from (Al-lafa) to (Wager) at the flood season september-october 1996. Analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry for soil and plant samples collectedd during winter season, in addition to the water, and x-ray fluorescence for soil and plant samples collected in both seasons. During the flood season, it is foundd that no considerable difference of elemental content in soil and correspondingly in the same types of plants. Macronutrients (potassium, calcium and iron) contents in soil samples during the flood season were found to range from 2.50% to 5.42%. While micronutrients (zinc, copper and cobalt) contents ranged between 40 and 206 ppm. For different plant types, macronutrients concentration such as (potassium and calcium) ranged from 0.18 to 5.11%, where as micronutrients and other minor elements (iron, zinc, copper, bromine and strontium) ranged between 04 and 2742 ppm. Average values of potassium and calcium for most samples of soil and plant were differed within the seasons, in soil the average concentration of potassium during the winter and flood season was found to be 1.53 and 3.47%, and calcium was 1.58 and 2.98% where as in plant samples the average concentration of the elements during the winter season was 1.46, 0.97% and 2.76, 1.11% during the flood season, respectively. The results of the study showed that no markedd differences in the concentrations of individual elements, in water samples due to the seasonal and geographical variations, with exception to iron which is altered in the flood season from 2.5 ppm to 13 ppm, with 400% relative to the winter season. Results also showed that water of

  17. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  18. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  19. Trace elemental analysis of bituminous coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J R; Kneis, H; Martin, B; Nobiling, R; Traxel, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Chao, E C.T.; Minkin, J A [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    1981-03-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical milieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite - are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China.

  20. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of illitic clay. Illite

  1. The validation of a pixe system for trace element analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, S. O.; Crumpton, D.; Francois, P. E.

    1981-03-01

    A PIXE system has been developed for measuring trace element levels in biological samples and a study made of the precision and accuracy achievable. The calibration of the system has been established using thin targets of known elemental composition and the reproducibility studied using protons of energy 2.5 MeV. Both thick and thin samples prepared from NBS bovine liver have been analysed and the elemental ratios present established for a set of replicate samples. These are compared with the results of other workers. Problems relating to sample preparation are discussed.

  2. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... physical exercise and trace element metabolism (Marrella et al., 1993; McDonald ..... induced stress and immune function. Exerc Immunol Rev. ... aerobic exercise upon the trace element levels in blood. Neuro. Endocrinol.

  3. The Survey of Serum Trace Element Profiles in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological, endocrinological, haematological and neurological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down's syndrome (DS. Zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and manganese (Mn are elements that act in the maintenance of normal function of these systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of these elements on DS symptoms. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done from April to October 2011. Serum trace elements including Zn, Cu, Se and Mn were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 56 patients with DS and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu and Se between two groups (p>0.05. While, Zn and Mn levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with DS compared to the control group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate zinc and manganese deficiency in more than 60% of DS patients. Some of the problems experienced by people with DS may be due to changed level of these trace elements.

  4. XRF analysis of portland cement for major and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdunnabi, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Libyan portland cement produced in several factories around the country, in Lip tis, Zoltan, Souq-Elkamis, Dernah and El-Fatach, were analyzed for quantitative major and trace elements and mineral content, which were compered with those imported from Spain, Romania, Cyprus, and Egypt. X-ray fluorescence spectro X lab 2000 spectrometer equipped with Rh-and X-ray tube was used for the analysis of various samples. The detector Si(Li) with a resolution of 148 eV at Mn K-a=5.9 keV facilitates the determination of a wide range of elements from sodium to uranium, with a detection limit at sub levels. Cement samples in the powder form were analyzed using the pellet-technique. The pellets were prepared by mixing 4g of the cement powder with 0.9 g of binder (HWC) and pressed at high pressure. A ful analysis including, background counting, matrix correction and all relevant corrections were achieved automatically by XLAB 2000 software package. For major and trace elements X RF results were higher for most of the elements than those analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral content showed that Libyan cement is comparable to the imported ones, also the Libyan cement meets the requirements of the international specifications of the portland cement. (Author)

  5. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  6. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Satoh, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Ito, R.; Kuramachi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe 3+ > Zn 2+ > Pb 2+ > Cd 2+ . (author)

  7. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  8. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  9. A study on some trace elements in Chilean seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, N.; Munoz, L.; Thieck, M.; Hurtado, S.

    1993-01-01

    Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Distribution of trace elements in moss biomonitors near Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabortty, S.; Paratkar, G.T.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental composition of mosses from Mahabaleshwar, a remote hill station near Mumbai was measured. Trace element profiles of two different species of mosses were compared. Chemical analysis for washed and unwashed moss samples was done using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) techniques in an attempt to understand the variation. The comparative concentration of Al, Sr , Zn and Rb in both the mosses reflected the order of abundance of metal in the soil. The enrichment factor of Pb, was found more in Pinnatella alopccuroides than the other one whereas enrichment factor of Cr was more in Pterobryopsis flexiceps compared to Pinnatella alopccuroides. So they can be preferentially used as bioindicators for respective elements. (author)

  11. A study on some trace elements in Chilean seafood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, N; Munoz, L; Thieck, M; Hurtado, S [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile). Lab. of Activation Analysis

    1993-03-01

    Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  12. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Trace elements retained in washed nuclear fuel reprocessing solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1979-09-01

    Analysis of purified TBP extractant from solvent extraction processes at Savannah River Plant showed several stable elements and several long-lived radioisotopes. Stable elements Al, Na, Br, Ce, Hg, and Sm are found in trace quantities in the solvent. The only stable metallic element consistently found in the solvent was Al, with a concentration which varies from about 30 ppM to about 10 ppM. The halogens Br and Cl appear to be found in the solvent systems as organo halides. Radionuclides found were principally 106 Ru, 129 I, 3 H, 235 U, and 239 Pu. The 129 I concentration was about 1 ppM in the first solvent extraction cycle of each facility. In the other cycles, 129 I concentration varied from about 0.1 to 0.5 ppM. Both 129 I and 3 H appear to be in the organic solvent as a result of exchange with hydrogen

  14. The effect of melt composition on the partitioning of trace elements between titanite and silicate melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowatke, S.; Klemme, S.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the influence of melt composition on the partitioning of trace elements between titanite and different silicate melts. Titanite was chosen because of its important role as an accessory mineral, particularly with regard to intermediate to silicic alkaline and calc-alkaline magmas [e.g. 1] and of its relative constant mineral composition over a wide range of bulk compositions. Experiments at atmospheric pressure were performed at temperatures between 1150°C and 1050°C. Bulk compositions were chosen to represent a basaltic andesite (SH3 - 53% SiO2), a dacite (SH2 - 65 SiO2) and a rhyolite (SH1 - 71% SiO2). Furthermore, two additional experimental series were conducted to investigate the effect of Al-Na and the Na-K ratio of melts on partitioning. Starting materials consisted of glasses that were doped with 23 trace elements including some selected rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Lu), high field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) and large ion lithophile elements (Cs, Rb, Ba) and Th and U. The experimental run products were analysed for trace elements using secondary ion mass spectrometry at Heidelberg University. Preliminary results indicate a strong effect of melt composition on trace element partition coefficients. Partition coefficients for rare-earth elements uniformly show a convex-upward shape [2, 3], since titanite accommodates the middle rare-earth elements more readily than the light rare-earth elements or the heavy rare-earth elements. Partition coefficients for the rare-earth elements follow a parabolic trend when plotted against ionic radius. The shape of the parabola is very similar for all studied bulk compositions, the position of the parabola, however, is strongly dependent on bulk composition. For example, isothermal rare-earth element partition coefficients (such as La) are incompatible (D>1) in alkali-poor melt compositions. From our experimental data we present an model that combines

  15. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K

    1974-01-01

    Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.

  16. Some Chemical Group Separations of Radioactive Trace Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1962-06-15

    As a pretreatment for gamma spectrometric analysis methods have been developed for the chemical separation of traces of P, Sc, Ge, As, Se, Br, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Au and Hg into 9 different groups. By combining the present methods with already existing chemical group separation methods for traces of Na, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, In, Fe, Cs, Ba, L.a, the rare earths, W and Ir, a complete separation scheme comprising 15 groups of elements has been worked out. The chemical 15-group separation method has been advantageously used in gamma spectrometric routine analysis of biological materials.

  17. Some Chemical Group Separations of Radioactive Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1962-06-01

    As a pretreatment for gamma spectrometric analysis methods have been developed for the chemical separation of traces of P, Sc, Ge, As, Se, Br, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Au and Hg into 9 different groups. By combining the present methods with already existing chemical group separation methods for traces of Na, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, In, Fe, Cs, Ba, L.a, the rare earths, W and Ir, a complete separation scheme comprising 15 groups of elements has been worked out. The chemical 15-group separation method has been advantageously used in gamma spectrometric routine analysis of biological materials

  18. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  19. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshin, S.S.; Xudong Huang; Olmez, I.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths

  1. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  2. The determination of some trace elements in sulphide concentrates by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, B.J.; Komarkova, E.; Josephson, M.; Cook, E.B.T.; Dixon, K.

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the determination of trace amounts (as low as 1 to 10 p.p.m. depending on the element) of arsenic, germanium, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, tin, and titanium in sulphide concentrates. The proposed methods, which are detailed in the appendices, are adaptations of established procedures that were modified to allow for the complex nature of the concentrates to be analysed

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  4. [Routine comparison of trace element deficiencies during parenteral alimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Cailar, J; Mathieu-Daudé, J C; Kienlen, J; Béssou, D; Griffe, O; Bélé-Binda

    1977-01-01

    In 50 patients aged between 3 and 84 years treated in a multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit and receiving parenteral alimentation, deficiency in certain trace elements or electrolytes (Cu++, Zn++, Mn++, Co++, PO-4, Mg++) was prevented or treated by the administration of a glucose solution (MB 147 G) enriched in trace elements. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate, on the basis of assay of serum levels of the trace elements involved, with the exception of Mn and Co, the effectiveness of treatment. Reference values were determined on the one hand in healthy individuals for normal figures and secondly on subjects included in the study, already on parenteral alimentation for several days, before treatment with MB 147 G, in order to demonstrate the existence of a deficiency (patient control values). In the case of PO--4, however, the patient control values concerned at one and the same time subjects in the study before treatment with MB 147 G and other patients receiving parenteral alimentation who were not part of the trial. MB 147 G solution was presented in units of 500 ml associated with glucose of varying concentrations (15 p. 100, 30 p. 100, 50 p. 100). The average daily amount administered, over a period of 236 days, was 3 unites per 24 hours, corresponding to an intake of copper of 3.78 mg, 3.90 mg of zinc, 0.20 mg of manganese, 0.24 mg of cobalt, 363 mg of magnesium, 240 mg of calcium and 15 mEz of phosphates. The results show that levels of copper, zinc, magnesium and phosphates were low during parenteral alimentation. The administration of MB 147 G resulted in a significant increase in these values, without there being any evidence of accumulation.

  5. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  6. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  7. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

  8. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J E

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  9. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G.

    1999-01-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  10. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  11. A coordination chemistry approach for modeling trace element adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional distribution coefficient, Kd, is highly dependent on the water chemistry and the surface properties of the geological system being studied and is therefore quite inappropriate for use in predictive models. Adsorption, one of the many processes included in Kd values, is described here using a coordination chemistry approach. The concept of adsorption of cationic trace elements by solid hydrous oxides can be applied to natural solids. The adsorption process is thus understood in terms of a classical complexation leading to the formation of surface (heterogeneous) ligands. Applications of this concept to some freshwater, estuarine and marine environments are discussed. (author)

  12. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-01-01

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  13. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  14. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  16. Essential and trace elements in differential pulses, spices and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of bio-chemically important elements for human bodies such as Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Cu in some widely used pulses and spices in Chittagong were determined by using flame photometry and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Similarly, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in some leafy and non-leafy vegetable in Chittagong were determined by the UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The essential elements such as Na, K, Ca and P were found in mg/kg levels. The amounts of trace metal such as Mg, Fe and Cu in pulses and species were just within the range of human necessity. However, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in leafy and non-leafy vegetables were so negligible that they can not be considered as adequate for health, except their food-values constituted by the higher contents of starch. (author)

  17. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Trace elements in lake sediments measured by the PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Luciana V.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Artaxo, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Lakes are ecosystems where there is a great potential of metal accumulation in sediments due to their depositional characteristics. Total concentration of trace elements was measured on a 50 cm long sediment core from the Infernao Lake, that is an oxbow lake of the Moji-Guacu River basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dating of the core shows up to 180 yrs old sediment layers. The use of the PIXE technique for elemental analysis avoids the traditional acid digestion procedure common in other techniques. The multielemental characteristic of PIXE allows a simultaneous determination of about 20 elements in the sediment samples, such as, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Pb. Average values for the elemental composition were found to be similar to the bulk crustal composition. The lake flooding pattern strongly influences the time series of the elemental profiles. Factor analysis of the elemental variability shows five factors. Two of the factors represent the mineralogical matrix, and others represent the organic component, a factor with lead, and another loaded with chromium. The mineralogical component consists of elements such as, Fe, Al, V, Ti, Mn, Ni, K, Zr, Sr, Cu and Zn. The variability of Si is explained by two distinct factors, because it is influenced by two different sources, aluminum-silicates and quartz, and the effect of inundation are different for each other. The organic matter is strongly associated with calcium, and also bounded with S, Zn, Cu and P. Lead and chromium appears as separated factors, although it is not clear the evidences for their anthropogenic origin. The techniques developed for sample preparation and PIXE analysis was proven as advantageous and provided very good reproducibility and accuracy

  19. Isotopic and trace element variability in altered and unaltered tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Spengler, R.W.; Singer, F.R.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Reference stratigraphic sections near Yucca Mountain, Nevada were established and sampled in outcrop areas where the volcanic rocks have been minimally altered. Isotopic and trace element analyses obtained for these reference sections are baseline data for assessing the degree and extent of element mobility attendant with past zonal alteration of the rock mass. In agreement with earlier studies, zeolitization is shown to have occurred under wholesale open-system conditions. Calcium was increased by two three times the baseline values and strontium up to twenty times. In contrast, barium displays less variability, and the high-field strength elements zirconium and titanium were the least mobile during zeolitization. The data reported here establish the usefulness of reference sections of assessing past elements mobility. The information gained will be helpful in predicting possible future element mobility induced by thermally activated fluids in the near field of a potential repository.

  20. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence.

  1. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  2. Fate of trace element haps when applying mercury control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Carolyn M.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Zhuang, Ye; Pavlish, John H. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn; Pletcher, Sara [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 10940, MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    During the past several years, and particularly since the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated in June of 2005, the electric utility industry, product vendors, and the research community have been working diligently to develop and test Hg control strategies for a variety of coal types and plant configurations. Some of these strategies include sorbent injection and chemical additives designed to increase mercury capture efficiency in particulate control devices. These strategies have the potential to impact the fate of other inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which typically include As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sb. To evaluate this impact, flue gas samples using EPA Method 29, along with representative coal and ash samples, were collected during recent pilot-scale and field test projects that were evaluating Hg control technologies. These test programs included a range of fuel types with varying trace element concentrations, along with different combustion systems and particulate control devices. The results show that the majority of the trace element HAPs are associated with the particulate matter in the flue gas, except for Se. However, for five of the six projects, Se partitioning was shifted to the particulate phase and total emissions reduced when Hg control technologies were applied. (author)

  3. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  4. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  5. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleggaar, C.M.; Van As, D.; Watkins, J.L.; Mingay, D.W.; Wells, R.B.; Briggs, A.B.; Louw, C.W.

    1980-10-01

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites [af

  6. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  7. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyarko, B.J.B. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)], E-mail: bjbnyarko@yahoo.co.uk; Bredwa-Mensah, Y. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Dampare, S.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Perbi, A. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Chatt, A. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated.

  8. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S.; Perbi, A.; Chatt, A.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated

  9. Trace element content of ginger and sage medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Larbi, R.; Yagoubi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used to multielemental determination in the Zingiber Officinalis and Salvia Officinalis, plants used in traditional medicine therapy in Algeria and in most countries. The concentrations of five elements Co, Cr, Sc, Sb and Rb have been determined by long irradiation time with 2.13E12 n.cm -2 s -1 thermal flux at NUR Algerian Reactor, all these elements are present at trace level the implication in Human health is discussed. The quality control of the measurements has been evaluated by analysing of HAY (V-10) IAEA - Standard reference material

  10. Activation analysis in a multitechnique study of trace element imbalances in age-related neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Ding, X.X.; Khare, S.S.; Lovell, M.A.; Ni, B.F.; Tandon, L.; Vance, D.E.; Wenstrup, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that several age-related neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be related to environmental toxins. Bulk sample multielemental analyses by INAA alone are not adequate to define the role of trace elements in these diseases. A multitechnique approach has been developed that incorporates 14 MeV, instrumental reactor, radiochemical, and pre-irradiation chemical neutron activation analysis, together with laser microprobe mass spectrometry. The analytical scheme is able to provide bulk or protein normalized elemental concentrations, as well as microstructural, cellular, and subcellular localization information. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Yildirim; Benderli, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. it was evaluated the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it was achieved profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker

  12. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  13. A compilation of silicon, rare earth element and twenty-one other trace element concentrations in the natural river water reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeghicheyan, Delphine; Cloquet, Christophe; Bossy, Cecile; Bouhnik Le Coz, Martine; Douchet, Chantal; Granier, Guy; Heimburger, Alexie; Losno, Remi; Lacan, Francois; Labatut, Marie; Pradoux, Catherine; Lanzanova, Aurelie; Candaudap, Frederic; Chmeleff, Jerome; Rousseau, Tristan C.C.; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Delpoux, Sophie; Tharaud, Mickael; Sivry, Yann; Sonke, Jeroen E.

    2013-01-01

    The natural river water certified reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC) was routinely analysed in this study for major and trace elements by ten French laboratories. Most of the measurements were made using ICP-MS. Because no certified values are assigned by NRC-CNRC for silicon and 35 trace element concentrations (rare earth elements, Ag, B, Bi, Cs, Ga, Ge, Li, Nb, P, Rb, Rh, Re, S, Sc, Sn, Th, Ti, Tl, W, Y and Zr), or for isotopic ratios, we provide a compilation of the concentrations and related uncertainties obtained by the participating laboratories. Strontium isotopic ratios are also given. (authors)

  14. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C R; Casciotti, K A; Dutay, J-C; Heimbürger, L E; Jenkins, W J; Measures, C I; Mills, R A; Obata, H; Schlitzer, R; Tagliabue, A; Turner, D R; Whitby, H

    2016-11-28

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. The evolution of complex type B Allende inclusion - An ion microprobe trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Lundberg, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed trace-element and isotopic analyses of the constituent phases in each of the major textural parts (mantle, core, and islands) of a Type B refractory inclusion, the USNM 5241 inclusion from Allende, first described by El Goresy et al. (1985). The REE data on 5241 were found to be largely consistent with a model in which the mantle and the core of 5241 formed sequentially out of a single melt by fractional crystallization. The numerical models of REE evolution in the 5241 melt, especially that of Eu, require that a significant mass of spinel-free island material was assimilated into the evolving melt during the last half of the solidification history of 5241. The trace element results pbtained thus strongly support the interpretation of El Goresy et al. (1985) that the spinel-free islands in the 5241 are trapped xenoliths.

  17. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions...... was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some....... Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V...

  18. Trace element analysis of old exposed air filters: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Fisher, E.M.R.; Bones, E.M.

    1979-10-01

    A limited number of old exposed air filters from a network of sampling stations extending the length of North and South America have been analysed for many trace elements. (The network is run by the United States Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory). The objective was to assess the possible value of a large program of such measurements for providing information on the trace element concentrations in airborne particulates existing at the time of sample collection. On the basis of the evidence obtained, it is considered that valid information could be extracted in this way. In view of the extent of the store of old filters, which cover about a 10 year period up to the present day from stations spread over the North and South American continents and elsewhere, such a program appears to be well worthwhile. (author)

  19. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  20. The occurrence of potentially hazardous trace elements in five Highveld coals, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Nicola J.; Hlatshwayo, Bafana [Sasol Technology Research and Development, P.O. Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947 (South Africa)

    2005-08-19

    Permian coals of the southern hemisphere are generally considered to contain lower concentrations of sulfides, halogens, and trace elements when compared to northern hemisphere Carboniferous coals. Few studies have considered the trace element content in South African coals, and little or no work has been published for Highveld coals. Of the nineteen coal fields in South Africa, the Highveld coal field is one of the nine currently producing, and is second largest in terms of production. Five run of mine samples and a high ash middlings product from the Number 4 Lower seam were analyzed, totaling six sample sets. Fourteen trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, and Zn) were selected for this study based on the global perception that these elements may be hazardous to human health and/or the environment when they are released during coal utilization. Several sample preparation techniques were tested using certified reference materials (SARMs 18, 19 and 20) to determine the most repeatable technique for these coals. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES and CVAA (Hg only). Microwave digestion proved to be generally unreliable despite the utilization of several different methods. A slurry direct injection method into the ICP-AES provided good correlations with the reference material, but requires further development to enhance the confidence level in this relatively unexplored technique. Samples prepared based on three ASTM standards for the determination of trace elements in coal provided repeatable results in most instances, and were the preparation methods utilized for the Highveld coals. The trace element values determined for the Highveld coals are generally in good agreement with values available in literature for South African coals, with the exception of Hg, Mn and Cr. Hg values reported here are lower, Cr and Mn higher. Results generally agree well with analyses on the same samples conducted by the United States Geological Survey

  1. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Rehman, S.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-01-01

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  2. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  3. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  4. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  5. Trace and toxic elements in foodstuffs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Sumiya, M.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ohmomo, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in several foodstuffs collected in Japan were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and anodic striping voltametry (ASV). The elements analyzed were as follows: Zn, Se, As, Hg, Cs, Cr, Co, Fe, Rb, Br and K by NAA; Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe by ICP-AES; and Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by ASV. Because of the high consumption of rice in Japan, the focus of analysis was on this foodstuff. Concentrations of K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn in different polished rice samples were similar, whereas those of Br, Co, Cs, Rb and Se varied. Levels of toxic elements in polished rice were generally lower than those in other foodstuffs. The highest concentrations of As, Hg, Se and Zn were found in marine products, i.e.. Hijiki-algae (As: 59 mg/kg, dry), tuna (Hg: 1.1 mg/kg, dry), bonito (Se: 4.5 mg/kg, dry) and oysters (Zn: 350 mg/kg, dry). Dietary intakes of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Se and Zn by Japanese were estimated by using these analytical results and published food consumption data in Japan. We have also identified the major sources of the elements in dietary intakes as follows: (a) about 90% of the As was derived from marine products (fish and seaweed); (b) about 70% of the Hg was derived from fish; (c) about 40-60% of the Cd and the Mn and 20-40% of the Zn, Cu and Mg was derived from rice; (d) selenium was mostly derived from fish, meat and eggs; (e) more than 20% of the Ca was derived from milk and milk products; (f) elements such as Fe, K, P and Pb was derived from different sorts of foodstuffs. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. Radiotracer studies on radionuclide and trace element cycling in corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.L.; Acosta, A.; Gattuso, J.P.; Jaubert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microcosm experiments were designed in which microcolonies of three coral species were exposed to gamma-emitting radiotracers of trace metals and radionuclides ( 110 Am, 109 Cd. 57 Cocyanocobalamin, 110 Ag, 134 Cs, 65 Zn, 60 Co, 75 Se, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 54 Mn) to determine uptake and loss as well as distribution in tissue, skeleton and zooxanthellae. Following a seven day exposure in seawater, the degree of uptake (CF = concentration factor) for a given element was highly dependent on species. The highest CF s , in whole colonies were found for 100m Ag(82-172), 57 Co (68-124) and 65 Zn (41-52); the lowest CF s , were noted for the soluble radionuclides Cs (1-2) and Sr (2-9). Low CF s , were recorded in skeleton and increased by roughly an order of magnitude between skeleton, tissue and zooxanthellae. 241 Am is readily taken up by dead skeleton (CF=31-49), whereas in living corals it is preferentially accumulated by the tissue (CF=51-120) which acts as a partial barrier against contamination of the internal skeleton (CF=6-10). The chemical species of the element can also affect uptake by corals, as evidenced by the order of magnitude greater bioaccumulation of organic cobalt compared to the inorganic form in tissues. Once accumulated, some of the elements tested (e.g. Cd, Co) are strongly retained with biological half-lives as long as several months

  7. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  8. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  9. Trace element metabolism in children with Menkes' syndrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1975-11-01

    Menkes' syndrome, or the kinky hair syndrome, is a hereditary, progressive disease caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The basic defect has been attributed to an insufficient intestinal absorption of copper. Observation of typical signs of Menkes' syndrome in neonates, however, indicates the possible presence of a prenatal defect in the metabolism of copper. Very little reliable information is available on the distribution of copper and other trace elements in foetuses of different age, and the sampling of tissue from a foetus suspected of Menkes' disease was therefore supplemented by sampling a number of controls of different gestational age. The analysis of samples from a total of 7 foetuses of 15 - 21 weeks' gestational age was carried out by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation for the elements arsenic, copper, manganese and selenium. The distribution of copper among the organs of the foetus expected to develop Menkes' syndrome was entirely different from the distribution observed in the corresponding controls. In particular, the concentration in the liver was much lower, whereas all other tissues had concentrations above normal. Similar differences were not found for arsenic, manganese and selenium in the foetuses investigated, and the distribution of these elements was not very different from that in adults. These observations do not support the hypothesis of defective intestinal transport of copper as the primary cause of Menkes' syndrome, nor do they indicate an inadequate placental transport of copper to the foetus

  10. Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanxing; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yili; Scott, Christopher A; Yan, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements. In this study, 229 soil samples along six segments of the major transportation routes on the Tibetan Plateau (highways G214, S308, and G109), were collected for analysis of eight trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb). The results of statistical analyses showed that of the eight trace elements in soils, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were primarily derived from traffic. The relationship between the trace element accumulation levels and the distance from the roadside followed an exponential decline, with the exception of Segment 3, the only unpaved gravel road studied. In addition, the distance of influence from the roadside varied by trace element and segment, ranging from 16m to 144m. Background values for each segment were different because of soil heterogeneity, while a number of other potential influencing factors (including traffic volume, road surface material, roadside distance, land cover, terrain, and altitude) all had significant effects on trace-element concentrations. Overall, however, concentrations along most of the road segments investigated were at, or below, levels defined as low on the Nemero Synthesis index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  12. Trace element finger printing of emeralds by PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; Palmer, G.R.; MacArthur, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of 18 major- and minor-elements in 12 Emeralds from different mines and two synthetic ones are measured with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and γ-ray emission (PIGE). The concentration and distribution of 18 elements are used to establish the characteristic finger print pattern of each Emerald. With the help of cluster analysis of SYSTAT statistical package for IBMPC, these finger prints are analysed, from which a quantitative description of the dissimilarities between Emeralds can be given

  13. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  14. Trace elements and antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, E; Näntö, V; Hyörä, H; Vuorinen, K; Erkkola, R

    1986-01-01

    Antibacterial activity and trace element concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) were determined in a population of 39 pregnant women in the second half of gestation. Antibacterial activity in each AF was measured by a spectrophotometric micromethod after 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C using Escherichia coli K 12 as a reference bacterium. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium, potassium and bromine were measured by particle-induced X-ray emission method and the zinc concentration was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phosphate concentration was determined by direct albumin adding method. In AFs with good antibacterial activity significantly lower concentrations of potassium and bromine were found when compared to AFs with lower antibacterial activity. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium or phosphate did not correlate with antibacterial activity in AF.

  15. Global multiplicity of dietary standards for trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Lee, Jane J

    2012-06-01

    Consistent guidelines across the world for dietary standards of trace elements remain elusive. Harmonization of dietary standards has been suggested by international agencies to facilitate consistency in food and nutrition policies and international trade. Yet significant barriers exist to standardize recommendations on a global basis, such as vast differences in geography, food availability and transport; cultural, social and economic constraints, and biological diversity. Simple commonality is precluded further by the variety of terminologies among countries and regions related to diet. Certain unions have created numerous nutritional descriptive categories for standards, while other large countries are limited to only a few. This paper will explore the global multiplicity of dietary standards and efforts for harmonization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption of trace elements of radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs + , Rb + ) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag + , divalent cations (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ ) or trivalent cations (Cr 3+ , La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ ) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. The differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are also explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides. (author) 40 refs.; 9 figs

  17. Nutrient and other trace elements in instant soups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Instant soups are a new group of dried foods and will play an important role in the nutrition of people because they fulfill present and future social consumer requirements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work to determine the trace elements cesium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, strontium, silver and zinc in instant and long-time soups from the Greek market. According to our results, instant soups have the same iron content as those reported in the literature for bovine muscle, rice, legumes, porcine muscle and some meat products. Instant soup zinc content is the same as those reported for avian muscle, onions, rice, potatoes and sausages. Moreover the consumption of one plateful of instant soup offers to the human body about 8% of the daily required iron and about 2% of the daily required zinc. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  18. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ"1"5N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  19. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  20. Mechanism of Uptake of Trace Elements by Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1965-01-01

    MECHANISM OF UPTAKE OF TRACE ELEMENTS BY PLANTS (EXPERIMENTS WlTH RADIOZINC). Some authors have assumed that the uptake of (essential or non-essential) trace elements by plants is due to active transport, and therefore needs metabolic energy. In our laboratory it has been found that the uptake of zinc (“6”5Zn) by chlorella and barley roots is, in the main, a passive process, and is based largely on ion exchange. In these experiments the Zn system contrasted sharply with actively transporting systems, e. g. the K system, although the extent of accumulation may be similar: (1) decouplers (DNP, azide) or anaerobiosis do not depress the uptake of Zn: (2) plants killed by grinding, freezing or alcohol treatment take up more Zn than living plants: (3) the temperature coefficient of the Zn uptake is small: (4) many ions compete with Zn, i.e. the uptake is unspecific. We have measured - primarily with dead cells, where equilibria are reached easily - the competition of several foreign ions with radiozinc at fixed pH (usually 6). These values have been compared with analogous values obtained with radiozinc (and verified with radiocopper) in respect to cation exchange resins. It is concluded from the sequence of the different ions that the active sites in the cells are mainly carboxyl groups. Probably most of the ‘exchanger’ consists of carbohydrate derivatives in the cell wall, i.e. in the ‘free space’, However, both by Langmuir analysis of the observed ‘uptake isotherm’ and by radiochemical work with partly blocked material, sites with anomalous affinity to Zn have been demonstrated. These may be imidazol groups in the proteins known to bind zinc strongly by complexation. (author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  2. Spatial Distribution of Trace Elements in Rice Field at Prafi District Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aplena Elen S. Bless

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial variability of trace elements in rice Ḁeld is necessary to obtain soil quality information to en-hance rice production. ἀis study was aimed to measure concentration and distribution of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cd in two diᴀerent sites (SP1, SP2 of PraḀ rice Ḁeld in Manokwari West Papua. ἀe representative 26 soil samples were analysed for their available trace metal concentration (DTPA, soil pH, and C-organic and soil texture. ἀe result indicated that Fe toxicity and Zn deḀcient problems were encountered in both sites.  Rice Ḁeld in SP2 was more deḀcient in Zn than SP1. Site with the highest trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cd concentration had low soil pH and high C-organic. Acidic soil has higher solubility of metals; while high C-organic could improve the formation of dissolve organic carbon-metal binding, hence it improving the trace metals concentration in soil solution.

  3. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements

  4. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G V; Tandon, L

    1999-07-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  5. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Tandon, L.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  6. Determination of trace and ultra-trace elements in Dergaon meteorite by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaram, V.; Gnaneswara Rao, T.; Anjaiah, K.V.; Phukon, N.; Majumdar, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed methodology for high precision measurement of several trace and ultra-trace elements including REE and PGE have been presented using effective sample preparation techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discussion is focussed on aspects, such as total dissolution and recovery of all elements, minimization of oxide and doubly-charged and other polyatomic ion interferences, calibration by matrix matching standards, accuracy and precision

  7. Finite element analyses for RF photoinjector gun cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhauser, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details electromagnetical, thermal and structural 3D Finite Element Analyses (FEA) for normal conducting RF photoinjector gun cavities. The simulation methods are described extensively. Achieved results are presented. (orig.)

  8. Finite element analyses for RF photoinjector gun cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, F. [Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft fuer Synchrotronstrahlung mbH (BESSY), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper details electromagnetical, thermal and structural 3D Finite Element Analyses (FEA) for normal conducting RF photoinjector gun cavities. The simulation methods are described extensively. Achieved results are presented. (orig.)

  9. use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Abstract. This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, ...

  10. Major and trace elements in coal bottom ash at different oxy coal combustion conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of temperature on the concentration of 27 major and trace elements in bottom ash generated from oxy fuel-combustion. The major elements are Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca and Fe and the minor and trace elements...

  11. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Da; Qiu Zhijun; Lu Rongrong; Qiu Huiyuan; Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analytical sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust of Shanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its corresponding x-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There are many kinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harmful to people, such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. The authors found that the lead concentration was 6820 μg/g and the bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leaded gasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. The authors have also detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its content varies from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highest reached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while the leaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to the human beings

  12. Determination of trace elements by resonant ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruster, W.; Ames, F.; Rehklau, D.; Mang, M.; Muehleck, C.; Rimke, H.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant ionization mass spectrometer has been developed as an analytical tool for the detection of trace elements, especially of plutonium and other radionuclides. The sample, deposited on a rhenium filament, is evaporated by electrical heating and the atoms of the element under investigation are selectively ionized by laser light delivered from three dye lasers pumped by a copper vapour laser. The resulting photoions are detected in a time-of-flight spectrometer with a channelplate detector. For plutonium a mass resolution of M/ΔM=1500 was obtained and an overall detection efficiency of 4x10 -6 was determined for stepwise excitation and ionization via autoionizing states. With a laser light bandwidth of 3-5 GHz neighbouring isotopes could be suppressed by a factor of 20 due to isotope shifts in the excitation transitions. The isotope composition of synthetic samples was measured and good agreement was found with mass spectroscopic results. The influence of the hyperfine structure on the isotope ratios is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E.; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  14. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E. [Hydroconsult SRL, Asuncion (Paraguay); Kump, P. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  15. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelations support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based orginally in Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 ratios. The correspondence between Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotopic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 relations were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of nonintermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator. 4 figures, 4 tables, 12 references

  16. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  17. Determination of trace elements in dried sea-plant homogenate (SP-M-1) and in dried copepod homogenate (MA-A-1) by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bruin, M. de.

    1977-07-01

    Two marine environmental reference materials were investigated in an intercalibration study of trace elements. According to the specifications from the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco two samples, a sea-plant homogenate and a copepod homogenate, were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The results of the trace-element analyses were based on dry weight. The moisture content was measured on separate aliquots. For the intercalibration study the following elements were listed as elements of primary interest: mercury, cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, silver, iron and nickel. For the 14 elements normally analysed with the routine destructive method, the element gold could not be measured in the two marine samples. This was due to the high residual bromine-82 activity in fraction 13, which contains gold that distills over. With the nondestructive method, nine elements could be assessed, of which only three coincide with the 14 elements of the destructive method. A survey of all measured (trace) elements is presented. The 20 (trace) elements measured in the sea-plant homogenate and in the copepod homogenate comprise 8 out of the 10 trace elements of primary interest, all 5 trace elements of secondary interest (arsenic, cobalt, antimony, selenium and vanadium), and 5 additional (trace) elements. The trace-element determination in both marine biological materials via the destructive procedure was carried out in twelve-fold. In the nondestructive procedure quadruple measurements were performed. For all trace-element levels analysed an average value was calculated

  18. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  19. Interlaboratory quality assurance studies: Their use in certifying natural waters for major constituents and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkema, H.; Simser, J.; Hjelm, L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental programs throughout North America have demonstrated a strong awareness of the usefulness of interlaboratory studies for disclosing the quality of analytical results. The Ecosystem Interlaboratory Quality Assurance Program offered by the National Water Research Institute has a wide participation base of laboratories. Many of these laboratories are accredited and employ a number of recognized analytical methods. The interlaboratory study data archives contain a wealth of data for natural surface and rain waters from across the continent. These archives have proven to be a reliable means of characterizing a variety of constituents. Data assessments from these studies accurately identify the variability of data and the presence of any outliers. Repeated use of selected samples in a regular QA program confirms their stability. Time charts and statistical techniques are used to illustrate this stability and yield the precision of pooled analyses. The availability of archived data from interlaboratory studies has enabled the Institute to develop and certify natural water and trace element standards. The natural water CRM, ION-911, has been available for several years. Its historical aspects are discussed as well as the processes leading to the certification of TMRain-95, a soft water standard certifying 22 trace elements. This paper focuses on the use of select laboratories in round-robin evaluations to provide accurate values for constituent concentrations. Natural water and fortified trace element CRMs meet a recognized need in the generation of accurate data for environmental programs. (orig.)

  20. Trace elements in tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites: Geochemical controls and exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W.L.; Slack, J.F.; Ramsden, A.R.; Win, T.T.; Ryan, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element contents of tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites have been determined in situ by proton microprobe; >390 analyses were acquired from 32 polished thin sections. Concentrations of trace elements in the tourmalines vary widely, from Sr, Ba, and Ca). Base metal proportions in the tourmalines show systematic patterns on ternary Cu-Pb-Zn diagrams that correlate well with the major commodity metals in the associated massive sulfide deposits. For example, data for tourmalines from Cu-Zn deposits (e.g., Ming mine, Newfoundland) fall mainly on the Cu-Zn join, whereas those from Pb-Zn deposits (e.g., Broken Hill, Australia) plot on the Pb-Zn join; no data fall on the Cu-Pb join, consistent with the lack of this metal association in massive sulfide deposits. The systematic relationship between base metal proportions in the tourmalines and the metallogeny of the host massive sulfide deposits indicates that the analyzed tourmalines retain a strong chemical signature of their original hydrothermal formation, in spite of variable metamorphic recrystallization. Such trace element patterns in massive sulfide tourmalines may be useful in mineral exploration, specifically for the evaluation of tourmaline concentrations in rocks, soils, and stream sediments.

  1. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.. Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes.

  2. Trace element modelling of magma evolution in the Fongen-Hyllingen Intrusion, Trondheim region, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed A Abu El-Rus

    2003-01-01

    The trace element evolution of the Fongen-Hyllingen Intrusion has been studied on the basis of ICPMS analyses of 21 whole rocks and 12 plagioclase separates. Emphasis has been placed on Stage IV of the intrusion that crystallized essentially after magma addition had ceased. Whereas the compositions of minerals and rocks in Stage IV exhibit strong normal fractionation trends, crustal contamination is evident in a wide range of incompatible element ratios that should be relatively constant if simple fractional crystallization prevailed. Crustal contamination in Stage IV is confirmed by isotopic studies. The distribution of incompatible elements in Stage IV can be successfully explained by AFC modelling. Olivine compositions and isotopic ratios in the most primitive cumulates together with the slight LREE-enrichment in their coexisting melts suggest that the FHI parental magma was subjected to at least olivine fractionation during ascent to the magma chamber. This resulted in a decrease in the Mg-number of the melt without changing its isotopic ratio and incompatible trace element ratios. The slight enrichment in LREE and relatively low Zr/Y ratios in the melt coexisting with the most primitive cumulates imply that the FHI primary melt was derived from garnet-free mantle. The relative abundance of incompatible elements in the most primitive calculated melts, geochemically similar to low-Ti continental flood basalts, suggest that a subcontinental mantle source was most probable for the parental melt for FHI. (author)

  3. Oceanic distribution and geochemistry of several trace elements at GEOSECS stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The biogeochemical and physical processes operating in the oceans create substantial geographical and vertical variations in the oceanic distribution of many trace elements. These variations are brought about by diverse mechanisms and involve trace elements of a wide spectrum of physicochemical and biological behavior. Thus, a knowledge of these trace element distributions can help characterize some of the ocean processes in which they participate. (auth)

  4. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  6. Trace Elements in Marine Sediment and Organisms in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms. PMID:29677146

  7. Distribution of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern delta, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Elreedy, W.; Nada, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution pattern of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern Nile delta indicate general trend of increasing trace element concentration from west and south to North and east direction. This trend is most probably due to extensive leaching from the soil due to recharge from irrigation water. The geochemical correlation among trace elements was also investigated. Possible industrial pollution in bahtim area was detected.1 fig.,4 tab

  8. Application of hair as an indicator for trace element exposure in man. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of what is known from the literature on the use of hair as a bioindicator for trace elements. It is split into two parts: The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body and the contribution of studies in animals to the application of hair as an indicator for metals and trace elements in man. A separate abstract is prepared for each part. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2018-02-01

    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  10. Neutron activation studies of trace elements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tout, R.E.; Gilboy, W.B.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    The levels of twelve elements most of which are either considered essential to plant growth or have been detected in air filter samples in an air pollution survey have been monitored in three transverse sections of trees, two elms (ring-porous trees) and one cedar (a conifer). An irradiation time of 10 minutes and a waiting time of 1 minute were selected followed by a 10-minute count. The activated samples were placed on a specially shaped perspex disc situated on a 45-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The gamma-ray spectra were subsequently analysed on a 6600 computer, using the library program 'SAMPO' to which subroutines have been added for peak identification and for calculating the mass of elements present. All irradiations were carried out using a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . Two dimensional distributions of the elements around the tree rings of the section and radially from ring to ring, have been obtained to see if tree rings can be analysed for use as a record of historical pollution. Definite movement of most of these elements between the two main parts of the xylem has occured in all three trees. This makes it seem unlikely that any pollution products taken up from the atmosphere would be retained in the same ring in which they were originally accumulated. Exceptions may occur in the sapwood rings, where a few elements, especially Cl, show directional peaks which do not persist in the heartwood. (T.G.)

  11. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  12. Active moss biomonitoring of trace elements with Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition in Belgrade, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Mijic, Z.; Popovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss bags was used to examine trace element atmospheric deposition in the urban area of Belgrade. The element accumulation capability of Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow was tested in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition. Moss bags were mounted for five 3-month periods (July 2005-October 2006) at three representative urban sites. For the same period monthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected. The concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses and atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant accumulation of most elements occurred in the exposed moss bags compared with the initial moss content. High correlations between the elements in moss and bulk deposits were found for V, Cu, As, and Ni. The enrichment factors of the elements for both types of monitor followed the same pattern at the corresponding sites. - Accumulated trace elements in the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii reflect atmospheric deposition

  13. Trace element assessment of low-alloy and stainless steels with reference to gamma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Macmahon, T.D.; Gamberini, D.; Taylor, J.M.; Duggan, F.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the long-lived gamma activities leading to radiation exposure during dismantling operations it is necessary to know the likely trace element content of the reactor vessel and internals. This work has been concerned with measuring the elements Ni, Nb, Mo, Co, Ag, Eu, Sm and Ho in steels, with particular reference to light-water reactors. Various steel samples have been provided by organizations in Europe. Analyses have been carried out principally by neutron activation analysis, but also by atomic absorption (AA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and secondary ion microprobe spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses for Ni, Mo and Co were straightforward and results agreed with analyses carried out elsewhere. A variety of techniques were employed for Nb; ICP was the most successful and results were confirmed using SIMS. In the case of Ag only flameless AA yielded results for all samples. The low concentration of rare earth elements required the development of a preliminary ion exchange technique. Low-alloy steels examined had Nb concentrations less than 10 ppm. Ag levels in the vicinity of 1 ppm were found in all steel samples, indicating that Ag may be the most significant element at long cooling times. Rare earth concentrations from this and other work indicate that these elements are unlikely to give gamma activities exceeding those of 60 Co, 59 Ni, sup(108m)Ag and 94 Nb activities. Illustrative gamma activity decay calculations using the Origen code are presented

  14. Conditioning of traced rock section for diffusion profile analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewonck, S.; Auriere, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The French National Agency for radioactive waste management investigates for a high-level radioactive waste repository in deep geological formation. The Andra's disposal concept is based notably on the impermeable properties of the host rock barrier (the Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone of the Eastern Paris Basin). Diffusion is assumed to be the main transport mechanism governing radionuclide migration through argillite. Diffusion properties were measured in situ, in the constrained rock, by experiments taken place at the Andra's Underground Research Laboratory. The diffusion experiments consist in injecting a traced solution as pulse, in a packed-off borehole interval, at a pressure similar of the hydraulic pressure of the rock. After several months of circulation, the traced solution is purged and the downhole equipment is dismantled. With a drilling machine, the overcoring of the rock section around the injection interval is performed to analyze the repartition of the radionuclides in the clay section. Totally new technical developments were necessary to make these tasks possible. This contribution reports on: - the method developed to going up the over-core from the gallery to the surface without damaging the traced clay section and avoiding any contamination of the underground installation by dust particles, - the specific room created to sampling the rock section in diffusion profiles with respect of radioprotection laws. In gallery, the over-core is extracted from the core barrel directly to a metallic box especially built to transport the clay section to the surface. This box is a good confining device avoiding all radioactive contamination of the galleries and the shaft. Moreover, this box made in iron decrease the dose equivalent rate and consecutively it's not necessary to have safety classification to transport the core. When the over-core is in the radioactive cutting room, technicians have

  15. Analysis of toxic trace elements in sea food samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Wood, A.K.; Hamzah, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of toxic and essential trace element were analysed such as As, Hg, Se and Zn by neutron activation analysis in coastal fishes consumed by the general population of Malaysia. The mean values of the elements analysed expressed in mg/kg fresh weight ranged 1.42-5.61, 0.06-0.42, 4.2-20.6, 0.41-1.28 for As, Hg, Zn and Se, respectively. The maximum permissible limit for As in food was set at 1.0 mg/kg under the Malaysian Food Regulations. The results showed that consumption of coastal fishes is not permitted under the regulations, while the levels of Hg, Se and Zn were within the permissible limits. The daily dietary intake of As and Hg at 400 μg and 30 μg respectively are still within the tolerance levels. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.

    1995-09-01

    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  17. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  18. Trace elements in a North Sea drill core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Gwozdz, R.; Svendsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    , V, Sr, Dy, Mg, Ti, Ba and Eu. The major elements Ca and Al could be related to petrophysical parameters, particularly Al which shows a correlation with the silicification/argillaceous content. Na (and Cl) has a low content in the hydrocarbon-bearing section of the drill core suggesting that the pore......Chalk samples, systematically taken along a drill core from one of the hydrocarbon producing fields of the North Sea (Tyra field), were analysed by a neutron activation technique involving measurement of radioisotopes with relatively short half-lives. Elements determined include Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Mn...... space is filled mainly by hydrocarbons. A significant decrease of Mn with depth probably suggests diagenesis of chalk prior to, or with, hydrocarbon emplacement. Investigations of drilling fluids and cuttings reveal a strong contamination of the latter, mainly by Ba. Chalk data from comparable onshore...

  19. Seasonally-resolved trace element concentrations in stalagmites from a shallow cave in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, N.; Banner, J.; Miller, N. R.; Carlson, P. E.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution (sub-annual/seasonal) paleoclimate records extending beyond the instrumental period are required to test climate models and better understand how climate warming/cooling and wetting/drying are manifested seasonally. This is particularly the case for areas such as the southwest United States where precipitation and temperature seasonality dictate the regional climate. Study of a 20thcentury stalagmite (Carlson et al., in prep) documented (1) seasonal variation in trace element compositions of a stalagmite from a shallow, well-ventilated cave and (2) demonstrated the seasonal variation in stalagmite Mg to be in agreement with predicted temperature-dependent fractionation between water and calcite. The seasonal nature of variability was constrained by monitoring the cave on a monthly basis (Casteel and Banner, 2015; Carlson et al., in prep). Here we expand on using stalagmites from shallow, well-ventilated caves as archives of seasonally-resolved climate recorders by studying trace element variations in two coeval modern stalagmites (SBFC-1 and SBFC-2) cored from Sitting Bull Falls, southern New Mexico. Seasonal cycles will be confirmed by analyzing Mg, Ba, and Sr in in-situ calcite precipitated on artificial substrates as available (July, Sept., and Nov. 2017). The chronology is constrained by semi-automated peak counting and 14C bomb-peak. In addition, principal component analyses of trace element data identify two primary underlying modes of trace element variability for soil-derived elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) and bedrock-derived elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba). We hypothesize that the soil-derived elements are transported by seasonal infiltration of organic colloids and the bedrock-derived elements are ­­controlled by variability in cave air temperature, drip water, and calcite growth rate. The two modes of variability will be calibrated against instrumental data over the 20th century. When complete, these new seasonally resolved proxy records will

  20. Trace element fluxes during the last 100 years in sediment near a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Sánchez, S.; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J.; Ruiz-Fernández, A. C.; Sánchez-González, A.; Sánchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Bojórquez-Leyva, H.; Pérez-Bernal, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    The Salada coastal lagoon is located in Veracruz (Mexico) near the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP). Currently, the lagoon receives the cooling waters used in the LVNPP. To evaluate the fluxes and mobilization of trace elements due to human activities in the area, two sediment cores from the coastal flood plains of Salada Lagoon were analysed. Cores were collected using PVC tubes. Sediments cores were analysed every centimetre for dating (210Pb by alpha detector) and trace metal analysis using ICP-Mass Spectrometry. The dating of both sediment cores covers the period from 1900 to 2013, which includes the construction of the LVNPP (1970's). The Normalized Enrichment Factor shows enrichment of Ag, As and Cr in both sediment cores. These enrichments correspond to the extent of mining activity (which reached a maximum in the 1900's) and to the geological setting of the coastal zone. The profiles of the element fluxes in both sediment cores reflected the construction and operation of the LVNPP; however, the elements content did not show evidence of pollution coming from the LVNPP.

  1. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  2. Trace element analysis in an optimized set-up for total reflection PIXE (TPIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kan, J.A.; Vis, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    A newly constructed chamber for measuring with MeV proton beams at small incidence angles (0 to 35 mrad) is used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers, quartz substrates and perspex. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Using these large solid angles in combination with the reduction of bremsstrahlungs background, lower limits of detection (LOD) using TPIXE can be obtained as compared with PIXE in the conventional geometry. Standard solutions are used to determine the LODs obtainable with TPIXE in the optimized set-up. These solutions contain traces of As and Sr with concentrations down to 20 ppb in an insulin solution. The limits of detection found are compared with earlier ones obtained with TPIXE in a non optimized set-up and with TXRF results. (author)

  3. Spatial patterns of some trace elements in four Swedish stream networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Temnerud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four river basins in southern Sweden, with catchment sizes from 0.3 to 127 km2 (median 1.9, were sampled in October~2007. The 243 samples were analysed for 26 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, In, La, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, Ti, U, V and Zn to identify spatial patterns within drainage networks. The range and median of each element were defined for different stream orders, and relationships to catchment characteristics, including deposition history, were explored. The sampling design made it possible to compare the differences along 40 stream reaches, above and below 53 stream junctions with 107 tributaries and between the 77 inlets and outlets of 36 lakes. The largest concentration differences (at reaches, junctions and lakes were observed for lakes, with outlets usually having lower concentration compared to the inlets for As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Ga, Ge, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn. Significantly lower concentrations were observed for Cd and Co when comparing headwaters with downstream sites in each catchment. Common factor analysis (FA revealed that As, Bi, Cr, Ga, Ge, Tl and V co-vary positively with Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC and negatively with La, Li and pH. The strong removal of a large number of trace elements when passing through lakes is evident though in the FA, where lake surface coverage plots opposite to many of those elements. Forest volume does not respond in a similar systematic fashion and, surprisingly, the amount of wetland does not relate strongly to either Fe or TOC at any of the rivers. A better understanding of the quantitative removal of organic carbon and iron will aid in understanding trace element fluxes from landscapes rich in organic matter and iron.

  4. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  5. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Shane A; Landry, Guillaume; Van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11–30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect ( 3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D 90 ) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. (paper)

  6. The separation of trace elements in manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.; Dixon, K.

    1981-01-01

    Separations from manganese are discribed for (a)Al(III), Mo(VI), V(V), and Ti(IV), and (b)trace elements in general. In the first separation, a combined anion-cation exchange, the oxalate complexes are absorbed onto the anionic BIO.RAD 1-X8 resin. V(V) and Al(III) are then eluted into a cation-exchange column from which they are eluted successively, Mo(VI) and Ti(IV) then being eluted from the anionic resin. In the second separation, up to 2g of manganese is absorbed onto BIO.RAD AG 50W-X8 resin, from which V(V) is eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid prior to the elution of Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), As(III), Sb(III), Mo(VI), W(VI), and Sn(II) with a mixture of 1 M hydrochloric acid, 80 per cent acetone, and 0,1 per cent hydrogen peroxide. Mn(11) is eluted next with a mixture of 0,75M hydrochloric acid and 90 per cent acetone, after which the remaining cations are eluted with 4M hydrochloric acid. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 0,8 to 60 mg/l were obtained for 18 of the 21 elements tested. After concentration by evaporation, final measurements were made by the use of atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, or direct-reading spectrometry with excitation from an inductively coupled plasma source. Comparative results were obtained with atomic-absorption procedures where the manganese was not separated. However, the separation procedure can reduce the time required for analysis by the direct method because it limits the number of dilutions necessary and eliminates the need for the use of the method of additions to compensate for interferences from manganese

  7. Trace element analysis of silicate rocks by XRF. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orihashi, Yuji; Yuhara, Masaki; Kagami, Hiroo; Honma, Hiroji

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of six trace elements (Ce, Ba, Ga, Co, Cr, V) in silicate rocks has been investigated, using pressed powder pellets. Ga analysis was performed using a Cr tube, whereas a Au tube was used for the remaining five elements. Corrections were made for the interference of BaKα on CeKα, FeKβ on CoKα, CrKα on VKβ and VKα on TiKβ. Mass absorption functions were estimated from background intensities at 2θ=35.5deg and that of FeKα at wavelengths longer than the iron absorption edge for a Au tube, and from the value of net intensity/background one for a Cr tube. Calibration lines were constructed using twenty-four U.S. Geological Survey and Geological Survey of Japan igneous rock reference samples. For each line, the correction coefficient is greater than 0.993 except for Ga and Ce (>0.985), indicating that the correction and calibration procedures are appropriate for accurate analysis over a wide compositional range. Analytical results for igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic reference samples (U. S. Geological Survey, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, South-African Bureau of Standards) accord well with recommended or proposed values, respectively. The results of this study and those of Orihashi et al. (1993) show Ce, Ba, Nb, Zr, Y, Sr, Rb, Th, Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr and V in silicate rocks can be quantitatively determined by XRF at ISEI. (author)

  8. Trace element metabolism in children with Menkes' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Horn, N.; Mikkelsen, M.; Tygstrup, I.

    1976-04-01

    Menkes' syndrome, or the kinky hair syndrome, is a hereditary, progressive disease caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The basic defect has been attributed to an insufficient intestinal absorption of copper. Observation of typical signs of Menkes' syndrome in neonates, however, indicates the possible presence of a prenatal defect in the metabolism of copper. Very little reliable information is available on the distribution of copper and other trace elements in foetuses of different age. The sampling of tissue from a foetus suspected of Menkes' disease was therefore supplemented by sampling a number of controls of different gestational age. The analysis of samples from a total of 7 foetuses of 15-21 weeks' gestational age was carried out by neutron activation analysis with radio-chemical separation, so that simultaneous determination of Cu, As, Se, and Mn was achieved. The analytical procedure was investigated by the Analysis of Precision, and its performance characteristics was ascertained. Accuracy was checked by the analysis of Standard Reference Materials. As previously described elsewhere, the distribution of copper among the organs analyzed from the foetus expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, is entirely different from the distribution observed in the corresponding controls. In particular, the concentration in the liver was much lower, whereas all other tissues had concentrations above normal. Similar differences were not found for the concentrations of As, Se, and Mn in the foetuses investigated, and the distribution of these elements was not very different from that in adults. These observations do not support the hypothesis of defective intestinal transport of copper as the primary cause of Menkes' syndrome, nor do they indicate an inadequate placental transport of copper to the foetus. Clearly, a search must not be made for a metabolic defect that also affects the intrafoetal transport. (author)

  9. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  10. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  11. Trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials in 'Non-traditional fertilizers' used in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assibey, E. O.

    2013-07-01

    Fertilizers have been implicated for being contaminated with toxic trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) even though they are an indispensable component of our agriculture. This phenomenon of contamination has been investigated and established world-wide in various forms of fertilizers (i.e., granular or 'traditional' type and liquid/powder or 'non-traditional type'). In Ghana, the crop sub-sector has seen a gradual rise in the importation and use of 'non-traditional fertilizers' which are applied to both the foliar parts and roots of plants. This notwithstanding, research on fertilizers has been largely skewed towards the 'traditional' types, focusing principally on the subjects of yield, effects of application and their quality. This study was, therefore, undertaken to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating the levels of trace elements and NORMs found in the 'non-traditional' fertilizers used in Ghana. The principal objective of the study was to investigate the suitability of the 'non-traditional fertilizers' for agricultural purposes with respect to trace elements and NORMs contamination. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis were employed to determine the trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Na, Al, Br, Ni, Cd, As, Hg, Co, Pb, La, Mn, Si, Ca, Cl, S, K, Ba and V) and NORMs ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) concentrations in thirty-nine (39) fertilizer samples taken from two major agro-input hubs in the country (Kumasi-Kejetia and Accra). Multivariate statistical analyses (cluster analysis, principal component analysis and pearson's correlation) were applied to the data obtained in order to identify possible sources of contamination, investigate sample/ parameter affinities and groupings and for fingerprinting. The toxic trace element concentrations determined in all samples were found to be in the order Fe>Cu>Co>Cd>Cr >Ni>Pb>As>Hg. The study found most of the trace elements determined to be within limits set

  12. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Bayat, I.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distillation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br-82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.) [de

  13. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  14. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2013-07-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  15. Trace elemental analysis of human breast cancerous blood by advanced PC-WDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Kainth, Harpreet Singh; Prasher, Puneet; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the trace elements of healthy and non-healthy blood samples by using advanced polychromatic source based wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PC-WDXRF) technique. The imbalances in trace elements present in the human blood directly or indirectly lead to the carcinogenic process. The trace elements 11Na, 12Mg, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 19K, 20Ca, 26Fe, 29Cu and 30Zn are identified and their concentrations are estimated. The experimental results clearly discuss the variation and role of various trace elements present in the non-healthy blood samples relative to the healthy blood samples. These results establish future guidelines to probe the possible roles of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic processes. The instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for measuring the elements in the atomic range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 30 have also been discussed in the present work.

  16. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  17. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  18. Trace elements in the sea surface microlayer: rapid responses to changes in aerosol deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Ebling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic aerosols are a significant source of trace elements to oligotrophic ocean surface waters, where they provide episodic pulses of limiting micronutrients for the microbial community. However, little is known about the fate of trace elements at the air-sea interface, i.e. the sea surface microlayer. In this study, samples of aerosols, sea surface microlayer, and underlying water column were collected in the Florida Keys during a dusty season (July 2014 and non-dusty season (May 2015 and analyzed for the dissolved and particulate elements Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Microlayer samples were collected using a cylinder of ultra-pure SiO2 (quartz glass, a novel adaptation of the glass plate technique. A significant dust deposition event occurred during the 2014 sampling period which resulted in elevated concentrations of trace elements in the microlayer. Residence times in the microlayer from this event ranged from 12 to 94 minutes for dissolved trace elements and from 1.3 to 3.4 minutes for particulate trace elements. These residence times are potentially long enough for the atmospherically derived trace elements to undergo chemical and biological alterations within the microlayer. Characterizing the trace element distributions within the three regimes is an important step towards our overall goals of understanding the rates and mechanisms of the solubilization of trace elements following aeolian dust deposition and how this might affect microorganisms in surface waters.

  19. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  20. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  1. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  2. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei. Determination of trace element concentrations in selected plant material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renan, M.J.; Drennan, B.D.; Keddy, R.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analysis by instrumental neutron activation for the concentration of trace elements in plant materials from certain areas in the Transkei region of southern Africa are presented. These areas are selected for their characteristic high or low incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus. To broaden the suite of elements for which analysed and to overcome some of the limitations of neutron activation analysis, certain other nuclear analyses and methods are suggested which, if utilized, would increase the number of elements determined, and so improve the information available. (author)

  3. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of trace elements in fisheries samples by instrumental neutron and photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Ellis, K.M.; Nimalasiri Desilva, K.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace concentrations of up to 23 elements in fisheries samples. The INAA method consists of irradiations of wet and lyophilized cod muscle and liver samples for three different periods at a flux density of 5x10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and subsequent measurements after four different decay periods using high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of several essential and toxic elements have been determined. Loss of certain elements during lyophilization has been studied. Elemental distribution in muscles and livers as a function of the age of fish has been investigated. Precision and accuracy of the INAA method have been evaluated by analysing replicate samples, National Bureau of Standards' bovine liver standard reference material, and an intercalibration fish flour sample provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. A few fish samples have also been analysed by an alternative method, namely instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA). Elemental concentrations determined by both INAA and IPAA methods are reported here. (author)

  5. Can liming change root anatomy, biomass allocation and trace element distribution among plant parts of Salix × smithiana in trace element-polluted soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2017-08-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are considered to be effective for the phytoremediation of trace elements from contaminated soils, but their efficiency is limited in heavily polluted soils because of poor growth. Liming can be a desirable measure to decrease the plant availability of elements, resulting in improved plant development. Notably, large root area and maximum soil penetration are basic parameters that improve the efficiency of phytoremediation. The impact of soil chemical properties on willow root anatomy and the distribution of trace elements below-ground have rarely been studied. The effect of liming on root parameters, biomass allocation and trace element distribution in non-harvestable (coarse roots, fine roots, stumps) and harvestable plant parts (twigs and leaves) of Salix × smithiana was assessed at the end of a 4-year pot experiment with two trace element-polluted soils that differed in terms of soil pH. Stump biomass predominated in weakly acidic soil. In neutral soil, the majority of biomass was located in fine roots and stumps; the difference from other plant parts was minor. Trace elements were the most concentrated in fine roots. Translocation to above-ground biomass increased as follows: Pb roots roots). Lime application decreased the concentrations of mobile Cd and Zn and related levels in plants, improved biomass production and root parameters and increased the removal of all trace elements in weakly acidic soil. None or minimum differences in the monitored parameters were recorded for dolomite treatments in both soils. The dose and source of liming had crucial effects on root anatomy. Growing willows in limed trace element-polluted soils is a suitable measure for combination of two remediation strategies, i.e. phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and assisted phytostabilization of As and Pb.

  6. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  7. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  8. The deposition of trace elements in the environs of a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbeer, W.C.; Swaine, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fate of trace elements during combustion is discussed, followed by the deposition of trace elements from the atmosphere and from coal firing. Methods of measuring deposition are described. Data from a four year long investigation of deposition around the Wallerawang power station is given. Sphagnum moss was used as a collector. 74 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Biomonitor-Reflection of Large-Distance Air Mass Transported Trace Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques Vieira, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis’ topic is the biomonitoring of atmospheric trace elements with attention focused on the long-range transported trace elements. The aim was to provide improved understanding of aerosol characteristics under the atmospheric transport dynamics of Central North Atlantic at different

  10. Granitoids of South Korea and Southwest Japan. Trace element evidence regarding their differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusue, Akio; Mizuta, Toshio; Tamai, Tadaharu.

    1994-01-01

    Although we have already published our trace element data for granitoids of South Korea and Southwest Japan, and we have interpreted REE patterns and Ba, Rb and Sr relationships of the granitoids (Tsusue et al., 1986, 1987a, 1987b, 1988), we intend to review briefly the trace element data of South Korea and Southwest Japan in this report. (J.P.N.)

  11. Baring the teeth. [Dental caries and the analysis of trace elements in dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaton-Jones, P [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Retief, H [Alabama Univ., Birmingham (USA); Turkstra, J [Fort Hare Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    To determine whether trace elements other than fluorine play a role in the varying prevalences of dental caries in different South African population groups, neutron activation techniques have been devised to establish the concentrations of trace elements in tooth enamel and dentine.

  12. World-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of trace elements in Fucus sample IAEA-140. Report no. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Horvat, M.; Azemard, S.

    1997-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine samples is fundamental to pollution assessment in coastal and marine environments. Analyses of sea plants are important to investigate the uptake of toxic elements along the trophic chain and sea plants may be used as indicators for water pollution and to compare the levels of contamination of different aquatic environments. IAEA. together with UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) work closely with other producers of Reference Materials in order to assure a continuous supply of these vital compounds for quality assurance procedures. A full catalogue of materials is published regularly. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace elements for over twenty years as part of its contribution to IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service, UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. and, occasionally, in association with the IOC GIPME (Global Investigation of the Pollution in the Marine Environment) programme. This report describes the performance of laboratories in one intercomparison run conducted during 1996 that was organized for the determination of trace elements in a marine macro algae (Fucus sp.) sample. This study was intended to give laboratories responsible for trace element analyses of marine materials an opportunity for checking their analytical performance

  13. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva A. M.; Plotitsyna N. F.

    2017-01-01

    The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic (As) in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan) by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air) and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements incl...

  14. EPMA major and trace element analysis in garnet and its petrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, A.; Ruffini, R.; Cossio, R.; Olmi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between major and trace element concentrations in garnet performed by electron microprobe (EPMA) technique is reported. Quantitative spot analyses and x-ray maps of major elements (Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca) and the trace element yttrium in garnets from metamorphic rocks are presented. The selected garnet samples come from meta-pelitic and meta-basic specimens belonging to the tectonic unit of the Monte Rosa Nappe (Western Alps). In the metapelites, the quantitative Y distribution maps display a prominent increase at the core, the Y abundance varying by over two orders of magnitude, from about 80 ppm (rim) to over 2100 ppm. (core). The Y profiles show well defined patterns with sharp features that do not correlate with major element distributions. A roughly comparable pattern can be supposed only with Mn. The Y distribution suggests that the diffusion of Y through the garnet is very slow compared to the major elements, thus the Y results are suitable for geothermometric estimates. In the metabasites, the Y spatial distribution is characterized by an increasing content from the core to the rim, displaying a zoning pattern opposite to the metapelite garnet. Quantitative EPMA analyses range from 1100 ppm at the rim to values lower than the detection limit at the core. Therefore, the Y content in the garnet can be related to several chemical and physical variables such as the bulk rock composition and the phase assemblage. In particular, in the xenotime-bearing metapelitic system the Y distribution seems to be correlated with metamorphic peak temperature. (author)

  15. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New Albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. The results of the results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

  16. Trace element supplementation in the biogas production from wheat stillage--optimization of metal dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    A trace element dosing strategy for the anaerobic digestion of wheat stillage was developed in this study. Mesophilic CSTR reactors were operated with the sulfuric substrate wheat stillage in some cases under trace element deficiency. After supplementing trace elements during the start-up, one of the elements of Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, and W were depleted in one digester while still augmenting the other elements to determine minimum requirements for each element. The depletion of Fe and Ni resulted in a rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids while Co and W seem to have a long-term effect. Based on the results it was possible to reduce the dosing of trace elements, which is positive with reference to economic and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  18. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  19. Trace-element speciation and partitioning in environmental geochemistry and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.G.; Gibson, M.J.; Lovell, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    Establishment of the chemical form and associations of trace elements is important in the scientifc and medical fields related to environmental geochemistry and health. Fundamental understanding of trace-element behavior, the realistic formulation of historical perspectives of trace-element contamination, an assessment of environmental transformation processes and a thorough appraisal of environment-related ill health and disease all depend on knowledge of the chemical speciation and partitioning of trace elements. These topics and the development of analytical speciation techniques and procedures are discussed with reference to trace-element studies in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, on lacustrine sediments and water, the atmosphere, soil and street dirt of an urban environment, and human biological fluids. 206 references, 4 figures.

  20. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Elemental abundance analyses of three mercury-manganese stars were performed in a manner consistent with previous analyses of this series. A few correlations are found between the derived abundances and with the effective temperature in accordance with the expectations of radiative diffusion explanations of the derived abundances. The helium abundances are smaller than the value required to sustain the superficial helium convection zone in the atmospheres of these stars. (author)

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MUSCLE AND ORGANS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    revealed organ specific distribution of trace metals in Tilapia, which has been discussed .... The concentrations of copper (Table 2) varied from 1.68–4.95 in muscle, .... The lead concentrations in muscle and organs of Tilapia from both lakes were comparable. ... A, D and K, trace minerals, and essential fats and amino acids.

  2. Distribution and significance of trace element pollutants in hair of the Iraqi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahristani, H.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair is an excellent indicator of man's exposure to trace element environmental pollutants. Several hundred human head-hair samples were randomly collected from various regions of Iraq representing the general population. These were analysed by thermal neutron activation analysis and the following elements were instrumentally determined: Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Au, Hg, Th and U. The average concentrations of these elements and the frequency distributions among the population are given and compared with concentrations from other regions of the world. Except for Br, the elemental concentrations determined for this population are, in general, similar to those reported for other areas. The low consumption of sea foods in Iraq is perhaps the cause of this anomaly. For certain population groups, high levels of Hg, Au, Cr and Se have been measured and the causes are discussed. In certain cases when exposure to a pollutant has taken place, it is shown that the biological half-life of the element in man can be determined by following the concentration variation along the hair strand. The ratio of the concentration in hair to the average body concentration as well as the total body-burden of the element are also determined from these curves. For methylmercury, the average biological half-life in man was found to be 72 days and the ratio of concentration in hair to average body concentration to be 137. (author)

  3. Trace elements of concern affecting urban agriculture in industrialized areas: A multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, C; Matanzas, N; García-González, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R

    2017-09-01

    The urban and peri-urban soils used for agriculture could be contaminated by atmospheric deposition or industrial releases, thus raising concerns about the potential risk to public health. Here we propose a method to evaluate potential soil pollution based on multivariate statistics, geostatistics (kriging), a novel soil pollution index, and bioavailability assessments. This approach was tested in two districts of a highly populated and industrialized city (Gijón, Spain). The soils showed anomalous content of several trace elements, such as As and Pb (up to 80 and 585 mg kg -1 respectively). In addition, factor analyses associated these elements with anthropogenic activity, whereas other elements were attributed to natural sources. Subsequent clustering also facilitated the differentiation between the northern area studied (only limited Pb pollution found) and the southern area (pattern of coal combustion, including simultaneous anomalies of trace elements and benzo(a)pyrene). A normalized soil pollution index (SPI) was calculated by kriging, using only the elements falling above threshold levels; therefore point-source polluted zones in the northern area and diffuse contamination in the south were identified. In addition, in the six mapping units with the highest SPIs of the fifty studied, we observed low bioavailability for most of the elements that surpassed the threshold levels. However, some anomalies of Pb contents and the pollution fingerprint in the central area of the southern grid call for further site-specific studies. On the whole, the combination of a multivariate (geo) statistic approach and a bioavailability assessment allowed us to efficiently identify sources of contamination and potential risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Karius, Volker; Luettge, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  5. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Cornelius, E-mail: cornelius@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Karius, Volker [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Luettge, Andreas [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  6. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-10-16

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  7. Semi-quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of elements in igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.Q. da; Eichhoff, H.-J.

    1982-01-01

    A semi-quantitative spectrographic technique based on Harveys'method, using background radiation as internal standard is described for the analysis of trace elements in igneous rocks by the total energy method. A certain amount of the sample was completely vapourized in a DC arc with anodic excitation under argon and oxygen atmosphere, using graphite electrodes of standard dimensions. In the processed film, selected lines and adjancent backgrounds were evaluated by densitometry and the corresponding intensity ratios were calculated. Sensitivity factors were determined for the analytical lines of Co, Cu, Ga, Ni, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Zn, and Zr in geological standards (G-2, BCR-1, AGV-1, GSP-1) from the United States Geological Survey. Matrix effects between samples and standards were minimized by using the above mentioned geological standards. An average value of the sensitivity factors was employed for the calculation of the concentration of the elements in the samples. A comparison between the results obtained by this method and those from the analysis of zinc by atomic absorption is presented. This method enabled the analyses of igneous rock samples having SiO2 contents between 40 and 80%, with an error in the determinations of trace elements less than 30%.(Author) [pt

  8. Trace elements mobility in soils from the hydrothermal area of Nisyros (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Daskalopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nisyros Island, Greece, is a stratovolcano known for its intense hydrothermal activity. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field campaign, soil samples were collected in the caldera area to determinate the main mineralogical assemblages and to investigate the distribution of trace element concentrations and the possible relationship to the contribution of fluids of deep origin. Soil samples were analysed with XRD and for the chemical composition of their leachable (deionized water and pseudo total (microwave digestion fraction both for major and trace elements. The results allow to divide the samples in 2 groups: Lakki Plain and Stefanos Crater. The latter, where a fumarolic area is located, shows a mineralogical assemblage dominated by phases typical of hydrothermal alteration. Their very low pH values (1.9 – 3.4 show the strong impact of fumarolic gases which are probably also the cause of strong enrichments in these soils of highly volatile elements like S, As, Se, Bi, Sb, Tl and Te. 

  9. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  10. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.

    1981-01-01

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  11. A survey of atmospheric trace elements in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1976-08-01

    Concentrations of some 36 trace and major elements were measured in air particulate, rainwater and dry deposition samples collected each month at seven non-urban sites in the U.K. from January to December 1975. The samples were bulked for analysis each quarter year, and the majority were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main objectives were to provide information on concentrations of elements in air to compare with urban measurements, to study the longer term trends in atmospheric concentrations, and to record the deposition inventory to the ground. Continuity of data from the sampling station network has been maintained since January 1972, but at the Wraymires site in north-west England operations began one year earlier. (author)

  12. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  13. To analyse a trace or not? Evaluating the decision-making process in the criminal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Ribaux, Olivier; Albertini, Nicola; Delémont, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    In order to broaden our knowledge and understanding of the decision steps in the criminal investigation process, we started by evaluating the decision to analyse a trace and the factors involved in this decision step. This decision step is embedded in the complete criminal investigation process, involving multiple decision and triaging steps. Considering robbery cases occurring in a geographic region during a 2-year-period, we have studied the factors influencing the decision to submit biological traces, directly sampled on the scene of the robbery or on collected objects, for analysis. The factors were categorised into five knowledge dimensions: strategic, immediate, physical, criminal and utility and decision tree analysis was carried out. Factors in each category played a role in the decision to analyse a biological trace. Interestingly, factors involving information available prior to the analysis are of importance, such as the fact that a positive result (a profile suitable for comparison) is already available in the case, or that a suspect has been identified through traditional police work before analysis. One factor that was taken into account, but was not significant, is the matrix of the trace. Hence, the decision to analyse a trace is not influenced by this variable. The decision to analyse a trace first is very complex and many of the tested variables were taken into account. The decisions are often made on a case-by-case basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  15. Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, B.S.; Baines, S.B.; Fisher, N.S.; Maser, J.; Vogt, S.; Jacobsen, C.; Tovar-Sanchez, A.; Sanudo-Wihelmy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The study of trace metal cycling by aquatic protists is limited by current analytical techniques. Standard 'bulk' element analysis techniques that rely on physical separations to concentrate cells for analysis cannot separate cells from co-occurring detrital material or other cells of differing taxonomy or trophic function. Here we demonstrate the ability of a synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe to quantify the elements Si, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in individual aquatic protist cells. This technique distinguishes between different types of cells in an assemblage and between cells and other particulate matter. Under typical operating conditions, the minimum detection limits are 7.0 x 10 -16 mol μm -2 for Si and between 5.0 x 10 -20 and 3.9 x 10 -19 mol μm -2 for Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn; this sensitivity is sufficient to detect these elements in cells from even the most pristine waters as demonstrated in phytoplankton cells collected from remote areas of the Southern Ocean. Replicate analyses of single cells produced variations of <5% for Si, Mn, Fe, and Zn and <10% for Ni. Comparative analyses of cultured phytoplankton cells generally show no significant differences in cellular metal concentrations measured with SXRF and standard bulk techniques (spectrophotometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry). SXRF also produces two-dimensional maps of element distributions in cells, thereby providing information not available with other analytical approaches. This technique enables the accurate and precise measurement of trace metals in individual aquatic protists collected from natural environments.

  16. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  17. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  18. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-destructive trace element microanalysis of as-received cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Synchrotron X ray Fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be an excellent instrument for non-destructive trace element analyses of cometary nucleus samples. Trace element analyses of as-received cometary nucleus material will also be possible with this technique. Bulk analysis of relatively volatile elements will be important in establishing comet formation conditions. However, as demonstrated for meteorites, microanalyses of individual phases in their petrographic context are crucial in defining the histories of particular components in unequilibrated specimens. Perhaps most informative in comparing cometary material with meteorites will be the halogens and trace metals. In-situ, high spatial resolution microanalyses will be essential in establishing host phases for these elements and identifying terrestrial (collection/processing) overprints. The present SXRF microprobe is a simple, yet powerful, instrument in which specimens are excited with filtered, continuum synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. A refrigerated cell will be constructed to permit analyses at low temperatures. The cell will consist essentially of an air tight housing with a cold stage. Kapton windows will be used to allow the incident synchrotron beam to enter the cell and fluorescent x rays to exit it. The cell will be either under vacuum or continuous purge by ultrapure helium during analyses. Several other improvements of the NSLS microprobe will be made prior to the cometary nucleus sample return mission that will greatly enhance the sensitivity of the technique

  20. Partitioning behaviour of trace elements in a stoker-fired combustion unit : An example using bituminous coals from the Greymouth coalfield (Cretaceous), New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Moore, T.A.; Weaver, S.D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Geological Science, Christchurch (New Zealand); Clemens, A.H.; Gong, D. [CRL Energy Ltd, PO Box 31 244, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Eby, N. [Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    In order to understand trace element behaviour during combustion of coals from the Greymouth coalfield, combustion tests were performed on three seam composite samples. The major and trace elements from sub-samples of feed coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas were analysed by different techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyser (SEM-EDXA). To help better understand trace element partitioning in combustion ash, float-sink and sequential leaching experiments were also employed to determine the association of trace elements with mineral matter or organic matter. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was also employed to determine trace element content in float and sink fractions of fly ash as well as in three major phases in the bottom ash. The partitioning behaviour of trace elements, including some that are environmentally sensitive, was also investigated through the use of float-sink tests and direct determination of trace elements in different combustion ash types and phases. Mass balance and partitioning of major and trace elements have been studied to determine the fate of trace elements after combustion. The partitioning of trace elements, especially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in different combustion ashes can be summarised as follows:1.Most trace elements, especially As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, are partitioned in the glassy and refractory bottom ash fractions. 2.A significant proportion of trace elements of As, Se, and Pb are partitioned into fly ash fractions. 3.Some volatile elements (e.g. > 90% of S and Hg and up to 64% of Cl) and, to a lesser extent, B (up to 44%) and Cd (up to 50%) are partitioned in the flue gas fraction. 4.Although the low ash yield of Greymouth coal seams have the advantage of generating less solid

  1. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Report on intercomparison A-13 of the determination of trace elements in freeze dried animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1983-03-01

    This document deals with the comparative evaluation of the analytical data on the trace elements in beef blood obtained by 38 laboratories in 23 countries. The evaluations were based on 799 laboratory mean values of concentration of 41 elements. It was one of the series of IAEA intercomparisons on the determination of trace elements in animal materials. It was organized for the purpose of assisting the participating laboratories to check the accuracy of their work and to prepare a new reference material

  3. Analysis and characterization of trace elements in shale oil and shale oil products by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1978-12-01

    Trace elements and their mobilization constitute an important consideration in the development of new fossil fuel technologies. Shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale is an alternative fossil energy source. This study deals with the analysis of trace elements in various shale oil products using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). INAA offers several advantages for those elements for which it is applicable. The greatest advantage is the lack of sample preparation prior to analysis, which greatly simplifies the process and prevents sample contamination. The elements for which analyses are reported in this study are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bromine, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iodine, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfur, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc

  4. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of the rivers of Sundarban mangrove forest, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Al-Mamun, A; Hossain, F; Quraishi, S B; Naher, K; Khan, R; Das, S; Tamim, U; Hossain, S M; Nahid, F

    2017-11-15

    In this study, total concentrations of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th and U) in sediments of the rivers of the Sundarban mangrove forest, after the catastrophic oil spill accident in the Sela river of Sundarban, were determined. The overall mean concentrations of V, Cr, Fe and Cd in surface sediments of the Sundarban are remarkably higher than available literature data of those elements. Trace element contamination assessment, using different environmental contamination indices, reveals that As, Sb, Th and U are low to moderately contaminated while Cd is moderately to severely contaminated in the sediments of this area. The multivariate statistical analyses were applied to reveal the origin and behavior of the elements during their transport in the mangrove ecosystem. High Cr, Ni, Cu and As concentrations suggest the risk of potentially adverse biological effects in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  6. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  7. Effect of Trace Elements in Alcohol Beverages on the Type of Radiation-induced Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jong Gi

    2010-01-01

    Developments of radioprotective agents are important issues for minimizing the troubles and the effective treatments in radiotherapy. But few agents are useful in clinical and practical fields. It was shown that trace elements in alcohol beverages might have radioprotective effect. In this study, the types of cell death of lymphocytes according to the commercial alcohol beverage was investigated. Normal healthy volunteers ingested distilled water, beer or soju containing 8.15 mg·dl -1 ethyl ahcohol, respectively. After 2 hours, their blood were sampled with their consents. Fraction of lymphocytes was isolated by density gradient method with Histopaque-1077 (Sigma) and irradiated with dose from 0.5 to 5 Gy. After 60 hour incubation, the cells were harvested and analysed by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased by dose dependent manner. Cell viability of beer group was reduced about 15% compared with control group. Apoptosis in soju group was reduced about 20% compared with control group. Apoptosis of beer and control groups are similar. Necrosis of soju group significantly increased about 35% compared with control group. Early apoptosis of beer group was increased compared with control group. Early apoptosis of soju group was decreased about 25% compared with control group. Late apoptosis of beer and control group was increased by dose dependent manner. Late apoptosis of soju group was increased about 20-30% compared with control group. Late apoptosis of soju was increased and the radioprotective effect of soju was minimal because late apoptosis induced the cell necrosis. In case of soju trace elements, total cell apoptosis was decreased about 20% and early cell apoptosis was remarkably low. In this case, mitotic cells death may be dominant mechanism. Therefore, trace elements in soju may not be effective radioprotective agents

  8. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, R.; Munoz, R. [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Gestion Ambiental del Aire, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km{sup 2}) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  9. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P.; Ramos, R.; Munoz, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km 2 ) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  10. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  11. Seasonal and spatial variations of atmospheric trace elemental deposition in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition (wet + dry deposition) samples (n = 40) were collected concurrently at ten sites in four seasons between June 2009 and April 2010 in the Aliaga heavily industrialized region, Turkey, containing a number of significant air pollutant sources. Analyses of trace elements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). While there were significant differences in the particulate matter (PM) deposition fluxes among the sampling sites, seasonal variations were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Both PM deposition and elemental fluxes were increased at the sampling sites in the vicinity of industrial activities. The crustal elements (i.e., Ca, Mg) and some anthropogenic elements (such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Cr) were high, and the highest fluxes were mostly measured in summer and winter seasons. The enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to determine the possible sources in the study area. High EF values were obtained for the anthropogenic elements such as Ag, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Sb. The possible sources were identified as anthropogenic sources (i.e., iron-steel production) (45.4%), crustal and re-suspended dust (27.1%), marine aerosol (7.9%), and coal and wood combustion (8.2%). Thus, the iron-steel production and its related activities were found to be the main pollutant sources for this region.

  12. Major and trace elements in mouse bone measured by surface and bulk sensitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, I.; Geresi, K.; Ungvari, E.; Szabo, B.; Paripas, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the past years an increasing research interest turned to the accurate determination of the components of bone samples. These investigations focused on both the major and trace elements in the bone. Work in this field is strongly motivated because various major and trace element concentrations can be good indicators of several diseases. Number of studies also focused on the determination of the components both in the organic and inorganic parts of the bone separately, because they both have role during bone remodeling processes. Also important to note that bone can be one of the final destinations in the body where toxic elements are deposited. In this work we performed various surface and bulk sensitive analyses for the mouse bone samples to determine its major and trace element components. We have shown concentration profiles for various major and observable trace elements of the mouse bone. We found, in accordance with our expectation, that the mostly surface sensitive XPS technique is not suitable to determine the concentration of the trace elements in bone samples. It was also shown that XPS is a valuable tool not only in the determination of the chemical states of the major components of the bone powder but in the quantitative determination of their relative concentrations. Both the major and the trace elements of the bone samples are determined using PIXE and SNMS spectra. Although the information depths are very different for PIXE (a few tens of micrometer) and for XPS analysis (a few nanometers), our present PIXE result, using the bone sample in its original form for the concentration ratio between Ca and P is in excellent agreement with the XPS results using calcinated mouse bone powder. Discrepancy in Ca/Mg ratio (PIXE: 35.7 and XPS: 12.7) maybe due to many factors, which influence this ratio in bone samples. In the case of PIXE we studied native bones and determined composition of the compact bone at outside

  13. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  14. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some zones of carbonatite intrusions (sovites) and recrystallized calcites from highly metamorphosed metallic ore deposits. Most calcite marbles, though possibly appropriate as Sr standards, show substantial inhomogeneity in Mg, Mn and Ba. Some hydrothermal “Iceland Spar” calcite may prove useful as a reference for extremely low concentrations of Mg, Sr and Ba. The best carbonatitic calcites currently in use appear homogeneous to

  15. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  16. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  18. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  19. PIXE determination of essential trace elements in some traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, L.; Qin, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The essential trace elements in 30 traditional Chinese medicines, (24 tonics and 6 nontonics) were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission. The authors' previous suggestion that traditional Chinese medicines may be classified by the order of magnitude of their essential trace elements, thus indicating their pharmacological effects, is not justified. The pharmacological effect of a trace element or its essentiality may be dependent on some ligand that can be chelated with it. A nonlinear mapping algorithm, however, shows that the 30 traditional Chinese medicines are nearly separated into two groups, indicating their tonic or nontonic pharmacological effects

  20. Trace elements in precious and common opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 44 precious and 52 common opals sampled from a number of recognised fields within Australia. The purpose of this study was to determine if precious and common opals of the same colour and location have the same or a different trace element profile. Similar numbers of black, white and grey samples were studied in each case. In most cases, common opals had a significantly higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with precious opals. (author)

  1. Distribution of trace and minor elements in Hungarian spice paprika plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sziklai, I L; Oerdoegh, M; Szabo, E; Molnar, E

    1988-06-01

    Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. (author) 8 refs.; 3 tabs.

  2. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  3. Influence of S186 on trace elements in organs of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Li Landi; Chen Guibao; Zhang Meizhen

    1993-01-01

    The authors report the influence of a radiostrontium de-cooperating agents, S186 (calcium sodium N-acetylproplysmine 1, 1-diphosphonate), on trace elements in internal organs of dogs. The trace elements contents were determined with a PE-3030 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Compared with the control group, the trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) contents and the Cu/Zn ratio in organs of Beagle dogs after intramuscular injection of S186 for 30 days did not change obviously except the Cu content in the liver increased

  4. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  5. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  6. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  7. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  8. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60–70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. - Highlights: • Column experiments examined fate of trace elements derived from poultry litter leachate in soils from Delaware, USA. • Influent solutions included poultry litter leachate and simulated solution without DOC. • Results showed increased mobility of litter-derived As, Cu, Zn and P in solution in the presence of DOC. • Mass balance showed all of Cu mass remained in solution but most (60–70%) of the Zn, As and P mass was associated with soil. • Study results show that DOC

  10. Elemental abundance and analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    One can improve the quality of elemental abundance analyses by using higher signal-to-noise data than has been the practice at high resolution. The procedures developed at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory to coadd high-dispersion coude spectrograms are used with a minimum of 10 6.5 A mm -1 IIa-O spectrograms of each of three field horizontal-branch (FHB)A stars to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the photographic data over a considerable wavelength region. Fine analyses of the sharp-lined prototype FHB stars HD 109995 and 161817 show an internal consistency which justifies this effort. Their photospheric elemental abundances are similar to those of Population II globular cluster giants. (author)

  11. Notes on saltwater intrusion and trace element distribution in Metro Manila groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Ramos, A.F.; Fernandez, L.G.; Almoneda, R.V.; Garcia, T.Y.; Cruz, C.C.; Petrache, C.A.; Andal, T.T.; Alcantara, E.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of waters for uranium and other trace elements from deepwells operated by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) in Metro Manila were performed. Uranium, which ranged from 0.2 ppb to 6 ppb, was correlated with saltwater intrusion. Values >=0.8 ppb for uranium were considered indicative of saline water intrusion in the aquifers. Saline water intrusions in Malabon, Navotas, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Bacoor, Imus, Kawit, Pasig, Antipolo, San Mateo, Taguig, Cainta, Taytay, Alabang and Muntinlupa were noted. Most of these areas were also identified by MWSS as being affected by saltwater intrusion. Tritium values ranged from 0 (below detection limits) to 44 tritium units. Except for one well in Muntinlupa, all the values obtained were below the lower limit of detection of 30.83 T.U. Mercury contents in six well locations had values above the maximum limit set by the National Standards for Drinking Water. Four wells exceeded the permissible level for manganese while two wells had iron concentrations greater than the National Standards. Other trace element concentrations such as Cr, Pb, Zn, Co and Ni either did not exceed their permissible levels or were not included in the National Standards. (Auth.). 6 refs.; 1 tab.; 3 figs

  12. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  13. Trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Sahayam, A.C.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2002-11-01

    Analytical methodologies for the trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin have been described. Metallic impurities (11 elements) in ∼700 quartz samples have been analysed using different instrumental techniques. The values are cross-validated by American and British analytical laboratories. A special multi channel vapour phase digestion (MCVPD) chamber has been designed to reduce the process blank levels for the determination of ultra trace impurities in high purity silicon matrix. In this vessel 21 samples can be digested at a time in a period of 8 hrs. at normal pressure and low temperature (∼ 80 degC). Analytical methodologies for the determination of non-metals (phosphorus, boron and chloride) at very low levels <1 ppm) have also been described. A highly cost effective, single step, room temperature purification procedure is developed based on chemical leaching. Around 300 raw quartz powders (3-4N) from various mines have been purified to 5N pure ( optical grade ). (author)

  14. Evaluation of essential trace elements in preterm and full term milk and childhood formulas by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paola de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)

  15. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  16. ANALYSING THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţia Georgeta AVRAM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with increasing the influence of the private sector in the economical and financial life, the interest in the business constantly grows. It isn’t enough for organizations to offer new more qualitative, accessible and safer products on the market for the customers or these to offer better conditions for the employees, they must analyse the elements which influence ethics in the business, eradicating poverty, sustaining the healthy system and protecting the environment.

  17. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  18. Trace element characterization of Indian vegetarian diet and its constituents by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.N.; Garg, A.N.; Burte, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Nutritive trace elements have been determined in a typical vegetarian diet and its various components. A hospital diet, pulses and vegetables have been characterised for 18 elements. Daily intake of elements have been compared with the International diet standards. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  20. Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, M. M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…