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Sample records for toxics index part

  1. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  2. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  3. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) listed in this index reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substances Registry database maintained by the Base Operations Contractor at the Kennedy Space Center. The purpose of this index is to provide KSC government, contractor, and tenant organizations a means to access information on the hazards associated with these chemicals. The Toxic Substance Registry Service (TSRS) was established to manage information dealing with the storage and use of toxic and otherwise hazardous materials at KSC. As a part of this service, the BOC Environmental Health Services maintains a central repository of MSDS's which were provided to TSRS. The data on the TSRS are obtained from NASA, contractor, and tenant organizations who use or store hazardous materials at KSC. It is the responsibility of these organizations to conduct inventories, obtain MSDS's, distribute Hazard Communication information to their employees, and otherwise implement compliance with appropriate Federal, State, and NASA Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know regulations and policies.

  4. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index... SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A Antenna... Changes in equipment 78.109 Conditions for license 78.27 Coordination, frequencies 78.36 Cross reference...

  5. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - Part A: Development and comparison of two methodological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losso, Chiara; Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi; De Salvador, Davide; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2010-01-01

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. - Two toxicity indices were set up and compared to integrate toxicity data from a battery of bioassays for the Venice lagoon.

  6. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - Part A: Development and comparison of two methodological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losso, Chiara, E-mail: closso@unive.i [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); De Salvador, Davide [Physics Department, Padova University, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. - Two toxicity indices were set up and compared to integrate toxicity data from a battery of bioassays for the Venice lagoon.

  7. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - part A: development and comparison of two methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Chiara; Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi; De Salvador, Davide; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2010-12-01

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of diuron and its derivatives on Lemna gibba using a fluorescence toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Marchand, Mathieu; Eullaffroy, Philippe; Popovic, Radovan

    2002-10-01

    The herbicide diuron (DCMU) [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is largely used in agricultural practices which contribute to water pollution in large areas. Its degradation induced by light or microbial activity is known to be a slow process, and may result in the accumulation of DCMU derivatives in the environment. In this report we used the yield of PSII variable fluorescence of Lemna gibba affected by the DCMU derivatives DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea], DCPU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea], and DCA [3,4-dichloroaniline] to calculate the fluorescence toxicity index. We found the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful parameter to evaluate the inhibitory effect on PSII electron transport in L. gibba exposed to DCMU and its derivatives. The variations observed for the inhibitory effect between DCMU and its derivatives seem to be caused by the modification of the dimethylurea group within the DCMU molecule. The fluorescence toxicity index demonstrated a strong quantitative dependency between the inhibitory effect of PSII electron transport and pollutant concentrations. We propose the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful tool for future bioassays in evaluating the quality of water polluted with herbicides that induce an inhibition to PSII photochemistry. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index [Reserved] ...

  11. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  12. Using the IRWQIGT Index to Determine Toxicity Levels in Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present descriptive-analytic study was to estimate the toxicity level of the groundwater resources in the Province of Semnan using the IRWQIGT index and its zoning via GIS. The experiments were conducted over the period from October 2013 to October 2014during which time monthly samples were taken from the 41 wells that supply drinking water to the cities and towns in the Province. All the samples were subjected to lab analyses at Semnan Water and Wastewater Laboratory where such chemical parameters as Arsenic, Phenol, Mercury, Detergents, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Cyanide, Iron, Magnesium, and TPH were determined according to the procedures of Standard Methods (2008. The measuerments were subsequently used to calculate the groundwater toxicity level index (IRWQIGT. Finally, a zoning map of the IRWQIGT index for Semnan Province was prepared using GIS. Results showed that the IRWQIGT index in Semnan Province ranged between 96.54 and 98.2, indicating an excellent water quality. The lowest (96.585 and highest (98.076 values of IRWQIGT were recorded in the cities of Sorkheh and Mahdishahr, respectively, and that the values for all the parameters were in the standard range. These results indicate that water of excellent quality is available in all the cities in the province so that no toxicity treatment is required.

  13. Parametric Analysis of the Exergoeconomic Operation Costs, Environmental and Human Toxicity Indexes of the MF501F3 Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Vicente Torres-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an energetic, exergoeconomic, environmental, and toxicity analysis of the simple gas turbine M501F3 based on a parametric analysis of energetic (thermal efficiency, fuel and air flow rates, and specific work output, exergoeconomic (exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic operation costs, environmental (global warming, smog formation, acid rain indexes, and human toxicity indexes, by taking the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine inlet temperature as the operating parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide an integral, systematic, and powerful diagnostic tool to establish possible operation and maintenance actions to improve the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic, environmental, and human toxicity indexes. Despite the continuous changes in the price of natural gas, the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine always contribute 18.96%, 53.02%, and 28%, respectively, to the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic operation costs. The application of this methodology can be extended to other simple gas turbines using the pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies, among others, as the degradation parameters, as well as to other energetic systems, without loss of generality.

  14. An analysis of decrements in vital capacity as an index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabin, A L; Homer, L D; Weathersby, P K; Flynn, E T

    1987-09-01

    Decrements in vital capacity (% delta VC) were proposed by the Pennsylvania group in the early 1970s as an index of O2-induced lung damage. These workers used the combined effects of PO2 and time of exposure to develop recommendations to limit expected % delta VC. Adopting this general approach, we fitted human pulmonary O2 toxicity data to the hyperbolic equation % delta VC = Bs.(PO2 - B1).(time)B3 using a nonlinear least squares analysis. In addition to the data considered in 1970, our analysis included new data available from the literature. The best fit was obtained when 1) an individual slope parameter, Bs, was estimated for each subject instead of an average slope; 2) PO2 asymptote B1 = 0.38 ATA; and 3) exponent B3 = 1.0. Wide individual variation imposed large uncertainty on any % delta VC prediction. A 12-h exposure to a PO2 of 1 ATA would be expected to yield a median VC decrement of 4%. The 80% confidence limits, however, included changes from +1.0 and -12% delta VC. Until an improved index of pulmonary O2 toxicity is developed, a simplified expression % delta VC = -0.011.(PO2 - 0.5).time (PO2 in ATA and time in min) can be used to predict a median response with little loss in predictability. The limitations of changes in VC as an index are discussed.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quotient/Hazard Index (HQ/HI) formulation to determine the toxic concentration threshold for mixtures of... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release of...

  16. Quantitative Characterization of the Toxicities of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr Binary Mixtures Using Combination Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.

  17. Determination of toxicity assays, trophic state index, and physicochemical parameters on Piracicaba River and Itapeva Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Assunção Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity has a great impact on aquatic environments, causing changes in biodiversity and the environment. In an attempt to determine pollution levels, we established physicochemical parameters, a trophic state index and toxicity assays. The Piracicaba River is an important water body that receives xenobiotic waste from industry, domestic activities and agriculture. These pollutants are released directly into the river or by streams like Itapeva Stream, which discharges into the river. The goals of this work were to analyze the toxicity factor for Daphnia magna (TFD, trophic state index (TSI, pH, conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen in the Piracicaba River and in the Itapeva Stream from one monthly collection in the months of May, June and August 2011. In the Piracicaba River was not found toxicity, while in May, June and August the TFD was 1, 8 and 1, respectively. The TSI varied from mesotrophic to eutrophic in the river and in the stream from ultraoligotrophic to mesotrophic. The medium of conductivity for the Itapeva Stream was 479.5 µS.cm-1 and for the Piracicaba River was 219.8 µS.cm-1. The dissolved oxygen in the Piracicaba River varied from 6.89 to11.36 mg.L-1 and in the Itapeva Stream from 0.92 to 6.31 mg.L-1. Based upon the results, both hydric bodies were eutrophic, and the Itapeva Stream was classified as unsuitable for maintaining aquatic life.

  18. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 356 - Description of the Consumer Price Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Price Index (“CPI”) for purposes of inflation-protected securities is the non-seasonally adjusted U.S...' services, and drugs. In calculating the index, price changes for the various items are averaged together... Index D Appendix D to Part 356 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  19. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  20. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  2. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  3. 36 CFR Appendix E to Part 1191 - List of Figures and Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Figures and Index E Appendix E to Part 1191 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Figures and Index ER23JY04.289 ER23JY04.290 ER23JY04.291 ER23JY04.292 ER23JY04.293 ER23JY04.294 ER23JY04...

  4. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  5. STEVENS–JOHNSON SYNDROME — TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECTROLYSIS IN CHILDREN. PART II. SYSTEM, LOCAL TREATMENT

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    V.F. Zhernosek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article concerning Stevens–Johnson syndrome — toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS–TEN is devoted to the treatment of this disease. The modern approaches to the use of systemic agents — antibacterial, antiviral, analgesics and sedatives, and anticoagulants are discussed in detail. Regulations of the drugs use depending on the patient state and the etiology of SJS–TEN are marked out. The basic principles of the fluid therapy for rehydration and dehydration prevention are shown in the article. Particular attention is paid to the local therapy — treatment of mucous membranes and skin lesions.Key words: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, children, antibiotic therapy, topical treatment.

  6. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  8. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC 50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC 50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC 50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC 50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC 50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series

  9. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  11. A mortality index for postmarketing surveillance of new medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J C; Unis, A S

    2000-03-01

    The rate of introduction of new pharmaceuticals is growing as a result of advances in molecular pharmacology and targeted drug development. The Fatal Toxicity Index (FTI) has been proposed as a means for monitoring drug toxicity through post-marketing surveillance. The FTI requires data regarding the general availability of a particular agent in the community which, in the US, is proprietary. The authors propose a Mortality Index as an alternative method for calculating relative lethality that does not rely on proprietary information for postmarketing surveillance. Using data from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) a Mortality Index was calculated from the proportion of deaths occurring among all patients who present to a health care facility with an overdose on the same agent or class of agents. The average Mortality Index for various drugs or drug classes for the years 1989 to 1997 is reported. Because the Mortality Index for desipramine appeared much greater than that for the other tricyclics, a chi-squared analysis was performed. The authors conclude, based on this analysis, that desipramine is significantly more likely to lead to death after overdosage than any other tricyclic antidepressant in the study. Also, the Mortality Index appeared to identify the impact of pediatric formulations on overdose lethality. We conclude that the Mortality Index may be a useful tool for determining the safety of agents during the postmarketing surveillance phase.

  12. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    method(s) in Work package 8 (WP8) of the OMNIITOX project. The selection methods and the other CRS methods are described in detail, a set of evaluation criteria are developed and the methods are evaluated against these criteria. This report (Deliverable 11B (D11B)) gives the results from task 7.1d, 7.1e......This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... and 7.1f of WP 7 for selection methods. The other part of D11 (D11A) is reported in another report and deals with characterisation methods. A selection method is a method for prioritising chemical emissions to be included in an LCIA characterisation of toxic releases, i.e. calculating indicator scores...

  13. Toxicity evaluation and prediction of toxic chemicals on activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bijing; Xie, Li; Yang, Dianhai; Arcangeli, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-15

    The gaps of data for evaluating toxicity of new or overloaded organic chemicals on activated sludge system resulted in the requirements for methodology of toxicity estimation. In this study, 24 aromatic chemicals typically existed in the industrial wastewater were selected and classified into three groups of benzenes, phenols and anilines. Their toxicity on activated sludge was then investigated. Two indexes of IC(50-M) and IC(50-S) were determined respectively from the respiration rates of activated sludge with different toxicant concentration at mid-term (24h) and short-term (30min) time intervals. Experimental results showed that the group of benzenes was the most toxic, followed by the groups of phenols and anilines. The values of IC(50-M) of the tested chemicals were higher than those of IC(50-S). In addition, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models developed from IC(50-M) were more stable and accurate than those of IC(50-S). The multiple linear models based on molecular descriptors and K(ow) presented better reliability than single linear models based on K(ow). Among these molecular descriptors, E(lumo) was the most important impact factor for evaluation of mid-term toxicity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Author Index, From > 1988-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1988-1992, 824 papers were published in >. The papers were contributed by 1497 authors. The author index of the papers is annexed. The author index is divided into contained two parts: the first part is chinese author index, and the second part is foreign author index. The former is arranged according to the chinese phonetic alphabet. The latter is arranged according to the English alphabet

  15. Pricing index-based catastrophe bonds: Part 1: Formulation and discretization issues using a numerical PDE approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, André J. A.

    2010-02-01

    This work is the first installment in a two-part series, and focuses on the development of a numerical PDE approach to price components of a Bermudan-style callable catastrophe (CAT) bond. The bond is based on two underlying stochastic variables; the PCS index which posts quarterly estimates of industry-wide hurricane losses as well as a single-factor CIR interest rate model for the three-month LIBOR. The aggregate PCS index is analogous to losses claimed under traditional reinsurance in that it is used to specify a reinsurance layer. The proposed CAT bond model contains a Bermudan-style call feature designed to allow the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on making substantial fixed coupon payments using capital from the reinsurance premium. Numerical PDE methods are the fundamental strategy for pricing early-exercise constraints, such as the Bermudan-style call feature, into contingent claim models. Therefore, the objective and unique contribution of this first installment in the two-part series is to develop a formulation and discretization strategy for the proposed CAT bond model utilizing a numerical PDE approach. Object-oriented code design is fundamental to the numerical methods used to aggregate the PCS index, and implement the call feature. Therefore, object-oriented design issues that relate specifically to the development of a numerical PDE approach for the component of the proposed CAT bond model that depends on the PCS index and LIBOR are described here. Formulation, numerical methods and code design issues that relate to aggregating the PCS index and introducing the call option are the subject of the companion paper.

  16. Toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Razinkovas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. The presence of cyanobacterial toxic metabolites in the Curonian Lagoon has been investigated and demonstrated for the first time in this work (2006-2007. Microcystis aeruginosa was the most common and widely distributed species in the 2006 blooms. Nodularia spumigena was present in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, following the intrusion of brackish water from the Baltic Sea; this is the first time that this nodularin-(NOD-producing cyanobacterium has been recorded in the lagoon. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, four microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LY, MC-YR and nodularin were detected in 2006. The presence of these cyanobacterial hepatotoxic cyclic peptides was additionally confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP1. Microcystin-LR, the most frequent of them, was present in every sample at quite high concentrations (from <0.1 to 134.2 µg dm-3. In 2007, no cyanobacterial bloom was recorded and cyanotoxins were detected in only 4% of the investigated samples. A comparably high concentration of nodularin was detected in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. In one sample dimethylated MC-RR was also detected (concentration 7.5 µg dm-3.

  17. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sarcopenia is linked to treatment toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Antoun, Sami; Dalban, Cécile; Malka, David; Mansourbakht, Touraj; Zaanan, Aziz; Latko, Ewa; Taieb, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy toxicity could be linked to decreased skeletal muscle (sarcopenia). We evaluated the effect of sarcopenia on chemotherapy toxicity among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. All consecutive mCRC patients in 3 hospitals were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Several nutritional indexes and scores were generated. Computed tomography (CT) images were analyzed to evaluate cross-sectional areas of muscle tissue (MT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Toxicities were evaluated in the 2 mo following clinical evaluation. Fifty-one mCRC patients were included in the study. Sarcopenia was observed in 71% of patients (39% of women and 82% of men) whereas only 4% and 18% were considered as underweight using body mass index (BMI) or severely malnourished using the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 28% of patients. In multivariate analysis including age, sex, BMI, sarcopenia, SAT, and VAT, the only factor associated with Grade 3-4 toxicities was sarcopenia (odds ratio = 13.55; 95% confidence interval [1.08; 169.31], P = 0.043). In mCRC patients undergoing chemotherapy, sarcopenia was much more frequently observed than visible malnutrition. Despite the small number of patients included in our study, we found sarcopenia to be significantly associated with severe chemotherapy toxicity.

  19. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    and the neuromuscular effects in these dogs were not due to hypocalcemia . The lowest serum calcium concen- tration in these dogs was 4.2 meq/liter...motor end plate might produce a local hypocalcemia . Such a mechanism is purely speculative. Qualitatively and quantitavely, most of the effects of 2,6...I ýNw,- -MIM I/ MIDWEST RESEARCH INS14ITUTE H0q .3L I LU -_ MAMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUlNDSPHASE II: EFFECTS OF MiULTIPLE DOSES C* •PART

  20. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  1. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first...

  2. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  3. Towards cheminformatics-based estimation of drug therapeutic index: Predicting the protective index of anticonvulsants using a new quantitative structure-index relationship approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangying; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xin; Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Sheng Yong; Chen, Yu Zong; Chui, Wai Keung

    2016-06-01

    The overall efficacy and safety profile of a new drug is partially evaluated by the therapeutic index in clinical studies and by the protective index (PI) in preclinical studies. In-silico predictive methods may facilitate the assessment of these indicators. Although QSAR and QSTR models can be used for predicting PI, their predictive capability has not been evaluated. To test this capability, we developed QSAR and QSTR models for predicting the activity and toxicity of anticonvulsants at accuracy levels above the literature-reported threshold (LT) of good QSAR models as tested by both the internal 5-fold cross validation and external validation method. These models showed significantly compromised PI predictive capability due to the cumulative errors of the QSAR and QSTR models. Therefore, in this investigation a new quantitative structure-index relationship (QSIR) model was devised and it showed improved PI predictive capability that superseded the LT of good QSAR models. The QSAR, QSTR and QSIR models were developed using support vector regression (SVR) method with the parameters optimized by using the greedy search method. The molecular descriptors relevant to the prediction of anticonvulsant activities, toxicities and PIs were analyzed by a recursive feature elimination method. The selected molecular descriptors are primarily associated with the drug-like, pharmacological and toxicological features and those used in the published anticonvulsant QSAR and QSTR models. This study suggested that QSIR is useful for estimating the therapeutic index of drug candidates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  5. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Toxic Plants in Ngadiwono Village, Tosari District, Pasuruan Regency, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeni In Oktavia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The society in Ngadiwono village is part of Tengger tribe that depends on their surrounding environment on fulfilling the life necessities. However, the society knowledge obout toxic plant has never been revealed. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to documenting the toxic plants in Ngadiwono village according to society knowledge and scientific study on its toxic content. This study was conducted in Ngadiwono Village, Tosari District, Pasuruan Regency. The informants were chosen by using snowball method (n=14. Interview was conducted using semi-structural method. The collected data was analysed to obtain ICS value (Index Cultural Significance and UVs (Use Value. The identification of toxic compound was based on previous study. The study result identified 8 plants that considered to be toxic by local society: bedor (Girardinia palmata Blume., yellow kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Bercht. & J.Presl, white kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Bercht. & J.Presl, jarak (Ricinus communis L., yellow terpasan (Cestrum elegans (Brongn. Schltdl, red terpasan (Cestrum elegans (Brongn. Schltdl, kudisan (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., and ciplukan (Physalis peruviana L.. The highest ICS value was found in jarak (Ricinus communis. Meanwhile, the lowest ICS value was found in yellow and red terpasan (Cestrum elegans due to its minimum use by local society. The highest UVs was found in kudisan. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Ngadiwono, Plant, Tengger, Toxic

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  9. Toxicity profile of labile preservative bronopol in water: The role of more persistent and toxic transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Na; Zhang Xiaoxiang; Xie Qing; Wang Se; Chen Jingwen; Huang Liping; Qiao Xianliang; Li Xuehua; Cai Xiyun

    2011-01-01

    Transformation products usually differ in environmental behaviors and toxicological properties from the parent contaminants, and probably cause potential risks to the environment. Toxicity evolution of a labile preservative, bronopol, upon primary aquatic degradation processes was investigated. Bronopol rapidly hydrolyzed in natural waters, and primarily produced more stable 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol (BNE) and bromonitromethane (BNM). Light enhanced degradation of the targeted compounds with water site specific photoactivity. The bond order analysis theoretically revealed that the reversible retroaldol reactions were primary degradation routes for bronopol and BNE. Judging from toxicity assays and the relative pesticide toxicity index, these degradation products (i.e., BNE and BNM), more persistent and higher toxic than the parent, probably accumulated in natural waters and resulted in higher or prolonging adverse impacts. Therefore, these transformation products should be included into the assessment of ecological risks of non-persistent and low toxic chemicals such as the preservative bronopol. - The preservative bronopol is non-persistent and low toxic, but some transformation products can cause higher or prolonging adverse impacts.

  10. Toxicity profile of labile preservative bronopol in water: The role of more persistent and toxic transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Na; Zhang Xiaoxiang; Xie Qing; Wang Se; Chen Jingwen; Huang Liping; Qiao Xianliang; Li Xuehua [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cai Xiyun, E-mail: xiyuncai@dlut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Transformation products usually differ in environmental behaviors and toxicological properties from the parent contaminants, and probably cause potential risks to the environment. Toxicity evolution of a labile preservative, bronopol, upon primary aquatic degradation processes was investigated. Bronopol rapidly hydrolyzed in natural waters, and primarily produced more stable 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol (BNE) and bromonitromethane (BNM). Light enhanced degradation of the targeted compounds with water site specific photoactivity. The bond order analysis theoretically revealed that the reversible retroaldol reactions were primary degradation routes for bronopol and BNE. Judging from toxicity assays and the relative pesticide toxicity index, these degradation products (i.e., BNE and BNM), more persistent and higher toxic than the parent, probably accumulated in natural waters and resulted in higher or prolonging adverse impacts. Therefore, these transformation products should be included into the assessment of ecological risks of non-persistent and low toxic chemicals such as the preservative bronopol. - The preservative bronopol is non-persistent and low toxic, but some transformation products can cause higher or prolonging adverse impacts.

  11. Nonlinear analysis of magnetospheric data Part I. Geometric characteristics of the AE index time series and comparison with nonlinear surrogate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A long AE index time series is used as a crucial magnetospheric quantity in order to study the underlying dynainics. For this purpose we utilize methods of nonlinear and chaotic analysis of time series. Two basic components of this analysis are the reconstruction of the experimental tiine series state space trajectory of the underlying process and the statistical testing of an null hypothesis. The null hypothesis against which the experimental time series are tested is that the observed AE index signal is generated by a linear stochastic signal possibly perturbed by a static nonlinear distortion. As dis ' ' ating statistics we use geometrical characteristics of the reconstructed state space (Part I, which is the work of this paper and dynamical characteristics (Part II, which is the work a separate paper, and "nonlinear" surrogate data, generated by two different techniques which can mimic the original (AE index signal. lie null hypothesis is tested for geometrical characteristics which are the dimension of the reconstructed trajectory and some new geometrical parameters introduced in this work for the efficient discrimination between the nonlinear stochastic surrogate data and the AE index. Finally, the estimated geometric characteristics of the magnetospheric AE index present new evidence about the nonlinear and low dimensional character of the underlying magnetospheric dynamics for the AE index.

  12. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  13. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  14. THE APPLICATION OF A BPL INDEX IN THE POLISH PART OF THE VISTULA LAGOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agnieszka Michałek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopollution assessment results with respect to macrozoobenthic non-indigenous species in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. A biopollution level index (BPL was applied and evaluated based on the studies on macrozoobenthos conducted in 2010 and 2012 within the frame of several individual projects. Overall 15 macrozoobenthic species were identified, 5 of which were aquatic alien species: Marenzelleria neglecta, Rhitropanopeus harrissi, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Dreissena polymorpha and Rangia cuneata. According to the applied criteria the Vistula Lagoon was moderately influenced by invasive species.

  15. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Farshchi, P.

    lowest for naphthalene, suggesting that this hydrocarbon is most toxic. The oxygen consumption reduced significantly after 6 hours in all the cases. The reduction in oxygen consumption was maximum in naphthalene, reaffirming its high toxic nature...

  16. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  17. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  18. TOXICITY OF SOME PLANTS IMPLICATED AS POISONS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different parts of eight plants implicated in Akwa Ibom ethnomedicinal literature as toxic were examined for toxicity in rats after oral and intraperitoneal administration. Only the ethanolic extract of S. indica leaves was toxic by both oral and intraperitoneal routes. The extract of C. edulis roots, E. kamerunica leaves, ...

  19. Oral toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Xerostomia and trismus (Part 2). Literature review and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Michela; Cavagnini, Roberta; Di Rosario, Federico; Maddalo, Marta; Vassalli, Lucia; Grisanti, Salvatore; Salgarello, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Bossi, Paolo; Majorana, Alessandra; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Berruti, Alfredo; Trippa, Fabio; Nicolai, Pietro; Barasch, Andrei; Russi, Elvio G; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Murphy, Barbara; Magrini, Stefano M

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery is a well-known radical treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Nevertheless acute side effects (such as moist desquamation, skin erythema, loss of taste, mucositis etc.) and in particular late toxicities (osteoradionecrosis, xerostomia, trismus, radiation caries etc.) are often debilitating and underestimated. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met in Milan with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of these toxicities. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for this consensus and external experts evaluated the conclusions. The paper contains 20 clusters of statements about the clinical definition and management of stomatological issues that reached consensus, and offers a review of the literature about these topics. The review was split into two parts: the first part dealt with dental pathologies and osteo-radionecrosis (10 clusters of statements), whereas this second part deals with trismus and xerostomia (10 clusters of statements). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Louisiana ESI: LG_INDEX (Large Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  1. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  2. Oxaliplatin-induced Oxidative Stress Provokes Toxicity in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Waseem, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-11-01

    Oxaliplatin is a widely employed platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, the benefit of this important drug is compromised by severe side effects such as neuropathy, ototoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and hematological toxicity. Recently, few studies have also suggested the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in oxaliplatin-treated patients. Mitochondria have emerged as targets for anticancer drugs in various kinds of toxicity including hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. Oxidative stress is a well-established biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent damage caused by oxaliplatin on isolated liver mitochondria under in vitro conditions. The study was conducted in mitochondria isolated from liver of Wistar rats. Oxaliplatin was incubated with mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner under in vitro conditions. Oxidative stress indexes, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated, looking at the overall armamentarium against the toxicity induced by oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin caused a significant rise in the mitochondrial oxidative stress indexes lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Alterations in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were also observed. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the mitochondrial toxicity of oxaliplatin. The integrity of the hepatic tissue is compromised by the reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  4. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in @iEtroplus suratensis@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Farshchi, P.

    lowest for naphthalene, suggesting that this hydrocarbon is most toxic. The oxygen consumption reduced significantly after 6 hours in all the cases. The reduction in oxygen consumption was maximum in naphthalene, reaffirming its high toxic nature...

  6. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  7. Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic extracts of marine surface sediments from the north and Baltic sea. Pt. II. Results of the biotest battery and development of a biotest index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammann, U.; Danischewski, D.; Vobach, M. [Federal Research Centre for Fisheries, Inst. for Fishery Ecology, Hamburg (Germany); Biselli, S. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany); Eurofins Wiertz-Eggert-Joerissen, Hamburg (Germany); Reineke, N.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Univ. of Hamburg, Inst. for Organic Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Wosniok, W. [Univ. of Bremen, Inst. of Statistics, Bremen (Germany); Kinder, A.; Sierts-Herrmann, A.; Steinhart, H. [Univ. of Hamburg, Inst. for Food Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Theobald, N. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany); Vahl, H.H.; Westendorf, J. [Univ. of Hamburg, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dept. for Toxicology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The ecological relevance of contaminants in mixtures is difficult to assess, because of possible interactions and due to lacking toxicity data for many substances present in environmental samples. Marine sediment extracts, which contain a mixture of environmental contaminants in low concentrations, were the object of this study. The extracts were investigated with a set of different biotests in order to identify the compound or the substance class responsible for the toxicity. For this goal, a combination of biotests, biotest-directed fractionation and chemical analysis has been applied. Further on, a strategy for the development of a biotest index to describe the toxicity of the fractions without a prior ranking of the test results is proposed. This article (Part II) focuses on the biological results of the approach. Methods. The toxicological potential of organic extracts of sediments from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was analyzed in a bioassay-directed fractionation procedure with a set of biotests: luciferase reporter gene assays on hormone receptor and Ah receptor, arabinose resistance test, fish embryo test (Danio rerio), comet assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, heat-shock protein 70 induction, oxidative stress and luminescence inhibition test (Vibrio fischeri). The test results provided the basis for the calculation of a biotest index by factor analysis to compare the toxicity of the samples and fractions. Results and Discussion. Results of 11 biotests on different fractionation levels of the samples were described and discussed with regard to the occurrence of contaminants and their toxic potentials. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, quinones, brominated indoles and brominated phenols were in the focus of interest. A biotest index was constructed to compare the toxic responses in the samples and to group the biotest results. (orig.)

  8. Dietary compounds as modulators of metals and metalloids toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Chiocchetti, Gabriela Matuoka; Clemente, María Jesús; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2017-07-07

    A large part of the population is exposed to metals and metalloids through the diet. Most of the in vivo studies on its toxicokinetics and toxicity are conducted by means of exposure through drinking water or by intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of aqueous standards, and therefore they do not consider the effect of the food matrix on the exposure. Numerous studies show that some components of the diet can modulate the toxicity of these food contaminants, reducing their effect on a systemic level. Part of this protective role may be due to a reduction of intestinal absorption and subsequent tissue accumulation of the toxic element, although it may also be a consequence of their ability to counteract the toxicity directly by their antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activity, among other factors. The present review provides a compilation of existing information about the effect that certain components of the diet have on the toxicokinetics and toxicity of the metals and metalloids of greatest toxicological importance that are present in food (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury), and of their most toxic chemical species.

  9. Toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varela Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to contribute information on toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela. Information on taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was compiled from articles, books, catalogs, herbarium collections. A botanical analysis (taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was performed. The information about plant poisoning cases was requested to SIMET (Pharmacy faculty -UCV. Seventy-eight species were found in 34 families, the most important were: Apocynaceae (10 genera/12 species, Araceae (9/9, Euphorbiaceae (4/10 and Solanaceae (5/6. Genus Euphorbia was the most species rich. Most species were exotic species (79.5% and shrubs (32.1%. The entire plant (35 and latex (19 were the most toxic parts and the most frequent accidental ingestion (61.5%. Twenty cases were reported between 2009-2013, of which 80% were minors, female and urban areas. There is very little information published in Hispanic American countries

  10. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  11. Lithium attenuates lead induced toxicity on mouse non-adherent bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Mahsan; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a poisonous heavy metal that occurs in all parts of environment and causes serious health problems in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of lithium against lead nitrate induced toxicity in non-adherent bone marrow stem cells. Trypan blue and MTT assays represented that exposure of the cells to different concentrations of lead nitrate decreased viability in a dose dependent manner, whereas, pretreatment of the cells with lithium protected the cells against lead toxicity. Lead reduced the number and differentiation status of bone marrow-derived precursors when cultured in the presence of colony stimulating factor (CSF), while the effect was attenuated by lithium. The cells treated with lead nitrate exhibited cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, anion superoxide production, but lithium prevented lead action. Moreover, apoptotic indexes such as PARP cleavage and release of HMGB1 induced by lead, were protected by lithium, suggesting anti-apoptotic effect of lithium. Immunoblot analysis of histone H3K9 acetylation indicated that lithium overcame lead effect on acetylation. In conclusion, lithium efficiently reduces lead toxicity suggesting new insight into lithium action which may contribute to increased cell survival. It also provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy for lithium and a cost-effective approach to minimize destructive effects of lead on bone marrow stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  13. Progress report of preliminary studies of beryllium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C.

    1947-09-01

    This document was prepared in connection with a symposium of beryllium poisoning held at the Saranac Laboratories and describes progress made and a research program aimed at characterizing the toxicity of beryllium. Seven individual papers in this document are separately indexed and cataloged for the database.

  14. Pricing index-based catastrophe bonds: Part 2: Object-oriented design issues and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, André J. A.

    2010-02-01

    This work is the second installment in a two-part series, and focuses on object-oriented programming methods to implement an augmented-state variable approach to aggregate the PCS index and introduce the Bermudan-style call feature into the proposed CAT bond model. The PCS index is aggregated quarterly using a discrete Asian running-sum formulation. The resulting aggregate PCS index augmented-state variable is used to specify the payoff (principle) on the CAT bond based on reinsurance layers. The purpose of the Bermudan-style call option is to allow the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on making fixed coupon payments under prevailing interest rates. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of hurricanes on the price of the CAT bond. Results indicate that while the CAT bond is highly sensitive to the natural variability in the frequency of landfalling hurricanes between El Ninõ and non-El Ninõ years, it remains relatively insensitive to uncertainty in the magnitude of damages. In addition, results indicate that the maximum price of the CAT bond is insensitive to whether it is engineered to cover low frequency high magnitude events in a 'high' reinsurance layer relative to high frequency low magnitude events in a 'low' reinsurance layer. Also, while it is possible for the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on the fixed coupon payments, the impact of this risk on the price of the CAT bond appears small relative to the natural variability in the CAT bond price, and consequently catastrophic risk, due to uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of landfalling hurricanes.

  15. Oral toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Dental pathologies and osteoradionecrosis (Part 1) literature review and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Michela; Cavagnini, Roberta; Di Rosario, Federico; Sottocornola, Lara; Maddalo, Marta; Vassalli, Lucia; Grisanti, Salvatore; Salgarello, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Paganelli, Corrado; Majorana, Alessandra; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Bossi, Paolo; Berruti, Alfredo; Pavanato, Giovanni; Nicolai, Piero; Maroldi, Roberto; Barasch, Andrei; Russi, Elvio G; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Murphy, Barbara; Magrini, Stefano M

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery is the typical treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Acute side effects (such as oral mucositis, dermatitis, salivary changes, taste alterations, etc.), and late toxicities in particular (such as osteo-radionecrosis, hypo-salivation and xerostomia, trismus, radiation caries etc.), are often debilitating. These effects tend to be underestimated and insufficiently addressed in the medical community. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists met in Milan with the aim of reaching a consensus on clinical definitions and management of these toxicities. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for developing the consensus, and external experts evaluated the conclusions. This paper contains 10 clusters of statements about the clinical definitions and management of head and neck cancer treatment sequels (dental pathologies and osteo-radionecroses) that reached consensus, and offers a review of the literature about these topics. The review was split into two parts: the first part dealt with dental pathologies and osteo-radionecroses (10 clusters of statements), whereas this second part deals with trismus and xerostomia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trophic state and toxic cyanobacteria density in optimization modeling of multi-reservoir water resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Andrea; Buscarinu, Paola; Soru, Oriana; Sechi, Giovanni M

    2014-04-22

    The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996-2012) in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy) provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  17. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is required...

  18. In vitro toxicity of infusion sets depends on their composition, storage time and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Popilski, Hen; Gorenbein, Pavel; Stepensky, David

    2015-07-15

    Disposable medical devices release toxic leachables during their clinical use. Specifically, the individual parts of the infusion sets (the drip chamber, tube, flashball and injection site) are composed of numerous chemical compounds that can reach the patients' systemic circulation and induce local and systemic toxic effects. We aimed to reveal the relative in vitro toxicity of infusion sets from the leading vendors that are used in Israel, and to determine its dependence on their design and storage time/conditions. We found that leachates of the rubber parts were more toxic than those of the other parts of the infusion sets. The measured toxicity was affected by the experimental settings: the cells, medium composition, exposure duration, and the type of assay applied for toxicity assessment. We recommend to use the capillary endothelium cells for in vitro toxicity testing of the infusion sets, and refrain from the use of the MTT test which is insufficiently reliable, and can lead to artefacts and incorrect conclusions. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic leachables from the individual parts of the infusion sets, and to reveal the risk of their toxicity during the clinical use of the infusion sets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactive waste processing and disposal: a bibliography. Part 1. Abstracts; Part 2. Indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1985-03-01

    This compilation contains 4567 citations to foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books dealing with radioactive waste management. These citations were added to the DOE Energy Data Base from January 1983 through December 1983. Five indexes are included: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  20. Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Parvez, Lutfar; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-15

    Total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of mine drainage and surrounding agricultural fields in the northern part of Bangladesh were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The average concentrations of Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Rb, Sr, Nb and Zr exceeded the world normal averages and, in some cases, Mn, Zn, As and Pb exceeded the toxic limit of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and pollution load index (PLI). The soils show significant enrichment with Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Sr and Nb, indicating inputs from mining activities. The I(geo) values have revealed that Mn (1.24+/-0.38), Zn (1.49+/-0.58) and Pb (1.63+/-0.38) are significantly accumulated in the study area. The PLIs derived from contamination factors indicate that the distal part of the coal mine-affected area is the most polluted (PLI of 4.02). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that Mn, Zn, Pb and Ti are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities, and the extreme proximal and distal parts are heavily contaminated with maximum heavy metals.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.

  2. Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common ...

  3. U.S. EPA Environmental Quality Index - Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an invited presentation by Region 5, Air Office, who asked me to provide an overview of the Air Domain and health results associated with the Air Domain of the Environmental Quality Index. Region 5 is hosting an Air Toxics meeting for its member states (Ohio, Michigan, I...

  4. Evaluation of natural toxicity on MICROTOX solid-phase test. The pelitic normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorati, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Ausili, A.

    1999-01-01

    In sediment toxicity testing Microtox solid-phase test (SPT) is one of the most used and standardised bioassay. Nevertheless, its real sensitivity and discriminatory power is still unclear, because of several interferences principally related to the matrix composition. Using reference sediments, characterised with chemical and physical analysis, it was possible to find a significant relationship between their natural toxicity and the pelitic fraction that allows to estimate the natural component of the acute toxicity in contaminated samples. This relationship arrows a more sensitive and valid interpretation than raw data and it is used to develop a sediment toxicity index (STI) based on radio to reference (RTR) concept, applicable to harbour contaminated samples [it

  5. Toxicity identification evaluations of produced-water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Costa, H.J.; Brown, J.S.; Ward, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on 14 produced-water (PW) samples of various salinities from inland and offshore oil- and gas-production facilities operated by different companies in Wyoming, Texas, California, and Louisiana (USA) to evaluate the efficacy of TIE procedures in determining potential toxicants in PW effluents. The research involved acute (24- and 48-h) freshwater and marine toxicity tests on whole PW and PW fractions generated by standard US Environmental Protection Agency and PW-specific fractionation schemes. Factors influencing PW TIEs were investigated, such as the effect of salinity in selecting fractionation manipulations, the effect of toxicity test replication (i.e., reproducibility) in distinguishing changes in toxicities between whole PW and its fractions, and the suitability of different test species in PW TIEs. The results obtained and lessons learned from conducting these PW TIEs are presented in this article. Components, or fractions, contributing to toxicity differed for each PW with no specific fraction being consistently toxic. For most PW samples, toxicity attributed to any one fraction represented only part of the toxicity of the whole sample. However, no more than two fraction types were identified as potential toxicants in any sample. Potential toxicants identified during this study, besides salinity, included acidic and basic organic compound class fractions, particulates removed by filtration at pH 11, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, material removed by pH change, and volatile compounds

  6. CubeIndexer: Indexer for regions of interest in data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilean Virtual Observatory; Araya, Mauricio; Candia, Gabriel; Gregorio, Rodrigo; Mendoza, Marcelo; Solar, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    CubeIndexer indexes regions of interest (ROIs) in data cubes reducing the necessary storage space. The software can process data cubes containing megabytes of data in fractions of a second without human supervision, thus allowing it to be incorporated into a production line for displaying objects in a virtual observatory. The software forms part of the Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO) and provides the capability of content-based searches on data cubes to the astronomical community.

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the therapeutic index of amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhachemi, M H; Boucherit, K; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Belmir, S; Benbekhti, Z

    2014-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the antifungal polyene of choice in deep fungal infections, but its high toxicity to mammalian cells limits its use. This toxicity is partly due to lipid peroxidation exerted by amphotericin B in cell membranes. The work we have undertaken focused on the one part the evaluation of the efficacy of amphotericin B in the presence of some antioxidants vitamins (vitamin C "ascorbic acid" and vitamin E "α-tocopherol") against the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Secondly, we have tested the cytotoxicity of these formulations on human red blood cells. The results showed a significant improvement in the efficiency of our formulations tested from 7% to 12% compared with amphotericin B alone at therapeutic concentrations. Furthermore, the addition of vitamin C and vitamin E protects human red blood cells against the cytotoxicity induced by amphotericin B with 17%. This is due may be to the antioxidant power of vitamins which confer protection against the autoxidation of the molecule of amphotericin B. On the other hand, it is noticed that the yeast regrows after 24h whatever in complex with vitamin C or vitamin E of the stock solution. On completion of this study, the incorporation of antioxidant vitamins that we propose to the reaction medium of antifungal improved the therapeutic index of amphotericin B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Trophic State and Toxic Cyanobacteria Density in Optimization Modeling of Multi-Reservoir Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sulis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012 in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  9. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Notification 76.94 Network programming 76.5 Network programs: nonduplication protection 76.92 Network station....209 Possession of rules 76.301 Prime time 76.5 Program carriages, STV 76.64 Programming, Network 76.5... candidates for 76.205 PURPOSE—Part 76 76.1 Q Qualified TV station, Showing 76.55 R Rate regulation standards...

  10. Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-02-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams.

  11. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb (Ceasalpiniaceae) ... Significant variation (P<0.05) of the body weight was observed after 26 days of treatment, in some biochemicals index of serum and 20% liver homogenates (glutathione , alkaline phosphatase ...

  12. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H.; Yu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Qin, Wei C.; Su, Li M.; Zhao, Yuan H.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs) between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR) shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs) approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR toxicity and MOAs. PMID:26901437

  13. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  14. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  15. Systemic toxicity of ropivacaine during ovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Arthur, G R; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Covino, B G

    1991-07-01

    Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic structurally related to bupivacaine and mepivacaine. Its potency and duration of action are similar to those of bupivacaine but its therapeutic index may be greater. Since pregnancy enhances the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine, the current study was devised to compare the toxicity of ropivacaine in chronically instrumented nonpregnant and pregnant ewes during continuous intravenous infusion of the drug at the rate of 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1. In all animals, symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity occurred in the usual order--convulsions, hypotension, apnea, and circulatory collapse. There were no significant differences between the two groups of animals in the doses and plasma concentrations of ropivacaine associated with each toxic manifestations. For example, circulatory collapse occurred at a mean dose of 11.3 +/- 1.1 mg.kg-1 in nonpregnant and 12.4 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1 in pregnant animals, with corresponding plasma concentrations of 7.3 +/- 0.3 and 9.6 +/- 2.1 micrograms.ml-1 (P = not significant). Protein binding of ropivacaine in the concentration range associated with toxic manifestations was similar in sera obtained from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. In conclusion, ovine pregnancy does not enhance the systemic toxicity of ropivacaine, possibly because of an absence of gestation-related increase in the availability of free drug.

  16. Evaluation of the mobility and pollution index of selected essential/toxic metals in paddy soil by sequential extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Maria; Kausar, Dilshad; Akhter, Gulraiz; Shah, Munir H

    2018-01-01

    Comparative distribution and mobility of selected essential and toxic metals in the paddy soil from district Sargodha, Pakistan was evaluated by the modified Community Bureau of Reference (mBCR) sequential extraction procedure. Most of the soil samples showed slightly alkaline nature while the soil texture was predominantly silty loam in nature. The metal contents were quantified in the exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions of the soil by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the metal data were subjected to the statistical analyses in order to evaluate the mutual relationships among the metals in each fraction. Among the metals, Ca, Sr and Mn were found to be more mobile in the soil. A number of significant correlations between different metal pairs were noted in various fractions. Contamination factor, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor revealed extremely severe enrichment/contamination for Cd; moderate to significant enrichment/contamination for Ni, Zn, Co and Pb while Cr, Sr, Cu and Mn revealed minimal to moderate contamination and accumulation in the soil. Multivariate cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of the metals in various fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracellular bacteria: the origin of dinoflagellate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E S

    1990-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms of the same species have been registered either as toxic or nontoxic and, in the latter case, toxicity may be of different types. A hypothesis has been formulated according to which the bacteria having in some way taken part in the toxin formation are either inside the dinoflagellate cell or in the nutritive liquid. The presence of intracellular bacteria in those microorganisms has been studied mainly in material from cultures, a few from the sea, and several strains were isolated from different species. Experiments with crossed inoculations have shown that the bacterial strain from Gonyaulax tamarensis caused the cells of some other species to become toxic. From nontoxic clonal cultures of Prorocentrum balticum, Glenodinium foliaceum, and Gyrodinium instriatum, after inoculation of that bacterial strain, cultures were obtained whose cell extracts showed the same kind of toxicity as G. tamarensis. No toxic action could be found in the extracts of the bacterial cells form the assayed strains. The interference of intracellular bacteria in the metabolism of dinoflagellates must be the main cause of their toxicity.

  18. Cutaneous drug toxicity from 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): Case report and histological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Patricia; Wood, Benjamin; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad

    2015-11-01

    The use of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) has regained popularity as a weight loss aid in the last two decades due to increased marketing to bodybuilders and the increasing availability of this banned substance via the Internet. 2,4-DNP is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and toxicity results in hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnoea and possible cardiac arrest and death. Skin toxicity from 2,4-DNP has not been reported since the 1930s. We report a case of a 21-year-old bodybuilding enthusiast who presented with a toxic exanthem after taking 2,4-DNP, and describe the first skin biopsy findings in a case of 2,4-DNP toxicity. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  20. Part II: Should the h-index be modified? An analysis of the m-quotient, contemporary h-index, authorship value, and impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Gabrick, Kyle S; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick R; Klimo, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The widely accepted h-index depends on the citation analysis source and does not consider the authorship position, the journal's impact factor (IF), or the age of the paper or author. We investigated these factors in citation statistics of academic neurosurgeons. An uncorrected h-index and the m-quotient, which corrects for career length, were calculated by the use of Scopus and Google Scholar. In a subset of neurosurgeons, we computed the contemporary h-index (hc), which accounts for the age of the publications; the authorship value (AV), weighted by author position; and the journal IF. An "overall' average for AV and IF including most of an author's publications and an average for publications comprising the h-index ("h-index core") were calculated. When we used Google Scholar, the mean h-index was significantly greater than that calculated when we used Scopus (P = 0.0030). m-quotient and hc-index increased with academic rank, with an m-quotient >1 achieved by 69% of chairmen and 48% of professors. The effect of AV was greatest on the greater h-indices. The average IF for the h-index core was greater than the overall IF, which did not correlate with academic rank. Few neurosurgeons consistently publish in high-impact journals. Google Scholar tends to inflate the h-index. The m-quotient and hc-index allow comparisons of researchers across time. Although average journal IF did not differ significantly among neurosurgeons academic ranks, it should be noted for individuals who consistently publish in high-impact journals. We recommend the creation of individual bibliometric profiles to better compare the academic productivity of neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...--Reporting Year SIC--Standard Industrial Code TRI--Toxics Release Inventory TRI-ME--TRI-Made Easy Desktop... EPA to ``publish a uniform toxic chemical release form for facilities covered'' by the TRI Program. 42... practicable. Similarly, EPA's Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) (40 CFR Part 3), published...

  2. Potentials and limitations of hazard indices for the determination of risk potentials of disposed toxic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Hazard indices are often used for the determination of risk potentials arising from the geological disposal of toxic wastes. They are based on simplified models for the calculation of potential health effects caused by the wastes. The attractiveness of hazard indices lies in their simplicity which nevertheless results in reliable data on necessary isolation times and the most toxic nuclides of a waste. They also make possible comparisons of the potential risks of different wastes. After a discussion of the processes that control the behavior of toxic wastes in the environment after a failure of the geological barriers, a new hazard index is presented. Originally developed for nuclear wastes, it is the first which involves the joint consideration of the composition of a waste, the probability for transport of waste nuclides to man, their toxicity, and the time-dependent changes of the risk potentials which are caused by radioactive buildup and decay processes after the waste has entered the biosphere. The new hazard index makes possible the calculation of risk potentials at a given time of release and time period of concern thereafter. Sample calculations for different nuclear wastes show the importance of the model improvements on resulting time-dependent risk potentials. Applicability of the new hazard index to non-nuclear wastes is described. Potentials and limitations of comparative risk assessments using hazard indices are discussed. (author)

  3. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  4. Select toxic metals status of pregnant women with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...

  5. Late toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Coletti, F.; Rafailovici, L.; Filomia, M.L.; Chiozza, J.; Dosoretz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to describe and classify chronic complications due to radiotherapy in breast cancer. Also the impact of radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients is evaluated. Materials and methods: 50 patients with breast cancer at early stages (78% in situ, 22% I and II) treated with radiotherapy in breast volume plus boost (45/50 Gy + 18/20 Gy) with a follow up over 5 years. Acute toxicities were found retrospectively and chronic toxicities were assessed though physical examination and review of complementary studies. To facilitate data collection, pre printed forms were used. Bibliographic searches were made. Results: 10% received chemotherapy and 64% tamoxifen. The predominant chronic toxicity were found in skin (66%), although grade I and II (hyperpigmentation 26%, dryness 22%, telangiectasia 10% fibrosis, 4%, other 4%). A 50% of the patients showed hypoesthesia in ipsilateral upper limb. The other toxicities were presented in low rate and magnitude: mastodynia 16%; actinic pneumonitis 4%, pyrosis 4%, Tachycardia 2%, among others. Of the patients with acute toxicity, only 30% were grade III. The 70% of the patients had a positive impact of radiotherapy on quality of life. Conclusions: We found low rates and degrees of late toxicity. It was noticed a relationship between acute and chronic toxicity, because those who presented adverse effects during treatment developed late effects. It reflects the importance of integrating monitoring as part of radiation treatment. It should be adopted a single score of late toxicity measurement to unify data from different series. (authors) [es

  6. Zebrafish on a chip: a novel platform for real-time monitoring of drug-induced developmental toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinbao Li

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical safety testing requires a cheap, fast and highly efficient platform for real-time evaluation of drug toxicity and secondary effects. In this study, we have developed a microfluidic system for phenotype-based evaluation of toxic and teratogenic effects of drugs using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos and larvae as the model organism. The microfluidic chip is composed of two independent functional units, enabling the assessment of zebrafish embryos and larvae. Each unit consists of a fluidic concentration gradient generator and a row of seven culture chambers to accommodate zebrafish. To test the accuracy of this new chip platform, we examined the toxicity and teratogenicity of an anti-asthmatic agent-aminophylline (Apl on 210 embryos and 210 larvae (10 individuals per chamber. The effect of Apl on zebrafish embryonic development was quantitatively assessed by recording a series of physiological indicators such as heart rate, survival rate, body length and hatch rate. Most importantly, a new index called clonic convulsion rate, combined with mortality was used to evaluate the toxicities of Apl on zebrafish larvae. We found that Apl can induce deformity and cardiovascular toxicity in both zebrafish embryos and larvae. This microdevice is a multiplexed testing apparatus that allows for the examination of indexes beyond toxicity and teratogenicity at the sub-organ and cellular levels and provides a potentially cost-effective and rapid pharmaceutical safety assessment tool.

  7. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  8. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  10. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  11. Indexing molecules for their hERG liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Anwar; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Da'adoosh, Beny; Kadan, Sleman; Zaid, Hilal; Goldblum, Amiram

    2013-07-01

    The human Ether-a-go-go-Related-Gene (hERG) potassium (K(+)) channel is liable to drug-inducing blockage that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac action potential, triggers arrhythmia and possibly causes sudden cardiac death. Early prediction of drug liability to hERG K(+) channel is therefore highly important and preferably obligatory at earlier stages of any drug discovery process. In vitro assessment of drug binding affinity to hERG K(+) channel involves substantial expenses, time, and labor; and therefore computational models for predicting liabilities of drug candidates for hERG toxicity is of much importance. In the present study, we apply the Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) algorithm to construct a large number of rule-based models (filters) and exploit their combination for developing the concept of hERG Toxicity Index (ETI). ETI estimates the molecular risk to be a blocker of hERG potassium channel. The area under the curve (AUC) of the attained model is 0.94. The averaged ETI of hERG binders, drugs from CMC, clinical-MDDR, endogenous molecules, ACD and ZINC, were found to be 9.17, 2.53, 3.3, -1.98, -2.49 and -3.86 respectively. Applying the proposed hERG Toxicity Index Model on external test set composed of more than 1300 hERG blockers picked from chEMBL shows excellent performance (Matthews Correlation Coefficient of 0.89). The proposed strategy could be implemented for the evaluation of chemicals in the hit/lead optimization stages of the drug discovery process, improve the selection of drug candidates as well as the development of safe pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    the inventory that contribute significantly to the impact categories on ecotoxicity and human toxicity to focus the characterisation work. The reason why the selection methods are more important for the chemical-related impact categories than for other impact categories is the extremely high number......Characterization of toxic emissions in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is in many cases severely limited by the lack of characterization factors for the emissions mapped in the inventory. The number of substances assigned characterization factors for (eco)toxicity included in the dominating LCA....... The methods are evaluated against a set of pre-defined criteria (comprising consistency with characterization and data requirement) and applied to case studies and a test set of chemicals. The reported work is part of the EU-project OMNIITOX....

  13. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Polyprenols Extracted from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBP are a new type of lipid with 14–24 isoprenyl units, which in humans have strong bioactivity like the dolichols. A large amount of work showed that GBP had good antibacterial activity and powerful protective effects against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and alcohol, as well as antitumor activity, but the safety of GBP was not considered. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of these polyprenols. Acute toxicity in mice was observed for 14 days after GBP oral dosing with 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 21.5 g/kg body weight (b. wt. Further, an Ames toxicity assessment was carried out by plate incorporation assay on spontaneous revertant colonies of TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with GBP doses designed as 8, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 μg/dish, and subchronic toxicity was evaluated in rats for 91 days at GBP doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b. wt./day. The weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical indexes, the ratio of viscera/body weight, and histopathological examinations of tissue slices of organs were all investigated. The results showed that no animal behavior and appearance changes and mortality were seen during the observation period with 21.5 g/kg GBP dose in the acute toxicity test. Also, no mutagenicity effects were produced by GBP (mutation rate < 2 on the four standard Salmonella strains (p > 0.05 in the Ames toxicity test. Furthermore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of GBP was 2000 mg/kg for 91 days feeding of rats in the subchronic toxicity tests. Results also showed the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as histopathological examination changed within a small range, and all clinical observation indexes were normal. No other distinct impacts on cumulative growth of body weight, food intake and food utilization rate were discovered with GBP. No significant difference was discovered for the rats’ organ weight and the ratio of viscera

  15. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  16. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  17. An early developmental vertebrate model for nanomaterial safety: bridging cell-based and mammalian toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Carl A; Di Silvio, Desire; Devarajan, Aarthi; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Giudice, Chiara; Salmona, Mario; Wheeler, Grant N; Sherwood, Victoria; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli

    2016-03-01

    With the rise in production of nanoparticles (NPs) for an ever-increasing number of applications, there is an urgent need to efficiently assess their potential toxicity. We propose a NP hazard assessment protocol that combines mammalian cytotoxicity data with embryonic vertebrate abnormality scoring to determine an overall toxicity index. We observed that, after exposure to a range of NPs, Xenopus phenotypic scoring showed a strong correlation with cell based in vitro assays. Magnetite-cored NPs, negative for toxicity in vitro and Xenopus, were further confirmed as nontoxic in mice. The results highlight the potential of Xenopus embryo analysis as a fast screening approach for toxicity assessment of NPs, which could be introduced for the routine testing of nanomaterials.

  18. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  19. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index

  20. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  1. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  7. A Risk Severity Index for industrial plants and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas, E.; Arnaldos, J.; Silvetti, B.; Vallee, Agnes; Casal, J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk index (Risk Severity Index, S) has been devised to allow the assessment of the risk level originated by a given installation or site over the affected zone. A set of threshold levels for thermal radiation, toxic concentration and overpressure, together with the probabilities and frequencies associated to critical events and their effects have been the basis for calculating the values of S. A computer tool has been designed to perform a quick calculation of the diverse Risk Severity Indexes (for a critical event, for a dangerous phenomenon, for a type of effect and for the whole installation) and to plot a map of the risk severity levels around the site. The methodology has been applied to diverse test cases and it has proved to be useful for risk assessment, for comparative studies and for land use planning

  8. Phase II multicenter randomized study of amifostine for prevention of acute radiation rectal toxicity: Topical intrarectal versus subcutaneous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Pissakas, George; Mallas, Elias; Antypas, Christos; Kokakis, John D.; Matsopoulos, George; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Vlahos, Lambros J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of subcutaneous vs. intrarectal administration of amifostine against acute radiation toxicity. Methods and materials: Patients were randomized to receive amifostine either intrarectally (Group A, n = 27) or a 500-mg flat dose subcutaneously (Group B, n = 26) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In Group A, 1,500 mg of amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in 40 mL of enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) rectal and urologic toxicity criteria and the Subjective-RectoSigmoid scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after radiotherapy completion. The area under the curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index. Results: Intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, Group A had superior results with a significantly lower incidence of Grades I-II rectal radiation morbidity (11% vs. 42%, p 0.04) but inferior results concerning urinary toxicity (48% vs. 15%, p 0.03). The mean rectal mucositis index and Subjective-RectoSigmoid score were significantly lower in Group A (0.44 vs. 2.45 [p = 0.015] and 3.9 vs. 6.0 [p = 0.01], respectively), and the mean urinary mucositis index was lower in Group B (2.39 vs. 0.34, p < 0.028). Conclusions: Intrarectal administration of amifostine (1,500 mg) seemed to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation rectal mucositis but was inferior to subcutaneous administration in terms of urinary toxicity. Additional randomized studies are needed for definitive decisions concerning the

  9. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi ...

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  11. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  12. Abstracts of the 31. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, L.E.; Haya, K.; Niimi, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for an informal exchange of recent research information and knowledge on aquatic and environmental toxicology. Topics ranged from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, setting regulations and developing criteria for sediment and water quality. The workshops were attended by representatives from industry, governments and universities. The current challenges and approaches to deal with aquatic toxicology and their biological effect on aquatic biota were discussed. The sessions were entitled as follows: environmental effects monitoring; pesticides; ecological risk assessment; sediment disposal at sea; oil and gas; pharmaceuticals; artifactual toxicity in municipal waste water; sediment and soil toxicity; contaminants in aquatic systems; biological effects; and discoveries in aquatic sciences. The conference included 4 plenary sessions and 119 platform papers, of which 24 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Occurrence and mobility of toxic elements in coals from endemic fluorosis areas in the Three Gorges Region, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xiao, Tangfu; Liu, Yizhang; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks. For this purpose, a modified experiment combined with long-term humidity cell test and column leaching trial was applied to elucidate the mobility of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes. In addition, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) was used to ascertain the modes of occurrence of toxic elements. The results demonstrated that the contents of toxic elements in the study area followed the order: stone coals > gangues > coal balls > coals. Furthermore, modes of occurrence of toxic elements were obviously different in coals and coal wastes. For example, cadmium (Cd) was mainly associated with monosulfide fraction in coals, molybdenum (Mo) and arsenic (As) were mainly associated with carbonate and silicate in coal gangues and stone coals, chromium (Cr) mainly existed in silicate and insoluble matter in coal gangues and coal balls, thallium (Tl) mainly occurred in organic matter in stone coals and sulfide in coals, and the occurrence of antimony (Sb) varied with different kinds of samples. Moreover, a large amount of toxic elements released to the leachates during the weathering and leaching process, which might pollute the environment and threaten human health. Based on the geo-accumulation index (I geo ), single factor index (P i ) and Nemerow index (P N ), soils i n

  14. Nuclear and toxic waste recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottillo, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for the safe and convenient disposal of nuclear and/or toxic wastes which comprises the steps of (a) collecting nuclear and/or toxic wastes which pose a danger to health; (b) packaging the wastes within containers for the safe containment thereof to provide filled containers having a weight sufficient to sink into the molten lava present within an active volcano; and (c) depositing the filled containers directly into the molten lava present within a volcano containing same to cause the containers to sink therein end to be dissolved or consumed by the heat, whereby the contents thereof are consumed to become a part of the mass of molten lava present within the volcano

  15. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure of the mother during pregnancy. (b) Definitions. (1) Developmental toxicity is the property of a chemical that causes in utero death, structural or functional abnormalities or growth retardation during... least part of the pregnancy covering the major period of organogenesis, to several groups of pregnant...

  16. Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Hall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents.

  17. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  18. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  19. Composite science and technology innovation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book reports the composite science and technology innovation index with the purpose, process, conception and, the method of evaluation. It also indicates the result of composite science and technology innovation index in 2010, which itemizes the result according to resource, activity network, environment and outcome. The last part records analysis of science and technology innovation in Korea and development plan with various analysis.

  20. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, Joanna H.; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low α/β ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. Methods and Materials: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score ≥ 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. Results: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.

  1. Index to Doctoral Dissertations in Business Education 1900-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Harves

    The cross-referenced index to doctoral dissertations in business education is based on listings and summaries of doctoral studies as they appeared in the major publications in the field of business education for the last 75 years. The index is divided into four parts: (1) a researcher/author index (76 pages) supplying typical bibliographic data…

  2. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  3. Relationships between nuclear magnetic resonance parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity in central Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Stella Maris; Barquin, Mercedes; Katusich, Ofelia; Nudelman, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill in the Central Patagonian zone was studied to evaluate if any relationship exists between the parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity for two plant species and to evaluate if the phytotoxicity to local species would be a good index for the soil contamination. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural indexes and column chromatography compositional indexes were determined to characterize the oil spill in the soil samples. Bioassays were also carried out using Lactuca sativa L (reference) and Atriplex lampa (native species) as test organisms. Measurements of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil were carried out to evaluate the effect on the bioassays. The principal components analysis of the parameters determined by NMR, compositional indexes, EC, TPH, and toxicology data shows that the first three principal components accounted for the 78% of the total variance (40%, 25%, and 13% for the first, second, and third PC, respectively). A good agreement was found between information obtained by compositional indexes and NMR structural indexes. Soil toxicity increases with the increase of EC and TPH. Other factors, such as, the presence of branched and aromatic hydrocarbons is also significant. The statistical evaluation showed that the Euclidean distances (3D) between the background and each one of the samples might be a better indicator of the soil contamination, compared with chemical criterion of TPH.

  4. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  7. Estimating Search Engine Index Size Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  8. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  9. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability and toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri in sediment of the Huelva estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Daniel; Usero, José; Morillo, José

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between toxicity and bioavailable metals in sediments from the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence was analyzed. Toxicity was assessed with Microtox® bioassay using a marine luminescent bacterium: Vibrio fischeri. Bioavailable metals were considered as both, acid extractable fraction of BCR procedure and the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier sequential extraction. A bioavailable metals index was calculated to integrate results in a single figure. Toxicity and bioavailable metals showed a similar pattern. Higher levels were found in the estuary than in the littoral (140 TU/g). In Huelva estuary, highest levels were found in the Tinto estuary (5725 TU/g), followed by the Odiel estuary (5100 TU/g) and the Padre Santo Canal (2500 TU/g). Results in this area were well over than those in nearby estuaries. Furthermore, they are similar to or even higher than those in other polluted sediments around the world. Bioavailable metal index showed a stronger correlation with acid extractable fraction of BCR (R(2) = 0.704) than that for the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier (R(2) = 0.661). These results suggest that bioavailable metals are an important source of sediment toxicity in the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence, an area with one of the highest mortality risks of Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Ultraviolet light induced refractive index structures in germanosilica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The focus of the research presented in this ph.d. thesis is refractive index structures photoinduced in germanonsilica waveguides with ultra-violet (UV) radiation. The physical mechanisms involved in photosensitivity and applications of a wide range of UV induced refractive index structures in both...... application of a scanning near-field optical microscope to obtain high resolution images of UV induced refractive index structures and by monitoring the dynamics of UV induced index changes and luminescence. During part of my ph.d. project I have worked at the National Institute of Standards and Technolgy...

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D ampersand D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  15. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  16. Heart Toxicity Related to Herbs and Dietary Supplements: Online Table of Case Reports. Part 4 of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.

  17. Nickel nanoparticles exposure and reproductive toxicity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-11-17

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  18. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    ... States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lerner, Steve. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States / Steve Lerner. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-01440-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Environmental toxicology- United States- Case studies. 2. Che...

  19. assessment of the toxicity of radiographic developer effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen

    ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPER ... as a source of food (protein), sporting tools for anglers; and a vital part of the ecosystem (tertiary ... in estuaries and coastal waters which because of the ... particularly vulnerable (Dicks, 1983; Health 1987). .... discharges into the marine and coastal.

  20. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  1. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  2. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  3. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  4. [Can nitrates lead to indirect toxicity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, M

    2007-09-01

    For many years, nitrates have been used, at low dosages, as an additive in salted food. New laws have been promulgated to limit their concentration in water due to increased levels found in soils, rivers and even the aquifer. Although nitrate ions themselves have not toxic properties, bacterial reduction into nitrite ions (occurring even in aqueous medium) can lead to nitrous anhydride, which in turn generates nitrosonium ions. Nitrosium ions react with secondary amine to give nitrosamines, many of which are cancer-inducing agents at very low doses. Opinions on this toxicity are clear-cut and difficult to reconcile. In fact, increased levels are due, in a large part, to the use of nitrates as fertiliéers but also to bacterial transformation of human and animal nitrogenous wastes such as urea.

  5. Edited volumes, monographs and book chapters in the Book Citation Index (BKCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI, SoSCI, A&HCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Felt, U.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Thomson-Reuters introduced the Book Citation Index (BKCI) as part of the Science Citation Index (SCI). The interface of the Web of Science version 5 enables users to search for both 'Books' and 'Book Chapters' as new categories. Books and book chapters, however, were always among the cited

  6. Cumulative indices for Spectrochima Acta, Part A and Spectrochimica Acta, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheeline, A.; Williams, B.; Williksen, E.; Jeffrey Steinfeld,; McEnroe, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), a section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by an electronic archive, stored on the SAE homepage at http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/sabe. The archive contains data, index and program files. The main article discusses the bibliographical purpose of the program and data files. A collective index for Spectrochimica Acta for volumes since it was split into Parts A and B, and continuing through 1991 for SAA and 1997 for SAB, is presented in DBF format, along with rudimentary data entry and access software. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Toxicity of PEG-Coated CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles with Treatment Effect of Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shahnaz; An, Wenzhen; Niu, Xiaoying; Li, Kang; Anwar, Shahzad; Maaz, Khan; Maqbool, Muhammad; Gao, Lan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal technique. Morphological studies of the samples confirmed the formation of polycrystalline pure-phase PEG-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with sizes of about 24 nm. Toxicity induced by CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was investigated, and biological assays were performed to check the toxicity effects of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Moreover, the healing effect of toxicity induced in living organisms was studied using curcumin and it was found that biochemical indexes detoxified and improved to reach its normal level after curcumin administration. Thus, PEG-coated CoFe2O4 synthesized through a hydrothermal method can be utilized in biomedical applications and curcumin, which is a natural chemical with no side effects, can be used for the treatment of toxicity induced by the nanoparticles in living organisms.

  8. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  9. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  10. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  11. The Structure of Algal Population in the Presence of Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatova, Valentina; Prokhotskaya, Valeria; Dmitrieva, Aida

    Algal bioassays are routinely employed as part of a battery of toxicity tests to assess the environmental impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems. This estimation is an essential component of the ecological risk assessment.

  12. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  13. Modulation of the toxicity and antitumour activity of alkylating drugs by steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, R.; Harrap, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    The steroids prednisolone and progesterone significantly altered the therapeutic indices of the alkylating agents, nitrogen mustard, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, phenyl acetic mustard and chlorambucil. For nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil and phenyl acetic mustard, prednisolone reduced host toxicity in the rat and enhanced the antitumour effectiveness against alkylating-agent-resistant strains of the Yoshida sarcoma and Walker carcinosarcoma. Progesterone also increased the therapeutic index of...

  14. Paraquat toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of the herbicide paraquat on humans and animals. Topics include clinical and pathological findings, biochemical mechanisms, effects of oxygen, pulmonary effects of exposure, and effects on freshwater and marine organisms. The contamination of marijuana plants with paraquat is also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Plant responses to metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, J.F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie moleculaire des plantes, CNRS, URA 2133; Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie vegetale appliquee

    1999-01-01

    Increased metal concentration in the soils, up to toxic levels, is becoming an important environmental problem. Safety rule evolution will require solutions in order to cope with food safety rules, and to freeze metal leakage from heavily metal-poisoned soils, such as those from industrial fallows. In this context, plants could serve to develop bio-assays in order to promote new standards, more realistic than the mass of a given metal per kg of soil, that does not consider the metal bio-disponibility. Plants could also be used for phyto-extraction and/or phyto-stabilization. To reach these objectives, a genetic approach could be useful to generate metal-tolerant plants with enough biomass. In this work is more particularly studied the plant responses to metal toxicity. Metal toxicity for living organisms involves oxidative and /or genotoxic mechanisms. Plant protection against metal toxicity occurs, at least in part, through control of root metal uptake and of long distance metal transport. Inside cells, proteins such as ferritins and metallothioneins, and glutathione-derived peptides named phyto-chelatins, participate in excess metal storage and detoxification. Low molecular weight organic molecules, mainly organic acids and amino acids and their derivatives, also play an important role in plant metal homeostasis. When these systems are overloaded, oxidative stress defense mechanisms are activated. Molecular and cellular knowledge of these processes will be necessary to improve plant metal resistance. Occurrence of naturally tolerant plants which hyper accumulate metals provides helpful tools for this research. (authors) 130 refs.

  16. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  17. Incorporating the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI in Ecological Impacts Assessment of Roads at Landscape Scale (Case study: Eastern Part of Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Nematollahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of roads can have deleterious effects on natural habitats containing species of conservation concern. Fragmentation of habitat into small, non-contiguous patches may result in dramatic population declines. Thus appropriate studies quantifying ecological impacts of roads at landscape scale are essential. In this study, the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI was applied for the ecological impact assessment of the roads network in Eastern part of Isfahan Province, including Abassabad wildlife refuge and Siahkouh National park, which are among the most important habitats for Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus classified as Critically Endangered (CR on the IUCN Red List. This new landscape index uses three sub-indices including traffic intensity, vicinity impact and fragmentation grade to calculate the ecological impacts of roads network. Results obtained through quantifying the Spatial Road Disturbance Index showed that the degree of disturbance by roads network is between 0 and 54.53. Our results also revealed that 12 percent of Abassabad wildlife refuge and wide range of suitable habitats for Asiatic Cheetah were affected by roads network, which presents a conservation concern for this critically endangered species.

  18. In vivo detection of the toxic heavy elements, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.; Davey, J.F.; Baddeley, H.; Summers, V.; Craswell, P.

    1986-01-01

    Portable systems for the in vivo measurement of the toxic heavy elements, cadmium and lead are described. The cadmium concentration in either the liver or left kidney is determined using a technique of thermal neutron capture gamma-ray analysis. X-ray fluorescence analysis is used to measure lead within the bone of the second phalanx of the index finger. Each of the measurements is used as an index of long term exposure to the element and applied to screening of exposed industrial workers. The results of these industrial health applications are presented. Clinical application of the measurements to the study of the involvement of these elements in renal disease is described in brief. (author)

  19. A longitudinal analysis of search engine index size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bogers, T.; Kunder, M. de; Salah, A. A.; Tonta, Y.; Salah, A. A. A.; Sugimoto, C.; Al, U.

    2015-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size and quality of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We

  20. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  1. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  2. Evaluating chemical and other agent exposures for reproductive and developmental toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council

    2001-01-01

    .... As part of its efforts to reduce or eliminate exposure of Naval personnel and their families to reproductive and developmental toxicants, the Navy requested that the National Research Council (NRC...

  3. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  4. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to aquatic organisms and its synergistic action with potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Izumi C; Arias-Barreiro, Carlos R; Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Ogo, Atsushi; Kawano, Tomonori; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Aoyama, Isao

    2015-02-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; A.M.V.M. Soares [University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal). Department of Biology

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor{reg_sign}, based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH-dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed.

  6. Prenatal imprinting by environmental toxicants: really an important issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal imprinting of sexual behaviour and of other traits by environmental toxicants has been one important topic in the ongoing discussions in environmental medicine. This review of the literature shows that, so far, concrete data are sparse and, in part, contradictory.

  7. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, Thomas J.; Munsell, Mark F.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson; Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A.; Dong, Lei; Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ≥0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ≥2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ≥3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ≥2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a

  8. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  9. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  10. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables." Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "kidney" to generate an overview list, and possibly "toxicity" to narrow the selection. Case reports were excluded if they involved herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. Since commercial DS often include a combination of ingredients, they were treated separately; so were foods. A few foods with kidney-toxic effects were listed in a fourth table. The spectrum of herbal or DS-induced kidney injuries included kidney stones, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, necrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as acute renal failure [ARF]), chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and death. Approximately 7 herbs (minus 4 no longer for sale) and 10 dietary supplements (minus 3 excluded due to excessive doses + germanium that is no longer sold) have been related to kidney injury case reports published in PubMed (+crosslisting) in the last 50 + years (1966 to May 2016). The implicated herbs include Chinese yew (Taxus celbica) extract, impila (Callilepis laureola), morning cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii hook F), tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) and wormwood (Artemisia

  11. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the effective refractive index of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  13. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  14. Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

  15. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50 first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety as-sessment of drugs and chemicals, LD50 values are no longer used. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to investigating the relevance of LD50 in development and assessment of drugs and chemicals. The findings revealed that in the past, many animals had been used for LD50 determination. OECD has reduced the number of test animals to 5–15 and presently it is further re-duced to 2–6. Acute toxicity study is being carried out in medicinal plants research and in the study of patent medicine. Although the application of LD50 has been drastically reduced, it is still applied and accepted in some parts of the world. Moreover, animals on which LD50 tests are conducted, should be allowed to die to see the end effect of the test drug or chemical because euthanisia of test animals may mask some toxicity signs of the test agents. Therefore, toxicity study of drugs and chemicals is a sci-entific process necessary for discovery and development of drugs as well as identification of potential toxicants.

  16. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fiscal 1999 technological survey report. Part 1. Applied technology for measuring human sense (Human sense measuring manual - human sense evaluation index guideline); Ningen kankaku keisoku manual. 1. Ningen kankaku hyoka shihyo guide line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A method of measuring/evaluating a mental and physical state by means of physiological information developed by a project was compiled into a 'guide book', as was a method of evaluating adaptability to the environment or products; and, this manual was prepared for the purpose of improving the adaptability of human beings to products by making use of the guide book widely in the field of industrial manufacturing. Described in the part 1 are a method of evaluating human mind and body by the measurement of physiological quantity, a method of evaluating mental and physical adaptability from the element of environmental physics such as vision, sound and warmth, and a method of evaluating adaptability concerning utilization of machines and equipment, as 'human sense evaluation indexes'. The chapter 1 is the index of physiological/psychological state (stress evaluation index, fatigue/awakening evaluation index), the chapter 2 is an environmental/psychological index (overall environmental evaluation index, visual environmental effect index, sound/vibration environmental evaluation index, thermal environmental evaluation index), the chapter 3 is an adaptability evaluation index of products and the like (adaptability evaluation index by form and movement, evaluation index for operability of equipment for example), and the chapter 4 is the guideline (of environmental design and of product design). (NEDO)

  18. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Search Engine Index Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indexes over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  20. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  1. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  2. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  3. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  4. Health and Environmental Effects of Pesticides (Part 2) | Bsshir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) are described in details in this paper. In the first part the following categories were mentioned: (1) DDT & Its Derivatives, (2) Aldrin & dieldrin, (3) Chlordane, and (4) Heptachlor. In this last part we continue. Sud J Dermatol Vol.3(1) 2005: 6-17 ...

  5. [Acute onset pulmonary toxicity associated to amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro Gonçalo; Saraiva, Fátima; Carreira, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug with a well-known potential chronic pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute pulmonary toxicity (APT) induced by amiodarone in a 57 year old patient submitted to a perfusion of 900 mg in just 6 hours, to control an auricular flutter with rapid ventricular response. During the administration, the patient developed hemodynamic instability and oxygen dessaturation that led to an electrical cardioversion with return of sinus rhythm. Still, the patient continued in progressive respiratory deterioration with acute bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and apparent normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. Anon-cardiogenic pulmonar edema progressing to clinico-physiological ARDS criteria was diagnosed. Expeditive therapeutic measures were undertaken, namely by initiation of non-invasive positive airway pressure support, that attained a good result.Albeit rare, amiodarone-induced APT might have severe consequences, namely progression to ALI/ARDS with a high mortality index.As it is a frequently prescribed drug, there should be a high clinical suspicion towards this phenomenon, allowing precocious therapeutic measures to be taken in a timely fashion to prevent the associated unfavorable outcome.

  6. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2016-06-14

    Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs), nanomaterial (NM) products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR), and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  7. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Bakand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs, nanomaterial (NM products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR, and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  8. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  9. A Price Index for Deflation of Academic R&D Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study relates to price trends affecting research and development (R&D) activities at academic institutions. Part I of this report provides the overall results of the study with limited discussion of measurement concepts, methodology and limitations. Part II deals with price indexes and deflation-general concepts and methodology. Part III…

  10. 76 FR 26805 - Medicare Program; Hospice Wage Index for Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., and hospices in low-wage index areas are unfairly advantaged. The commenter felt that our not wage... Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 418 Medicare Program; Hospice Wage Index for Fiscal Year 2012... [CMS-1355-P] RIN 0938-AQ31 Medicare Program; Hospice Wage Index for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Centers...

  11. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  12. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  13. Parental exposure to heavy fuel oil induces developmental toxicity in offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meina; Xiong, Deqi; Yang, Mengye; Xiong, Yijun; Ding, Guanghui

    2018-05-03

    The present study investigated the toxic effects of parental (maternal/paternal) exposure to heavy fuel oil (HFO) on the adult reproductive state, gamete quality and development of the offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Adult sea urchins were exposed to effluents from HFO-oiled gravel columns for 7 days to simulate an oil-contaminated gravel shore, and then gametes of adult sea urchins were used to produce embryos to determine developmental toxicity. For adult sea urchins, no significant difference in the somatic size and weight was found between the various oil loadings tested, while the gonad weight and gonad index were significantly decreased at higher oil loadings. The spawning ability of adults and fecundity of females significantly decreased. For gametes, no effect was observed on the egg size and fertilization success in any of the groups. However, a significant increase in the percentage of anomalies in the offspring was observed and then quantified by an integrative toxicity index (ITI) at 24 and 48 h post fertilization. The offspring from exposed parents showed higher ITI values with more malformed embryos. The results confirmed that parental exposure to HFO can cause adverse effects on the offspring and consequently affect the recruitment and population maintenance of sea urchins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information

  15. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some problems in quantifying toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  16. Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2002-12-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  17. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  18. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukandou Mounanga, Marlaine; Mewono, Ludovic; Aboughe Angone, Sophie

    2015-11-04

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional medicine is widely used in rural and urban areas also. This is essentially due to the prohibitive cost of pharmaceutical-based medicine and the low incomes of a major part of the population. In addition, the efficacies of many of these traditional and plant-based medicines are proven, but the fact remains that certain plants used in traditional medicine have toxic effects. It is in this perspective that we investigated by bibliographic literature on the toxicity of plants used in traditional medicine. It is crucial to gain knowledge on these plant-based medicines prepared and prescribed by practitioners, particularly in terms of toxicity, composition, specific efficacy of disease and to advise practitioners of this alternative medicine on the protection and security of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sediment toxicity data from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program, March 1991 to July 1996 (NODC Accession 9800146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of its bioeffects assessment program. NOAA has begun a series of surveys of the toxicity and other biological effects of toxicants in selected bays and...

  1. Characterization of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 gene harbouring native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates toxic against Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Lone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt based biopesticides are feasible alternatives to chemical pesticides. Here, we present the distribution of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 genes in native B. thuringiensis. Forty four out of 86 colonies were found to harbour crystals by phase contrast microscopy exhibiting a Bt index of 0.51. PCR analysis resulted in the amplification of cry1 in 24 and cry2 in 14 isolates. Twelve of the isolates showed presence of both cry1 and cry2, while 18 isolates did not show presence of either of the genes. Toxicity screening using spore-crystal mixtures against 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera revealed that the isolates (50% were either mildly toxic or not toxic (36.36%, and only 13.63% were toxic. The results are interesting, particularly so because the same isolates were previously reported to contain lepidopteran specific vip3A genes also, hence can complement the toxicity of the isolates harbouring vip3A genes.

  2. A tacrolimus-related immunosuppressant with reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, F J; Koprak, S; Staruch, M J; Talento, A; Koo, G; DaSilva, C; Sinclair, P J; Wong, F; Woods, J; Barker, J; Pivnichny, J; Singer, I; Sigal, N H; Williamson, A R; Parsons, W H; Wyvratt, M

    1998-01-15

    Tacrolimus (FK506) has potent immunosuppressive properties reflecting its ability to block the transcription of lymphokine genes in activated T cells through formation of a complex with FK506 binding protein-12, which inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. The clinical usefulness of tacrolimus is limited, however, by severe adverse effects, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Although this toxicity, like immunosuppression, appears mechanistically related to the calcineurin inhibitory action of the drug, a large chemistry effort has been devoted to search for tacrolimus analogs with reduced toxicity but preserved immunosuppressive activity that might have enhanced therapeutic utility. Here, we report on the identification of such an analog, which was synthetically derived from ascomycin (ASC), the C21 ethyl analog of tacrolimus, by introducing an indole group at the C32 position. The profile of biological activity of indolyl-ASC was characterized in rodent models of immunosuppression and toxicity. Indolyl-ASC was found to exhibit an immunosuppressive potency equivalent to that of tacrolimus in T-cell activation in vitro and in murine transplant models, even though indolyl-ASC bound about 10 times less to intracellular FK506 binding protein-12 than tacrolimus or ASC. Further evaluation of indolyl-ASC revealed that it is threefold less potent than tacrolimus in inducing hypothermia, a response that may reflect neurotoxicity, and in causing gastrointestinal transit alterations in mice. Moreover, indolyl-ASC was at least twofold less nephrotoxic than tacrolimus upon 3-week oral treatment in rats. Altogether, these data indicate a modest but definite improvement in the therapeutic index for indolyl-ASC compared with tacrolimus in rodent models.

  3. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  4. Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Göran; Aspegren, Pia

    2010-10-01

    The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between 182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. INAA and ETAAS of toxic element content of fruits harvested and consumed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were employed to determine the toxic elements in fourteen fruits harvested in Pakistan. As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se were determined using INAA. Cadmium and Pb were determined using ETAAS. The intake levels of all toxic elements have been calculated. The data show that dates supply the maximum amount of most of the toxic elements. Peels of apple and pear have also been investigated and were found to contain higher concentration of toxic elements than their edible parts. The reliability of the techniques has been established by the use of standard reference materials. This study shows that all investigated fruits cultivated and consumed in Pakistan are safe for human consumption. (author)

  6. Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in the toxicity of chemical emissions from the US industrial sector over the 1998-2009 period. Specifically, we employed a multiregional input-output analysis framework and integrated a supply-side index decomposition analysis (IDA) with a demand-side structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to clarify the main drivers of changes in the toxicity of production- and consumption-based chemical emissions. The results showed that toxic emissions from the US industrial sector decreased by 83% over the studied period because of pollution abatement efforts adopted by US industries. A variety of pollution abatement efforts were used by different industries, and cleaner production in the mining sector and the use of alternative materials in the manufacture of transportation equipment represented the most important efforts.

  7. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  8. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  9. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  10. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  11. Development of electrochemical sensor for the determination of toxic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring release of flue and toxic gases and vapours of volatile organic toxic substances into the atmosphere is one of the most important problems in environmental pollution control studies particularly in industrial installations in order to avoid poisoning and other health hazards. In industrial areas continuous monitoring of toxic gases and vapours is required for the safety of workers and for this purpose different types of sensors and available such as thermal sensors mass sensors, biosensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors. Among all of these sensors electrochemical sensors are most cost-effective, accurate and very good for continuous monitoring. They can be categorized into potentiometric, conductometric, amperometric and voltammetric sensors. Applications of different types of electrochemical sensors are briefly reviewed. Development of polymer membrane and conducting polymers are most important for fabrication of electrochemical sensors, which can analyse up to twenty two gases and vapours simultaneously. Some of the commercially used electrochemical sensors are described. For the determination of hydrogen sulfide an electrochemical sensor was developed. Teflon based conduction polymer membrane was treated with some electrolytes and then silver metal was deposited on one side of the membrane. Metal part side was exposed to gases and the other side was deposited on one side of the membrane metal part side was exposed to gasses and the other side was connected with two electrodes including reference and counter electrodes, whereas metal part acted as working electrode. This system can also me used for the analysis of their gases like SO/sub 2/ etc; because they react at different potentials with the metal to generate the signals. (author)

  12. [Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingfang; Wang, Huadong; Guo, Shanshan; Yan, Jie; Long, Fei

    2010-07-01

    To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application. Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. sativa, for Fructus Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa in the early stage literatures, female inflorescence and unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.

  13. Combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid to the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Hui; He, Fengmei; Li, Xuesheng; Tan, Huihua; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2018-05-29

    Insecticides with different modes of action may act in combination, in ways such as drifting, spray equipment residual, or utilizing concurrently in mulberry orchards or nearby agricultural fields. Silkworms may suffer from a diverse impact on the survival. In this study, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid and their combinations to the second instar of silkworms (Bombyx mori (L.)(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)) were evaluated after 48 and 72 h treatment by the leaf-dipping method and the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation. After 48 h treatment, results indicated that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid lambda-cyhalothrin, and that (2) synergism was predominated in most combinations excepted for the lambda-cyhalothrin + imidacloprid combination which displayed an additive effect at f a value 0.5. Then, after 72 h treatment, results exhibited that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid lambda-cyhalothrin < chlorantraniliprole, and that (2) only the chlorantraniliprole + imidacloprid mixture yielded antagonism at f a value 0.5; the other combinations performed an additive effect at least. Consequently, combined toxicity of mixtures may pose a worse effect on silkworm than single toxicity of insecticides. Therefore, we suggest that insecticide mixtures should be added into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  14. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs,OCpesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants. Sediments are a repository for many contaminants released into surface waters. Because of this, organisms inhabiting sediments may be exposed to a wide range of contaminants (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Contaminants of potential concern in sediments typically include trace elements (metals

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  16. NASA directives master list and index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook sets forth in two parts, Master List of Management Directives and Index to NASA Management Directives, the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of agencywide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office or center to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 7 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 8. The second part contains an in depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than handbooks, most of which are indexed by titles only.

  17. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  18. Mixture toxicity of flubendazole and fenbendazole to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckowski, Alan; Stolte, Stefan; Wagil, Marta; Markiewicz, Marta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, residual amounts of many pharmaceuticals can be found in various environmental compartments including surface and ground waters, soils and sediments as well as biota. Even though they undergo degradability, their environmental discharge is relatively continuous, thus they may be regarded as quasi-persistent contaminants, and are also frequently regarded as emerging organic pollutants. Benzimidazoles, especially flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN), represent two anthelmintic drugs belonging to this group. Although their presence in environmental matrices has been reported, there is relatively little data concerning their (eco)toxicological impact. Furthermore, no data is available on their mixture toxicity. FLU and FEN have been found to have a strong impact on an environmentally important non-target organism - Daphnia magna. Moreover, these compounds are usually present in the environment as a part of pharmaceutical mixtures. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate their mixture toxicity, which was the main aim of this study. Single substance toxicity tests were carried out in parallel with mixture studies of FLU and FEN, with the application of two well established concepts of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). As a result, both models (CA and IA) were found to underestimate the toxicity of mixtures, however CA yielded more accurate predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity testing of polymer materials for dialysis equipment: reconsidering in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U G; Liebsch, M; Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    In fulfilment of the aims of the European Union Biocidal Directive (Directive 98/8/EC), Technical Guidance Documents are currently being compiled. Part I of these Technical Guidance Documents covers data requirements for active substances and biocidal products. The Three Rs principle has been applied in certain parts of the toxicity and ecotoxicity testing scheme for pesticides, such as testing for acute oral toxicity, skin and eye irritation, skin sensitisation, and dermal absorption. Further recommendations on how to proceed with regard to the continuing replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments in this field of regulatory testing are included for consideration. In this context, besides stressing the necessity to validate and accept further alternatives, emphasis is placed on providing the possibility of waiving unnecessary tests and on the continuous evaluation of whether certain tests are needed at all. 2000 FRAME.

  20. Index to the 1st through 16th AEC/ERDA/DOE nuclear air cleaning conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1981-02-01

    The Proceedings of the sixteen conferences comprise a vertible encyclopedia on the technology of nuclear air and gas treatment and the control of airborne nuclear waste. These Proceedings cover the history of the technology; describe most of the research and developments in the field, worldwide, since the early 1950's; describe the problems that have been encountered and the solutions found to those problems; and summarize experience with equipment and systems developed for the control of airborne radioactive wastes in laboratory, radiochemical, and reactor operations, both government and commercial. The problem with this encyclopedia is that there has been no index to it; there has been no easy way for searching it to find what was available. This index fills the gap. The first conference was an informal meeting of a number of interested parties from among the then AEC contractors. Consequently, there were no proceedings for that meeting. The subsequent conferences, with their years, locations, and Proceedings numbers, are listed. This index consists of three parts: a tabulation of papers and their authors by paper number (Part I); a tabulation of papers and their paper numbers by author (Part II); and a key-word-in context (KWIC) index of papers. The paper number is a two-part designation consisting of the number of the conference (2, 3...16) followed by the page number of the paper in the corresponding Proceedings. The author index lists each author who has participated in the air cleaning conferences over the years, and the paper index lists all authors of the respective papers. The KWIC index is, in effect, a comprehensive subject cross index; each paper is listed as many times, by keyword, as there are major terms (i.e., keywords) in its title. Although this multiple listing results in a lengthy list, it provides a very deep cross-indexing of the papers

  1. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 2; Implementation, Analysis and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Samanta, Arindam; Schull, Mitchell A.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramajrushna R,; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of a new global monthly leaf area index (LAI) data set for the period July 1981 to December 2006 derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data is described. The physically based algorithm is detailed in the first of the two part series. Here, the implementation, production and evaluation of the data set are described. The data set is evaluated both by direct comparisons to ground data and indirectly through inter-comparisons with similar data sets. This indirect validation showed satisfactory agreement with existing LAI products, importantly MODIS, at a range of spatial scales, and significant correlations with key climate variables in areas where temperature and precipitation limit plant growth. The data set successfully reproduced well-documented spatio-temporal trends and inter-annual variations in vegetation activity in the northern latitudes and semi-arid tropics. Comparison with plot scale field measurements over homogeneous vegetation patches indicated a 7% underestimation when all major vegetation types are taken into account. The error in mean values obtained from distributions of AVHRR LAI and high-resolution field LAI maps for different biomes is within 0.5 LAI for six out of the ten selected sites. These validation exercises though limited by the amount of field data, and thus less than comprehensive, indicated satisfactory agreement between the LAI product and field measurements. Overall, the intercomparison with short-term LAI data sets, evaluation of long term trends with known variations in climate variables, and validation with field measurements together build confidence in the utility of this new 26 year LAI record for long term vegetation monitoring and modeling studies.

  2. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  3. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Estimation of toxicity threshold values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C.; Zhao, F.J.; Stroud, J.L. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, H.; Fozard, S. [Division of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Four plant species (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.; red clover, Trifolium pratense L.; ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.; and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were tested on ten soils varying widely in soil properties to assess molybdenum (Mo) toxicity. A larger range (66-fold-609-fold) of added Mo concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition of yield (ED{sub 50}) was found among soils than among plant species (2-fold-38-fold), which illustrated that the soils differed widely in the expression of Mo toxicity. Toxicity thresholds based on soil solution Mo narrowed the variation among soils compared to thresholds based on added Mo concentrations. We conclude that plant bioavailability of Mo in soil depends on Mo solubility, but this alone did not decrease the variability in observed toxicity enough to be used in risk assessment and that other soil properties influencing Mo toxicity to plants need to be considered. - Mo toxicity thresholds varied widely in different soils and therefore soil properties need to be taken into account in order to assess the risk of Mo exposure.

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design

  6. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.T.; Mundt, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  7. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  8. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), termed simultaneously-extracted metals (SEM), are widely used to estimate the ‘potentially-bioavailable’ fraction of metals that is not bound to sulfides (i.e., SEM-AVS). Metal concentrations in pore water are widely considered to be direct measures of metal bioavailability, and predictions of toxicity based on pore-water metal concentrations may be further improved by modeling interactions of metals with other pore-water constituents using Biotic Ligand Models. Data from sediment toxicity tests and metal analyses has provided the basis for development of sediment quality guidelines, which estimate thresholds for toxicity of metals in sediments. Empirical guidelines such as Probable Effects Concentrations or (PECs) are based on associations between sediment metal concentrations and occurrence of toxic effects in large datasets. PECs do not model bioavailable metals, but they can be used to estimate the toxicity of metal mixtures using by calculation of probable effect quotients (PEQ = sediment metal concentration/PEC). In contrast, mechanistic guidelines, such as Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) attempt to predict both bioavailability and mixture toxicity. Application of these simple bioavailability models requires more extensive chemical characterization of sediments or pore water, compared to empirical guidelines, but may provide more reliable estimates of metal toxicity across a wide range of sediment types

  9. Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy) in diabetic rats. Methods: The methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum was first subjected to acute toxicity studies. Thereafter, the effect of the extract on oral glucose tolerance was determined ...

  10. Use of environmental health-risk analysis for managing toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a set of simple models used to assess health risks based on toxicity, environmental mobility and persistence. These models use a representative landscape in order to describe the steady-state distribution of arsenic, tritiated water, and TCDD as a result of continuous additions to soil. This information is used to assess potential exposures. Application of the screening model to three chemically different carcinogens reveals that the environmental health risk does not scale with direct measures of toxicity. As estimated here, the environmental health risk of TCDD relative to tritiated water and arsenic is roughly an order of magnitude less than its cancer potency relative to these compounds. The difference is attributable in large part to the immobility of TCDD relative to tritium and the lower persistence of TCDD compared to arsenic. The purpose is to present a simple procedure for using the relative behavior of toxic species under prototype conditions as a basis for risk management. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  11. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg following biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.; Kelly-Hooper, F.; McAlear, J.; Sinnesael, K.; Dixon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental criteria for the maximum allowable levels of hydrocarbons resulting from an oil spill assume that all detectable hydrocarbons are petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and do not account for naturally-occurring biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC). As such, some soils may be wrongfully assessed as being PHC contaminated. A false identification could lead to unnecessary and costly bioremediation that is potentially disruptive to functioning ecosystems. This study is part of a larger project to differentiate between natural and petroleum F3 hydrocarbons in muskeg material that has been impacted by an oil spill. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg was examined following biodegradation in laboratory microcosms. Preliminary acute toxicity tests using locally purchased Sphagnum peat moss contaminated with Federated Crude oil had no effect on the survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), but springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi) were more sensitive. Earthworm and springtail reproduction bioassays and a Northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus) growth bioassay was used to test the crude-oil-contaminated peat. All 3 test species will be used to test for reduced toxicity following biodegradation of Federated Crude oil-contaminated muskeg from northern Alberta under simulated conditions.

  12. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg following biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.; Kelly-Hooper, F.; McAlear, J.; Sinnesael, K.; Dixon, D. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The current environmental criteria for the maximum allowable levels of hydrocarbons resulting from an oil spill assume that all detectable hydrocarbons are petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and do not account for naturally-occurring biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC). As such, some soils may be wrongfully assessed as being PHC contaminated. A false identification could lead to unnecessary and costly bioremediation that is potentially disruptive to functioning ecosystems. This study is part of a larger project to differentiate between natural and petroleum F3 hydrocarbons in muskeg material that has been impacted by an oil spill. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg was examined following biodegradation in laboratory microcosms. Preliminary acute toxicity tests using locally purchased Sphagnum peat moss contaminated with Federated Crude oil had no effect on the survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), but springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi) were more sensitive. Earthworm and springtail reproduction bioassays and a Northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus) growth bioassay was used to test the crude-oil-contaminated peat. All 3 test species will be used to test for reduced toxicity following biodegradation of Federated Crude oil-contaminated muskeg from northern Alberta under simulated conditions.

  13. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J B; Mitchell, I J [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Baral, M; Bradstreet, J [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Geis, E; Ingram, J; Hensley, A; Zappia, I; Gehn, E; Mitchell, K [Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599 (United States); Newmark, S [Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711 (United States); Rubin, R A [Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413 (United States); Bradstreet, J [International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); El-Dahrn, J M [Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  14. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  15. Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No online current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case reports exists in a summarized tabular form. Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create an online "DS Toxic Table" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to June, 2016, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of DS induced liver injuries (DSILI) included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death. Over the past 50 years, approximately 21 herbs (minus germander and usnic acid that are no longer sold) and 12 dietary supplements (minus the nine no longer sold and vitamin A & niacin due to excess intake) posed a possible risk for liver injures in certain individuals. The herbs with the most number of reported publications (but not cases studies) in descending order, were germander, black cohosh, kava extract, and green tea extract. These online DS Toxic Tables will contribute to continued Phase IV post marketing surveillance to detect possible liver toxicity cases and serve to forewarn consumers, clinicians, and corporations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microplastic potentiates triclosan toxicity to the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Nielsen, Anne; Khan, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co-exposure......Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co......-exposures of MP and HOC are mixtures of hazardous agents, which can be addressed from a mixture toxicity perspective. In this study, mixture effects of polyethylene microbeads (MP) and triclosan (TCS) (a commonly used antibacterial agent in cosmetics) were assessed on the marine copepod Acartia tonsa. Data...... indicated that MP potentiate the toxicity of TCS, illustrating the importance of understanding the mixture interaction between plastics and HOC when addressing the environmental importance of the vector effect....

  17. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  18. Variance Function Partially Linear Single-Index Models1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng; Liang, Hua; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We consider heteroscedastic regression models where the mean function is a partially linear single index model and the variance function depends upon a generalized partially linear single index model. We do not insist that the variance function depend only upon the mean function, as happens in the classical generalized partially linear single index model. We develop efficient and practical estimation methods for the variance function and for the mean function. Asymptotic theory for the parametric and nonparametric parts of the model is developed. Simulations illustrate the results. An empirical example involving ozone levels is used to further illustrate the results, and is shown to be a case where the variance function does not depend upon the mean function.

  19. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  20. Spatiotemporal trends in mean temperatures and aridity index over Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhire, I.; Ahmed, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at quantifying the trends in mean temperatures and aridity index over Rwanda for the period of 1961-1992, based on analysis of climatic data (temperatures, precipitations, and potential evapotranspiration). The analysis of magnitude and significance of trends in temperatures and aridity index show the degree of climate change and mark the level of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g., droughts) in different areas of the country. The study reveals that mean temperatures increased in most parts of the country, with a significant increase observed in the eastern lowlands and in the southwestern parts. The highlands located in the northwest and the Congo-Nile crest showed a nonsignificant increase in mean temperatures. Aridity index increased only in March, April, October, and November, corresponding with the rainy seasons. The remaining months of the year showed a decreasing trend. At an annual resolution, the highlands and the western region showed a rise in aridity index with a decreasing pattern over the eastern lowlands and the central plateau. Generally, the highlands presented a nonsignificant increase in mean temperatures and aridity index especially during the rainy seasons. The eastern lowlands showed a significant increase in mean temperatures and decreasing trends in aridity index. Therefore, these areas are bound to experience more droughts, leading to reduced water and consequent decline in agricultural production. On the other hand, the north highlands and southwest region will continue to be more productive.

  1. Index to UKAEA, BNFL, MOD(PE) AWRE and recommended external standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The principal part of the document consists of an alphabetical index and numerical index to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment standards, engineering and general stores. Also included are: an index to Engineering Equipment Users Association handbooks and documents, members' specifications, codes of practice and handbooks; British Standard Codes of practice (for building, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering); UKAEA Standardisation Committee memoranda and metric guides; and miscellaneous documents. (U.K.)

  2. Subchronic toxicity study of corn silk with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zhang, Tiehua; Liu, Jun; Lu, Shuang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Erlei; Wang, Zuozhao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional herbal medicine in China, which has been used in many parts of the world for the treatment of edema as well as for cystitis, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, prostatitis and similar ailments. However, there is little scientific evidence about its safety. As a part of its safety assessment, a subchronic toxicity was performed in this paper. The subchronic toxicity was investigated in male and female Wistar rats by dietary administration at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.0% and 8.0% (w/w) for 90 days. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were compared between test and control groups. A number of significant differences were seen between groups, but none of them was considered to be adverse. Based on the present study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of corn silk is at least 8.0% which corresponds to a mean daily corn silk intake of approximately 9.354 and 10.308 g/day/kg body weight for males and females, respectively. The results obtained in the present study suggest that consumption of corn silk has no adverse effects and support the safety of corn silk for humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plants. Part 3. Study of evaluation method and applicability of resilience index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Miyano, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new index, called the resilience index, that evaluates the dynamic stability of the system safety of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident by considering the ability to recover system safety functions that have become lost in the situation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the resilience index is described. The system safety of a pressurized water reactor plant during a severe accident is then assessed according to the resilience index in order to discuss the applicability of the index. We find that the resilience index successfully represents management capability and, therefore, the resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plants. Part 3. Study on evaluation method and applicability of resilience index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new index, called the resilience index, that evaluates the dynamic stability of the system safety of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident by considering the ability to recover system safety functions that have become lost in the situation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the resilience index is described. The system safety of a PWR plant during a severe accident is then assessed according to the resilience index in order to discuss the applicability of the index. We find that the resilience index successfully represents management capability and, therefore, the resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. G-index: A new metric to describe dynamic refractive index effects in HPLC absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiczek, Karsten G; Rozing, Gerard P; Zengerle, Roland

    2018-09-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a solvent gradient and absorbance detection is one of the most widely used methods in analytical chemistry. The observed absorbance baseline is affected by the changes in the refractive index (RI) of the mobile phase. Near the limited of detection, this complicates peak quantitation. The general aspects of these RI-induced apparent absorbance effects are discussed. Two different detectors with fundamentally different optics and flow cell concepts, a variable-wavelength detector equipped with a conventional flow cell and a diode-array detector equipped with a liquid core waveguide flow cell, are compared with respect to their RI behavior. A simple method to separate static - partly unavoidable - RI effects from dynamic RI effects is presented. It is shown that the dynamic RI behavior of an absorbance detector can be well described using a single, relatively easy-to-determine metric called the G-index. The G-index is typically in the order of a few seconds and its sign depends on the optical flow cell concept. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  7. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  8. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  9. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  10. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  11. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  12. Bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene in soils upon biochar and compost addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielská, Lucie; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo; Höss, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    The study investigates the role of biochar and/or compost in mitigating the toxic effects of pyrene in soils using reproduction of nematodes and porewater concentration as measures of pyrene toxicity and bioavailability, respectively. Two soils were spiked with increasing levels of pyrene to achieve a concentration-response relationship for the reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans. The observed EC50 values (pyrene concentration causing 50% inhibition of reproduction) were 14mg/kg and 31mg/kg (dry mass) for these soils, corresponding to equilibrium porewater concentrations of 37μg/L and 47μg/L, respectively. Differences in organic carbon content were not sufficient to explain the variability in toxicity between the different soils. Soils causing a significant inhibition of reproduction were further amended with 10%-compost, 5%-biochar, or both, and the effects on reproduction and porewater concentration determined. Combined addition of compost and biochar was identified as the most effective strategy in reducing pyrene concentration in soil porewater, which was also partly reflected in soil toxicity. However, porewater concentrations predicted only 52% of pyrene toxicity to nematodes, pointing to particle-bound or dietary exposure pathways. Capsule: Amending pyrene-spiked soil with biochar and compost effectively reduced pyrene porewater concentrations and toxicity to nematodes, which were significantly related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of chlorinated organic compounds using immortalized rat hepatocytes; Fushika rat kansaibo wo mochiita yuki enso kagobutsu no dokusei hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, H; Nakajima, M; Yonemoto, J [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-10

    Chlorinated organic compounds has high priority for toxicity screening among environmental hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we used immortalized rat hepatocytes as a liver model in vitro to evaluate the toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds. Toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated to cellular viability of immortalized rat hapatocytes. The potency of the toxicity based on 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was in the following order: triclocalban>triclosan>3,4-dichloroaniline>2,5-diclorophenol> 2,5-dichloroanisole>p-dichlorobenzene> p-chloroaniline>o-dichlorobenzene=tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The rank order of cytotoxic potency of nine chemicals was compared with toxicity information using animals. The rank order of cytotoxic potency did not relative to the order referenced mean lethal dose (LD50) as an index of acute toxicity of rats or mice. However, the rank order of cytotoxic potency relatively correlated non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) under the exposure duration adjusted for chronic toxicity in vivo. These data suggests that the origin of testing cell had better to make match target organ of toxic chemicals for extrapolation from data of bioassay in vitro to in vivo. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Stefania Falvella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T, fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C, conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

  15. Prospective evaluation of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a race/ethnically diverse breast cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jean L.; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Lee, Eunkyung; Nelson, Omar L.; Hu, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a prospective study of a tri-racial/ethnic breast cancer population. We evaluated patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment variables in the first 392 patients in a prospective study assessing radiation-induced skin toxicity. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential predictors of skin toxicity. The study consists of 59 non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 15%), 241 Hispanic Whites (HW; 62%), 79 black or African Americans (AA; 20%), and 13 others (3%). Overall, 48% developed grade 0–1 skin toxicity, 49.8% grade 2, and 2.2% grade 3 by the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale. Twenty-one percent developed moist desquamation. In multivariate analysis, higher body mass index (BMI; OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.15, 3.82), higher disease stage (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.06, 3.11), ER-positive/PR-negative status (OR = 2.74; 95%CI = 1.26, 5.98), and conventionally fractionated regimens (OR = 3.25; 95%CI = 1.76, 6.01) were significantly associated with higher skin toxicity grade after adjustment for age, race, ethnicity, ER status, and breast volume. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, but not degree of erythema. In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the intact breast, risk factors including BMI, disease stage, and conventionally fractionated radiation predicted for higher skin toxicity grade, whereas age, race, ethnicity, and breast volume did not. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, suggesting that preventive measures to address this particular outcome should be investigated

  16. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  17. Effect of EDTA washing of metal polluted garden soils. Part I: Toxicity hazards and impact on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2014-03-15

    We applied a multi-level approach assessing the quality, toxicity and functioning of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated/remediated soil from a vegetable garden in Meza Valley, Slovenia. Contaminated soil was extracted with EDTA and placed into field experimental plots equipped with lysimeters. Soil properties were assessed by standard pedological analysis. Fractionation and leachability of toxic metals were analyzed by sequential extraction and TCLP and metal bioaccessibility by UBM tests. Soil respiration and enzyme activities were measured as indicators of soil functioning. Remediation reduced the metal burden by 80, 28 and 72% for Pb, Zn and Cd respectively, with a limited impact on soil pedology. Toxic metals associated with labile soil fractions were largely removed. No shifts between labile and residual fractions were observed during the seven months of the experiment. Initial metal leaching measured through lysimeters eventually ceased. However, remediation significantly diminished potential soil enzyme activity and no trends were observed of the remediated soil recovering its biological properties. Soil washing successfully removed available forms of Pb, Zn and Cd and thus lowered the human and environmental hazards of the remediated soil; however, remediation also extracted the trace elements essential for soil biota. In addition to reduced water holding capacity, soil health was not completely restored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of environmental risk assessment framework using index method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.W.; Wu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed framework for assessing the risk from events which are considered to be major accidents to the environment according to the classifications by the United Kingdom Department of Environment (DoE). The application of an environmental risk assessment framework using the newly developed index method is demonstrated by means of a case study. The framework makes use of Environmental Hazard Index (EHI) method by the United Kingdom AEA Technology for releases to river, but improves it by taking account to toxic dose rather than concentration; taking account of long-term effects including persistence and bio accumulation, not just short term effects; extending the method to all aspects of environment, not just rivers; and allowing account to be taken of design changes to mitigate the risk. The development of the framework has also led to a revision of the tolerability criteria to be used with the framework proposed earlier by weakness and recommend further work to improve this newly proposed environmental risk assessment framework. From the study, it is recommended that the environmental risk assessment framework be applied to a wide range of other case studies in order to further improve it. The framework should be modified to maintain consistency when the DoE revises its definitions of major accidents to the environment. Ease-of-use of the framework (and any other environmental framework) would be aided by the compilation of databases for environmental toxicity, river data and available consequence models. Further work could also be done to suggest methods of mitigating the risk and including them as numerical factors within method. (author)

  19. Prediction of Chest Wall Toxicity From Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephans, Kevin L., E-mail: stephak@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Robinson, Cliff G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors related to the development of late chest wall toxicity after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: We reviewed a registry of 134 patients treated with lung SBRT to 60 Gy in 3 fractions who had greater than 1 year of clinical follow-up and no history of multiple treatments to the same lobe (n = 48). Patients were treated as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0236 without specific chest wall avoidance criteria. The chest wall was retrospectively contoured. Thirty-two lesions measured less than 3 cm, and sixteen measured 3 to 5 cm. The median planning target volume was 29 cm{sup 3}. Results: With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, 10 patients had late symptomatic chest wall toxicity (4 Grade 1 and 6 Grade 2) at a median of 8.8 months after SBRT. No patient characteristics (age, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, or body mass index) were predictive for toxicity, whereas there was a trend for continued smoking (p = 0.066; odds ratio [OR], 4.4). Greatest single tumor dimension (p = 0.047; OR, 2.63) and planning target volume (p = 0.040; OR, 1.04) were correlated with toxicity, whereas distance from tumor edge to chest wall and gross tumor volume did not reach statistical significance. Volumes of chest wall receiving 30 Gy (V30) through 70 Gy (V70) were all highly significant, although this correlation weakened for V65 and V70 and maximum chest wall point dose only trended to significance (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, tumor volume was no longer correlated with toxicity and only V30 through V60 remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor size and chest wall dosimetry are correlated to late chest wall toxicity. Only chest wall V30 through V60 remained significant on multivariate analysis. Restricting V30 to 30 cm{sup 3} or less and V60 to 3 cm{sup 3} or less should result in a 10% to 15% risk of late chest wall toxicity or lower.

  20. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  1. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  2. Refractive Index of a Transparent Liquid Measured with a Concave Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the refractive index "n" of a substance or medium is part of every introductory physics course. Various approaches to determine this index have been developed over the years based on the different ways light reflects and transmits in the medium. In this paper, the authors would like to present a simple geometrical derivation of the…

  3. Energy index decomposition methodology at the plant level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumphai, Wisit

    Scope and method of study. The dissertation explores the use of a high level energy intensity index as a facility-level energy performance monitoring indicator with a goal of developing a methodology for an economically based energy performance monitoring system that incorporates production information. The performance measure closely monitors energy usage, production quantity, and product mix and determines the production efficiency as a part of an ongoing process that would enable facility managers to keep track of and, in the future, be able to predict when to perform a recommissioning process. The study focuses on the use of the index decomposition methodology and explored several high level (industry, sector, and country levels) energy utilization indexes, namely, Additive Log Mean Divisia, Multiplicative Log Mean Divisia, and Additive Refined Laspeyres. One level of index decomposition is performed. The indexes are decomposed into Intensity and Product mix effects. These indexes are tested on a flow shop brick manufacturing plant model in three different climates in the United States. The indexes obtained are analyzed by fitting an ARIMA model and testing for dependency between the two decomposed indexes. Findings and conclusions. The results concluded that the Additive Refined Laspeyres index decomposition methodology is suitable to use on a flow shop, non air conditioned production environment as an energy performance monitoring indicator. It is likely that this research can be further expanded in to predicting when to perform a recommissioning process.

  4. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  5. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br. display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF and non-dialyzable (NDF rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDF. However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF.

  6. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  7. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  8. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  9. A comparison of dose-volume constraints derived using peak and longitudinal definitions of late rectal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R.; Andreyev, Jervoise; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Accurate reporting of complications following radiotherapy is an important part of the feedback loop to improve radiotherapy techniques. The definition of toxicity is normally regarded as the maximum or peak (P) grade of toxicity reported over the follow-up period. An alternative definition (integrated longitudinal toxicity (ILT)) is proposed which takes into account both the severity and the duration of the complication. Methods and materials: In this work, both definitions of toxicity were used to derive dose-volume constraints for six specific endpoints of late rectal toxicity from a cohort of patients who received prostate radiotherapy in the MRC RT01 trial. The dose-volume constraints were derived using ROC analysis for 30, 40, 50, 60, 65 and 70 Gy. Results: Statistically significant dose-volume constraints were not derived for all dose levels tested for each endpoint and toxicity definition. However, where both definitions produced constraints, there was generally good agreement. Variation in the derived dose-volume constraints was observed to be larger between endpoints than between the two definitions of toxicity. For one endpoint (stool frequency (LENT/SOM)) statistically significant dose-volume constraints were only derived using ILT. Conclusions: The longitudinal definition of toxicity (ILT) produced results consistent with those derived using peak toxicity and in some cases provided additional information which was not seen by analysing peak toxicity alone.

  10. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2005, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  11. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2002, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  12. National Air Toxics Assessment - 1999, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  13. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  15. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  16. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    , and difficulties in controlling and/or describing the characteristics of the tested NPs. These issues may be related to the widespread approach of using freshly prepared stock solutions for ecotoxicity testing, as the introduction of NPs into aqueous media initiates time-dependent processes that possibly interfere...... of the test. Ultimately, the aim is better control of the AgNPs in the algal test system and improved prerequisites for describing their toxicity to alga. The underlying hypothesis is that a large part in the variability of AgNPs toxicity to algae can be explained by the kinetics of dissolution and speciation...... of Ag ions in the test media. To reduce the amount of time in which changes to NPs may occur during testing, the exposure period was minimized. A recently proposed short-term (2h) algal test was applied, using 14C incorporation during photosynthesis as toxic endpoint [1]. For citrate coated spherical Ag...

  17. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  18. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  19. Coping With Metal Toxicity – Cues From Halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh C. Nikalje

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Being the native flora of saline soil, halophytes are well studied for their salt tolerance and adaptation mechanism at the physiological, biochemical, molecular and metabolomic levels. However, these saline habitats are getting contaminated due to various anthropogenic activities like urban waste, agricultural runoff, mining, industrial waste that are rich in toxic metals and metalloids. These toxic metals impose detrimental effects on growth and development of most plant species. Halophytes by virtue of their tolerance to salinity also show high tolerance to heavy metals which is attributed to the enhanced root to shoot metal translocation and bioavailability. Halophytes rapidly uptake toxic ions from the root and transport them toward aerial parts by using different transporters which are involved in metal tolerance and homeostasis. A number of defense related physiological and biochemical strategies are known to be crucial for metal detoxification in halophytes however; there is paucity of information on the molecular regulators. Understanding of the phenomenon of cross-tolerance of salinity with other abiotic stresses in halophytes could very well boost their potential use in phytoremediation. In this article, we present an overview of heavy metal tolerance in case of halophytes, associated mechanisms and cross-tolerance of salinity with other abiotic stresses.

  20. Environmentally safe management of radioactive and toxic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingarev, N.E.; Mukhin, I.V.; Polyakov, A.S.; Raginsky, L.S.; Semenov, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastes constitute a significant part of Russian natural environment. The most reliable route to provide the long-term ecologic safety involves removal of toxicants or radioactive substances from polluted sites. With a view of processing toxic and radioactive sludges available in reservoirs, a process flowsheet is suggested that comprises the operations of sludge concentration, dehydration and granulation.Flocculation is an operation required to concentrate a solid phase. Polyacrylamide (PAA) and hydrolyzed PAA (HPAA) are standard flocculating agents used in the processing of sludges coming from storage facilities of radioactive wastes. HPAA is less efficient and it is shown that the optimized concentration of PAA is 4 mg/g solid. Flotation agents are used to extract the solid phase of sludges, it is shown that the process of extraction has to be carried out in 2 stages, the first flotation cycle with a Ph value between 7.5 and 9.5 and the second with a Ph adjustment to 3.5-6.0.The cake resulting from the sludge filtration has poor technological properties, it is advisable to produce a granular material. Hydro-granulation using hydrophobic flocculating agents may be implemented immediately after sludge concentration. The other granulation technique involves the sol-gel process used to incorporate sludge into a ceramic (aluminium oxide) matrix

  1. Validation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index Version 03.01 and the Acoustic Breathiness Index in the Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Hernández, Jonathan; León Gómez, Nieves M; Jiménez, Alejandra; Izquierdo, Laura M; Barsties V Latoszek, Ben

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Acoustic Voice Quality Index 03.01 (AVQIv3) and the Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI) in the Spanish language. Concatenated voice samples of continuous speech (cs) and sustained vowel (sv) from 136 subjects with dysphonia and 47 vocally healthy subjects were perceptually judged for overall voice quality and breathiness severity. First, to reach a higher level of ecological validity, the proportions of cs and sv were equalized regarding the time length of 3 seconds sv part and voiced cs part, respectively. Second, concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy were verified. A moderate reliability of overall voice quality and breathiness severity from 5 experts was used. It was found that 33 syllables as standardization of the cs part, which represents 3 seconds of voiced cs, allows the equalization of both speech tasks. A strong correlation was revealed between AVQIv3 and overall voice quality and ABI and perceived breathiness severity. Additionally, the best diagnostic outcome was identified at a threshold of 2.28 and 3.40 for AVQIv3 and ABI, respectively. The AVQIv3 and ABI showed in the Spanish language valid and robust results to quantify abnormal voice qualities regarding overall voice quality and breathiness severity.

  2. Toxicity of sediment pore water associated with offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the long-term impacts of offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico, a series of sediment porewater toxicity tests were conducted. Sediments were samples from five petroleum production platforms along five radial transects. Pore water was extracted from the sediment using a pressure extraction device, centrifuged, and frozen for later toxicity testing and chemical analysis. The sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) embryological development assay and fertilization assay were used to assess porewater toxicity. Significant decreases in normal development of embryos was observed at 14 stations and fertilization was reduced at three stations. All stations with reduced fertilization also showed impaired development in the embryological development assay. All but three toxic sites were within 150 m of the platform. The six most toxic stations were at one platform near the Flower Garden reef, occurring near the platform along three radii; toxicity was always greater at the first site on a radium than at the second. Toxicity is discussed in relation to metal and hydrocarbon concentrations in whole sediment and in pore water

  3. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Estimating children's exposure to toxic elements in contaminated toys and children's jewelry via saliva mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Nguyen, Alain; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-09-19

    Children's potential for exposure to potentially toxic elements in contaminated jewelry and toys via mouth contact has not yet been fully evaluated. Various toys and jewelry (metallic toys and jewelry [MJ], plastic toys, toys with paint or coating, and brittle/pliable toys; n = 32) were tested using the saliva extraction (mouthing) compartment of the DIN and RIVM bioaccessibility protocols to assess As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se mobilization via saliva. Total concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb were found elevated in analyzed samples. Four metals were mobilized to saliva from 16 MJ in significant quantities (>1 μg for highly toxic Cd and Pb, >10 μg for Cu and Ni). Bioaccessible concentrations and hazard index values for Cd exceeded limit values, for young children between 6 mo- and 3 yr-old and according to both protocols. Total and bioaccessible metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, encouraging the use of bioaccessibility for more accurate hazard assessments. Bioaccessibility increased with increasing extraction time. Overall, the risk from exposure to toxic elements via mouthing was high only for Cd and for MJ. Further research on children's exposure to toxic elements following ingestion of toy or jewelry material is recommended.

  5. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Russell Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic properties. The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX was used to determine the following measures of developmental toxicity of the allyl isothiocyanate: (a 96-h LC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b 96-h EC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c teratogenic malformation index (TI, equal to 96-h LC50/96-h EC50. The quantitative results and the photographs of embryos before and after exposure suggest that allyl isothiocyanate seems to exhibit moderate teratogenic properties. The results also indicate differences in the toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate toward exposed embryos observed in the present study compared to reported adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate in fish, rodents, and humans. The significance of the results for food safety and possible approaches to protect against adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate are discussed.

  6. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  7. Evaluation of nano-specific toxicity of zinc oxide, copper oxide, and silver nanoparticles through toxic ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weicheng; Liu, Xiawei; Bao, Shaopan; Xiao, Bangding; Fang, Tao, E-mail: fangt@ihb.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology (China)

    2016-12-15

    For safety and environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials (NMs) and to provide essential toxicity data, nano-specific toxicities, or excess toxicities, of ZnO, CuO, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 20, and 30 nm, respectively) to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in short-term (6 h) and long-term (48 h) bioassays were quantified based on a toxic ratio. ZnO NPs exhibited no nano-specific toxicities, reflecting similar toxicities as ZnO bulk particles (BPs) (as well as zinc salt). However, CuO and Ag NPs yielded distinctly nano-specific toxicities when compared with their BPs. According to their nano-specific toxicities, the capability of these NPs in eliciting hazardous effects on humans and the environment was as follows: CuO > Ag > ZnO NPs. Moreover, long-term bioassays were more sensitive to nano-specific toxicity than short-term bioassays. Overall, nano-specific toxicity is a meaningful measurement to evaluate the environmental risk of NPs. The log T{sub e}{sup particle} value is a useful parameter for quantifying NP nano-specific toxicity and enabling comparisons of international toxicological data. Furthermore, this value could be used to determine the environmental risk of NPs.

  8. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com; Gupta, Shikha

    2014-03-15

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R{sup 2} and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  9. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Gupta, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R 2 and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  10. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  11. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  12. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  13. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of Life and Toxicity after SBRT for Organ-Confined Prostate Cancer, a Seven Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jay Katz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT yields excellent disease control for lowandintermediate-risk prostate cancer by delivering high doses of radiation in a small number offractions. Our report presents a 7-year update on treatment toxicity and quality of life (QOLfrom 515 patients treated with prostate SBRT.Methods: From 2006 to 2009, 515 patients with clinically localized, low-, intermediate- andhigh-risk prostate cancer were treated with SBRT using Cyberknife technology. Treatmentconsisted of 35 to 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Seventy-two patients received hormone therapy.Toxicity was assessed at each follow up visit using the Expanded Prostate Cancer IndexComposite (EPIC questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG urinaryand rectal toxicity scale.Results: Median follow up was 72 months. The actuarial 7-year freedom from biochemicalfailure was 95.8%, 89.3% and 68.5% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively(p < 0.001. No patients experienced acute Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5%of patients had any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicity. Late toxicity was low, with Grade IIrectal and urinary toxicity of 4% and 9.1%, respectively, and Grade III urinary toxicity of 1.7%.Mean EPIC urinary and bowel QOL declined at 1 month post-treatment, returned to baseline by2 years and remained stable thereafter. EPIC sexual QOL declined by 23% at 6-12 months andremained stable afterwards. Of patients potent at baseline evaluation, 67% remained potent atlast follow-up.Conclusions: This study suggests that SBRT, when administered to doses of 35 to 36.25 Gy, isefficacious and safe. With long-term follow up in our large patient cohort, we continue to findlow rates of late toxicity and excellent rates of biochemical control.

  15. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  16. Rectal toxicity profile after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy: Use of a comprehensive toxicity scoring system and identification of rectal dosimetric toxicity predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jinesh N.; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand rectal toxicity after prostate brachytherapy, we employed the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0), a comprehensive system with distinct and separately reported gastrointestinal adverse event items (unlike Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity scoring), to evaluate item-specific postimplant rectal toxicities. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 135 patients treated with brachytherapy ± hormonal therapy, using CTCAE v3.0 to score acute/late rectal toxicities (median follow-up, 41 months). Dosimetric parameters were evaluated for ability to predict toxicities. Results: Use of CTCAE yielded a novel rectal toxicity profile consisting of diarrhea, incontinence, urgency, proctitis, pain, spasms, and hemorrhage event rates. No item had a 25 (percent of rectal volume receiving 25% of prescribed prostate dose) ≤ 25% vs. 60% for %V 25 > 25% (p 1 ≤ 40% vs. 44% for %V 1 > 40% (p = 0.007). Conclusions: A comprehensive understanding of item-specific postimplant rectal toxicities was obtained using CTCAE. Rectal %V 25 > 25% and %V 1 > 40% predicted worse late diarrhea and maximum toxicity, respectively

  17. The formulation of financial, governance and social index of Malaysian Islamic banks: An integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes and discusses the development of an index of Islamic Financial and Social Reporting (IFSR for Islamic banks. The index of IFSR is carefully developed based on the relevant and applicable standards, guidelines and literature from an Islamic perspective such as the Malaysian Accounting Standards Board (MASB, Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI, Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB, Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM and Islamic social reporting literature. The index is developed in three parts, namely, financial, social, and auditing and governance. The items within the finance section are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks disclose relevant financial information. The items for the social part aim to ensure that the Islamic banks provide the relevant information regarding social and environment. The items within the auditing and governance part are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks provide relevant information regarding the monitoring and supervising activities that the Islamic banks have undertaken. The IFSR index may be lacking in terms of its usage generalisability as it is specifically developed for IFIs. The developed index of IFSR aims to promote a more appropriate level of disclosure among the Islamic banks. The need for the index is motivated by the growing importance of Islamic banks, not only from the economic perspective but also from the social perspective

  18. Trichothecenes: structure-toxic activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Kuca, Kamil; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-07-01

    Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature. In order to address structure-activity relationships (SAR) of trichothecenes, relationships between structural features and biological effects of trichothecene mycotoxins in mammalian systems are summarized in this paper. The double bond between C-9-C-10 and the 12,13-epoxide ring are essential structural features for trichothecene toxicity. Removal of these groups results in a complete loss of toxicity. A hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances trichothecene toxicity, while this activity decreases gradually when C-3 is substituted with either hydrogen or an acetoxy group. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-4 promotes slightly lower toxicity than an acetoxy group at the same position. The toxicity for type B trichothecenes decreases if the substituent at C-4 is changed from acetoxy to hydroxyl or hydrogen at C-4 position. The presence of hydroxyl and hydrogen groups on C-15 decreases the trichothecene toxicity in comparison with an acetoxy group attached to this carbon. Trichothecenes toxicity increases when a macrocyclic ring exists between the C-4 and C-15. At C-8 position, an oxygenated substitution at C-8 is essential for trichothecene toxicity, indicating a decrease in the toxicity if substituent change from isovaleryloxy through hydrogen to the hydroxyl group. The presence of a second epoxy ring at C-7-C-8 reduces the toxicity, whereas epoxidation at C-9-C-10 of some macrocyclic trichothecenes increases the activity. Conjugated trichothecenes could release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis in animals, and present an additional potential risk. The SAR study of trichothecenes should provide some crucial information for a better understanding of trichothecene chemical and biological properties in food contamination.

  19. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  20. Aumann and Serrano’s economic index of risk for sums of gambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqiang Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study Aumann and Serrano’s (2008 risk index for sums of gambles that are not dependent. If the dependent parts are similarly ordered, then the risk index of the sum is always larger than the minimum of the risk indices of the two gambles. For negative dependence, the risk index of the sum is always smaller than the maximum. The above results agree with our intuitions of risk diversification well. These result points out another attractive property of Aumann and Serrano’s risk index. These properties are potentially useful for risk assessment purposes of financial securities.

  1. Effects of biochar addition on toxic element concentrations in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xin; Deng, Yinger; Peng, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Consuming food contaminated by toxic elements (TEs) could pose a substantial risk to human health. Recently, biochar has been extensively studied as an effective soil ameliorant in situ because of its ability to suppress the phytoavailability of TEs. However, despite the research interest......, the effects of biochar applications to soil on different TE concentrations in different plant parts remain unclear. Here, we synthesize 1813 individual observations data collected from 97 articles to evaluate the effects of biochar addition on TE concentrations in plant parts. We found that (1) the experiment...... type, biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature all significantly decreased the TE concentration in plant parts; (2) the responses of Cd and Pb concentrations in edible and indirectly edible plant parts were significantly more sensitive to the effect of biochar than the Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co and Cu...

  2. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  3. The Global Solar UV Index used in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, C.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Kitchen, K.; Miners, B.

    2000-01-01

    Weather forecast bulletins on television, radio and in the newspapers in the UK now include advice about the strength of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun in terms of the Global Solar UV Index. A numerical scale of 1 to 20 is used to quote the Index for anywhere in the world and the Index addresses all ethnic groups. The Index replaces the sunburn warning system. The daily UV Index is calculated by the Met. Office from documented UV radiation levels and current atmospheric data and takes into account cloud cover forecast. Armed with the knowledge of the UV Index the public will be able to assess their personal risk of sun damage at home or abroad depending on their natural skin colour. Four categories of skin colour are identified with the Index; white skin that sunburns easily, white skin that tans readily, brown skin and black skin. A colour-coded rating from low to very high is used to identify personal risk with these skin colour categories. The Global UV Index forms an important part of the 'Sun Safety Code' developed by health organisations within the UK. (author)

  4. The Global Solar UV Index used in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, C.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Kitchen, K.; Miners, B

    2000-07-01

    Weather forecast bulletins on television, radio and in the newspapers in the UK now include advice about the strength of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun in terms of the Global Solar UV Index. A numerical scale of 1 to 20 is used to quote the Index for anywhere in the world and the Index addresses all ethnic groups. The Index replaces the sunburn warning system. The daily UV Index is calculated by the Met. Office from documented UV radiation levels and current atmospheric data and takes into account cloud cover forecast. Armed with the knowledge of the UV Index the public will be able to assess their personal risk of sun damage at home or abroad depending on their natural skin colour. Four categories of skin colour are identified with the Index; white skin that sunburns easily, white skin that tans readily, brown skin and black skin. A colour-coded rating from low to very high is used to identify personal risk with these skin colour categories. The Global UV Index forms an important part of the 'Sun Safety Code' developed by health organisations within the UK. (author)

  5. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  6. The association between body composition and toxicities from the combination of Doxil and trabectedin in patients with advanced relapsed ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Baracos, Vickie E; Xiao, Jingjie; Birdsell, Laura; Stuyckens, Kim; Park, Youn Choi; Parekh, Trilok; Sawyer, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    Emerging research suggests that body composition can predict toxicity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. We used data from a clinical study to investigate associations between body composition and combined DOXIL (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin; PLD) and trabectedin (Yondelis) treatment, an effective treatment for ovarian cancer that shows high interpatient variation in toxicity profile. Patients (n = 74) participating in a phase III randomized trial of relapsed advanced ovarian cancer receiving PLD (30 mg/m(2)) and trabectedin (1.1 mg/m(2)) were included. Muscle tissue was measured by analysis of computerized tomography images, and an extrapolation of muscle and adipose tissue to lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) were employed. Toxicity profile after cycle 1 was used and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3). Patients presented with a wide range of body composition. In overweight and obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2), n = 48) toxicity was more prevalent in those with lower BMI (p = 0.028) and a lower FM (n = 43, p = 0.034). Although LBM alone was not predictive of toxicity, a lower FM/LBM ratio was the most powerful variable associated with toxicity (p = 0.006). A different pattern emerged among normal weight patients (n = 26) where toxicity was rare among patients with smaller BMI (body weight, with a lower ratio predicting higher exposure and risk for toxicity.

  7. Method and apparatus for the treatment of radioactive or toxic waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstaetter, K; Glock, J; Jakusch, H

    1976-05-26

    A method is described which proposes to store radioactive or toxic waste water in a binder, e.g. bitumen, for disposal. First of all, the liquid contained in the waste water is evaporated so that the radioactive or toxic part remains in solid form. This solid, whose specific gravity must be higher than that of the binder, is put on the surface of the binder, e.g. bitumen. Due to gravity it is embedded by sedimentation and completely covered by the binder. An apparatus with two variants to carry out the process is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages as compared to conventional methods.

  8. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-07-26

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

  10. Exploring in integrated quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines: the integrated quality index (IQI) for aconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Jia-bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-07-01

    Good medicinal herbs, good drugs. Good evaluation method and indices are the prerequisite of good medicinal herbs. However, there exist numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials. However, most of these indices are non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with efficiency and safety. The results of different evaluatior methods may not be consistent, even contradictory. Considering the complex material properties of Chinese medicinal materials, single method and index is difficult to objectively and comprehensively reflect the quality. Therefore, it is essential to explore the integrated evaluation methods. In this paper, oriented by the integrated evaluation strategies for traditional Chinese medicine quality, a new method called integrated quality index (IQI) by the integration of empirical evaluation, chemical evaluation, and biological evaluation was proposed. In addition, a study case of hypertoxic herb Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. was provided to explain this method in detail. The results suggested that in the view of specifications, the average weight of Jiangyou aconite was the greatest, followed by Weishan aconite, Butuo aconite, Hanzhong aconite, and Anxian aconite; from the point of chemical components, Jiangyou aconite had the characteristic with strong efficacy and weak toxicity, next was Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite; taking toxicity price as the index, Hanzhong aconite and Jiangyou aconite have the lower toxicity, while Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite have the relatively higher one. After the normalization and integration of evaluation results, we calculated the IQI value of Jiangyou aconite, Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite were 0.842 +/- 0.091, 0.597 +/- 0.047, 0.442 +/- 0.033, 0.454 +/- 0.038, 0.170 +/- 0.021, respectively. The quality of Jiangyou aconite is significantly better than the

  11. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with toxic and non-toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with toxic and non-toxic strains of Alexandrium minutum. L Palacios, B Reguera, J Franco, I Marín. Abstract. Marine planktonic dinoflagellates are usually associated with bacteria, some of which seem to have a symbiotic relation with the dinoflagellate cells. The role of bacteria in ...

  13. Application of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in detecting the toxicity of harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tian; Wang, Yunfeng; Wang, Liping; Chen, Yang; Han, Gang; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2009-05-01

    The toxicity of seven major HAB (harmful algal bloom) species/strains, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Phaeocystis globosa, Prorocentrum micans, Alexandrium tamarense (AT-6, non-PSP producer), Alexandrium lusitanicum, Alexandrum tamarense (ATHK) and Heterosigma akashiwo were studied against rotifer Brachionus plicatilis under laboratory conditions. The results show that P. donghaiense, P. globosa, P. micans, A. tamarense (AT-6), or A. lusitanicum could maintain the individual survival and reproduction, as well as the population increase of the rotifer, but the individual reproduction would decrease when exposed to these five algae at higher densities for nine days; H. akashiwo could decrease the individual survival and reproduction, as well as population increase of the rotifer, which is similar to that of the starvation group, indicating that starvation might be its one lethal factor except for the algal toxins; A. tamarense (ATHK) has strong lethal effect on the rotifer with 48h LC50 at 800 cells/mL. The experiment on ingestion ability indicated by gut pigment change shows that P. donghaiense, P. globosa, P. micans, A. tamarense (AT-6) and A. lusitanicum can be taken by the rotifers as food, but A. tamarense (ATHK) or H. akashiwo can be ingested by the rotifers. The results indicate that all the indexes of individual survival and reproduction, population increase, gut pigment change of the rotifers are good and convenient to be used to reflect the toxicities of HAB species. Therefore, rotifer is suggested as one of the toxicity testing organisms in detecting the toxicity of harmful algae.

  14. Feeding Behavior-Related Toxicity due to Nandina domestica in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of Cedar Waxwings were found dead in Thomas County, Georgia, USA, in April 2009. Five of these were examined grossly and microscopically. Grossly, all the examined birds had pulmonary, mediastinal, and tracheal hemorrhages. Microscopically, several tissues and organs were diffusely congested and hemorrhagic. Congestion and hemorrhage were marked in the lungs. Intact and partly digested berries of Nandina domestica Thunb. were the only ingesta found in the gastrointestinal tract of these birds. Due to their voracious feeding behavior, the birds had eaten toxic doses of N. domestica berries. N. domestica contains cyanide and is one of the few berries readily available at this time of the year in the region. The gross and microscopic findings are consistent with lesions associated with cyanide toxicity. This paper for the first time documents toxicity associated with N. domestica in Cedar Waxwings.

  15. Validating potential toxicity assays to assess petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in polar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Potential microbial activities are commonly used to assess soil toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and are assumed to be a surrogate for microbial activity within the soil ecosystem. However, this assumption needs to be evaluated for frozen soil, in which microbial activity is limited by liquid water (θ(liquid)). Influence of θ(liquid) on in situ toxicity was evaluated and compared to the toxicity endpoints of potential microbial activities using soil from an aged diesel fuel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica. To determine in situ toxicity, gross mineralization and nitrification rates were determined by the stable isotope dilution technique. Petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)), packed at bulk densities of 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 g cm(-3) to manipulate liquid water content, was incubated at -5°C for one, two, and three months. Although θ(liquid) did not have a significant effect on gross mineralization or nitrification, gross nitrification was sensitive to PHC contamination, with toxicity decreasing over time. In contrast, gross mineralization was not sensitive to PHC contamination. Toxic response of gross nitrification was comparable to potential nitrification activity (PNA) with similar EC25 (effective concentration causing a 25% effect in the test population) values determined by both measurement endpoints (400 mg kg(-1) for gross nitrification compared to 200 mg kg(-1) for PNA), indicating that potential microbial activity assays are good surrogates for in situ toxicity of PHC contamination in polar regions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Image Vector Quantization codec indexes filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Moulay Abdelmounaim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector Quantisation (VQ is an efficient coding algorithm that has been widely used in the field of video and image coding, due to its fast decoding efficiency. However, the indexes of VQ are sometimes lost because of signal interference during the transmission. In this paper, we propose an efficient estimation method to conceal and recover the lost indexes on the decoder side, to avoid re-transmitting the whole image again. If the image or video has the limitation of a period of validity, re-transmitting the data wastes the resources of time and network bandwidth. Therefore, using the originally received correct data to estimate and recover the lost data is efficient in time-constrained situations, such as network conferencing or mobile transmissions. In nature images, the pixels are correlated with their neighbours and VQ partitions the image into sub-blocks and quantises them to the indexes that are transmitted; the correlation between adjacent indexes is very strong. There are two parts of the proposed method. The first is pre-processing and the second is an estimation process. In pre-processing, we modify the order of codevectors in the VQ codebook to increase the correlation among the neighbouring vectors. We then use a special filtering method in the estimation process. Using conventional VQ to compress the Lena image and transmit it without any loss of index can achieve a PSNR of 30.429 dB on the decoder. The simulation results demonstrate that our method can estimate the indexes to achieve PSNR values of 29.084 and 28.327 dB when the loss rate is 0.5% and 1%, respectively.

  17. Nuclear energy and public safety (Part I): a bibliography of popular literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The focus of Part 1 is to aid the general research (especially undergraduate students and the general public) to locate information on the safety aspects of nuclear energy. A subject index after the bibliography breaks down the entries into 11 subtopics. An author index is also provided. This part of the bibliography consists of books, periodical articles, and government publications dating from 1959 to 1980

  18. Boron alleviates the aluminum toxicity in trifoliate orange by regulating antioxidant defense system and reducing root cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yan, Lei; Wu, Xiuwen; Hussain, Saddam; Aziz, Omar; Wang, Yuhan; Imran, Muhammad; Jiang, Cuncang

    2018-02-15

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important soil constraint for plant growth and development in acid soils (pH Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of higher plants. The results of previous studies propose that B might ameliorate Al toxicity; however, none of the studies have been conducted on trifoliate orange to study this effect. Thus, a study was carried out in hydroponics comprising of two different Al concentrations, 0 and 400 μM. For every concentration, two B treatments (0 and 10 μM as H 3 BO 3 ) were applied to investigate the B-induced alleviation of Al toxicity and exploring the underneath mechanisms. The results revealed that Al toxicity under B deficiency severely hampered the root growth and physiology of plant, caused oxidative stress and membrane damage, leading to severe root injury and damage. However, application of B under Al toxicity improved the root elongation and photosynthesis, while reduced Al uptake and mobilization into plant parts. Moreover, B supply regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, secondary metabolites (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase) contents, and stabilized integrity of proteins. Our study results imply that B supply promoted root growth as well as defense system by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Al concentrations in plant parts thus B induced alleviation of Al toxicity; a fact that might be significant for higher productivity of agricultural plants grown in acidic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Frank; Elswick, Barbara; James, R Arden; Marr, Melissa C; Myers, Christina B; Tyl, Rochelle W

    2003-01-01

    This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identification study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6-16 (mice) or 6-19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, significantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classified as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. QSAR models for describing the toxicological effects of ILs against Staphylococcus aureus based on norm indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wensi; Yan, Fangyou; Jia, Qingzhu; Xia, Shuqian; Wang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The hazardous potential of ionic liquids (ILs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to their important role in many industrial fields as green agents. The mathematical model for the toxicological effects of ILs is useful for the risk assessment and design of environmentally benign ILs. The objective of this work is to develop QSAR models to describe the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ILs against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A total of 169 and 101 ILs with MICs and MBCs, respectively, are used to obtain multiple linear regression models based on matrix norm indexes. The norm indexes used in this work are proposed by our research group and they are first applied to estimate the antibacterial toxicity of these ILs against S. aureus. These two models precisely and reliably calculated the IL toxicities with a square of correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.919 and a standard error of estimate (SE) of 0.341 (in log unit of mM) for pMIC, and an R 2 of 0.913 and SE of 0.282 for pMBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Bjork, James A.; Santos, Maria S.; Leino, Richard L.; Froberg, M. Kent; Moreno, Antonio J.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) therapy limits the total cumulative dose and therapeutic success of active anticancer chemotherapy. Cardiac mitochondria are implicated as primary targets for DOX toxicity, which is believed to be mediated by the generation of highly reactive free radical species of oxygen from complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study was to determine if the protection demonstrated by carvedilol (CV), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with strong antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced mitochondrial-mediated cardiomyopathy [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185 (2002) 218] is attributable to its antioxidant properties or its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Our results confirm that DOX induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and histopathological lesions in the cardiac tissue, all of which are inhibited by carvedilol. In contrast, atenolol (AT), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist lacking antioxidant properties, preserved phosphate energy charge but failed to protect against any of the indexes of DOX-induced oxidative mitochondrial toxicity. We therefore conclude that the cardioprotective effects of carvedilol against DOX-induced mitochondrial cardiotoxicity are due to its inherent antioxidant activity and not to its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism

  2. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  4. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  6. Definition and GIS-based characterization of an integral risk index applied to a chemical/petrochemical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-01

    A risk map of the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) was designed following a two-stage procedure. The first step was the creation of a ranking system (Hazard Index) for a number of different inorganic and organic pollutants: heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying self-organizing maps (SOM) to persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity properties of the chemicals. PCBs seemed to be the most hazardous compounds, while the light PAHs showed the minimum values. Subsequently, an Integral Risk Index was developed taking into account the Hazard Index and the concentrations of all pollutants in soil samples collected in the assessed area of Tarragona. Finally, a risk map was elaborated by representing the spatial distribution of the Integral Risk Index with a geographic information system (GIS). The results of the present study seem to indicate that the development of an integral risk map might be useful to help in making-decision processes concerning environmental pollutants.

  7. Method of and system for identification or estimation of a refractive index of a liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of and a system (100) for identification or estimation of a refractive index of a liquid (120) comprising a light receiving part (111) adapted to receive polarised or non-polarised light (125; 135), a light emitting part (112) adapted, during use, to transmit...... light (130), an optical structure (110) being adapted to receive, during use, polarised light (125) via or from the light receiving part (111), and being adapted to receive, during use, a liquid (120) having a predetermined refractive index to be identified or estimated, and a first polariser (115......); is adapted, during use, to pass the received light (135) through the optical path so that a narrow wavelength range of the transmitted light (130) is influenced by the predetermined refractive index of the received liquid (120) and that the influenced narrow wavelength range, when observed by a user and...

  8. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  9. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  10. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere. In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamination level of selected heavy metals in Mian-Ab Plain, was assessed by single factor contaminant index (PI) and pollution load index (PLI). Results show mean concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead were 2.52, 0.30 and 7.21 mg kg -1 . Base on PLI results 12 point (24%) of the studied area show moderately polluted and 38 point (76%) show unpolluted area.

  11. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing...... and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets...

  12. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Some Index Funds-Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Mishra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of the index funds as an investment option has increased manifolds ever since they were introduced. This is primarily because of the merits that the investor enjoys through passive style of funds management. This includes the low cost involved in managing such funds and the significant tax savings. Most of the researchers have compared the performance of the actively managed funds with that of index funds. However the index funds of US and for that reason other parts of the world are different from that of India. Unlike other countries in India the benchmark indices comprise of very less number of securities and thus are unable to represent the entire economy. So in Indian context comparison of performance of actively managed funds with index funds is not logical. Therefore this paper attempts to make an intra-class performance evaluation of some Indian index funds based on some statistics. The study includes the use of graphical interpretations coupled with statistical tools like R-square and tracking error values. Two models of tracking error have been employed to test empirically the performance of the selected index funds. The study is useful for those interested in mutual funds, which includes researchers, academicians, and financial advisors. The paper suits the requirement and the situations prevalent in Indian economy during the period under study.

  14. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008. Milk samples collected 1 month after delivery from a subset of 789 women oversampled by overweight were analyzed for toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and pesticides. Growth was defined as change in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months among the HUMIS population, and rapid growth was defined as change in z-score above 0.67. We used a Bayesian variable selection method to determine the exposures that most explained variation in the outcome. Identified toxicants were included in logistic and linear regression models to estimate associations with growth, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, child sex, cumulative breastfeeding, birth weight, gestational age, and preterm status. Of 789 infants, 19.2% displayed rapid growth. The median maternal age was 29.6 years, and the median pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg/m2, with 45.3% of mothers overweight or obese. Rapid growers were more likely to be firstborn. Hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and PCB-74 were identified in the variable selection method. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in β-HCH exposure was associated with a lower odds of rapid growth (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Newborns exposed to high levels of β-HCH showed reduced infant growth (β = -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01 for IQR increase in breast milk concentration

  15. O-6-benzylguanine potentiates BCNU but not busulfan toxicity in hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, GR; Down, JD; Blokland, [No Value; Wood, M; Boudewijn, A; Watson, AJ; McGown, AT; Ploemacher, RE; Margison, GP

    Objective. Busulfan (BU) is often used in conditioning regimens prior to bone marrow transplantation, but its mechanism of action remains to be resolved. We have examined the possibility that BU may exert part of its toxic effects via DNA alkylation at the Oh position of guanine as this might

  16. Biodegradation of metal citrate complexes and implications for toxic-metal mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of synthetic and naturally occurring chelating agents in nuclear and toxic-metal wastes is a major concern because of their potential to enhance mobilization of metal ions away from the disposal sites. Of particular interest is citric acid, which is present in low-level and transuranic radioactive wastes and in domestic and industrial wastes (as washing fluids, for instance), as well as being found naturally. Citrate ions form multidentate, stable complexes with a variety of toxic metals and radionuclides; but biodegradation of these complexes, precipitating the metal ions as insoluble hydroxides, oxides or other salts, may retard migration. Here we report a study of the biodegradation of citrate complexes of Ca, Fe(II), Fe(III), Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and U. Several of these complexes were not readily degraded by bacteria, and the biodegradability depended on the chemical nature of the complex, not on the toxicity of the metal to the bacteria. This resistance to biodegradation implies that citrate complexation may play an important part in migration of these hazardous wastes. (author)

  17. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  18. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians' and Registered Veterinary Technicians' (RVT's) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the "go to person," avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when "broken communication and tension between staff members" occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment.

  19. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  20. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  1. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration

  2. Edaravone ameliorates the adverse effects of valproic acid toxicity in small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, S; Alev, B; Tunali, S; Emekli-Alturfan, E; Tunali-Akbay, T; Koc-Ozturk, L; Yanardag, R; Yarat, A

    2015-06-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar psychiatric disorders, and migraine. Previous studies have reported an increased generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the toxic mechanism of VPA. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger for clinical use, can quench free radical reaction by trapping a variety of free radical species. In this study, effect of edaravone on some small intestine biochemical parameters in VPA-induced toxicity was investigated. Thirty seven Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into four groups. The groups include control group, edaravone (30 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) given group, VPA (0.5 g(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) given group, VPA + edaravone (in same dose) given group. Edaravone and VPA were given intraperitoneally for 7 days. Biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde, as an index of lipid peroxidation(LPO), sialic acid (SA), glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tissue factor (TF) activities were determined in small intestine samples by colorimetric methods. Decreased small intestine antioxidant enzyme activities, increased LPO and SA levels, and increased activities of ALP and TF were detected in the VPA group. Based on our results edaravone may be suggested to reverse the oxidative stress and inflammation due to VPA-induced small intestine toxicity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Plasmonic nanoshell functionalized etched fiber Bragg gratings for highly sensitive refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Feizpour, Amin; Schade, Wolfgang; Reinhard, Björn M

    2015-02-15

    A novel fiber optical refractive index sensor based on gold nanoshells immobilized on the surface of an etched single-mode fiber including a Bragg grating is demonstrated. The nanoparticle coating induces refractive index dependent waveguide losses, because of the variation of the evanescently guided part of the light. Hence the amplitude of the Bragg reflection is highly sensitive to refractive index changes of the surrounding medium. The nanoshell functionalized fiber optical refractive index sensor works in reflectance mode, is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensing, and shows an intensity dependency of 4400% per refractive index unit in the refractive index range between 1.333 and 1.346. Furthermore, the physical length of the sensor is smaller than 3 mm with a diameter of 6 μm, and therefore offers the possibility of a localized refractive index measurement.

  4. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity prediction of ionic liquids based on Daphnia magna by using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nu’aim, M. N.; Bustam, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    By using a model called density functional theory, the toxicity of ionic liquids can be predicted and forecast. It is a theory that allowing the researcher to have a substantial tool for computation of the quantum state of atoms, molecules and solids, and molecular dynamics which also known as computer simulation method. It can be done by using structural feature based quantum chemical reactivity descriptor. The identification of ionic liquids and its Log[EC50] data are from literature data that available in Ismail Hossain thesis entitled “Synthesis, Characterization and Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship of Imidazolium, Pyridinium and Ammonium Based Ionic Liquids”. Each cation and anion of the ionic liquids were optimized and calculated. The geometry optimization and calculation from the software, produce the value of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). From the value of HOMO and LUMO, the value for other toxicity descriptors were obtained according to their formulas. The toxicity descriptor that involves are electrophilicity index, HOMO, LUMO, energy gap, chemical potential, hardness and electronegativity. The interrelation between the descriptors are being determined by using a multiple linear regression (MLR). From this MLR, all descriptors being analyzed and the descriptors that are significant were chosen. In order to develop the finest model equation for toxicity prediction of ionic liquids, the selected descriptors that are significant were used. The validation of model equation was performed with the Log[EC50] data from the literature and the final model equation was developed. A bigger range of ionic liquids which nearly 108 of ionic liquids can be predicted from this model equation.

  6. The Effects of Temperature and Hydrostatic Pressure on Metal Toxicity: Insights into Toxicity in the Deep Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2017-09-05

    Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96 h) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians. Low temperature reduced toxicity in both metals, but reduced cadmium toxicity significantly more. In contrast, elevated hydrostatic pressure increased copper toxicity, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. The synergistic interaction between copper and cadmium was not affected by low temperature, but high hydrostatic pressure significantly enhanced the synergism. Differential environmental effects on toxicity suggest different mechanisms of action for copper and cadmium, and highlight that mechanistic understanding of toxicity is fundamental to predicting environmental effects on toxicity. Although results infer that sensitivity to toxicants differs across biogeographic ranges, shallow-water species may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea species, dependent on adaptation to habitats with similar environmental variability.

  7. Empirical Examination of Fundamental Indexation in the German Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Max; Locarek-Junge, Hermann

    Index Funds, Exchange Traded Funds and Derivatives give investors easy access to well diversified index portfolios. These index-based investment products exhibit low fees, which make them an attractive alternative to actively managed funds. Against this background, a new class of stock indices has been established based on the concept of “Fundamental Indexation”. The selection and weighting of index constituents is conducted by means of fundamental criteria like total assets, book value or number of employees. This paper examines the performance of fundamental indices in the German equity market. For this purpose, a backtest of five fundamental indices is conducted over the last 20 years. Furthermore the index returns are analysed under the assumption of an efficient as well as an inefficient market. Index returns in efficient markets are explained by applying the three factor model for stock returns of Fama and French (J Financ Econ 33(1):3-56, 1993). The results show that the outperformance of fundamental indices is partly due to a higher risk exposure, particularly to companies with a low price to book ratio. By relaxing the assumption of market efficiency, a return drag of capitalisation weighted indices can be deduced. Given a mean-reverting movement of prices, a direct connection between market capitalisation and index weighting leads to inferior returns.

  8. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition

  9. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Jay Prakash; Saha, Bedabrata; Regon, Preetom; Sahoo, Smita; Chowra, Umakanta; Pradhan, Amit; Roy, Anupam; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check) were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root) of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM) toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR) protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h irrespective of the dose used in the study.

  10. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  11. Safety Performance Index Industri Batik Tulis Berdasarkan Kriteria Majemuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachnul Ansori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accident generally occurs due to the activities which is done in unsafe conditions or even unsafe behavior. These conditions can influence workers productivity. In batik industries, those workers use toxic material and work in non ergonomic atmosphere. Moreover, they also do not take care of the environment and do not use personal protective equipments (PPE. Workers at Madura batik SMEs have not fully realized the significance of occupational health and safety (OHS in their working areas. The aims of this research is to evaluate OHS performance based on the indicators of safety performance index (SPI, which is multicriteria, in that industri. The safety performance attributes were obtained from factor analysis from the previous study. The index is calculated based on the weighted evaluation results of critical behavior checklist (CBC, integrated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP. As the results, we should give priority to improve the knowledge and experience toward OHS of the workers and also improve the working environment of the Madura’s batik industries. Additionally, the performance of OHS in coloring process is also on the threshold of unsafe condition, further development on the coloring process is needed.

  12. Exploring the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment on the veterinary healthcare team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMoore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians’ and Registered Veterinary Technicians’ (RVT’s perceptions of the veterinary health care team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with 4 veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians and 4 Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These attitudes included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the go to person, avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when broken communication and tension between staff members occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands.The presence of people with a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment.

  13. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Katsuya; Tanaka, Toru; McNeil, Paul L

    2007-08-01

    Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  14. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Miyake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. CONCLUSIONS: Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  15. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Roberts

    Full Text Available Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  16. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  17. Roles of piRNAs in microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) induced reproductive toxicity in testis on male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huan; Benson, Mikael; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Dongmei

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects on the testis of the male offspring of MC-LR exposure during fetal and lactational periods. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: control group and MC-LR group which were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of MC-LR, respectively, through drinking water separately during fetal and lactational periods. At the age of 30 days after birth, the male offspring were euthanized. The body weight, testis index, and histomorphology change were observed and the global changes of piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression were evaluated. The results revealed that MC-LR was found in the testis of male offspring, body weight and testis index decreased significantly, and testicular tissue structure was damaged in the MC-LR group. In addition, the exposure to MC-LR resulted in an altered piRNA expression profile and an increase of the cell apoptosis and a decrease of the cell proliferation in the testis of the male offspring. It was reasonable to speculate that the toxic effects on reproductive system of the male offspring in MC-LR group might be mediated by piRNAs through the regulation of the target genes. As far as we are aware, this is the first report showing that MC-LR could play a role in disorder of proliferative and cell apoptosis in the testis of the male offspring by the maternal transmission effect of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  19. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  20. Predictive QSAR modelling of algal toxicity of ionic liquids and its interspecies correlation with Daphnia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Das, Rudra Narayan; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-05-01

    Predictive toxicology using chemometric tools can be very useful in order to fill the data gaps for ionic liquids (ILs) with limited available experimental toxicity information, in view of their growing industrial uses. Though originally promoted as green chemicals, ILs have now been shown to possess considerable toxicity against different ecological endpoints. Against this background, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models have been developed here for the toxicity of ILs against the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus using computed descriptors with definite physicochemical meaning. The final models emerged from E-state indices, extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices and quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices. The developed partial least squares models support the established mechanism of toxicity of ionic liquids in terms of a surfactant action of cations and chaotropic action of anions. The models have been developed within the guidelines of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for regulatory QSAR models, and they have been validated both internally and externally using multiple strategies and also tested for applicability domain. A preliminary attempt has also been made, for the first time, to develop interspecies quantitative toxicity-toxicity relationship (QTTR) models for the algal toxicity of ILs with Daphnia toxicity, which should be interesting while predicting toxicity of ILs for an endpoint when the data for the other are available.

  1. Toxicity of Lunar Dust in Lungs Assessed by Examining Biomarkers in Exposed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.; Young, S. H.; Quan, C. L.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is contemplating to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, TiO2, or quartz, suspended in normal saline were given to groups of 5 C57 male mice by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 0. 1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/mouse. Because lunar dust aggregates rapidly in aqueous media, some tests were conducted with dusts suspended in Survanta/saline (1:1). The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the presence of toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The overall results showed that the two lunar dust samples were similar in toxicity, they were more toxic than T102 , but less toxic than quartz. This preliminary study is a part of the large study to obtain data for setting exposure limits for astronauts living on the Moon

  2. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narceda, Ronald Jefferson A.; Montojo, Ulysses M.; Cayme, Mirriam F.; Borja, Valeriano M.

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  3. The influence of salinity on copper accumulation and its toxic effects in estuarine animals with differing osmoregulatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Marsden, Islay D; Glover, Chris N

    2010-08-01

    Copper is an important ionoregulatory toxicant in freshwater, but its effects in marine and brackish water systems are less well characterised. The effect of salinity on short-term copper accumulation and sublethal toxicity in two estuarine animals was investigated. The osmoregulating crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus accumulated copper in a concentration-dependent, but salinity-independent manner. Branchial copper accumulation correlated positively with branchial sodium accumulation. Sublethal effects of copper were most prevalent in 125% seawater, with a significant increase in haemolymph chloride noted after 96h at exposure levels of 510 microg Cu(II) L(-1). The osmoconforming gastropod, Scutus breviculus, was highly sensitive to copper exposure, a characteristic recognised previously in related species. Toxicity, as determined by a behavioural index, was present at all salinities and was positively correlated with branchial copper accumulation. At 100% seawater, increased branchial sodium accumulation, decreased haemolymph chloride and decreased haemolymph osmolarity were observed after 48h exposure to 221 microg Cu(II) L(-1), suggesting a mechanism of toxicity related to ionoregulation. However, these effects were likely secondary to a general effect on gill barrier function, and possibly mediated by mucus secretion. Significant impacts of copper on haemocyanin were also noted in both animals, highlighting a potentially novel mechanism of copper toxicity to animals utilising this respiratory pigment. Overall these findings indicate that physiology, as opposed to water chemistry, exerts the greatest influence over copper toxicity. An understanding of the physiological limits of marine and estuarine organisms may be critical for calibration of predictive models of metal toxicity in waters of high and fluctuating salinities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive Toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill in Rats: The Fertility and Early Embryonic Development Study (Segment I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill (ZYP on fertility and early embryonic development in rats. Methods. SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: vehicle control group (distilled water, i.g., positive control group (80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, i.p., and three ZYP-treated groups (3, 6, and 12 g/kg/d, i.e., 12x, 24x, and 48x clinical doses, i.g.. The high dose was set as the maximum gavage dosage. Results. Cyclophosphamide showed diverse hazards, such as decreased weight of male reproductive organs and sperm density (P<0.05. However, there were no obvious effects of ZYP on physical signs, animal behavior, and survival rate, as well as on weight and food intake during the premating and gestation periods. Importantly, there were no significant adverse effects of ZYP on indexes of copulation, fecundity and fertility indexes, weights and coefficients of male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm number and motility, estrous cycle, preimplantation loss rate, and implantation rate. Besides, the numbers of live and resorbed fetuses per litter were not significantly altered. Conclusions. ZYP had no reproductive toxicities on fertility and early embryonic development in rats at 48x equivalent clinical doses.

  5. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  6. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but compar......Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  7. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Awasthi

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic. Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h

  8. The water extract of Veratrilla baillonii could attenuate the subacute toxicity induced by Aconitum brachypodum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Yi, Xue-Jia; Mei, Zhi-Yi; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Ma, Li-Qun; Gao, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is a Chinese ethnodrug and is well known for both its therapeutic application and high toxicity. However, no detoxication strategy is available for the complete elimination of the toxicity of Aconitum plants. Veratrilla baillonii Franch is believed to possess antitoxic effects on the toxicity induced by Aconitum plants and has been clinically used for hundreds of time by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province of China. To further address the mechanism of the detoxication of Veratrilla baillonii, the effect of water decoction of Veratrilla baillonii (WVBF) on subacute toxicology of SD rats induced by Aconitum brachypodum (CFA), a genus Aconitum, was determined and studied in the present work. The clinical behavior and number of survivors for different dosage of WVBF (25, 50, 100mg/kg) on CFA (4mg/kg) induced rats were observed until day 28. Histological changes and haematological parameters were evaluated. Moreover, Na + -K + -ATPase pathway in heart as well as key enzymes in liver were determined to further discuss the mechanism. The results showed that the exposure of CFA led to some subacute toxicity to rats, especially male ones, accompanied with abnormality of serum biochemical index in rats' serum. The toxicological target organs of CFA may be the heart, liver, kidney and brain. It is demonstrated that WVBF could attenuate the toxicity induced by Aconitum brachypodum via promoting the metabolic enzymes CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in liver, downregulating the expression of Sodium/Calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) and SCN5A sodium channal mRNA, and inducing Na + /K + -ATPase activity in heart. This study provides insights into detoxifying measures of Aconitum plants. Aconitum brachypodum may lead to subacute toxicity of rats after long term of administration, and the toxicity could be attenuated by Veratrilla baillonii via promoting the metabolic enzymes in liver, downregulating the expression of NCX1 and SCN5A mRNA, and

  9. Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Ribbing, Carolina [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The primary objective of the study was to identify early hematologic changes predictive for radiotherapy (RT)-associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. In a group of 91 prostate cancer patients presenting for primary (n = 51) or postoperative (n = 40) curative RT, blood samples (blood count, acute phase proteins, and cytokines) were analyzed before (T1), three times during (T2-T4), and 6-8 weeks after (T5) radiotherapy. Before RT (baseline), on the last day (acute toxicity), a median of 2 months and 16 months (late toxicity) after RT, patients responded to a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Acute score changes > 20 points and late changes > 10 points were considered clinically relevant. Radiotherapy resulted in significant changes of hematologic parameters, with the largest effect on lymphocytes (mean decrease of 31-45 %) and significant dependence on target volume. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation > 5 mg/l and hemoglobin level decrease ≥ 5 G/1 at T2 were found to be independently predictive for acute urinary toxicity (p < 0.01, respectively). CRP elevation was predominantly detected in primary prostate RT (p = 0.02). Early lymphocyte level elevation ≥ 0.3G/l at T2 was protective against late urinary and bowel toxicity (p = 0.02, respectively). Other significant predictive factors for late bowel toxicity were decreasing hemoglobin levels (cut-off ≥ 5 G/l) at T2 (p = 0.04); changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor; p = 0.03) and ferritin levels (p = 0.02) at T5. All patients with late bowel toxicity had interleukin (IL)-6 levels < 1.5 ng/l at T2 (63 % without; p = 0.01). Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy are predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Identifikation von fruehen haematologischen Veraenderungen mit praediktiver Bedeutung fuer radiotherapieassoziierte genitourinale und gastrointestinale Toxizitaet. In einer

  10. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deville Curtiland

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERBH2O, and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. Methods The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERBH2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0 were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Results Mean age was 68 (range 51–88. Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps  Conclusion Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERBH2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities.

  11. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation

  12. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  13. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, M; Dragovic, S.; van Swelm, R; Herpers, B; van de Water, B.; Russel, RG; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Groothuis, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the wellknown hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  14. Estimating the risk of cyanobacterial occurrence using an index integrating meteorological factors: application to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Lemaire, Bruno J; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms is still largely unpredictable in waters worldwide. Many post-hoc explanations for CB bloom occurrence relating to physical and biochemical conditions in lakes have been developed. As potentially toxic CB can accumulate in drinking water treatment plants and disrupt water treatment, there is a need for water treatment operators to determine whether conditions are favourable for the proliferation and accumulation of CB in source waters in order to adjust drinking water treatment accordingly. Thus, a new methodology with locally adaptable variables is proposed in order to have a single index, f(p), related to various environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction. The index is used in conjunction with real time monitoring data to determine the probability of CB occurrence in relation to meteorological factors, and was tested at a drinking water intake in Missisquoi Bay, a shallow transboundary bay in Lake Champlain, Québec, Canada. These environmental factors alone were able to explain a maximum probability of 68% that a CB bloom would occur at the drinking water treatment plant. Nutrient limitation also influences CB blooms and intense blooms only occurred when the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total phosphorus (TP) mass ratio was below 3. Additional monitoring of DIN and TP could be considered for these source waters prone to cyanobacterial blooms to determine periods of favourable growth. Real time monitoring and the use of the index could permit an adequate and timely response to CB blooms in drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bibliography on moving boundary problems with key word index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.G.; Solomon, A.D.; Trent, J.S.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography concentrates mainly on time-dependent moving-boundary problems of heat and mass transfer. The bibliography is in two parts, a list of the references ordered by last name of the first author and a key word index to the titles. Few references from before 1965 are included

  16. Evaluation of the toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of Maytenus obtusifolia Mart. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara de Lira Mota

    Full Text Available Maytenus obtusifolia is used in folk medicine for the treatment of serious ulcers, general inflammations and cancer. Despite of the ethnopharmacological importance of this species, no study was conducted to evaluate its toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and antiulcerogenic property of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Maytenus obtusifolia (MO-EtOH. The MO-EtOH (10-1000 µg/mL showed low toxicity for larvae of A. salina with LC50 higher than 1000 µg/mL. The MO-EtOH (2000 mg/kg, p.o. did not change the body and organs weight of the mice, but it was observed an increase in the water consumption of males and a decrease in the food consumption of females. During the study no deaths and no macroscopic changes in the organs were observed in the mice. MO-EtOH (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg and lansoprazole (30 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcerative index for 65.58 ± 8.74, 43.00 ± 9.53, 15.50 ± 7.56, 54.75 ± 8.88 and 36.13 ± 9.55, respectively, in comparison with saline 82.13 ± 12.48. In conclusion, the MO-EtOH showed low toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity, confirming the popular use of M. obtusifolia.

  17. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary A. Franke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  18. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Dragovic, Sanja; van Swelm, Rachel; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob; Russel, Frans G. M.; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  19. Estimating search engine index size variability: a 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; de Kunder, Maurice

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel method of estimating the size of a Web search engine's index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing's indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006 until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find that much, if not all of this variability can be explained by changes in the indexing and ranking infrastructure of Google and Bing. This casts further doubt on whether Web search engines can be used reliably for cross-sectional webometric studies.

  20. Analysis of Toxic and Non-Toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Species Using Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Therriault, J.-C. (1988). Cladistic analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonyaulax. Botanica Marina 31: 39- 51. 8... Botanica Marina 34: 575-587. Halegraeff, G. M., and Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ship’s ballast water: implications...analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonv-u.!a,. Botanica Marina 31: 39-51. Curran, J., Baillie, D.L

  1. Use of zeolite for removing ammonia and ammonia-caused toxicity in marine toxicity identification evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, R M; Perron, M M; Cantwell, M G; Ho, K T; Serbst, J R; Pelletier, M C

    2004-11-01

    Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifying aquatic toxicants. For identifying ammonia toxicity, there are several possible methods including pH alteration and volatilization, Ulva lactuca addition, microbial degradation, and zeolite addition. Zeolite addition has been used successfully in freshwater systems to decrease ammonia concentrations and toxicity for several decades. However, zeolite in marine systems has been used less because ions in the seawater interfere with zeolite's ability to adsorb ammonia. The objective of this study was to develop a zeolite method for removing ammonia from marine waters. To accomplish this objective, we performed a series of zeolite slurry and column chromatography studies to determine uptake rate and capacity and to evaluate the effects of salinity and pH on ammonia removal. We also assessed the interaction of zeolite with several toxic metals. Success of the methods was also evaluated by measuring toxicity to two marine species: the mysid Americamysis bahia and the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. Column chromatography proved to be effective at removing a wide range of ammonia concentrations under several experimental conditions. Conversely, the slurry method was inconsistent and variable in its overall performance in removing ammonia and cannot be recommended. The metals copper, lead, and zinc were removed by zeolite in both the slurry and column treatments. The zeolite column was successful in removing ammonia toxicity for both the mysid and the amphipod, whereas the slurry was less effective. This study demonstrated that zeolite column chromatography is a useful tool for conducting marine water TIEs to decrease ammonia concentrations and characterize toxicity.

  2. Part-load pumping operation, control and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Twenty one papers are printed. Their main concern is with pump performance under abnormal operating conditions or when operating at part-load. The effect of part-load operation on pump performance, pump internal flow and pump cavitation and noise were considered. The pumps considered are used in a variety of situations and some case studies were discussed. One paper about part-load operation of the boiler pumps for French pressurized water reactors and one paper on pressure pulsations of centrifugal pumps at very low flowrate, are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  3. Sources of Return in the Index Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns an issue of existence of a risk premium in equity and index futures markets. The paper consists of four parts. The first part describes the basic hypotheses of forward curves in the futures market. In the second section, I formulate 5 hypotheses concerning a risk premium in the equity futures market, its forecastability, and its dependence on a market segment and development stage. The third part includes an empirical study, which confirms the existence of timedependent and partially predictable risk premium. The research was based on the Polish futures market in the years 2000-2010. The last section of the paper discusses potential implications for the financial market practice and indicates areas for further research.

  4. Body Composition as a Predictor of Toxicity in Patients Receiving Anthracycline and Taxane Based Chemotherapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Shlomit Strulov; Deal, Allison M.; Weinberg, Marc; Williams, Grant R.; Nyrop, Kirsten A.; Popuri, Karteek; Choi, Seul Ki; Muss, Hyman B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Poor body composition metrics (BCM) are associated with inferior cancer outcomes; however, in early breast cancer (EBC) there is a paucity of evidence regarding BCM’s impact on toxicities. This study investigates associations between BCM and treatment-related toxicity in EBC patients receiving anthracyclines-taxane based chemotherapy. Experimental Design Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) images were evaluated for skeletal muscle area (SMA), density (SMD), and fat tissue at the 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMA/height2) and skeletal muscle gauge (SMG=SMI x SMD) were also calculated. Relative risks (RR) are reported for associations between body composition measures and toxicity outcomes, after adjustment for age and body surface area (BSA). Results BCM were calculated for 151 patients with EBC (median age 49, range 23 to 75). Fifty patients (33%) developed grade 3 or 4 toxicity, which was significantly higher in those with low SMI (RR=1.29, p=0.002), low SMG (RR=1.09, p=0.01), and low LBM (RR=1.48, p=.002). ROC analysis showed the SMG measure to be the best predictor of grade 3 and 4 toxicity. Dividing SMG into tertiles showed toxicity rates of 46%, and 22% for lowest versus highest tertile, respectively (p=0.005). After adjusting for age and BSA, low SMG (<1475 units) was significantly associated with hematological (RR=2.12, p=0.02), gastrointestinal grade 3–4 toxicities (RR=6.49, p=0.02), and hospitalizations (RR=1.91, p=0.05). Conclusions Poor BCM are significantly associated with increased treatment-related toxicities. Further studies are needed to investigate how these metrics can be used to more precisely dose chemotherapy to reduce treatment related toxicity while maintaining efficacy. PMID:28143874

  5. Low toxicity binder systems for tape cast Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Menon, Mohan; Ramousse, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Conventional binder systems for tape casting contain toxic phthalate plasticizers and butanone (MEK) as part of the solvent. The effects of exchanging the phthalate with a non-toxic alternative, and butanone with ethanol, were studied on laminates of high-green density CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) tapes....... Samples were prepared with a binder system containing DBP (dibutyl phthalate) plasticizer and MEK solvent, and with a binder system based on a non-toxic non-phthalate plasticizer and ethanol. In both systems, the weight ratio of plasticizer to the PVB (polyvinyl butyral) binder was varied between 0.......4 and 0.7. Substitution to the less toxic binder system had no adverse impacts on the microstructure. In fact, denser packing and improved homogeneity were observed with the non-phthalate-based system at ratio 0.5 indicating improved dispersion in this system. The denser packing also coincided...

  6. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduati, Federica; Mangravite, Lara M; Wang, Tao; Tang, Hao; Bare, J Christopher; Huang, Ruili; Norman, Thea; Kellen, Mike; Menden, Michael P; Yang, Jichen; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Xia, Menghang; Abdo, Nour; Kosyk, Oksana; Friend, Stephen; Dearry, Allen; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Xie, Yang; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against an experimental data set to which participants were blinded. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson's r < 0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r < 0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal.

  7. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Curtiland; Both, Stefan; Bui, Viet; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Kay-See; Schaer, Mattia; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERB H2O ), and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERB H2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Mean age was 68 (range 51–88). Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV) rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps < 0.05). Maximum acute GU toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 17%, 41%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Infield bladder V20 (P = 0.03) and pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) (P = 0.003) were associated with grade 2 GU toxicity. Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERB H2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities

  8. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyallela azteca (Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Stormwater wetlands are created to contain runoff from human developments and are designed to retain contaminants such as heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, silt, pesticides, and nutrients before the runoff enter natural waterways. Because of this design, stormwater wetlands have a potential of becoming toxic sinks to organisms utilizing the wetlands for habitat. We conducted a 10-day sediment bioassay on Hyallela azteca as part of a larger study on the possible hazards of stormwater wetlands to aquatic invertebrates. Water and sediments from 10 wetlands separated into reference, residential, commercial, and highway land uses were used. No differences in survival were observed among land use categories, possibly because the ratio of acid volatile sulfides/simultaneously extractable metals (AVS/SEM) was > 1.0 for all of the ponds tested; values > 1 in this ratio are indications that toxic metals may not be bioavailable. Survival and growth rates correlated positively with AVS.

  9. Sediment toxicity data from stations in U.S. coastal waters from 19910318 to 19930303 (NCEI Accession 9400004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Sediment Toxicity data collected from Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, New York Bight, North American Coastline-North, and Pamlico Sound as part of...

  10. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: toxicity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Bajnógel, J; Varga, A; Móra, Z; Laczay, P

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin were investigated in rats. A three-day comparative oral repeated-dose toxicity study was performed in Phase I, when the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In Phase II, the two compounds were administered simultaneously to study the toxic interaction (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). Monensin proved to be toxic to rats at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg. Tiamulin was well tolerated up to the dose of 200 mg/kg. After combined administration, signs of toxicity were seen (including lethality in females). Monensin caused a dose-dependent cardiotoxic effect and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles in the animals given 50 mg/kg. Both compounds exerted a toxic effect on the liver in high doses. After simultaneous administration of the two compounds, there was a mild effect on the liver (females only), hydropic degeneration of the myocardium and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles. The alteration seen in the skeletal muscles was more marked than that seen after the administration of 50 mg/kg monensin alone.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    characteristics of a toxic leader , but labels the characteristics - leader types.  Deceptive  Autocratic  Egotistic  Incompetent  Ignorant...3 Characteristics of a Toxic Leader ...5 Table 2: Toxic Leader Characteristics

  12. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  13. Nature and prevalence of non-additive toxic effects in industrially relevant mixtures of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mukherji, Suparna

    2009-06-01

    The concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) models are widely used for predicting mixture toxicity based on its composition and individual component dose-response profiles. However, the prediction based on these models may be inaccurate due to interaction among mixture components. In this work, the nature and prevalence of non-additive effects were explored for binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures composed of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The toxicity of each individual component and mixture was determined using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. For each combination of chemicals specified by the 2(n) factorial design, the percent deviation of the predicted toxic effect from the measured value was used to characterize mixtures as synergistic (positive deviation) and antagonistic (negative deviation). An arbitrary classification scheme was proposed based on the magnitude of deviation (d) as: additive (50%, class-IV) antagonistic/synergistic. Naphthalene, n-butanol, o-xylene, catechol and p-cresol led to synergism in mixtures while 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and 1, 3-dimethylnaphthalene contributed to antagonism. Most of the mixtures depicted additive or antagonistic effect. Synergism was prominent in some of the mixtures, such as, pulp and paper, textile dyes, and a mixture composed of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The organic chemical industry mixture depicted the highest abundance of antagonism and least synergism. Mixture toxicity was found to depend on partition coefficient, molecular connectivity index and relative concentration of the components.

  14. Bibliography on moving boundary problems with key word index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.G.; Solomon, A.D.; Trent, J.S.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography concentrates mainly on time-dependent moving-boundary problems of heat and mass transfer. The bibliography is in two parts, a list of the references ordered by last name of the first author and a key word index to the titles. Few references from before 1965 are included. (RWR)

  15. Postimplantation Analysis Enables Improvement of Dose-Volume Histograms and Reduction of Toxicity for Permanent Seed Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Postrach, Johanna; Kahmann, Frank; Henkel, Thomas; Graf, Reinhold; Cho, Chie Hee; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate how postimplantation analysis is useful for improving permanent seed implantation and reducing toxicity. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 197 questionnaires completed by patients after permanent seed implantation (monotherapy between 1999 and 2003). For 70% of these patients, a computed tomography was available to perform postimplantation analysis. The index doses and volumes of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were determined and categorized with respect to the date of implantation. Differences in symptom scores relative to pretherapeutic status were analyzed with regard to follow-up times and DVH descriptors. Acute and subacute toxicities in a control group of 117 patients from an earlier study (June 1999 to September 2001) by Wust et al. (2004) were compared with a matched subgroup from this study equaling 110 patients treated between October 2001 and August 2003. Results: Improved performance, identifying a characteristic time dependency of DVH parameters (after implantation) and toxicity scores, was demonstrated. Although coverage (volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose of the prostate) increased slightly, high-dose regions decreased with the growing experience of the users. Improvement in the DVH and a reduction of toxicities were found in the patient group implanted in the later period. A decline in symptoms with follow-up time counteracts this gain of experience and must be considered. Urinary and sexual discomfort was enhanced by dose heterogeneities (e.g., dose covering 10% of the prostate volume, volume covered by 200% of prescription dose). In contrast, rectal toxicities correlated with exposed rectal volumes, especially the rectal volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The typical side effects occurring after permanent seed implantation can be reduced by improving the dose distributions. An improvement in dose distributions and a reduction of toxicities were identified with elapsed time between

  16. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  17. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  18. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  19. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  20. Assessing Photoinduced Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Urbanized Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in contaminants associated with urban sprawl are a particular concern in the rapidly developing coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are contaminants associated with vehicle emissions and runoff from impervious surfaces. Increased vehicular traffic and more impervious surfaces lead to an increased loading of PAHs into coastal estuarine systems. The phototoxic effect of PAH-contaminated sediments on a sediment-dwelling meiobenthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis, was estimated in Murrells Inlet, a small, high-salinity estuary with moderate urbanization located in Georgetown and Horry Counties, South Carolina, USA. Field-determined solar ultraviolet radiation (UV and UV extinction coefficients were incorporated into laboratory toxicity experiments, and a model was developed to predict areas of specific hazard to A. tenuiremis in the estuary. The model incorporated laboratory toxicity data, UV extinction coefficients, and historical sediment chemistry and bathymetric data within a spatial model of sedimentary areas of the estuary. The model predicted that approximately 8-16% of the total creek habitat suitable for meiobenthic copepods is at risk to photoinduced PAH toxicity. This area is in the northern, more developed part of Murrells Inlet.

  1. Ability of radiation therapists to assess radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Urvi; Cox, Jennifer; Rinks, Marianne; Gaur, Pankaj; Back, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy has seen enhancement of the radiation therapist (RT) role, with RTs and nurses performing duties that were traditionally in the radiation oncologist's (RO) domain. This study aimed to assess whether RTs can consistently grade radiation-induced skin toxicity and their concordance with the gradings given by ROs. Digital photographs of skin reactions were taken at weeks 1, 3 and 6 of radiotherapy on nine patients with breast cancer. The randomly ordered photographs were reviewed once by eight ROs and four RO registrars and on two occasions separated by 6 weeks by 17 RTs. All graded the skin toxicities using the revised Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. No significant difference was seen between the median scores of the RTs at the first scoring session and the RO/Registrar group. The RTs at both measurement times showed greater inter-rater reliability than the RO/Registrars (W=0.6866, time 1 and 0.6981 time 2, vs. 0.6517), with the experienced RTs the most consistent (W=0.7078). The RTs also showed high intra-rater reliability (rho=0.8461, P<0.0010). These results from RTs with no specific preparation indicate that experienced RTs could assess breast cancer skin toxicity as part of their role.

  2. Abatement by Naringenin of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, H.M.; Abd-Ellah, M.F.; Hafez, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use. It has proven efficacy in various malignancies either alone or combined with other cytocidal agents. The clinical usefulness of the anthracycline drug has been precluded by cardiac toxicity. Many therapeutic interventions have been attempted to improve the therapeutic benefits of the drug. Few, however, have been efficacious in this setting. Purpose: We have addressed in the current study the possible protective effects of naringenin, a flavonoid known to have anti-oxidant properties, on doxorubicin induced cardiac toxicity in male Swiss albino rats. Methods: Forty male Swiss albino rats were used in this study. Naringenin (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 7 consecutive days before a cumulative single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body weight, ip). Doxorubicin induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of cardiac toxicity including, elevated activities of serum total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), enhanced lipid peroxidation measured as malonaldehyde (MDA). The anthracycline drug has also reduced the cardiac enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). Besides, it reduced significantly the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, but it increased the total NO content in heart tissue. Prior administration of naringenin ahead of doxorubicin challenge ameliorated all these biochemical markers. Taken together, one could conclude that naringenin has a protective role in the abatement of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity that resides, at least in part, on its anti-radical effects and regulatory role on NO production

  3. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  4. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  5. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Paraquat: model for oxidant-initiated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bus, J.S.; Gibson, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    Paraquat, a quaternary ammonium bipyridyl herbicide, produces degenerative lesions in the lung after systemic administration to man and animals. The pulmonary toxicity of paraquat resembles in several ways the toxicity of several other lung toxins, including oxygen, nitrofurantoin and bleomycin. Although a definitive mechanism of toxicity of parquat has not been delineated, a cyclic single electron reduction/oxidation of the parent molecule is a critical mechanistic event. The redox cycling of paraquat has two potentially important consequences relevant to the development of toxicity: generation of activated oxygen (e.g., superoxide anion, hydrogen perioxide, hydroxyl radical) which is highly reactive to cellular macromolecules; and/or oxidation of reducing equivalents (e.g., NADPH, reduced glutathione) necessary for normal cell function. Paraquat-induced pulmonary toxicity, therefore, is a potentially useful model for evaluation of oxidant mechanisms of toxicity. Furthermore, characterization of the consequences of intracellular redox cycling of xenobiotics will no doubt provide basic information regarding the role of this phenomena in the development of chemical toxicity. 105 references, 2 figures.

  8. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  9. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part II: Plants with hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    A tremendous surge of public interest in natural therapies has been reported in the past several decades in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, edible wild-growing plants whose use had long been associated with poverty and famine have also gained in popularity among people in developed countries. An important fraction of herbal products evade all control measures and are generally perceived as safe. However, this may not always be true. It is important to recognize that some plants are not associated with acute toxicity but rather produce more insidious problems, which develop only with long-term exposure. In this review, we continue a systematic analysis of the subacute and chronic toxicity associated with the use of herbal preparations. The hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxicity of plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe are discussed in some detail. The basic concepts regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in their nonacute toxicity and their pathophysiological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics are included. Among others, we discuss the hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid, the lathyrism associated with neurotoxin swainsonine, thiamine depletion and thyroid dysfunction of herbal cause, and finally address also the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study with NM-200 synthetic amorphous silica in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.; Oosterwijk, T.; Schneider, S.; Landsiedel, R.; Groot, D. de; Ee, R. van; Wouters, M.; Sandt, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) like NM-200 is used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. Although SAS has been widely investigated the available reproductive toxicity studies are old and do not cover all requirements of current OECD Guidelines. As part of a

  11. GHS additivity formula: can it predict the acute systemic toxicity of agrochemical formulations that contain acutely toxic ingredients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Andrew; Hastings, Charles E; Landsiedel, Robert; Kolle, Susanne; Stinchcombe, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In vivo acute systemic testing is a regulatory requirement for agrochemical formulations. GHS specifies an alternative computational approach (GHS additivity formula) for calculating the acute toxicity of mixtures. We collected acute systemic toxicity data from formulations that contained one of several acutely-toxic active ingredients. The resulting acute data set includes 210 formulations tested for oral toxicity, 128 formulations tested for inhalation toxicity and 31 formulations tested for dermal toxicity. The GHS additivity formula was applied to each of these formulations and compared with the experimental in vivo result. In the acute oral assay, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 110 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 119 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (43% accuracy). With acute inhalation, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 50 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (61% accuracy) and 34 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (73% accuracy). For acute dermal toxicity, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 16 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 20 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (36% accuracy). This data indicates the acute systemic toxicity of many formulations is not the sum of the ingredients' toxicity (additivity); but rather, ingredients in a formulation can interact to result in lower or higher toxicity than predicted by the GHS additivity formula. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  13. Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Seong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches

  14. Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Seong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr

    2015-04-01

    Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches.

  15. Toxicity of proton-metal mixtures in the field: Linking stream macroinvertebrate species diversity to chemical speciation and bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, Anthony [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, Edward, E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, Stephen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Ormerod, Stephen J. [Catchment Research Group, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Clements, William H. [Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Blust, Ronny [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-10-01

    Understanding metal and proton toxicity under field conditions requires consideration of the complex nature of chemicals in mixtures. Here, we demonstrate a novel method that relates streamwater concentrations of cationic metallic species and protons to a field ecological index of biodiversity. The model WHAM-F{sub TOX} postulates that cation binding sites of aquatic macroinvertebrates can be represented by the functional groups of natural organic matter (humic acid), as described by the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM6), and supporting field evidence is presented. We define a toxicity function (F{sub TOX}) by summing the products: (amount of invertebrate-bound cation) x (cation-specific toxicity coefficient, {alpha}{sub i}). Species richness data for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), are then described with a lower threshold of F{sub TOX}, below which all organisms are present and toxic effects are absent, and an upper threshold above which organisms are absent. Between the thresholds the number of species declines linearly with F{sub TOX}. We parameterised the model with chemistry and EPT data for low-order streamwaters affected by acid deposition and/or abandoned mines, representing a total of 412 sites across three continents. The fitting made use of quantile regression, to take into account reduced species richness caused by (unknown) factors other than cation toxicity. Parameters were derived for the four most common or abundant cations, with values of {alpha}{sub i} following the sequence (increasing toxicity) H{sup +} < Al < Zn < Cu. For waters affected mainly by H{sup +} and Al, F{sub TOX} shows a steady decline with increasing pH, crossing the lower threshold near to pH 7. Competition effects among cations mean that toxicity due to Cu and Zn is rare at lower pH values, and occurs mostly between pH 6 and 8.

  16. Physics of negative refractive index materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, new developments in structured electromagnetic materials have given rise to negative refractive index materials which have both negative dielectric permittivity and negative magnetic permeability in some frequency ranges. The idea of a negative refractive index opens up new conceptual frontiers in photonics. One much-debated example is the concept of a perfect lens that enables imaging with sub-wavelength image resolution. Here we review the fundamental concepts and ideas of negative refractive index materials. First we present the ideas of structured materials or meta-materials that enable the design of new materials with a negative dielectric permittivity, negative magnetic permeability and negative refractive index. We discuss how a variety of resonance phenomena can be utilized to obtain these materials in various frequency ranges over the electromagnetic spectrum. The choice of the wave-vector in negative refractive index materials and the issues of dispersion, causality and energy transport are analysed. Various issues of wave propagation including nonlinear effects and surface modes in negative refractive materials (NRMs) are discussed. In the latter part of the review, we discuss the concept of a perfect lens consisting of a slab of a NRM. This perfect lens can image the far-field radiative components as well as the near-field evanescent components, and is not subject to the traditional diffraction limit. Different aspects of this lens such as the surface modes acting as the mechanism for the imaging of the evanescent waves, the limitations imposed by dissipation and dispersion in the negative refractive media, the generalization of this lens to optically complementary media and the possibility of magnification of the near-field images are discussed. Recent experimental developments verifying these ideas are briefly covered

  17. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  18. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  20. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July--September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: 1. Case Name Index: The case name index is an alphabetical arrangement of the case names of the issuances. Each case name is followed by the type of hearing, the type of issuance, docket number, issuance number, and full text reference. 2. Digests and Headers: The headers and digests are presented in issuance number order as follows: the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The header identifies the issuance by issuance number, case name, facility name, docket number, type of hearing, date of issuance, and type of issuance. 3. Legal Citations Index: This index is divided into four parts and consists of alphabetical or alpha-numerical arrangements of Cases, Regulations, Statutes, and Others. These citations are listed as given in the issuances. Changes in regulations and statutes may have occurred to cause changes in the number or name and/or applicability of the citation. It is therefore important to consider the date of the issuance. 4. Subject Index: Subject words and/or phrases, arranged alphabetically, indicate the issues and subjects covered in the issuances. 5. Facility Index: The index consists of an alphabetical arrangement of facility names from the issuance. The name is followed by docket number, type of hearing, data, type of issuance, issuance number, and full text reference

  1. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  2. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  3. Analysis of toxic and heavy metals in cataract extraction from human eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, R.; Qureshi, S.A.; Ahmed, R.

    1999-01-01

    Surma and many other substances are frequently used for the treatment of eyes and for cosmetic purposes, which may contain large quantities of toxic and heavy metals particularly lead. Toxic metals may also enter into the body through different food chain system and also due to heavy traffic and contaminated dusts in the air of the overcrowded cities. Eyes being exposed part of human body has maximum chances to get in contact with polluted atmosphere. This study has been undertaken to find the role of toxic elements in the formation of cataract in eyes. Samples of eye lenses were collected and carefully digested in 3 ml of conc. HClO/sub 4/ and 1 ml of conc. HNO/sub 3/. Then analysis of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, was carried out in 0.02 m HClO/sub 4/ using differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry. Levels of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in eye lenses are from 324 - 5746 mug/g, 3 - 240 mug/g, 3 - 240 mug/g, 25 - 120 mug /g and 23 - 485 mug/g, respectively. Chemical composition of ocular fluid indicates that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn are not present in it normally. In addition to other factors , role of heavy and toxic metals in the formation of cataract cannot be overlooked. Therefore, use of surma and other cosmetics should be discouraged. (author)

  4. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  5. On the influence of toxicity of O-alkyl serotonin derivatives on the implantation of their protective potency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, M.V.; Suvorov, N.N.; Abramov, M.M.; Gordeev, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments with mongrel mice, a study was made of the pharmacological activity of serotonin and its O-alkyl derivatives. It was estimated by the two indices, that is, the radioprotective properties and the influence on a local blood cannel in the spleen, the modifying effect of the agents' toxicity being estimated as well. As an O-alkyl group of 5-alkoxytryptamines was elongated from one to three carbon atoms and the toxicity of the substances increased, their radiprotective effect decreased more readily than their effect on the local blood cannel. The shortening of the range of the therapeutic effect of the agents under study, with regard to the two pharmacological indices mentioned above, the alkyl group being lengthened, followed a logarithmic function which was more pronounced in relation to the radioprotective index (cosα 1 /cosα 2 =1.58)

  6. FLUORIDE TOXICITY – A HARSH REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bandlapalli Pavani; Mandava Ragini; David Banji; Otilia J F Banji; N Gouri Pratusha

    2011-01-01

    There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflec...

  7. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  8. Modification of Low Refractive Index Polycarbonate for High Refractive Index Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Suri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycarbonates and polythiourethanes are the most popular materials in use today, for optical applications. Polycarbonates are of two types which fall in the category of low refractive index and medium refractive index. The present paper describes the conversion of low refractive index polycarbonates into high refractive index material by the use of a high refractive index monomer, polythiol, as an additive. Novel polycarbonates, where the properties of refractive index and Abbe number can be tailor made, have been obtained. Thermal studies and refractive index determination indicate the formation of a new polymer with improved properties and suitable for optical applications.

  9. Joint toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In polluted areas organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of toxic chemicals rather than a single toxicant only. Since the number of mixture toxicity studies with regard to soil systems is limited, the research in this thesis was focused on investigating ecotoxicological consequences of

  10. Toxicity of venoms from vipers of Pelias group to crickets Gryllus assimilis and its relation to snake entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2007-06-01

    The existing data indicate that snake venom is most toxic towards the natural vertebrate preys. Several species of snake include arthropods in their food. However, there is no available data on the toxicity of venom from entomophagous snakes towards their prey. We have studied the toxicity of venom from vipers of Pelias group towards crickets Gryllus assimilis. The Pelias group includes several closely related viper species inhabiting mainly the South European part of Russia, and they differ in their feeding preferences. Snakes from the Vipera renardi, Vipera lotievi, Vipera kaznakovi, and Vipera orlovi species feed on wide range of animals including insects, whereas snakes from Vipera berus and Vipera nikolskii species do not include insects in their diet. We have found that the venom from vipers that include insects in their diet possesses greater toxicity towards crickets. The greatest toxicity was observed for the venom from V. lotievi, which displays a preference for insects in its diet. Therefore, based on our data, we suggest that the viper entomophagy is not a result of behavior plasticity, but is probably determined at a genetic level.

  11. Successful removal of German yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) by toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, P; Rabinovich, M; Corley, J C

    2001-08-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) is a social vespid that has invaded many parts of the world, including Argentina. This wasp usually becomes a pest, affecting several economic activities. It also may impact the host community through predation or competition. The purpose of our study was to field test toxic baiting for reduction of wasp abundance. Wasps were poisoned with 0.1% fipronil mixed with raw minced beef in two beech forest sites on 20 February 2000 in northwestern Patagonia. All nests (46) within the two 6-ha sites with poisoned bait stations were killed, whereas Malaise traps in those sites captured 81.1% fewer wasps at the end of the season than traps in the two control sites. The average reduction of forager wasps on nontoxic baits was 87%. Fipronil was very effective in controlling wasp numbers, although there are limitations to the method, especially concerning conservation purposes. Toxic baiting can be useful in controlling wasp numbers in honey bee hive yards, farms, and parks.

  12. Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Rashid, Sadia; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2013-06-21

    History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of calcium, silicon and salicylic acid treatment in protection of canola plants against boron toxicity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Ashraf M; Radi, Abeer A; El-Shazoly, Rasha M; Hamada, Afaf M

    2018-01-22

    Boron (B) toxicity often limits crop yield and the quality of production in agricultural areas. Here, we investigated the effects of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) on development of B toxicity, B allocation in canola (Brassica napus cultivar Sarw 4) and its role in non-enzymatic antioxidants in relation to yield of this cultivar under B toxicity. Canola seedlings were subjected to four B levels induced by boric acid in the absence or presence of Ca, Si and SA. The results showed that Ca, Si and SA addition ameliorated the inhibition in canola growth, water content (WC), and improved siliqua number, siliqua weight and seed index. The B content in shoots and roots and total B accumulation in the whole plant were increased in control plants under B-toxicity-stress, and these parameters were significantly decreased by addition of Ca, Si and SA. The shoot ascorbate pool (ascorbate, AsA, and dehydroascorbate, DHA), α-tocopherol and phenolics (free and bound) were increased under B toxicity, and were significantly decreased in most cases by addition of Ca, Si and SA, except α-tocopherol, which increased at low B levels (0, 25 and 50 mg kg soil -1 ). The glutathione content did not obviously change by B stress, while added Ca, Si and SA inhibited its accumulation under B stress. In addition, B toxicity reduced the shoot flavonoids content; however, this reduction was not alleviated by the use of Ca, Si and SA treatments. It could be concluded that growth and yield of canola plants grown under high B concentration improved after external application of Ca, Si or SA.

  14. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  15. Thermal Stress and Toxicity | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral temperatures of —22 °C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress tan nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable

  16. Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E.; Carlton, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10 5 y) is produced in the fission of 235 U and 239 Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for 99 Tc as 2 x 10 8 Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data were found on the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, 99 Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for 99 Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of 99 Tc and Na 99 TcO 4 are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and 99 Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels

  17. An index of financial safety of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Jia

    2015-04-01

    indexes rose, which indicates the external environment improved so did China’s financial safety status; from 2012 to 2013 indexes declined because due to the rapid development of banks’ financial products and trust products, banks’ off-balance-sheet assets and liquidity risks increased. The changes of financial safety indexes are generally identical with those of China’s financial safety status.Research limitations/implications: In the empirical analysis part, this article tries to selective 24 indicators synthetic index of China's financial security, but due to some of the indicators data acquisition is relatively difficult, can only Selective 10 of 25 indicators and gather the annual data of 10 indicators from 2003 to 2013 to synthetic index. The information of eliminated indicators cannot be reflected in the index. Index change also does not reflect of the risk from these indicators. In order to make up for the above limitations, this paper is mainly to introduce and analysis our latest financial institutions business trends associated with these eliminated indicators to get the conclusions more reliable.Originality/value: The aim of this research is to estimate financial safety of China with the application of the index of financial safety of a country using the annual data of 2003-2013. Through synthetic index of financial security measure the risks of China's financial system, provide the basis for the government macro financial policy. The Originality of the paper is mainly manifested in incorporating factors which have made important impacts on China’s financial safety in recent years, but have not been taken into consideration in the existing studies into the newly constructed financial safety index system. For example, some factors that cannot be controlled easily might have huge hidden risk hazards. To be more specific, factors such as off-balance-sheet business, interbank business and shadow banking might trigger liquidity risks. In this way, the

  18. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  19. A prospective study of ocular toxicity in patients receiving ethambutol as a part of directly observed treatment strategy therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: India is among the largest countries to implement the revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP. This program provides intermittent regimens to the patients, where the doses of isoniazid and ethambutol are more as compared to the daily regimen, which is a cause of concern, particularly with regard to the ocular toxicity of ethambutol. The present study was undertaken to explore the ocular toxicity in the patients registered under the program. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective single center cohort study of 64 patients of categories I and II, coming to the RNTCP-Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS center at a tertiary care referral hospital. The detailed history, best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, and color vision test were carried out in all patients at the start of treatment and then at the first and second month of treatment. Results: Loss in visual acuity from the baseline was noted at the second month follow up in 12 (9.4% eyes (P = 0.001, visual field defects were seen in eight (6.3% eyes (P = 0.0412, and optic disc abnormalities were observed in six (4.7% (P = 0.013 eyes. Color vision abnormalities were noted in 16 (12.6% eyes (P = 0.003, four eyes showed impairment in red-green color perception, and the others showed impairment in blue-yellow color perception as well. Patients with ocular symptoms were advised to stop ethambutol and they showed improvement in visual acuity after follow up of one to two months. The overall outcome of treatment was not affected by discontinuation of ethambutol in these patients. Conclusion: Ethambutol when taken according to program could cause ocular toxicity. The early recognition of ocular symptoms is important to prevent unnecessary delay in diagnosis and probable irreversible visual loss.

  20. Determination of Reliability Index and Weibull Modulus as a Measure of Hypereutectic Silumins Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the study describes the methods used to determine Weibull modulus and the related reliability index of hypereutectic silumins containing about 17% Si, assigned for manufacture of high-duty castings to be used in automotive applications and aviation. The second part of the study discusses the importance of chemical composition, including the additions of 3% Cu, 1,5% Ni and 1,5% Mg, while in the third part attention was focussed on the effect of process history, including mould type (sand or metal as well as the inoculation process and heat treatment (solutioning and ageing applied to the cast AlSi17Cu3Mg1,5Ni1,5 alloy, on the run of Weibull distribution function and reliability index calculated for the tensile strength Rm of the investigated alloys.

  1. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of toxic trace elements in the Xi River, an urban river of Shenyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.

  2. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  3. Proton Therapy for Spinal Ependymomas: Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Grosshans, David R., E-mail: dgrossha@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances; Zhu, Ron; Wages, Cody; Crawford, Cody N.; Palmer, Matthew; De Gracia, Beth; Woo Shiao; Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report acute toxicities and preliminary outcomes for pediatric patients with ependymomas of the spine treated with proton beam therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Eight pediatric patients received proton beam irradiation between October 2006 and September 2010 for spinal ependymomas. Toxicity data were collected weekly during radiation therapy and all follow-up visits. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: All patients had surgical resection of the tumor before irradiation (7 subtotal resection and 1 gross total resection). Six patients had World Health Organization Grade I ependymomas, and two had World Health Organization Grade II ependymomas. Patients had up to 3 surgical interventions before radiation therapy (range, 1-3; median, 1). Three patients received proton therapy after recurrence and five as part of their primary management. The entire vertebral body was treated in all but 2 patients. The mean radiation dose was 51.1 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45 to 54 cobalt gray equivalents). With a mean follow-up of 26 months from the radiation therapy start date (range, 7-51 months), local control, event-free survival, and overall survival rates were all 100%. The most common toxicities during treatment were Grade 1 or 2 erythema (75%) and Grade 1 fatigue (38%). No patients had a Grade 3 or higher adverse event. Proton therapy dramatically reduced dose to all normal tissues anterior to the vertebral bodies in comparison to photon therapy. Conclusion: Preliminary outcomes show the expected control rates with favorable acute toxicity profiles. Proton beam therapy offers a powerful treatment option in the pediatric population, where adverse events related to radiation exposure are of concern. Extended follow-up will be required to assess for late recurrences and long-term adverse effects.

  4. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  5. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  6. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  7. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  8. Comparison of toxicity of class-based organic chemicals to algae and fish based on discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Wen, Yang; Wang, Xiao H; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity data to fish and algae were used to investigate excess toxicity between species. Results show that chemicals exhibiting excess toxicity to fish also show excess toxicity to algae for most of the compounds. This indicates that they share the same mode of action between species. Similar relationships between logKOW and toxicities to fish and algae for baseline and less inert compounds suggest that they have similar critical body residues in the two species. Differences in excess toxicity for some compounds suggest that there is a difference of physiological structure and metabolism between fish and algae. Some reactive compounds (e.g. polyamines) exhibit greater toxic effects for algae than those for fish because of relatively low bio-uptake potential of these hydrophilic compounds in fish as compared with that in algae. Esters exhibiting greater toxicity in fish than that in algae indicate that metabolism can affect the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level. Algae growth inhibition is a very good surrogate for fish lethality. This is not only because overall toxicity sensitivity to algae is greater than that to fish, but also the excess toxicity calculated from algal toxicity can better reflect reactivity of compounds with target molecules than fish toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from various sources and implications for ameliorative effects on metal toxicity to aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A.; Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott, E-mail: ssmith@wlu.camailto [Department of Chemistry, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM), expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC in mg C L{sup -1}), is an ubiquitous complexing agent in natural waters, and is now recognized as an important factor mitigating waterborne metal toxicity. However, the magnitude of the protective effect, judged by toxicity measures (e.g. LC50), varies substantially among different NOM sources even for similar DOC concentrations, implying a potential role of NOM physicochemical properties or quality of NOM. This review summarizes some key quality parameters for NOM samples, obtained by reverse osmosis, and by using correlation analyses, investigates their contribution to ameliorating metal toxicity towards aquatic biota. At comparable and environmentally realistic DOC levels, molecular spectroscopic characteristics (specific absorbance coefficient, SAC, and fluorescence index, FI) as well as concentrations of fluorescent fractions obtained from mathematical mixture resolution techniques (PARAFAC), explain considerable variability in the protective effects. NOM quality clearly influences the toxicity of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). NOM quality may also influence the toxicity of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg), but as yet insufficient data are available to unequivocally support the latter correlations between toxicity reduction and NOM quality predictors. Cu binding capacities, protein-to-carbohydrate ratio, and lipophilicity, show insignificant correlation to the amelioration offered by NOMs, but these conclusions are based on data for Norwegian NOMs with very narrow ranges for the latter two parameters. Certainly, various NOMs alleviate metal toxicity differentially and therefore their quality measures should be considered in addition to their quantity.

  10. Comparative Cytogenetic Study on the Toxicity of Magnetite and Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Sunflower Root Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Capraru, Gabriela; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    In this experimental study the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of Helianthus annuus cultivated in the presence of different volume fractions of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, ranging between 20 and 100 microl/l. The aqueous magnetic colloids were prepared from chemically co-precipitated ferrites coated in sodium oleate. Tissue samples from the root meristeme of 2-3 day old germinated seeds were taken to prepare microscope slides following Squash method combined with Fuelgen techniques. Microscope investigation (cytogenetic tests) has resulted in the evaluation of mitotic index and chromosomal aberration index that appeared diminished and respectively increased following the addition of magnetic nanoparticles in the culture medium of the young seedlings. Zinc ferrite toxic influence appeared to be higher than that of magnetite, according to both cytogenetic parameters.

  11. Discriminating modes of toxic action in mice using toxicity in BALB/c mouse fibroblast (3T3) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Lichen; Zheng, Shanshan; Wang, Yue; Wang, Xiaohong; Fan, Lingyun; Li, Chao; Zhao, Yuanhui; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether toxicity in mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells) could predict toxicity in mice. Synthesized data on toxicity was subjected to regression analysis and it was observed that relationship of toxicities between mice and 3T3 cells was not strong (R 2  = 0.41). Inclusion of molecular descriptors (e.g. ionization, pKa) improved the regression to R 2  = 0.56, indicating that this relationship is influenced by kinetic processes of chemicals or specific toxic mechanisms associated to the compounds. However, to determine if we were able to discriminate modes of action (MOAs) in mice using the toxicities generated from 3T3 cells, compounds were first classified into "baseline" and "reactive" guided by the toxic ratio (TR) for each compound in mice. Sequence, binomial and recursive partitioning analyses provided strong predictions of MOAs in mice based upon toxicities in 3T3 cells. The correct classification of MOAs based on these methods was 86%. Nearly all the baseline compounds predicted from toxicities in 3T3 cells were identified as baseline compounds from the TR in mice. The incorrect assignment of MOAs for some compounds is hypothesized to be due to experimental uncertainty that exists in toxicity assays for both mice and 3T3 cells. Conversely, lack of assignment can also arise because some reactive compounds have MOAs that are different in mice compared to 3T3 cells. The methods developed here are novel and contribute to efforts to reduce animal numbers in toxicity tests that are used to evaluate risks associated with organic pollutants in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of water column and sediment toxicity from an abandoned uranium mine using a battery of bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Figueiredo, D.R. de; Marques, S.M.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium mining activities in Cunha Baixa, Mangualde (Portugal), were extensive between 1967 and 1993, with high production of poor ore. Ore exploitation left millions of tons of tailings in the surrounding area, close to human houses. Contamination of the area (water and soil compartment) presently represents a serious hazard to humans and wildlife. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of water and sediments from a pond that floods a uranium mine pit, in two periods (spring and autumn). High contents of metals were found in water samples (chiefly Mn, Fe, Al, U, Sr). A battery of assays was applied to screen the acute toxicity of the different compartments using algae, crustaceans and dipterans. Results showed that the sediments were non-toxic, unlike the superficial water. Water toxicity was higher in the autumn, when the effluent was more acidic, compared to spring. In the water toxicity assays, the relative sensitivity of the test species used was Daphnia longispina > Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata > Daphnia magna. The present study is part of the chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of the aquatic compartment performed in the Tier 1 of the Ecological Risk Assessment of the Cunha Baixa mining area

  13. The e-index, complementing the h-index for excess citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The h-index has already been used by major citation databases to evaluate the academic performance of individual scientists. Although effective and simple, the h-index suffers from some drawbacks that limit its use in accurately and fairly comparing the scientific output of different researchers. These drawbacks include information loss and low resolution: the former refers to the fact that in addition to h(2 citations for papers in the h-core, excess citations are completely ignored, whereas the latter means that it is common for a group of researchers to have an identical h-index. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve these problems, I here propose the e-index, where e(2 represents the ignored excess citations, in addition to the h(2 citations for h-core papers. Citation information can be completely depicted by using the h-index together with the e-index, which are independent of each other. Some other h-type indices, such as a and R, are h-dependent, have information redundancy with h, and therefore, when used together with h, mask the real differences in excess citations of different researchers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although simple, the e-index is a necessary h-index complement, especially for evaluating highly cited scientists or for precisely comparing the scientific output of a group of scientists having an identical h-index.

  14. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, which contains iodine compound, has a tendency to accumulate in some organs including the lungs. This is age, drug dosage and therapy duration dependent. Case Outline. We present a case of a 73-year-old man, a smoker, who was admitted as emergency case due to severe dyspnea, tachypnea with signs of cyanosis and respiratory insufficiency. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse pulmonary shadows in the middle and upper parts of the lungs, similar to those in tuberculosis. His illness history showed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation which has been treated with amiodarone for six years. Sputum smears were negative for mycobacteria, and by the diagnostic elimination method for specific, non-specific and malignant disease the diagnosis of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity was made. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and pathohistological findings of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia confirmed the diagnosis. As the first therapeutic approach, amiodarone therapy was stopped. Then, systemic therapy with methylprednisolone 21 (sodium succinate 40 mg i.v. daily during the first two weeks was initiated and continued with daily dose of methylprednisolone 30 mg orally during the next three months. The patient showed a marked subjective improvement during the first week, which was followed by the improvement of respiratory function and withdrawal of pulmonary changes with complete radiographic and CT resolution after eight months. Conclusion. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity should be taken into consideration, especially in elderly patients with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary changes, even if only a low dose of amiodarone is administred over a longer time period.

  15. Meta-analysis of toxicity and teratogenicity of 133 chemicals from zebrafish developmental toxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrafish developmental toxicity testing is an emerging field, which faces considerable challenges regarding data meta-analysis and the establishment of standardized test protocols. Here, we present an initial correlation study on toxicity of 133 chemicals based on data in the li...

  16. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Nabeel Hyder, Sayed; Wagner, Kyle T.; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Man Au, Kin; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy.

  17. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  18. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  19. Utility of pediatric cariogenicity index among preschoolers of the western part of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Pancholi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is a multifactorial infectious disease occurring on one or more decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in a child from birth to 6 years of age. ECC results from the interaction of behavioral and biological factors including fermentable carbohydrate, plaque, and dietary patterns. Diet is a major modifiable risk factor in the initiation of ECC. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of pediatric cariogenicity index among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sample size of 400 preschool children of Satara district, western Maharashtra. Data regarding the diet were obtained from caregivers and cariogenicity indices were used to score dietary data using a food frequency questionnaire. The 24 h dietary recall was taken. Preschool children were subjected to type 3 dental examinations. Solid and liquid cariogenicity scores were assessed by Statistical analysis - SPSS v 17.0. Results: The mean deft was 1.44 (±1.20 for the subjects. Similarly, according to the calculation using 24 h recall, mean solid cariogenicity score was 2.3 (±0.9 and mean liquid cariogenicity score 4.37 (±1.5. The correlation between deft and the solid cariogenicity score was not significant (r = −0.074. The correlation between deft and liquid cariogenicity scores was significant and positive (r = 0.671. Conclusions: There was definite positive correlation of liquid cariogenic food intake with the ECC experience among the preschool children of western part of Maharashtra.

  20. Monitoring and Management of Toxicities of Novel B Cell Signaling Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Joanna; Mato, Anthony; Sharman, Jeff P

    2018-04-11

    B cell signaling agents, including ibrutinib, idelalisib, and the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax have become an integral part of therapy for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The toxicity profiles of these medications is distinct from chemoimmunotherapy. Here, we will review the mechanism of action of these drugs, their efficacy, and toxicity management. Ibrutinib use is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation and bleeding which can be managed using dose interruptions and modifications. Patients on idelalisib require close clinical and frequent laboratory monitoring, particularly of liver function tests to ensure there are no serious adverse events. Monitoring for infections is important in patients on both idelalisib and ibrutinib. Venetoclax requires close clinical and laboratory monitoring to prevent significant tumor lysis. Targeted B cell receptor therapies each have unique side effect profiles which require careful clinical monitoring. As we continue to use these therapies, optimal management strategies will continue to be elucidated.

  1. Bilayered container << stone-concrete >> to store toxic materials and radioactive waste.; Dvukhslojnyj kontejner << kamen` - beton >> dlya khraneniya toksichnykh materialov i radioaktivnykh otkhodov.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagin, V V; Koltunov, B G; Kurylo, D A; Kosyak, A T; Izotov, Yu L [Dnepropetrovskij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A design of a universal container providing for the storage of toxic and radioactive waste with the hydrogen index from 2 to 12 pH has been developed. The construction is based on the lining of stone casting with high density and corrosion-resistance indices ensuring leak-proofness and operation reliability of the container under long terms of storage of agressive materials.

  2. Studies on the toxicity of RSU-1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, G.F.; Gulyas, S.

    1986-01-01

    RSU-1069 combines an aziridine function with a 2-nitroimidazole and has been reported to exhibit extraordinary radiosensitization both in vitro and in vivo. Such sensitization appears to be at variance with the electron affinity of the compound. In addition, recent experiments suggest that the compound is highly toxic to hypoxic tumor cells in vivo. On the assumption that the observed radiosensitizing ability may be a manifestation of toxicity and because of the high in vivo toxicity, we have investigated aerobic and hypoxic toxicity, both in wild type CHO cells and in mutants sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents. With wild type cells under aerobic conditions, the compound is approximately 50 times as toxic as misonidazole and under hypoxic conditions, approximately 250 times as toxic. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity is approximately 80 times. Under aerobic conditions, repair-deficient mutants are 10 times as sensitive to RSU-1069 as wild type cells and approximately 100 times as sensitive under hypoxic conditions. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity for the mutant cells is approximately 900. Based on these observations, we suggest that under aerobic conditions the aziridine function is primarily responsible for toxicity, whereas, under hypoxic conditions, the aziridine moiety combined with a reduced 2-nitroimidazole moiety produces a bifunctional agent

  3. Correlations between quality indexes of chest compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ling; Yan, Li; Huang, Su-Fang; Bai, Xiang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a kind of emergency treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest, and chest compression is the most important and necessary part of CPR. The American Heart Association published the new Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care in 2010 and demanded for better performance of chest compression practice, especially in compression depth and rate. The current study was to explore the relationship of quality indexes of chest compression and to identify the key points in chest compression training and practice. Totally 219 healthcare workers accepted chest compression training by using Laerdal ACLS advanced life support resuscitation model. The quality indexes of chest compression, including compression hands placement, compression rate, compression depth, and chest wall recoil as well as self-reported fatigue time were monitored by the Laerdal Computer Skills and Reporting System. The quality of chest compression was related to the gender of the compressor. The indexes in males, including self-reported fatigue time, the accuracy of compression depth and the compression rate, the accuracy of compression rate, were higher than those in females. However, the accuracy of chest recoil was higher in females than in males. The quality indexes of chest compression were correlated with each other. The self-reported fatigue time was related to all the indexes except the compression rate. It is necessary to offer CPR training courses regularly. In clinical practice, it might be better to change the practitioner before fatigue, especially for females or weak practitioners. In training projects, more attention should be paid to the control of compression rate, in order to delay the fatigue, guarantee enough compression depth and improve the quality of chest compression.

  4. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in toxic multinodular goiter share activating thyrotropin receptor mutations with solitary toxic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A; Agretti, P; Fiore, E; Cetani, F; Rocchi, R; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Vitti, P

    1998-02-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter is a cause of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and is believed to differ in its nature and pathogenesis from toxic adenoma. Gain-of-function mutations of the TSH receptor gene have been identified as a cause of toxic adenoma. The pathogenesis at the molecular level of hyperfunctioning nodules in toxic multinodular goiter has yet not been reported. Six patients with a single hot nodule within a multinodular goiter and 11 patients with toxic thyroid adenoma were enrolled in our study. At histology five hyperfunctioning nodules in multinodular goiters showed the features of adenomas, and one was identified as a hyperplastic nodule. The entire exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Functional studies of mutated receptors were performed in COS-7 cells. Five out of 6 (83%) hyperfunctioning nodules within toxic multinodular goiters harbored a TSH receptor mutation. A TSH receptor mutation was also evident in the hyperfunctioning nodule that at histology had the features of noncapsulated hyperplastic nodule. Among toxic adenomas, 8 out of 11 (72%) nodules harbored a TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations were heterozygotic and somatic. Nonfunctioning nodules, whether adenomas or hyperplastic nodules present in association with hyperfunctioning nodules in the same multinodular goiters, had no TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations identified had constitutive activity as assessed by cAMP production after expression in COS-7 cells. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in multinodular goiters recognize the same pathogenetic event (TSH receptor mutation) as toxic adenoma. Other mechanisms are implicated in the growth of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules coexistent in the same gland.

  5. Fluoroacetate-mediated toxicity of fluorinated ethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D A; Roe, D C; Lieder, P H

    1996-04-01

    A series of 1-(di)halo-2-fluoroethanes reported in the literature to be nontoxic or of low toxicity were found to be highly toxic by the inhalation route. Experiments were performed that showed the compounds, 1,2-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,2-difluoroethane, and 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane to be highly toxic to rats upon inhalation for 4 hr. All four compounds had 4-hr approximate lethal concentrations of difluoroethane (commonly referred to as HFC-152a) has very low acute toxicity with a 4-hr LC50 of > 400,000 ppm in rats. Rats exposed to the selected toxic fluoroethanes showed clinical signs of fluoroacetate toxicity (lethargy, hunched posture, convulsions). 1,2-Difluoroethane, 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,2-difluoroethane, and 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane were shown to increase concentrations of citrate in serum and heart tissue, a hallmark of fluoroacetate intoxication. 19F NMR analysis confirmed that fluoroacetate was present in the urine of rats exposed to each toxic compound. Fluorocitrate, a condensation product of fluoroacetate and oxaloacetate, was identified in the kidney of rats exposed to 1,2-difluoroethane. There was a concentration-related elevation of serum and heart citrate in rats exposed to 0-1000 ppm 1,2-fluoroethane. Serum citrate was increased up to 5-fold and heart citrate was increased up to 11-fold over control citrate levels. Metabolism of 1,2-difluoroethane by cytochrome P450 (most likely CYP2E1) is suspected because pretreatment of rats or mice with SKF-525F, disulfiram, or dimethyl sulfoxide prevented or delayed the toxicity observed in rats not pretreated. Experimental evidence indicates that the metabolism of the toxic fluoroethanes is initiated at the carbon-hydrogen bond, with metabolism to fluoroacetate via an aldehyde or an acyl fluoride. The results of these studies show that 1-(di)halo-2-fluoroethanes are highly toxic to rats and should be considered a hazard to humans unless demonstrated otherwise.

  6. Ecological effects of ionizing radiation and other toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation and other various toxic agents on aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors investigated effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, acidification, aluminum, manganese, nickel, copper and gadolinium on the microcosm, i.e., the experimental model ecosystem consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Eseherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of toxic agents in the microcosm were not only direct effects but also community-level effects due to interactions among the constituting species or between organisms and toxic agents. In general, the degrees of effects observed in the microcosm could be categorized as follows: no effects; recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. These results were analyzed by the ecological effect index (EEI), in which differences in the cell densities between exposed and control microcosm were represented by the Euclidean distance function. A 50% effect doses for the microcosm (ED M50 ), at which the EEI became 50%, were evaluated to be 530 Gy for γ-rays, 2100 J m -2 for UV, 4100 μM for manganese, 45 μM for nickel, 110 μM for copper and 250 μM for gadolinium. (author)

  7. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteri

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Ecotoxicity studies: is toxicity reduced? (Testing on daphnids, fish and human cell lines) Resulting impacts on cyanotoxins (Toxin conformation changes, ELISA detection) Competition assays against toxic cyanobacteria (Can Bacillus etc. outcompete...

  8. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela S Inácio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants--nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin, zwitterionic (DDPS, anionic (SDS, and cationic (C(nTAB (n = 10 to 16, C(12PB, and C(12BZK--were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C(12PB and C(12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C(12PB and C(12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. CONCLUSIONS

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  10. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)