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Sample records for toxicology workplace testing

  1. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Choosing the right laboratory: a review of clinical and forensic toxicology services for urine drug testing in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy.

  3. Recent developments in analytical toxicology : for better or for worse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, RA

    1998-01-01

    When considering the state of the art in toxicology from an analytical perspective, the key developments relate to three major areas. (1) Forensic horizon: Today forensic analysis has broadened its scope dramatically, to include workplace toxicology, drug abuse testing, drugs and driving, doping,

  4. Leak testing. Environment and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)

  5. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, Jorma; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul

    2005-01-01

    RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalisation of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures

  6. [Continuous challenges in Japanese forensic toxicology practice: strategy to address specific goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageura, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the status quo of forensic toxicology in Japan and the West is surveyed and a strategy to address future goals of Japanese forensic toxicology is proposed. Forensic toxicology in the West consists of three main areas--post-mortem forensic toxicology, human-performance forensic toxicology and forensic urine drug testing. In Japan, post-mortem forensic toxicology is practiced in university forensic medicine departments while most of the human-performance forensic toxicology is carried out in police laboratories. However, at least at present, strictly controlled workplace urine drug testing is not being performed, despite the abuse of drugs even by uniformed members of the National Defence Forces and police. For several years, the author has been introducing Western forensic toxicology guidelines and recommendations, translated into Japanese with the help of Western forensic toxicologists, to Japanese forensic toxicologists. Western forensic toxicology practice is at an advanced stage, whereas Japanese practice is in a critical condition and holds many problems awaiting solution, as exemplified by the urine drug testing in police laboratories. There is never any sample left for re-examination by the defence in all cases, though the initial volume of the urine sample available for examination is 30-50 ml. Only one organisation carries out everything from sampling to reporting and, in addition, the parent drug and its metabolites are not quantified. It is clear that the police laboratories do not work within good laboratory practice guidelines, nor do they have quality manuals or standard operating procedures manuals. A basic change in Japanese forensic toxicology practice is now essential. The author strongly recommends that, first of all, Japanese toxicologists should prepare forensic toxicology guidelines based on the Western models. The guidelines would progress the following objectives for forensic toxicology laboratories: 1) to have documented good

  7. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  8. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has ...

  9. Urine specimen validity test for drug abuse testing in workplace and court settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  11. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hair: a complementary source of bioanalytical information in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Queiroz, João António

    2011-01-01

    Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing.

  13. Guidelines for European workplace drug testing in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moore, Christine; George, Claire; Pichini, Simona

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decade, oral fluid has established itself as a robust testing matrix for monitoring drug use or misuse. Commercially available collection devices provide opportunities to collect and test oral fluid by the roadside and near-patient testing with both clinical and criminal justice applications. One of the main advantages of oral fluid relates to the collection of the matrix which is non-invasive, simple, and can be carried out under direct observation making it ideal for workplace drug testing. Laboratories offering legally defensible oral fluid workplace drug testing must adhere to national and international quality standards (ISO/IEC 17025); however, these standards do not address issues specific to oral fluid testing. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) recognizes the importance of providing best practice guidelines to organizations offering testing and those choosing to use oral fluid drug testing to test their employees. The aim of this paper is to present the EWDTS guidelines for oral fluid workplace drug testing. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  15. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... time for related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs and will... related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs, including HHS... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing...

  16. Animal models of toxicology testing: the role of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Swindle, Marvin Michael

    2013-02-01

    In regulatory toxicological testing, both a rodent and non-rodent species are required. Historically, dogs and non-human primates (NHP) have been the species of choice of the non-rodent portion of testing. The pig is an appropriate option for these tests based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. This review focuses on the Phase I and Phase II biotransformation pathways in humans and pigs and highlights the similarities and differences of these models. This is a growing field and references are sparse. Numerous breeds of pigs are discussed along with specific breed differences in these enzymes that are known. While much available data are presented, it is grossly incomplete and sometimes contradictory based on methods used. There is no ideal species to use in toxicology. The use of dogs and NHP in xenobiotic testing continues to be the norm. Pigs present a viable and perhaps more reliable model of non-rodent testing.

  17. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  18. An investigation of normal urine with a creatinine concentration under the cutoff of 20 mg/dL for specimen validity testing in a toxicology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Brad; Guice, Erica A

    2014-05-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories, one commonly used method for urine specimen validity testing is creatinine concentration. In this study, workplace guidelines are examined to determine their relevance to forensic and clinical toxicology samples. Specifically, it investigates the occurrence of urine creatinine concentrations under 20 mg/dL and notes potential issues with factors influencing creatinine concentration by utilizing a simple, novel method consisting of cation-paring high-pressure liquid chromatography in tandem with ultraviolet detection to determine the creatinine concentration in 3019 donors. Of the 4227 sample population in this study, 209 (4.94%) were below the cutoff value of 20 mg/dL for dilute urine. Because there are many factors that can influence the urinary creatinine concentration, samples that have creatinine under the 20 mg/dL cutoff do not always implicate sample adulteration. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  20. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-05-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low.

  1. Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake.

  2. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  3. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug... the Federal workplace drug testing program but also pointed out that ``* * * the Department of.... Executive Order 12866 and Regulatory Flexibility Act This Interim Final Rule is not significant for purposes...

  4. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program must...

  5. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  6. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    Toxicologic analysis is an integral part of death investigation, and the use or abuse of an unsuspected substance belongs in the differential diagnosis of patients who have a sudden, unexpected change in their condition. History and physical findings may alter suspicion that intoxication played a role in a patient's decline or death, but suspicions cannot be confirmed and is performed, analysis unless toxicologic no toxicologic analysis is possible unless someone collects the proper specimens necessary for analysis. In a hospital autopsy the only specimens that can rightfully be collected are those within the restrictions stated in the autopsy permit. Autopsies performed by the medical examiner do not have these restrictions. Sometimes the importance of toxicologic testing in a case is not evident until days or weeks after the change in the patient's status, thus retaining the appropriate specimens until investigation of that case has ended is important. Proper interpretation of toxicologic findings requires integrating the clinical setting and findings with the toxicologic results in a way that makes medical sense. If called upon to testify concerning findings, answer the questions truthfully, politely, and in a way that is understandable to someone who has no special training in toxicology.

  7. Workplace drug testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, A G; Pierce, A

    2001-09-15

    Not much information is available on workplace drug testing (WDT) in Europe. There is no specific legislation and there are no generally accepted guidelines. Many companies establish a drug policy with little or no provisions for drug testing. Often, testing is performed on-site by occupational physicians, with little or no quality control, no systematic confirmation of positives, no chain of custody and no adulteration testing. In some parts of Europe, e.g. in the United Kingdom and some Scandinavian countries, WDT is increasing in importance, but it is not as widespread as in USA. The most frequently performed tests are amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and alcohol. The percentage of positives is variable, but seems to decrease with the years following the introduction of WDT. Cannabis is the drug that is most frequently found.Recently, the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) was founded, with the aims to ensure that WDT in Europe is performed to a defined quality standard and in a legally secured way and to provide an independent forum for all aspects of WDT.A working group in the United Kingdom has recently finalised the United Kingdom laboratory guidelines for legally defensible WDT and discussions are under way with the EWDTS to establish common guidelines. Many efforts will be needed to establish WDT as an accepted part of a company policy on drugs: establishing and maintaining the confidence in the results of the laboratory, establishing the legal status of WDT, preserving the privacy and rights of the employees, proving the cost-effectiveness of WDT in a European context, finding a balance between strict guidelines and enough flexibility to tailor testing to the changing needs. It is hoped that the exchange of experience between different countries will contribute to reaching these goals.

  8. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., 2011. DATES: This rule is effective July 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues... Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING...

  9. Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d 15, Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic, 3,4 -Dinitropyrazole (DNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Assay 1 0.259 0.278 Assay 2 0.299 6.3 CD54 and CD86 expression in response to DNP exposure of THP -1 cells Three independent tests were...2 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15, April 2016 Toxicology Directorate Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic 3,4...report. 17-05-2016 Technical Report March 2016-April 2016 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15 Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel

  10. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator is...

  11. Development and Pilot Test of the Workplace Readiness Questionnaire, a Theory-Based Instrument to Measure Small Workplaces' Readiness to Implement Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Helfrich, Christian D; Chan, K Gary; Allen, Claire L; Hammerback, Kristen; Kohn, Marlana J; Parrish, Amanda T; Weiner, Bryan J; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    To develop a theory-based questionnaire to assess readiness for change in small workplaces adopting wellness programs. In developing our scale, we first tested items via "think-aloud" interviews. We tested the revised items in a cross-sectional quantitative telephone survey. The study setting comprised small workplaces (20-250 employees) in low-wage industries. Decision-makers representing small workplaces in King County, Washington (think-aloud interviews, n = 9), and the United States (telephone survey, n = 201) served as study subjects. We generated items for each construct in Weiner's theory of organizational readiness for change. We also measured workplace characteristics and current implementation of workplace wellness programs. We assessed reliability by coefficient alpha for each of the readiness questionnaire subscales. We tested the association of all subscales with employers' current implementation of wellness policies, programs, and communications, and conducted a path analysis to test the associations in the theory of organizational readiness to change. Each of the readiness subscales exhibited acceptable internal reliability (coefficient alpha range, .75-.88) and was positively associated with wellness program implementation ( p < .05). The path analysis was consistent with the theory of organizational readiness to change, except change efficacy did not predict change-related effort. We developed a new questionnaire to assess small workplaces' readiness to adopt and implement evidence-based wellness programs. Our findings also provide empirical validation of Weiner's theory of readiness for change.

  12. Workplace analysis and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Bosquet, Ph.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Menetrier, F.; Feuardent, J.; Maccia, C.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Donnarieix, D.; Garrigou, A.; Gauthereau, V.; Truchi, F.; Chardin, J.; Debouck, F.; Clairand, I.; Amabile, J.Ch.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Roussille, F.; Witschger, O.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Rannou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

  13. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  14. The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing behaviour. ... The findings point to the importance of providing workers with an opportunity to openly discuss HIV testing thus allowing mitigation of HIV stigma and discrimination and permitting HIV testing to become socially sanctioned and seen as part of a ...

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on research needs in toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-05-01

    A workshop on the theme 'Research Needs in Toxicology' was held at the Chalk River laboratories in November 1987. A program in toxicological protection aims to develop a fundamental and unified understanding of the behaviour of toxic agents in the environment and workplace, and of the consequent effects on human health. This understanding is necessary so that risks from such agents can be assessed quantitatively and realistically. These assessments, together with consideration of economic and social factors, provide a sound basis for decisions made to safeguard health. Where are the gaps in our current knowledge and ability to make such assessments? What research is needed? In these workshop proceedings, a number of eminent toxicologists from Canada and the U.S.A. discuss these questions

  16. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information Regarding Specific Issues Related to the Use of the Oral Fluid Specimen for Drug Testing AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental... may be applied to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (oral fluid...

  17. Fossil fuel toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A program is described for the investigation of the toxicology of coal-derived effluents that will utilize a battery of cellular and mammalian test systems and end points to evaluate the toxicological effects of acute, sub-acute, and long-term, low-level exposure to gaseous and particulate effluents from combustion of coal, with special emphasis on fluidized bed combustion

  18. Toxicology: a discipline in need of academic anchoring--the point of view of the German Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, U; Barth, H; Bürkle, A; Degen, G H; Landsiedel, R

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the importance of toxicology as a discipline, its past achievements, current scientific challenges, and future development. Toxicological expertise is instrumental in the reduction of human health risks arising from chemicals and drugs. Toxicological assessment is needed to evaluate evidence and arguments, whether or not there is a scientific base for concern. The immense success already achieved by toxicological work is exemplified by reduced pollution of air, soil, water, and safer working places. Predominantly predictive toxicological testing is derived from the findings to assess risks to humans and the environment. Assessment of the adversity of molecular effects (including epigenetic effects), the effects of mixtures, and integration of exposure and biokinetics into in vitro testing are emerging challenges for toxicology. Toxicology is a translational science with its base in fundamental science. Academic institutions play an essential part by providing scientific innovation and education of young scientists.

  19. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour. Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize. Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation. Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff. Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279. Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the

  20. Development, implementation and management of a drug testing program in the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    To combat the rising use of drugs in the workplace many American companies have implemented drug testing programs and are testing employees and job applicants for use of illegal drugs. In addition, on September 15, 1986, Executive Order No.12564 was issued by President Reagan, which requires all federal agencies to develop programs and policies, one of the goals of which is to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Included in this Executive Order is the requirement that federal agencies implement drug testing has become a prevalent practice as a means to detect and deter drug use in the workplace. Before a drug testing program is implemented, it is imperative that policies and procedures are developed that (1) ensure the accuracy of test results, (2) protect the validity and integrity of the specimen, (3) guarantee due process, and (4) maintain confidentiality. To make certain that these prerequisites were met in the government drug testing programs, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was directed to develop technical and scientific guidelines for conducting such programs. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Racial/ethnic differences in report of drug testing practices at the workplace level in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William C; Meghani, Salimah; Tetrault, Jeanette M; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether racial/ethnic differences in report of workplace drug testing persist when analyzed within and across various occupations. We sought to examine the association between worker demographics, workplace characteristics, and report of employment in a workplace that performs drug testing. We performed a cross-sectional study of the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health examining the relationship between race/ethnicity and report of workplace drug testing among employed, white, black, or Hispanic respondents ≥18 years old. In logistic regression analysis, we adjusted for demographic, occupational, and other relevant variables and performed stratified analyses among three specific occupations. Among 69,163 respondents, 48.2% reported employment in a workplace that performs drug testing. On multivariable analysis, younger age, male sex, black race, income greater than $20,000, completion of high school and non-urban residence were associated with report of drug testing at one's workplace among the full sample as were non-white collar occupation, work in medium or large workplace, and absence of other substance abuse/dependence. In stratified analyses, black race was associated with report of workplace level drug testing among executive/administrative/managerial/financial workers and technicians/related support occupations; Hispanic ethnicity was associated with the outcome among technicians/related support occupations. Racial/ethnic differences in report of workplace drug testing exist within and across various occupations. These differences have important public health implications deserving further study. Increased report of drug testing where racial/ethnic minorities work highlights the potential bias that can be introduced when drug testing policies are not implemented in a universal fashion. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Agenda of behavioral toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B

    1978-01-01

    The author describes behavioral toxicology as a new discipline and contrasts it to the fields of physics and pharmacology. Several questions are raised and discussed concerning the field of behavioral toxicology. Some of these questions are: (1) how is an adverse behavioral effect recognized; (2) how can the non-specific be specified; (3) are standardized test batteries feasible. The problem of chronic intake is discussed as well as drawing information from other related disciplines such as neurochemistry, neuropathology and neurophysiology. The author concludes with several statements concerning new directions in the discipline of behavioral toxicology.

  4. Do we have the training? The ethics of workplace drug testing and the GP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan; Thornett, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    Workplace drug testing has been in place in Australia since the early 1990s. In some industries it is required by legislation, while in others, employers have introduced it as an apparent cost effective way of improving productivity, safety and the health of its workforce while reducing absenteeism, accident rates and even deaths. There are national standards in place for workplace drug testing regarding specimen collection and testing, and well documented processes to follow in establishing a drug screening program within a workforce. This article explores the ethics of workplace drug testing and questions the assumed rights and obligations of employer, employee and the clinician involved in occupational medicine. It is questionable whether most general practitioners have the appropriate training to deal with these ethical issues comprehensively.

  5. The inhalation toxicology of p-aramid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic of lung disease caused by asbestos has cast suspicion on any industrial fibrous material that can become airborne in respirable form in workplaces, such that the respirable fibres might be inhaled. Fibre toxicology arose as a sub-specialty of particle toxicology to address the specialised nature of fibre effects and has evolved substantially in the last 25 years. It has yielded valuable information on the dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, and mechanism involved in toxicological effects of a range of fibrous materials, including asbestos, other naturally occurring fibrous materials, and synthetic vitreous fibres. A robust structure/activity paradigm has emerged from this research that highlights fibre length, thinness, and biopersistence as major factors in determining the pathogenicity of a fibre. p-Aramid is a manufactured fibre composed of synthetic polyamide (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) manufactured on a commercial scale since 1970 by polymerisation and spinning steps. It is used as an advanced composite and in fabrics, body armour, friction materials, etc. Respirable fibrils of p-aramid can be released from the fibres during working and can become airborne. A considerable body of research has been carried out into the hazard posed by inhaled p-aramid fibrils, and this review considers this body of literature and summarises the state-of-the-science in the toxicology of p-aramid fibrils in the light of the existing overarching fibre toxicology paradigm. The peer-reviewed studies demonstrate that p-aramid fibrils can be long and thin but that the fibrils are not biopersistent. Residence in the milieu of the lungs leads to fibre shortening, allowing efficient and complete phagocytosis and effective clearance. Subsequently the p-aramid hazard is low, and this is confirmed in animal studies. The mechanism of shortening of p-aramid fibrils is not well-understood, but may involve the action of macrophages on the fibrils following

  6. The FAA's postmortem forensic toxicology self-evaluated proficiency test program: the second seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Cardona, Patrick S; Rogers, Paul B; Canfield, Dennis V

    2009-05-01

    During toxicological evaluations of samples from fatally injured pilots involved in civil aviation accidents, a high degree of quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) is maintained. Under this philosophy, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a forensic toxicology proficiency-testing (PT) program in July 1991. In continuation of the first seven years of the PT findings reported earlier, PT findings of the next seven years are summarized herein. Twenty-eight survey samples (12 urine, 9 blood, and 7 tissue homogenate) with/without alcohols/volatiles, drugs, and/or putrefactive amine(s) were submitted to an average of 31 laboratories, of which an average of 25 participants returned their results. Analytes in survey samples were correctly identified and quantitated by a large number of participants, but some false positives of concern were reported. It is anticipated that the FAA's PT program will continue to serve the forensic toxicology community through this important part of the QC/QA for laboratory accreditations.

  7. A test of safety, violence prevention, and civility climate domain-specific relationships with relevant workplace hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazica, Michele W; Spector, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Safety climate, violence prevention climate, and civility climate were independently developed and linked to domain-specific workplace hazards, although all three were designed to promote the physical and psychological safety of workers. To test domain specificity between conceptually related workplace climates and relevant workplace hazards. Data were collected from 368 persons employed in various industries and descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. Correlational and relative weights analyses were used to test for domain specificity. The three climate domains were similarly predictive of most workplace hazards, regardless of domain specificity. This study suggests that the three climate domains share a common higher order construct that may predict relevant workplace hazards better than any of the scales alone.

  8. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest. Responses should ideally be translated into tissue-, organ-, and organism-level effects. It must be economical and scalable. Using a High Throughput Transcriptomics platform within US EPA provides broader coverage of biological activity space and toxicological MOAs and helps fill the toxicological data gap. Slide presentation at the 2016 ToxForum on using High Throughput Transcriptomics at US EPA for broader coverage biological activity space and toxicological MOAs.

  9. Testing for drug and alcohol аbuse at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kavrakovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace represents a great risk to employee’s health and safety. More than 50% of the employees worldwide are related to easily accessible drug abuse, while 70% of the employees are related to alcohol abuse in the workplace. Tests for detecting drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace should be part of a new regulation, compulsory for all employees in the Republic of Macedonia. Implementing this sort of testing program should at the same time be a step towards devising particular solutions that shall bring about greater safety in the working environment. A key element in the implementation is to devise and establish an adequate policy that shall determine the risk factors within a working establishment which shall clearly express its position regarding drug and alcohol abuse during working hours. Along with the risk factors, the policy may also include the program for testing both, employees and the ones who are about to be employed, for drug and alcohol abuse. In order to implement this sort of test, it must be in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (Official gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No 92/07, 2007 and a legal framework has to be defined, that shall regulate and solve numerous aspects of this issue, in order to fully implement the program for drug free working environment pursuant to the Declaration and the decrees of the United Nations General Assembly in 1998.

  10. Titanium dioxide: inhalation toxicology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hext, Paul M; Tomenson, John A; Thompson, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications and is normally considered to be toxicologically inert. Findings of tumours in the lungs of rats exposed chronically to high concentrations of TiO(2), but not in similarly exposed mice or hamsters, suggest that the tumorigenic response may be a rat-specific phenomenon but nonetheless raises concerns for potential human health effects. With the limited toxicological understanding of species differences in response to inhaled TiO(2) and a similarly limited amount of epidemiological information with respect to TiO(2) exposure in the workplace, a consortium of TiO(2) manufacturers in Europe (under the European Chemistry Industry Council; CEFIC) and in North America (under the American Chemistry Council; ACC) initiated a programme of research to investigate inter-species differences as a result of exposure to TiO(2) and to conduct detailed epidemiological surveys of the major manufacturing sites. The toxicology studies exposed rats, mice and hamsters to pigment-grade TiO(2) (PG-TiO(2), 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg m(-3)) or ultrafine TiO(2) (UF-TiO(2), 0, 0.5, 2 and 10 mg m(-3)) for 90 days and the lung burdens and tissue responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure period and for up to 1 year after exposure. Results demonstrated clear species differences. Rats and mice had similar lung burdens and clearance rates while hamsters showed high clearance rates. At high lung particle burdens, rats showed a marked progression of histopathological lesions throughout the post-exposure period while mice and hamsters showed minimal initial lesions with recovery apparent during the post-exposure period. Lung neutrophil responses, a sensitive marker of inflammatory changes, reflected the development or recovery of the histopathological lesions. The use of surface area rather than gravimetric lung burden provided closer correlates of the burden to the biological effect

  11. 40 CFR 161.340 - Toxicology data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicology data requirements. 161.340... Toxicology data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements and the substance to be tested. Kind of data required (b) Notes...

  12. Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) - Opportunities to better use existing data and guide future testing in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The topic of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) has attracted considerable attention, and not only because it is supposed to be a central element of REACH, the ambitious European chemical regulation effort. Although what ITSs are supposed to do seems unambiguous, i.e. speeding up hazard and risk assessment while reducing testing costs, not much has been said, except basic conceptual proposals, about the methodologies that would allow execution of these concepts. Although a pressing concern, the topic of ITS has drawn mostly general reviews, broad concepts, and the expression of a clear need for more research on ITS. Published research in the field remains scarce. Solutions for ITS design emerge slowly, most likely due to the methodological challenges of the task, and perhaps also to it its complexity and the need for multidisciplinary collaboration. Along with the challenge, ITS offer a unique opportunity to contribute to the Toxicology of the 21st century by providing frameworks and tools to actually implement 21st century toxicology data in the chemical management and decision making processes. Further, ITS have the potential to significantly contribute to a modernization of the science of risk assessment. Therefore, to advance ITS research we propose a methodical approach to their design and will discuss currently available approaches as well as challenges to overcome. To this end, we define a framework for ITS that will inform toxicological decisions in a systematic, transparent, and consistent way. We review conceptual requirements for ITS developed earlier and present a roadmap to an operational framework that should be probabilistic, hypothesis-driven, and adaptive. Furthermore, we define properties an ITS should have in order to meet the identified requirements and differentiate them from evidence synthesis. Making use of an ITS for skin sensitization, we demonstrate how the proposed ITS concepts can be implemented.

  13. Hostility, job attitudes, and workplace deviance: test of a multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Scott, Brent A; Ilies, Remus

    2006-01-01

    The authors tested a model, inspired by affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & R. Cropanzano, 1996), that examines the dynamic nature of emotions at work, work attitudes, and workplace deviance. Sixty-four employees completed daily surveys over 3 weeks, reporting their mood, job satisfaction, perceived interpersonal treatment, and deviance. Supervisors and significant others also evaluated employees' workplace deviance and trait hostility, respectively. Over half of the total variance in workplace deviance was within-individual, and this intraindividual variance was predicted by momentary hostility, interpersonal justice, and job satisfaction. Moreover, trait hostility moderated the interpersonal justice-state hostility relation such that perceived injustice was more strongly related to state hostility for individuals high in trait hostility. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Toxicological awakenings: the rebirth of hormesis as a central pillar of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses historical reasons that may account for the marginalization of hormesis as a dose-response model in the biomedical sciences in general and toxicology in particular. The most significant and enduring explanatory factors are the early and close association of the concept of hormesis with the highly controversial medical practice of homeopathy and the difficulty in assessing hormesis with high-dose testing protocols which have dominated the discipline of toxicology, especially regulatory toxicology. The long-standing and intensely acrimonious conflict between homeopathy and 'traditional' medicine (allopathy) lead to the exclusion of the hormesis concept from a vast array of medical- and public health-related activities including research, teaching, grant funding, publishing, professional societal meetings, and regulatory initiatives of governmental agencies and their advisory bodies. Recent publications indicate that the hormetic dose-response is far more common and fundamental than the dose-response models [threshold/linear no threshold (LNT)] used in toxicology and risk assessment, and by governmental regulatory agencies in the establishment of exposure standards for workers and the general public. Acceptance of the possibility of hormesis has the potential to profoundly affect the practice of toxicology and risk assessment, especially with respect to carcinogen assessment

  15. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  16. Development and psychometric testing of the Nursing Workplace Relational Environment Scale (NWRES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddle, Maree; Boughton, Maureen

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Workplace Relational Environment Scale (NWRES). A positive relational environment in the workplace is characterised by a sense of connectedness and belonging, support and cooperation among colleagues, open communication and effectively managed conflict. A poor relational environment in the workplace may contribute to job dissatisfaction and early turnover of staff. Quantitative survey. A three-stage process was used to design and test the NWRES. In Stage 1, an extensive literature review was conducted on professional working relationships and the nursing work environment. Three key concepts; collegiality, workplace conflict and job satisfaction were identified and defined. In Stage 2, a pool of items was developed from the dimensions of each concept and formulated into a 35-item scale which was piloted on a convenience sample of 31 nurses. In Stage 3, the newly refined 28-item scale was administered randomly to a convenience sample of 150 nurses. Psychometric testing was conducted to establish the construct validity and reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 22-item scale. The factor analysis indicated a four-factor structure: collegial behaviours, relational atmosphere, outcomes of conflict and job satisfaction which explained 68.12% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the NWRES was 0.872 and the subscales ranged from 0.781-0.927. The results of the study confirm the reliability and validity of the NWRES. Replication of this study with a larger sample is indicated to determine relationships among the subscales. The results of this study have implications for health managers in terms of understanding the impact of the relational environment of the workplace on job satisfaction and retention.

  17. A practice analysis of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carol S; Weis, Christopher P; Caro, Carla M; Roe, Amy

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, the American Board of Toxicology (ABT), with collaboration from the Society of Toxicology (SOT), in consultation with Professional Examination Service, performed a practice analysis study of the knowledge required for general toxicology. The purpose of this study is to help assure that the examination and requirements for attainment of Diplomate status are relevant to modern toxicology and based upon an empirical foundation of knowledge. A profile of the domains and tasks used in toxicology practice was developed by subject-matter experts representing a broad range of experiences and perspectives. An on-line survey of toxicologists, including Diplomates of the ABT and SOT members, confirmed the delineation. Results of the study can be used to improve understanding of toxicology practice, to better serve all toxicologists, and to present the role of toxicologists to those outside the profession. Survey results may also be used by the ABT Board of Directors to develop test specifications for the certifying examination and will be useful for evaluating and updating the content of professional preparation, development, and continuing education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of online toxicology training on health professionals: the Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Dawson, Andrew H; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP), supported by the American College of Medical Toxicology, links countries with and without toxicology services via distance education with the aim to improve education. Due to the lack of toxicology services in some countries there is a knowledge gap in the management of poisonings. We describe our experience with the worldwide delivery of an online introductory toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and other health professionals treating poisoned patients. We delivered a 15-module introductory Internet-based toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and health professionals, conducted from August to December 2016. This Internet-based curriculum was adapted from one used to teach emergency residents toxicology in the United States. Modules covered themes such as pharmaceutical (n = 8), toxidromes (n = 2) and agrochemicals (n = 5) poisoning. Participants completed pre-test and post-test multiple choice questions (MCQs) before and after completing the online module, respectively, throughout the course. We collected information on participant demographics, education and training, and perception of relevance of the curriculum. Participants gave feedback on the course and how it affected their practice. One hundred and thirty-six health professionals from 33 countries participated in the course: 98 emergency doctors/medical officers, 25 physicians, eight pharmacists/poisons information specialists, two toxicologists, two medical students and one nurse. Median age of participants was 34 years. Median number of years postgraduate was seven. Ninety (65%) had access to either a poisons information centre over the phone or toxicologist and 48 (35%) did not. All participants expected the course to help improve their knowledge. Overall median pre-module MCQ scores were 56% (95%CI: 38, 75%) compared to post-module MCQ scores median 89% (95% CI: 67, 100%) (p education to health professionals treating

  19. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Employee assistance programs, drug testing, and workplace injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Miller, Ted R; Hendrie, Delia; Galvin, Deborah M

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of employee assistance programs (EAPs) on occupational injuries. Multivariate regressions probed a unique data set that linked establishment information about workplace anti-drug programs in 1988 with occupational injury rates for 1405 establishments. EAPs were associated with a significant reduction in both no-lost-work and lost-work injuries, especially in the manufacturing and transportation, communication and public utilities industries (TCPU). Lost-work injuries were more responsive to specific EAP characteristics, with lower rates associated with EAPs staffed by company employees (most likely onsite). Telephone hotline services were associated with reduced rates of lost-work injuries in manufacturing and TCPU. Drug testing was associated with reductions in the rate of minor injuries with no lost work, but had no significant relationship with lost-work injuries. This associational study suggests that EAPs, especially ones that are company-staffed and ones that include telephone hotlines, may prevent workplace injuries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent of...

  2. Handbook of safety assessment of nanomaterials from toxicological testing to personalized medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeel, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    "The Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: From Toxicological Testing to Personalized Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of nanotoxicology and is a unique resource that fills up many knowledge gaps in the toxicity issue of nanomaterials in medical applications. The book is distinguished by up-to-date insights into creating a science-based framework for safety assessment of nanomedicines." -Prof. Yuliang Zhao, National Center for Nanosciences and Technology, China.

  3. [The challenges of the ethics of personalism to clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusiło, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The fields of philosophical anthropology and the ethics of personalism overlap in the area of many difficult personal situations involving clinical toxicology. These therapeutic situations need an integral, multidimensional, and personal approach for both the patient and the toxicologist. This means that man is treated not only as a physical (biological) being but also there is an appreciation for the mental sphere, which includes rational, emotional, and spiritual elements while not forgetting that the human person is also part of the human community. Studying such an individual's personal decision as suicide, we must realize that it's not just physiological or biochemical poisons but also includes the poisoning of the psyche, as well as poisoning relationships with loved ones (family), poisoning social relations (in school or the workplace) and poisoning the spirit, in other words, there is no meaning in life itself, nor the meaning of God's existence, nor the meaning of faith, hope and love. Not only is there a greater "variety of poisons" than before, they are much more extensive and deep. For example, we can name environmental pollution, industrial poisons, chemical waste, genetic modification, powerful medications, or even the toxic social environment of evil ideas, malicious manipulation of the human mind (destructive religious sects). In approaching the challenges of clinical toxicology, the doctor must not only be a specialist in chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology. What then is of future of toxicology because of this human dimension (anthropological, ethical and spiritual) of this teaching? As today marks the occasion of the 45th anniversary of the Clinic of Toxicology CM UJ, should we shape the ethos of young doctors who want to deal with toxicology seriously?

  4. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... required method. However, in response to comments requesting additional flexibility in testing methods, the... may increase flexibility and lower costs for employers who choose to use them over more expensive...

  5. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  7. Toxicology elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work studies the different aspects of the modern toxicology: toxico-kinetic, biological, medico legal, food, professional, pharmaceuticals, environmental, social and regulatory. It is divided in three parts that consider the principle problems of general toxicology and analytical toxicology. (N.C.)

  8. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  9. Cornerstones of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A Wallace; Dixon, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    The 35th Annual Society of Toxicologic Pathology Symposium, held in June 2016 in San Diego, California, focused on "The Basis and Relevance of Variation in Toxicologic Responses." In order to review the basic tenants of toxicology, a "broad brush" interactive talk that gave an overview of the Cornerstones of Toxicology was presented. The presentation focused on the historical milestones and perspectives of toxicology and through many scientific graphs, data, and real-life examples covered the three basic principles of toxicology that can be summarized, as dose matters (as does timing), people differ, and things change (related to metabolism and biotransformation).

  10. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  11. Has Toxicity Testing Moved into the 21st Century? A Survey and Analysis of Perceptions in the Field of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Parodi, Daniela; Telesca, Donatello; Doherty, Joseph; Malloy, Timothy; Allard, Patrick

    2017-08-30

    Ten years ago, leaders in the field of toxicology called for a transformation of the discipline and a shift from primarily relying on traditional animal testing to incorporating advances in biotechnology and predictive methodologies into alternative testing strategies (ATS). Governmental agencies and academic and industry partners initiated programs to support such a transformation, but a decade later, the outcomes of these efforts are not well understood. We aimed to assess the use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers to their adoption by toxicologists and by others working in, or closely linked with, the field of toxicology. We surveyed 1,381 toxicologists and experts in associated fields regarding the viability and use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers of ATS for a range of applications. We performed ranking, hierarchical clustering, and correlation analyses of the survey data. Many respondents indicated that they were already using ATS, or believed that ATS were already viable approaches, for toxicological assessment of one or more end points in their primary area of interest or concern (26-86%, depending on the specific ATS/application pair). However, the proportions of respondents reporting use of ATS in the previous 12 mo were smaller (4.5-41%). Concern about regulatory acceptance was the most commonly cited factor inhibiting the adoption of ATS, and a variety of technical concerns were also cited as significant barriers to ATS viability. The factors most often cited as playing a significant role (currently or in the future) in driving the adoption of ATS were the need for expedited toxicology information, the need for reduced toxicity testing costs, demand by regulatory agencies, and ethical or moral concerns. Our findings indicate that the transformation of the field of toxicology is partly implemented, but significant barriers to acceptance and adoption remain. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1435.

  12. DarT: The embryo test with the Zebrafish Danio rerio--a general model in ecotoxicology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The acute fish test is an animal test whose ecotoxicological relevance is worthy of discussion. The primary aim of protection in ecotoxicology is the population and not the individual. Furthermore the concentration of pollutants in the environment is normally not in the lethal range. Therefore the acute fish test covers solely the situation after chemical spills. Nevertheless, acute fish toxicity data still belong to the base set used for the assessment of chemicals. The embryo test with the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) is recommended as a substitute for the acute fish test. For validation an international laboratory comparison test was carried out. A summary of the results is presented in this paper. Based on the promising results of testing chemicals and waste water the test design was validated by the DIN-working group "7.6 Fischei-Test". A normed test guideline for testing waste water with fish is available. The test duration is short (48 h) and within the test different toxicological endpoints can be examined. Endpoints from the embryo test are suitable for QSAR-studies. Besides the use in ecotoxicology the introduction as a toxicological model was investigated. Disturbance of pigmentation and effects on the frequency of heart-beat were examined. A further important application is testing of teratogenic chemicals. Based on the results DarT could be a screening test within preclinical studies.

  13. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams (“big data”), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity. PMID:28362102

  14. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; FitzGerald, Rex E; Jennings, Paul; Mirams, Gary R; Peitsch, Manuel C; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Shah, Imran; Wilks, Martin F; Sturla, Shana J

    2017-04-17

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams ("big data"), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity.

  15. Perceived Physical Availability of Alcohol at Work and Workplace Alcohol Use and Impairment: Testing a Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and two dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  16. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for 'statistical significance' is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena

  17. Personality Testing and Workplace Training: Exploring Stakeholders, Products and Purpose in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Henriette; Kroon, Brigitte; Poell, Rob F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that inquire about the role of external and internal stakeholders, the value of psychometric and practical considerations in test selection, and the purpose of personality test use…

  18. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey... of Federal Regulations, as follows: [[Page 26184

  19. The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Baasner-Weihs, Friederike

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to understand how lottery incentives influenced the HIV counselling and testing (HCT) behaviour and behaviour intention of shop-floor workers who participated in a workplace HCT campaign initiative in two companies in the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality, South Africa. A post-test only quasi-experimental approach was used. The data were first collected, using a self-administered cross-sectional survey instrument, among the control group (n = 88) followed by the experimental group (n = 110) after the advent of HIV testing and lotteries was announced. HIV testing behaviour data were collected on the days of the HIV testing events. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as guiding theory. Principal component analysis (PCA), t- and chi-square tests, and logistic regression were conducted to analyse the data. A significant increase in the mean scores of the experimental as compared to the control condition for the subjective norm's construct (t = -3.55, p < 0.001) and HIV testing behaviour intention (χ 2 = 12.35, p < 0.001) was measured following the announcement of lottery incentives. The constructs of TPB explained 40% of the variance in HCT behaviour intention (R 2 = 0.40). The strongest predictor of behaviour intention was the subjective norm (B = 0.435 and p < 0.001), followed by the attitudinal component (B = 0.323 and p = 0.040). The announcement of lotteries made shop-floor workers develop a stronger intention to participate in workplace HIV testing through anticipation of stronger social support and encouragement. It was not possible to link behaviour intention to behaviour due to missing data. The findings point to the importance of providing workers with an opportunity to openly discuss HIV testing thus allowing mitigation of HIV stigma and discrimination and permitting HIV testing to become socially sanctioned and seen as part of a collective effort.

  20. Personality testing and workplace training : Exploring stakeholders, products and purpose in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundgren, H.; Kroon, B.; Poell, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that inquire about the role of external and internal stakeholders, the value of psychometric and practical considerations in test

  1. Toxicological perspectives of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Amanda J; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2014-07-01

    The human respiratory system is an important route for the entry of inhaled therapeutics into the body to treat diseases. Inhaled materials may consist of gases, vapours, aerosols and particulates. In all cases, assessing the toxicological effect of inhaled therapeutics has many challenges. This article provides an overview of in vivo and in vitro models for testing the toxicity of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles implemented in drug delivery. Traditionally, inhalation toxicity has been performed on test animals to identify the median lethal concentration of airborne materials. Later maximum tolerable concentration denoted by LC0 has been introduced as a more ethically acceptable end point. More recently, in vitro methods have been developed, allowing the direct exposure of airborne material to cultured human target cells on permeable porous membranes at the air-liquid interface. Modifications of current inhalation therapies, new pulmonary medications for respiratory diseases and implementation of the respiratory tract for systemic drug delivery are providing new challenges when conducting well-designed inhalation toxicology studies. In particular, the area of nanoparticles and nanocarriers is of critical toxicological concern. There is a need to develop toxicological test models, which characterise the toxic response and cellular interaction between inhaled particles and the respiratory system.

  2. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  3. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...

  4. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  5. Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  6. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  7. Workplace analysis and radiation protection; L'etudes de poste et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B.; Bosquet, Ph.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Menetrier, F.; Feuardent, J.; Maccia, C.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Donnarieix, D.; Garrigou, A.; Gauthereau, V.; Truchi, F.; Chardin, J.; Debouck, F.; Clairand, I.; Amabile, J.Ch.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Roussille, F.; Witschger, O.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Rannou, A.

    2010-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

  8. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted.

  9. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... of small entities, for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. The Department makes these... necessary for the Department to conduct a regulatory evaluation or Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for this...

  10. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress...... pigs and humans suggest that minipigs will be useful for the testing of biotechnology products (and possibly for in silico toxicology) and (iii) the minipig is the only non-rodent toxicology model where transgenic animals can be readily generated, and reproductive technologies are well developed...... in the pig. These properties should also make the minipig an interesting model for the testing of biotechnology products. These factors all support the idea that the minipig is well placed to meet the challenges of the emerging technologies and the toxicology of the future; it also seems likely...

  12. Blood transcriptomics: applications in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pius; Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The number of new chemicals that are being synthesized each year has been steadily increasing. While chemicals are of immense benefit to mankind, many of them have a significant negative impact, primarily owing to their inherent chemistry and toxicity, on the environment as well as human health. In addition to chemical exposures, human exposures to numerous non-chemical toxic agents take place in the environment and workplace. Given that human exposure to toxic agents is often unavoidable and many of these agents are found to have detrimental human health effects, it is important to develop strategies to prevent the adverse health effects associated with toxic exposures. Early detection of adverse health effects as well as a clear understanding of the mechanisms, especially at the molecular level, underlying these effects are key elements in preventing the adverse health effects associated with human exposure to toxic agents. Recent developments in genomics, especially transcriptomics, have prompted investigations into this important area of toxicology. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated the potential application of blood gene expression profiling as a sensitive, mechanistically relevant and practical surrogate approach for the early detection of adverse health effects associated with exposure to toxic agents. The advantages of blood gene expression profiling as a surrogate approach to detect early target organ toxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity are illustrated and discussed using recent studies on hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity. Furthermore, the important challenges this emerging field in toxicology faces are presented in this review article. PMID:23456664

  13. Towards improved behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Acclimation and observation times are important factors when designing behavioural tests with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Petit, Marie A; Duvignacq, Marion C; Sumpter, John P

    2017-08-01

    The quality and reproducibility of science has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms spanning disciplines. In aquatic toxicology, behavioural tests are currently an area of controversy since inconsistent findings have been highlighted and attributed to poor quality science. The problem likely relates to limitations to our understanding of basic behavioural patterns, which can influence our ability to design statistically robust experiments yielding ecologically relevant data. The present study takes a first step towards understanding baseline behaviours in fish, including how basic choices in experimental design might influence behavioural outcomes and interpretations in aquatic toxicology. Specifically, we explored how fish acclimate to behavioural arenas and how different lengths of observation time impact estimates of basic swimming parameters (i.e., average, maximum and angular velocity). We performed a semi-quantitative literature review to place our findings in the context of the published literature describing behavioural tests with fish. Our results demonstrate that fish fundamentally change their swimming behaviour over time, and that acclimation and observational timeframes may therefore have implications for influencing both the ecological relevance and statistical robustness of behavioural toxicity tests. Our review identified 165 studies describing behavioural responses in fish exposed to various stressors, and revealed that the majority of publications documenting fish behavioural responses report extremely brief acclimation times and observational durations, which helps explain inconsistencies identified across studies. We recommend that researchers applying behavioural tests with fish, and other species, apply a similar framework to better understand baseline behaviours and the implications of design choices for influencing study outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... IFR to mitigate this conflict between the DOT rules and what we view as beneficial State laws by.... It merely eliminated a conflict that would have precluded parties from complying with certain State...

  15. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  16. Evaluating Workplace Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Don

    The Workplace Project (WPP) at Alpena Community College, in Michigan, uses a range of assessment instruments to measure learner performance in workplace classes. The Test of Adult Basic Education is administered at the beginning of the course to establish a baseline standardized test score, and again at the end of course to measure gains. Also,…

  17. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  18. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations...) * * * (2) * * * (i) Positive, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s). (ii) Positive-dilute, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for...

  19. Incentives for HIV testing at the workplace in the auto motive industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... Globally, 90% of people living with HIV are in the most productive period of their lives, ... influence employees' HIV workplace testing behaviour. In all four ... eligible to win gift cards of considerable value (first prize R2 000, ... support and encouragement from partners, friends and colleagues. Therefore ...

  20. Genetic testing in the workplace: the employer's coin toss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Samantha

    2002-09-05

    A toss of the coin by the modern-day employer reveals two options regarding genetic testing in the workplace. The employer may choose to take advantage of increasingly precise, available, and affordable genetic testing in order to ascertain the genetic characteristics--and deficiencies--of its employees. This outcome exposes the employer to a vast array of potential litigation and liability relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fourth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and state legislation designed to protect genetic privacy. Alternatively, the employer may neglect to indulge in this trend of genetic testing and may face liability for employer negligence, violations of federal legislation such as OSHA regulations, and increased costs associated with insuring the health of genetically endangered employees. In the rapidly developing universe of genetic intelligence, the employer is faced with a staggering dilemma.

  1. Current status and prospects of the toxicological assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacchiarotti, Francesca; Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Leter, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Nano toxicology is a branch of experimental toxicology dealing with identification and characterization of the harmful biological effects of engineered nanomaterials. The physico-chemical properties of these materials affect their biological level interactions. From the first generation of experimental studies it showed the need for adaptation to nanomaterials methodologies and toxicological evaluation of current strategies. Special challenges are presented by the variety of materials to be tested, from the definition of relevant dose quantities, by the standardization of the preparation and characterization of the nanomaterial in the biological sample matrices, by techniques for the determination of the biodistribution in the body. 'Omics' technologies are now an innovative tool for toxicological approach based on understanding the mechanisms of action, which will allow the most advanced laboratories to implement high-performance screening test. [it

  2. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to TOXNET Your resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases SEARCH ... over 3,000 chemicals (1991-1998) Environmental Health & Toxicology Resources on environmental health and toxicology Visit Site ...

  3. Applying computerized adaptive testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch analysis of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-02-17

    Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than -4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision.

  4. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of...

  5. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Neft, R.E.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Bradley, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is to conduct basic and applied research to improve the understanding of the nature and magnitude of the human health impacts of inhaling airborne materials in the home, workplace, and general environment. Institute research programs have a strong basic science orientation with emphasis on the nature and behavior of airborne materials, the fundamental biology of the respiratory tract, the fate of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they cause disease, and the means by which data produced in the laboratory can be used to estimate risks to human health. Disorders of the respiratory tract continue to be a major health concern, and inhaled toxicants are thought to contribute substantially to respiratory morbidity. As the largest laboratory dedicated to the study of basic inhalation toxicology, ITRI provides a national resource of specialized facilities, personnel, and educational activities serving the needs of government, academia, and industry. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, D.E.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Neft, R.E.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Bradley, P.L. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is to conduct basic and applied research to improve the understanding of the nature and magnitude of the human health impacts of inhaling airborne materials in the home, workplace, and general environment. Institute research programs have a strong basic science orientation with emphasis on the nature and behavior of airborne materials, the fundamental biology of the respiratory tract, the fate of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they cause disease, and the means by which data produced in the laboratory can be used to estimate risks to human health. Disorders of the respiratory tract continue to be a major health concern, and inhaled toxicants are thought to contribute substantially to respiratory morbidity. As the largest laboratory dedicated to the study of basic inhalation toxicology, ITRI provides a national resource of specialized facilities, personnel, and educational activities serving the needs of government, academia, and industry. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Worker, workplace, and community/environmental risk factors for workplace violence in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Pekar, Bunnany; Byczkowski, Terri L; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2017-03-04

    Workplace violence committed by patients and visitors has high propensity to occur against emergency department employees. This article reports the association of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors with violence risks. A cross-sectional research design was used with 280 employees from six emergency departments in the Midwest United States. Respondents completed the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff and a 10-item demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, Chi-square tests, and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Over 80% of respondents experienced at least one type of workplace violence with their current employer and approximately 40% experienced all three types. Risks for workplace violence were significantly higher for registered nurses and hospital-based emergency departments. Workplace violence can impact all employees in the emergency department regardless of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors.

  8. Critical issues in psychological test use in the South African workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Paterson; Koos Uys

    2005-01-01

    Various factors in South African workplaces, ranging from unemployment and equity considerations to rapid occupational change driven by technological inputs, have placed greater emphasis on effective selection and development of human resources. This leads to greater demands on psychological assessment in the organizational setting with respect to ensuring responsible, ethical and equitable assessment. The study aims to investigate the extent and purposes of psychological test usage, the infl...

  9. Accelerating the Development of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome of a Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L.; Barrow, Craig; Andersen, Melvin E.; Boekelheide, Kim; Carmichael, Paul L.; Holsapple, Michael P.; Lafranconi, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st century” calls for a fundamental shift in the way that chemicals are tested for human health effects and evaluated in risk assessments. The new approach would move toward in vitro methods, typically using human cells in a high-throughput context. The in vitro methods would be designed to detect significant perturbations to “toxicity pathways,” i.e., key biological pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed, lead to adverse health outcomes. To explore progress on the report’s implementation, the Human Toxicology Project Consortium hosted a workshop on 9–10 November 2010 in Washington, DC. The Consortium is a coalition of several corporations, a research institute, and a non-governmental organization dedicated to accelerating the implementation of 21st-century Toxicology as aligned with the NRC vision. The goal of the workshop was to identify practical and scientific ways to accelerate implementation of the NRC vision. The workshop format consisted of plenary presentations, breakout group discussions, and concluding commentaries. The program faculty was drawn from industry, academia, government, and public interest organizations. Most presentations summarized ongoing efforts to modernize toxicology testing and approaches, each with some overlap with the NRC vision. In light of these efforts, the workshop identified recommendations for accelerating implementation of the NRC vision, including greater strategic coordination and planning across projects (facilitated by a steering group), the development of projects that test the proof of concept for implementation of the NRC vision, and greater outreach and communication across stakeholder communities. PMID:21948868

  10. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  11. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-09-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred thirteen endpoints were observed in those 30 papers, and most studies had sample size less than 10, with the median and the mode being 6 and 3 & 6, respectively. Mean (105/113, 93%) was dominantly used to measure central tendency, and standard error of the mean (64/113, 57%) and standard deviation (39/113, 34%) were used to measure dispersion, while few studies provide justifications regarding why the methods being selected. Inferential statistics were frequently conducted (93/113, 82%), with one-way ANOVA being most popular (52/93, 56%), yet few studies conducted either normality or equal variance test. These results suggest that more consistent and appropriate use of statistical method is necessary which may enhance the role of toxicology in public health.

  12. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  13. Metabonomics and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being an emerging field of "omics" research, metabonomics has been increasingly used in toxicological studies mostly because this technology has the ability to provide more detailed information to elucidate mechanism of toxicity. As an interdisciplinary field of science, metabonomics combines analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, statistics, and biochemistry. When applied to toxicology, metabonomics also includes aspects of patho-biochemistry, systems biology, and molecular diagnostics. During a toxicological study, the metabolic changes over time and dose after chemical treatment can be monitored. Therefore, the most important use of this emerging technology is the identification of signatures of toxicity-patterns of metabolic changes predictive of a hazard manifestation. This chapter summarizes the current state of metabonomics technology and its applications in various areas of toxicological studies.

  14. Toxicological Evaluation of Lactase Derived from Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300

  15. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Zou

    Full Text Available A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50 based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system.

  16. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2013-17919 Filed 7-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  17. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  18. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NTP? NTP develops and applies tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... depend on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, ...

  19. Comparative BioInformatics and Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reflecting the numerous changes in the field since the publication of the previous edition, this third edition of Developmental Toxicology focuses on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and incorporates current technologies for testing in the risk assessment process.

  20. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  2. Evidence-based toxicology for the 21st century: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Andersen, Melvin; Becker, Richard A; Betts, Kellyn; Boekelheide, Kim; Carney, Ed; Chapin, Robert; Devlin, Dennis; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Fowle, John R; Harlow, Patricia; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Holsapple, Michael; Jacobs, Abigail; Judson, Richard; Naidenko, Olga; Pastoor, Tim; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowan, Andrew; Scherer, Roberta; Shaikh, Rashid; Simon, Ted; Wolf, Douglas; Zurlo, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on "Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges" in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathway-based testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century" as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that effort forward. The workshop served to clarify evidence-based approaches and to provide food for thought on substantive and administrative activities for the EBTC. Priority activities include conducting pilot studies to demonstrate the value of evidence-based approaches to toxicology, as well as conducting educational outreach on these approaches.

  3. Mechanized toxicological serum tests in screening hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbach, J; Guder, W G

    1991-09-01

    A spectrum of quantitative and qualitative methods was adapted to the RA-1000/RA-XT selective analyser for the purpose of excluding or detecting common types of intoxication in the emergency laboratory of our primary care community hospital. Ethanol and salicylates (measured photometrically) and acetaminophen (measured immunologically by EMIT tox) were quantitatively analysed in serum. immunological group tests (EMIT tox) for barbiturates, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and related compounds were used for qualitative analysis. Well established clinical chemical methods (aspartarte aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, pseudocholinesterase, glucose and lactate) were applied to the serum samples using the same selective analyser. Within and between run precision, accuracy, recovery and detection ranges (linearity) fulfilled the recommendations of forefield toxicological analysis for all methods. Ethanol (g/l), measured photometrically with the RA-1000 analyser, agreed with the reference method (headspace gas-chromatography) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 (y = 0.06 + 0.98x). Acetaminophen and salicylates showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.94 and greater than 0.99, when compared with manual colorimetric procedures (acetaminophen (mg/l): y = -3.22 + 0.896x; salicylates (mg/l): y = -2.1 + 1x). Qualitative group tests for barbiturates, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants measured with the RA-1000 analyser were in good agreement with the EMIT single test procedure. The ranges of the quantitative methods allowed quantification of analytes from therapeutic (non-toxic) to very high levels in undiluted samples (ethanol 0.05 up to 4 g/l; salicylates 32 up to 1200 mg/l and acetaminophen 1.9 up to 200 mg/l). The low detection limits of the qualitative tests allowed the recognition of compounds in plasma that were present in low concentrations and/or displayed only minor reactivity with the antibodies

  4. A comprehensive toxicological evaluation of three adhesives using experimental cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Jerome, Ann M; Lilly, Patrick D; McKinney, Willie J; Oldham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Adhesives are used in several different manufacturing operations in the production of cigarettes. The use of new, "high-speed-manufacture" adhesives (e.g. vinyl acetate based) could affect the smoke chemistry and toxicology of cigarettes, compared with older "low-speed-manufacture" adhesives (e.g. starch based). This study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of different levels of three adhesives (ethylene vinyl acetate, polyvinyl acetate and starch) in experimental cigarettes results in different smoke chemistry and toxicological responses in in vitro and in vivo assays. A battery of tests (analytical chemistry, in vitro and in vivo assays) was used to compare the chemistry and toxicology of smoke from experimental cigarettes made with different combinations of the three adhesives. Varying levels of the different side-seam adhesives, as well as the transfer of adhesives from packaging materials, were tested. There were differences in some mainstream cigarette smoke constituents as a function of the level of adhesive added to experimental cigarettes and between the tested adhesives. None of these differences translated into statistically significant differences in the in vitro or in vivo assays. The use of newer "high-speed-manufacture" vinyl acetate-based adhesives in cigarettes does not produce toxicological profiles that prevent the adhesives from replacing the older "low-speed-manufacture" adhesives (such as starch).

  5. ACToR-AGGREGATED COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of the field of computational toxicology is to predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data. predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data

  6. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementation of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement): validation and regulatory acceptance considerations for alternative toxicological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, Leonard M

    2002-01-01

    Toxicological testing in the current regulatory environment is steeped in a history of using animals to answer questions about the safety of products to which humans are exposed. That history forms the basis for the testing strategies that have evolved to satisfy the needs of the regulatory bodies that render decisions that affect, for the most part, virtually all phases of premarket product development and evaluation and, to a lesser extent, postmarketing surveillance. Only relatively recently have the levels of awareness of, and responsiveness to, animal welfare issues reached current proportions. That paradigm shift, although sluggish, has nevertheless been progressive. New and alternative toxicological methods for hazard evaluation and risk assessment have now been adopted and are being viewed as a means to address those issues in a manner that considers humane treatment of animals yet maintains scientific credibility and preserves the goal of ensuring human safety. To facilitate this transition, regulatory agencies and regulated industry must work together toward improved approaches. They will need assurance that the methods will be reliable and the results comparable with, or better than, those derived from the current classical methods. That confidence will be a function of the scientific validation and resultant acceptance of any given method. In the United States, to fulfill this need, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and its operational center, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), have been constituted as prescribed in federal law. Under this mandate, ICCVAM has developed a process and established criteria for the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of new and alternative methods. The role of ICCVAM in the validation and acceptance process and the criteria instituted toward that end are described. Also

  8. Progress in computational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  10. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Incentives for HIV testing at the workplace in the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality: Ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive HIV and AIDS workplace programmes made use of substantial lottery incentives in HIV counselling and testing drives to promote HIV testing at four companies in the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality. The main aim was to use lottery incentives to increase uptake for HIV testing. This would help to define company HIV prevalence and ensure timely support, care and treatment of employees. In total, 1 324 employees, making up about 90% of the total staff, were tested for HIV in the four companies during wellness testing days. In order to gain an understanding of employees’ experiences of the lotteries as part of the HIV counselling and testing drive, quantitative data were collected among a total of 414 employees, and 17 interviews were conducted in the four companies. In this article, we investigate the issue of whether the lotteries unduly influenced the employees’ participation in workplace HIV testing, and an approach to resolving an identified ethical dilemma is presented. The ethical question as to whether lottery incentives contribute to undue coercion was explored using both a utilitarian and a deontological approach. The analysis concluded that the use of lotteries to encourage HIV testing in the workplaces of the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality can be deemed morally acceptable.

  12. Incentives for HIV testing at the workplace in the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality: Ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive HIV and AIDS workplace programmes made use of substantial lottery incentives in HIV counselling and testing drives to promote HIV testing at four companies in the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality. The main aim was to use lottery incentives to increase uptake for HIV testing. This would help to define company HIV prevalence and ensure timely support, care and treatment of employees. In total, 1 324 employees, making up about 90% of the total staff, were tested for HIV in the four companies during wellness testing days. In order to gain an understanding of employees’ experiences of the lotteries as part of the HIV counselling and testing drive, quantitative data were collected among a total of 414 employees, and 17 interviews were conducted in the four companies. In this article, we investigate the issue of whether the lotteries unduly influenced the employees’ participation in workplace HIV testing, and an approach to resolving an identified ethical dilemma is presented. The ethical question as to whether lottery incentives contribute to undue coercion was explored using both a utilitarian and a deontological approach. The analysis concluded that the use of lotteries to encourage HIV testing in the workplaces of the automotive industry in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality can be deemed morally acceptable.

  13. Nails in Forensic Toxicology: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Minutillo, Adele; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nails as a keratinized matrix to detect drugs or illicit substances has been increasingly used in forensic and clinical toxicology as a complementary test, especially for the specific characteristics of stably accumulating substances for long periods of time. This allows a retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse, monitoring continuous drug or pharmaceutical use, reveal in utero drug exposure or environmental exposures. We herein review the recent literature investigating drug incorporation mechanisms and drug detection in nails for forensic toxicological purposes. Mechanisms of drug incorporation have not yet been fully elucidated. However, some research has lately contributed to a better understanding of how substances are incorporated into nails, suggesting three potential mechanisms of drug incorporation: contamination from sweat, incorporation from nail bed and incorporation from germinal matrix. In addition, numerous methods dealing with the determination of drugs of abuse, medications and alcohol biomarkers in nails have been reported in studies over the years. The latter methods could find application in clinical and forensic toxicology. The studies herein reviewed point out how important it is to standardize and harmonize the methodologies (either pre-analytical or analytical) for nails analysis and the optimization of sampling as well as the development of proficiency testing programs and the determination of cut-off values. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  15. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  16. Information resources in toxicology--Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preziosi, Paolo; Dracos, Adriana; Marcello, Ida

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of current resources in the field of toxicology in Italy. The discussion will begin with a brief history of toxicology in this country, which includes the study of the toxicity of plants and other natural substances, and the birth of industrial and forensic toxicology. We will also provide information on research, education, and hazard control in the field of toxicology. Within this context we will examine the public bodies responsible for surveillance and regulatory activities, state-owned and private structures involved in toxicological research, and the educational programs and research activities of universities. Particular emphasis will be placed on the activities of the National Health Service, which plays an important role in areas such as clinical toxicology, food safety, and animal health, as well as those of national and regional agencies dedicated to the protection of the environment. The presentation will be organized as follows: - A Brief History of Toxicology in Italy; - Professional Societies; - National Health Service; - National Bodies; - Resources for the Environment; - Biomedical Websites; - Recent Publications; - Research Structures; - Graduate and Postgraduate Programs; - Legislation

  17. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  19. MicroRNAs and toxicology: A love marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schraml

    Full Text Available With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii rapid turnaround of the test result and iv most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of the ongoing physiologic processes in cells and tissues that package and release miRNAs into cell-free space. These characteristics have also established circulating miRNAs as promising biomarker candidates for toxicological studies, where they are used as biomarkers of drug-, or chemical-induced tissue injury for safety assessment. The tissue-specificity and early release of circulating miRNAs upon tissue injury, when damage is still reversible, are main factors for their clinical utility in toxicology. Here we summarize in brief, current knowledge of this field. Keywords: microRNAs, Biomarker, Toxicology, Minimal-invasive, DILI

  20. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY-WHERE IS THE DATA? ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource). This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource).

  1. Associations between psychological distress, workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates associations between psychological distress and workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was distributed to employees of 58 large employers. A total of 60,556 full-time employees were eligible for analysis. The HPQ probed whether the respondent had, in the past 30-days, a workplace accident, success or failure ("yes" or "no"). Psychological distress was quantified using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale and categorised into low, moderate and high psychological distress. Three binomial logistic regressions were performed with the dependent variables being workplace accident, success or failure. Covariates in the models were K6 category, gender, age, marital status, education level, job category, physical health and employment sector. Accounting for all other variables, moderate and high psychological distress significantly (P work failures and decrease the OR of workplace successes at similar levels. As the prevalence of moderate psychological distress is approximately double that of high psychological distress moderate distress consequentially has a greater workplace impact.

  2. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  3. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 3: Employee Alcohol- and Drug-Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Susan R.; Libbin, Anne E.

    1988-01-01

    The third in a series of four articles, this discusses the legal implications of the use of medical tests to prevent drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and to reduce absenteeism, tardiness, reduced productivity, and accidents that result from employee substance abuse. Cites recent cases. (JOW)

  5. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  6. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  7. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...

  8. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  9. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  10. Safety and toxicology assessment of chicken breast for high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Yan Jianmin; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Liu Chunquan

    2011-01-01

    Feeding wholesomeness tests of irradiated chicken breast were studied by using acute oral toxicology, Ames, micronucleus of born marrow cell, sperm shape abnormality in mice and 30 d feeding test. The LD 50 of all the rats and mice were more than 10 g/kg · BW, which means that the pet foods belonged to actually non-toxic grade; ames test, and the tests of micronucleus of born marrow cell, sampan shape abnormality in mice were all negative results; 30 d feeding test in rats demonstrated that it had no distinctive effects on routine blood, body weight and biochemical index. It is concluded that pet foods irradiated up to 25 kGy high dose were no safety and toxicology problems. (authors)

  11. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is a Government-owned facility leased and operated by the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) as a private, nonprofit research and testing laboratory. LBERI is an operating subsidiary of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute. Through September 30, 1996, ITRI was a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Lovelace for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a 'Single Program Laboratory' within the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. Work for DOE continues in the privatized ITRI facility under a Cooperative Agreement. At the time of publication, approximately 70% of the Institute's research is funded by DOE, and the remainder is funded by a variety of Federal agency, trade association, individual industry, and university customers. The principal mission of ITRI is to conduct basic and applied research to improve our understanding of the nature and magnitude of the human health impacts of inhaling airborne materials in the home, workplace, and general environment. Institute research programs have a strong basic science orientation with emphasis on the nature and behavior of airborne materials, the fundamental biology of the respiratory tract, the fate of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they cause disease, and the means by which data produced in the laboratory can be used to estimate risks to human health. Disorders of the respiratory tract continue to be a major health concern, and inhaled toxicants are thought to contribute substantially to respiratory morbidity. As the country's largest facility dedicated to the study of basic inhalation toxicology, ITRI provides a national resource of specialized facilities, personnel, and educational activities serving the needs of government, academia, and industry

  12. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, D.E.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F. [eds.] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is a Government-owned facility leased and operated by the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) as a private, nonprofit research and testing laboratory. LBERI is an operating subsidiary of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute. Through September 30, 1996, ITRI was a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Lovelace for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a {open_quotes}Single Program Laboratory{close_quotes} within the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. Work for DOE continues in the privatized ITRI facility under a Cooperative Agreement. At the time of publication, approximately 70% of the Institute`s research is funded by DOE, and the remainder is funded by a variety of Federal agency, trade association, individual industry, and university customers. The principal mission of ITRI is to conduct basic and applied research to improve our understanding of the nature and magnitude of the human health impacts of inhaling airborne materials in the home, workplace, and general environment. Institute research programs have a strong basic science orientation with emphasis on the nature and behavior of airborne materials, the fundamental biology of the respiratory tract, the fate of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they cause disease, and the means by which data produced in the laboratory can be used to estimate risks to human health. Disorders of the respiratory tract continue to be a major health concern, and inhaled toxicants are thought to contribute substantially to respiratory morbidity. As the country`s largest facility dedicated to the study of basic inhalation toxicology, ITRI provides a national resource of specialized facilities, personnel, and educational activities serving the needs of government, academia, and industry.

  13. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21 st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-first Century, modem methods ("omics," in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods, etc.) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella ma...

  14. Summary introduction to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzow, B.; Jessen, H.; Wendorff, D.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental consciousness and the increasing public interest in environmental medicine and toxicology is much appreciated by the Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology. This information brochure gives the reader some insight into the importance of environmental toxicology and into the waste of the Research Institute. In response to the current situation, the authors have included an appendix on radiation protection. (orig./PW) [de

  15. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  16. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  17. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2016-01-06

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  18. History of Japanese Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 1981, the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) has grown into an organization of nearly 3,000 members working together to advance the nation's scientific knowledge and understanding of toxicology through the implementation of planning that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and is closely aligned with a strategy for accomplishing the Society's long-range plans. To promote public education in toxicology, the Society organizes public lectures during each year's annual meeting. Other activities include hosting scientific conferences, promoting continuing education, and facilitating international collaboration. Internally, the JSOT operates five standing committees: General Affairs, Educational, Editorial, Finance, and Science and Publicity to handle its necessary relationships. To bestow official recognition, the Society established its Toxicologist Certification Program in 1997, and has certified 536 members as Diplomat Toxicologists (DJSOT) as of May 1, 2016. Furthermore, on the same date, 43 JSOT members were certified as Emeritus Diplomats of the JSOT (EDJSOT). The Society has launched two official journals, the "Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)" in 1981 and "Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)" in 2014. As for participation in the international organizations, the JSOT (then known as the Toxicological Research Group) joined the International Union of Toxicology as a charter member in 1980, and became a founding member of the Asian Society of Toxicology at its inauguration in 1994. Into the future, the JSOT will continue working diligently to advance knowledge and understanding of toxicology and secure its place among the interdisciplinary fields of science, humane studies, and ethics.

  19. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  20. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology, the...

  1. Toxicology in Asia--Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX), which consists of the seven national toxicology member societies of Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, and Iran, now boasts of more than 3,000 members from a variety of industries, academia, and regulatory organizations. ASIATOX congresses are spaced three years apart and rotated among the member societies. In 1995, ASIATOX joined the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) as a regional society, and now serves as the scientific voice of toxicology in Asia under the IUTOX umbrella. Since its inauguration, the society has worked diligently to handle matters deemed essential to promoting the vision set fourth by its founders. Future perspectives of ASIATOX include the establishment of education and training programs, and the certification and accreditation of toxicologists. As the leading voice of toxicology in Asia, the society seeks to extend knowledge of toxicological issues to developing nations in Asia based on the following missions and goals: (1) to provide leadership as a worldwide scientific organization that objectively addresses global issues involving the toxicological sciences, (2) to broaden the geographical base of toxicology as a discipline and profession to all countries of the world, and (3) to pursue capacity building in toxicology, particularly in developing countries, while utilizing its global perspective and network to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Predictive Toxicology: Modeling Chemical Induced Toxicological Response Combining Circular Fingerprints with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios eKoutsoukas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern drug discovery and toxicological research are under pressure, as the cost of developing and testing new chemicals for potential toxicological risk is rising. Extensive evaluation of chemical products for potential adverse effects is a challenging task, due to the large number of chemicals and the possible hazardous effects on human health. Safety regulatory agencies around the world are dealing with two major challenges. First, the growth of chemicals introduced every year in household products and medicines that need to be tested, and second the need to protect public welfare. Hence, alternative and more efficient toxicological risk assessment methods are in high demand. The Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 consortium a collaborative effort was formed to develop and investigate alternative assessment methods. A collection of 10,000 compounds composed of environmental chemicals and approved drugs were screened for interference in biochemical pathways and released for crowdsourcing data analysis. The physicochemical space covered by Tox21 library was explored, measured by Molecular Weight (MW and the octanol/water partition coefficient (cLogP. It was found that on average chemical structures had MW of 272.6 Daltons. In case of cLogP the average value was 2.476. Next relationships between assays were examined based on compounds activity profiles across the assays utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficient r. A cluster was observed between the Androgen and Estrogen Receptors and their ligand bind domains accordingly indicating presence of cross talks among the receptors. The highest correlations observed were between NR.AR and NR.AR_LBD, where it was r=0.66 and between NR.ER and NR.ER_LBD, where it was r=0.5.Our approach to model the Tox21 data consisted of utilizing circular molecular fingerprints combined with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine by modeling each assay independently. In all of the 12 sub-challenges our modeling

  3. 77 FR 60318 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... 12866 and Regulatory Flexibility Act This Final Rule is not significant for purposes of Executive Order... certify, under the Regulatory Flexibility Act, that this rule does not have a significant economic impact...

  4. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Koutsogiannis, Zeff; Graeme, Kimberlie; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2015-09-01

    The international boundaries to medical education are becoming less marked as new technologies such as multiuser videoconferencing are developed and become more accessible to help bridge the communication gaps. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP) is aimed at connecting clinicians in countries with established clinical toxicology services to clinicians in countries without clinical toxicologists around the globe. Centers that manage or consult on toxicology cases were registered through the American College of Medical Toxicology website via Survey Monkey®. Data was analyzed retrospectively from February 2014 to January 2015. Google hangouts® was used as the main conferencing software, but some sites preferred the use of Skype®. Registration data included contact details and toxicology background and qualifications. Thirty sites in 19 different countries in Australasia, Europe, Africa, and America were registered. Twenty-eight (93 %) sites were located in a major urban center, one (3.5 %) site in a major rural center and one (3.5 %) a private practice. Expectations of GETUP included sharing toxicology cases and education (30, 100 % of sites), assistance with toxicology management guidelines (2, 7 %), assistance with providing a toxicology teaching curriculum in languages other than English (2, 7 %), and managing toxicology presentations in resource-poor settings, international collaboration, and toxicovigilance (2 sites, 7 %). Twenty-two conferences were performed during the first 12 months with a mean of 3 cases per conference. GETUP has connected countries and clinical units with and without toxicology services and will provide a platform to improve international collaboration in clinical toxicology.

  5. Green Toxicology-Know Early About and Avoid Toxic Product Liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Toxicology uniquely among the life sciences relies largely on methods which are more than 40-years old. Over the last 3 decades with more or less success some additions to and few replacements in this toolbox took place, mainly as alternatives to animal testing. The acceptance of such new approaches faces the needs of formal validation and the conservative attitude toward change in safety assessments. Only recently, there is growing awareness that the same alternative methods, especially in silico and in vitro tools can also much earlier and before validation inform decision-taking in the product life cycle. As similar thoughts developed in the context of Green Chemistry, the term of Green Toxicology was coined to describe this change in approach. Here, the current developments in the alternative field, especially computational and more organo-typic cell cultures are reviewed, as they lend themselves to front-loaded chemical safety assessments. The initiatives of the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Green Toxicology Collaboration are presented. They aim first of all for forming a community to promote this concept and then for a cultural change in companies with the necessary training of chemists, product stewards and later regulators. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as 'e-cigarettes' and 'electronic delivery devices' were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. As of October 2013, the scientific literature contains very limited information regarding the toxicity of e-cigarettes commercially available in the USA. While some preliminary toxicology data suggests that e-cigarette users are exposed to lower levels of toxicants relative to cigarette smokers, the data available is extremely limited at this time. At present, there is insufficient toxicological data available to perform thorough risk assessment analyses for e-cigarettes; few toxicology studies evaluating e-cigarettes have been conducted to date, and standard toxicological testing paradigms have not been developed for comparing disparate types of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Overall, the limited toxicology data on e-cigarettes in the public domain is insufficient to allow a thorough toxicological evaluation of this new type of tobacco product. In the future, the acquisition of scientific datasets that are derived from scientifically robust standard testing paradigms, include comprehensive chemical characterisation of the aerosol, provide information on users' toxicant exposure levels, and from studies replicated by independent researchers will improve the scientific community's ability to perform robust toxicological evaluations of e-cigarettes.

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  8. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  9. The Computerized Laboratory Notebook concept for genetic toxicology experimentation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, G H; Stanford, W L; Berkowitz, S J

    1989-03-01

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic effects after in vivo exposure to putative mutagens. A system was developed with the advantages of low cost, limited spatial requirements, ease of use for personnel inexperienced with computers, and applicability to specific testing yet flexibility for experimentation. This system eliminates cumbersome record keeping and repetitive analysis inherent in genetic toxicology bioassays. Statistical analysis of the vast quantity of data produced by the BLT would not be feasible without a central database. Our central database is maintained by an integrated package which we have adapted to develop the CLN. The clonal assay of lymphocyte mutagenesis (CALM) section of the CLN is demonstrated. PC-Slaves expand the microcomputer to multiple workstations so that our computerized notebook can be used next to a hood while other work is done in an office and instrument room simultaneously. Communication with peripheral instruments is an indispensable part of many laboratory operations, and we present a representative program, written to acquire and analyze CALM data, for communicating with both a liquid scintillation counter and an ELISA plate reader. In conclusion we discuss how our computer system could easily be adapted to the needs of other laboratories.

  10. Comparative analysis of perturbed molecular pathways identified in in vitro and in vivo toxicology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesinger, Martin; Mayer, Bernd; Jennings, Paul; Lukas, Arno

    The development of in vitro toxicological testing strategies are hampered by the difficulty in extrapolation to the intact organism. Academic toxicological literature contains a wealth of mechanistically rich information, especially arising from omic studies, which could potentially be utilized to

  11. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  12. Precision toxicology based on single cell sequencing: an evolving trend in toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Liye; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we introduce a new concept, precision toxicology: the mode of action of chemical- or drug-induced toxicity can be sensitively and specifically investigated by isolating a small group of cells or even a single cell with typical phenotype of interest followed by a single cell sequencing-based analysis. Precision toxicology can contribute to the better detection of subtle intracellular changes in response to exogenous substrates, and thus help researchers find solutions to control or relieve the toxicological effects that are serious threats to human health. We give examples for single cell isolation and recommend laser capture microdissection for in vivo studies and flow cytometric sorting for in vitro studies. In addition, we introduce the procedures for single cell sequencing and describe the expected application of these techniques to toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration, which we believe will become a trend in toxicology.

  13. [Interest of toxicological analysis for poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Baud, Frédéric J

    2008-04-30

    The clinical approach of the poisoned patients is mainly based on the analysis of the circumstances of intoxication and the search for toxidromes. Toxicological analysis aims to detect the toxicants or measure their concentrations, in order to confirm the hypothesis of poisoning, to evaluate its severity and to help the follow-up regarding the treatment efficiency. Emergent toxicological analysis appears only useful if the method is specific and the results rapidly obtained. Therefore, systematic screening using immunochesmistry-based tests is not recommended in the situation of emergency. Measurement of blood concentrations of the toxicants is only indicated if it may influence the patient management. However, in the perspective of research, the study of toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic relationships, i.e. the relationships between the toxicant effects and its blood concentrations, may be helpful to understand the inter-individual variability of the response to a toxicant.

  14. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  15. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  16. Genetic toxicology in the 21st century: Reflections and future ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the

  17. Proficiency testing as a basis for estimating uncertainty of measurement: application to forensic alcohol and toxicology quantitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack

    2010-05-01

    While forensic laboratories will soon be required to estimate uncertainties of measurement for those quantitations reported to the end users of the information, the procedures for estimating this have been little discussed in the forensic literature. This article illustrates how proficiency test results provide the basis for estimating uncertainties in three instances: (i) For breath alcohol analyzers the interlaboratory precision is taken as a direct measure of uncertainty. This approach applies when the number of proficiency tests is small. (ii) For blood alcohol, the uncertainty is calculated from the differences between the laboratory's proficiency testing results and the mean quantitations determined by the participants; this approach applies when the laboratory has participated in a large number of tests. (iii) For toxicology, either of these approaches is useful for estimating comparability between laboratories, but not for estimating absolute accuracy. It is seen that data from proficiency tests enable estimates of uncertainty that are empirical, simple, thorough, and applicable to a wide range of concentrations.

  18. Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiergowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services, surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.. Med Pr 2015;66(6:837–847

  19. Final Progress Report: Developing Ethical Practices for Genetics Testing in the Workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Roberts, MD; Teddy Warner, PhD

    2008-05-14

    Our multidisciplinary research team for this project involved collaboration between the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) and the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC). Our research team in Wisconsin was led by Laura Roberts, M.D., Principal Investigator, and included Scott Helberg, MLS (Project Coordinator), Kate Green Hammond, Ph.D. (Consultant), Krisy Edenharder (Research Coordinator), and Mark Talatzko (Research Assistant). Our New Mexico-based team was led by Teddy Warner, Ph.D., Co-Principal Investigator and UNM Site Principal Investigator, and included Suzanne Roybal (Project Assistant), Darlyn Mabon (Project Assistant), Kate Green Hammond, PhD (Senior Research Scientist on the UNM team from 2004 until January, 2007), and Paulette Christopher (Research Assistant). In addition, computer technical and web support for the web-based survey conducted on a secure server at the University of New Mexico was provided by Kevin Wiley and Kim Hagen of the Systems and Programming Team of the Health Sciences Center Library and Information Center. We stated 3 aims in the grant proposal: (1) To collect web survey reports of the ethical perspectives, concerns, preferences and decision-making related to genetic testing using surveys from employees at: (a) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); (b) Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); and (c) the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC); (2) To perform an extensive literature search and the extant survey data to develop evidence-based policy recommendations for ethically sound genetic testing associated with research and occupational health activities in the workplace; and, (3) To host a conference at the Medical College of Wisconsin to provide employers, workers, health professionals, researchers, the public, and the media an opportunity to consider ethical issues involved in genetic

  20. Solvents and Parkinson disease: A systematic review of toxicological and epidemiological evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Edward A., E-mail: e.lock@ljmu.ac.uk [Liverpool John Moores University, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Byrom Street, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jing [University of Washington, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative motor disorder, with its motor symptoms largely attributable to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The causes of PD remain poorly understood, although environmental toxicants may play etiologic roles. Solvents are widespread neurotoxicants present in the workplace and ambient environment. Case reports of parkinsonism, including PD, have been associated with exposures to various solvents, most notably trichloroethylene (TCE). Animal toxicology studies have been conducted on various organic solvents, with some, including TCE, demonstrating potential for inducing nigral system damage. However, a confirmed animal model of solvent-induced PD has not been developed. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated potential links between solvents and PD, yielding mostly null or weak associations. An exception is a recent study of twins indicating possible etiologic relations with TCE and other chlorinated solvents, although findings were based on small numbers, and dose–response gradients were not observed. At present, there is no consistent evidence from either the toxicological or epidemiologic perspective that any specific solvent or class of solvents is a cause of PD. Future toxicological research that addresses mechanisms of nigral damage from TCE and its metabolites, with exposure routes and doses relevant to human exposures, is recommended. Improvements in epidemiologic research, especially with regard to quantitative characterization of long-term exposures to specific solvents, are needed to advance scientific knowledge on this topic. -- Highlights: ► The potential for organic solvents to cause Parkinson's disease has been reviewed. ► Twins study suggests etiologic relations with chlorinated solvents and Parkinson's. ► Animal studies with TCE showed potential to cause damage to dopaminergic neurons. ► Need to determine if effects in animals are relevant to human

  1. Solvents and Parkinson disease: A systematic review of toxicological and epidemiological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Edward A.; Zhang, Jing; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative motor disorder, with its motor symptoms largely attributable to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The causes of PD remain poorly understood, although environmental toxicants may play etiologic roles. Solvents are widespread neurotoxicants present in the workplace and ambient environment. Case reports of parkinsonism, including PD, have been associated with exposures to various solvents, most notably trichloroethylene (TCE). Animal toxicology studies have been conducted on various organic solvents, with some, including TCE, demonstrating potential for inducing nigral system damage. However, a confirmed animal model of solvent-induced PD has not been developed. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated potential links between solvents and PD, yielding mostly null or weak associations. An exception is a recent study of twins indicating possible etiologic relations with TCE and other chlorinated solvents, although findings were based on small numbers, and dose–response gradients were not observed. At present, there is no consistent evidence from either the toxicological or epidemiologic perspective that any specific solvent or class of solvents is a cause of PD. Future toxicological research that addresses mechanisms of nigral damage from TCE and its metabolites, with exposure routes and doses relevant to human exposures, is recommended. Improvements in epidemiologic research, especially with regard to quantitative characterization of long-term exposures to specific solvents, are needed to advance scientific knowledge on this topic. -- Highlights: ► The potential for organic solvents to cause Parkinson's disease has been reviewed. ► Twins study suggests etiologic relations with chlorinated solvents and Parkinson's. ► Animal studies with TCE showed potential to cause damage to dopaminergic neurons. ► Need to determine if effects in animals are relevant to human exposure

  2. Workplace design: Conceptualizing and measuring workplace characteristics for motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...

  3. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  4. Toxicological profile for uranium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Uranium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  5. Toxicological profile for radon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radon is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  6. Toxicological profile for plutonium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Plutonium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  7. Toxicological profile for radium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances' toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  8. Genetic Toxicology in the 21st Century: Reflections and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Snyder, Ronald D.; Waters, Michael D.; Benz, R. Daniel; Kemper, Raymond A.; Tice, Raymond R.; Richard, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, using a broad array of high throughput and high content technologies for toxicity profiling of environmental chemicals, and computational toxicology modeling. Progress and challenges, including the pressing need to incorporate metabolic activation capability, are summarized. PMID:21538556

  9. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  10. Resource Guide to Careers in Toxicology, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of Toxicology, Reston, VA.

    This resource guide was prepared by the Tox 90's Educational Issues Task Force of the Society of Toxicology. The introduction provides information on the Society of Toxicology and financial support for graduate students in toxicology. Other sections include career opportunities in toxicology, academic and postdoctoral programs in toxicology, and…

  11. Advancing Toxicology Research Using In Vivo High Throughput Toxicology with Small Fish Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Allen, David; Ceger, Patricia; Casey, Warren; Hinton, David; Kanungo, Jyotshna; Kullman, Seth W.; Tal, Tamara; Bondesson, Maria; Burgess, Shawn M.; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie; Reif, David M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Hamm, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Summary Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity. Workshop participants agreed that the lack of standardized protocols is an impediment to broader acceptance of these models, whereas development of standardized protocols, validation, and subsequent regulatory acceptance would facilitate greater usage. Given the advantages and increasing application of small fish models, there was widespread interest in follow-up workshops to review and discuss developments in their use. In this article, we summarize the recommendations formulated by workshop participants to enhance the utility of small fish species in toxicology studies, as well as many of the advances in the field of toxicology that resulted from using small fish species, including advances in developmental toxicology, cardiovascular toxicology, neurotoxicology, and immunotoxicology. We also review many emerging issues that will benefit from using small fish species, especially zebrafish, and new technologies that will enable using these organisms to yield results unprecedented in their information content to better understand how toxicants affect development and health. PMID:27328013

  12. Adaptation of the ToxRTool to Assess the Reliability of Toxicology Studies Conducted with Genetically Modified Crops and Implications for Future Safety Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' (ECVAM) ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators.

  13. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU): a transatlantic bridge for the paradigm shift in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU) was founded based collaboration between the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Konstanz. CAAT-EU, housed at the University of Konstanz, will coordinate transatlantic activities to promote humane science in research and education, and participate, as partner or coordinator, in publicly and privately funded European projects. Thomas Hartung will serve as program liaison representing Johns Hopkins University and Marcel Leist as the University of Konstanz liaison. CAAT-EU aims to: 1) Set up transatlantic consortia for international research projects on alternative methods. 2) Establish a CAAT Europe faculty and advisory board composed of sponsor representatives and prominent academics from Europe . 3) Participate in the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t4) devoted to conceptual work for the paradigm shift in toxicology. 4) Coordinate a series of information days in Europe on relevant developments in the US, similar to the 2009 series CAAT held in the US on EU issues (one on the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and one on EU and US chemical regulation). 5) Support ALTEX as the official journal of CAAT and CAAT-EU. 6) Develop strategic projects with sponsors to promote humane science and new toxicology, especially with CAAT faculty members. 7) Develop a joint education program between Johns Hopkins and the University of Konstanz, such as e-courses and the existing Humane Science Certificate program developed by CAAT, a student exchange program, and collaboration with the International Graduate School "Cell-based Characterization of De- and Regeneration" in Konstanz.

  14. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  15. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.

  16. 77 FR 35395 - Draft Five-Year Plan (2013-2017) for the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... (ICCVAM) has developed a draft NICEATM-ICCVAM Five-Year Plan. The plan describes four core strategies to... innovations are driving transformative changes in toxicology and how safety testing is performed. The field of toxicology is evolving from a system based largely on animal testing toward one based on the integration of...

  17. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  18. Health promotion in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.

  19. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralau, Tewes; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Gürtler, Rainer; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Herzler, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Itter, Heike; Kuhl, Thomas; Lange, Nikola; Lorenz, Nicole; Müller-Graf, Christine; Pabel, Ulrike; Pirow, Ralph; Ritz, Vera; Schafft, Helmut; Schneider, Heiko; Schulz, Thomas; Schumacher, David; Zellmer, Sebastian; Fleur-Böl, Gaby; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Lampen, Alfonso; Luch, Andreas; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Solecki, Roland; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The advent of new testing systems and "omics"-technologies has left regulatory toxicology facing one of the biggest challenges for decades. That is the question whether and how these methods can be used for regulatory purposes. The new methods undoubtedly enable regulators to address important open questions of toxicology such as species-specific toxicity, mixture toxicity, low-dose effects, endocrine effects or nanotoxicology, while promising faster and more efficient toxicity testing with the use of less animals. Consequently, the respective assays, methods and testing strategies are subject of several research programs worldwide. On the other hand, the practical application of such tests for regulatory purposes is a matter of ongoing debate. This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European "regulatory status quo", while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

  1. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  2. On-line sources of toxicological information in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, William J.; Ecobichon, Donald J.; Baril, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the on-line resources available in toxicology in Canada. It will describe a brief history of The Society of Toxicology of Canada, with reference to other societies and also provide information on education, research and other resources related to toxicology. Toxicology in Canada emerged as a distinct and vibrant discipline following the thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s. In the pharmaceutical industry and government, toxicology was readily established as an essential component of drug development and safety, and as the need for toxicologists expanded, training programs were established, usually in collaboration with departments of pharmacology. In the last two to three decades other disciplines, environmental biology, analytical chemistry and epidemiology joined the ranks of toxicology. The on-line sources of toxicology information are rapidly expanding. This article describes those sources considered by the authors to be important from a national and international perspective. The majority of these sources are professional organizations and government agencies

  3. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N'Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Marano, F.; Boland, S.; Leroux, M.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Peyre, L.; Rahmani, R.; Buron, N.; Porcedou, M.; Fromenty, B.; Borgne-Sanchez, A.; Rogue, A.; Spire, C.; Claude, N.; Guillouzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  4. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Wojak, Anna; Neagu, Daniel; Ridley, Mick; Travis, Kim

    2011-07-13

    Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity) and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results). This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality) and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas) of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper, data governance is identified as the new challenge in

  5. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results. Results This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. Conclusions While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper

  6. Current role of ICP-MS in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology: a metallic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Saussereau, Elodie; Mahieu, Loïc; Guerbet, Michel

    2014-08-01

    As metal/metalloid exposure is inevitable owing to its omnipresence, it may exert toxicity in humans. Recent advances in metal/metalloid analysis have been made moving from flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the multi-elemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques as ICP atomic emission spectrometry and ICP-MS. ICP-MS has now emerged as a major technique in inorganic analytical chemistry owing to its flexibility, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. This in depth review explores the ICP-MS metallic profile in human toxicology. It is now routinely used and of great importance, in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology to explore biological matrices, specifically whole blood, plasma, urine, hair, nail, biopsy samples and tissues.

  7. Moderated Mediation Model of Interrelations between Workplace Romance, Wellbeing, and Employee Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir Shafique; Jianguo, Du; Usman, Muhammad; Ahmad, Malik I

    2017-01-01

    In this study, first we examined the effect of workplace romance on employee job performance, and the mediatory role of psychological wellbeing in the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. Then we tested the moderating effects of gender and workplace romance type - lateral or hierarchical - on the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance. Based on a survey of 311 doctors from five government teaching hospitals in Pakistan, we used structural equation modeling and bootstrapping to test these relationships. This study reveals that psychological wellbeing significantly fully mediates the positive relationship between workplace romance and job performance. Moreover, multi-group analysis shows that gender moderates the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance, where the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance is stronger for male participants. This study carries important implications, particularly for the policy makers and managers of healthcare sector organizations.

  8. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  9. A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like in modern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user’s physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based

  10. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Moderated Mediation Model of Interrelations between Workplace Romance, Wellbeing, and Employee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir Shafique Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, first we examined the effect of workplace romance on employee job performance, and the mediatory role of psychological wellbeing in the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. Then we tested the moderating effects of gender and workplace romance type – lateral or hierarchical – on the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance. Based on a survey of 311 doctors from five government teaching hospitals in Pakistan, we used structural equation modeling and bootstrapping to test these relationships. This study reveals that psychological wellbeing significantly fully mediates the positive relationship between workplace romance and job performance. Moreover, multi-group analysis shows that gender moderates the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance, where the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance is stronger for male participants. This study carries important implications, particularly for the policy makers and managers of healthcare sector organizations.

  12. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  13. Interactive training improves workplace climate, knowledge, and support towards domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Laharnar, Naima; Anger, W Kent; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    As Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) affects the workplace, a supportive workplace climate is important. The study evaluated the effectiveness of an "IPV and the Workplace" training on workplace climate towards IPV. IPV training was provided to 14 intervention counties and 13 control counties (receiving training 6 months delayed). Measures included workplace climate surveys, IPV knowledge test, and workplace observations. (i) Training significantly improved supervisor knowledge on IPV and received positive evaluations, (ii) training improved workplace climate towards IPV significantly which was maintained over time, and (iii) after the training, supervisors provided more IPV information to employees and more IPV postings were available in the workplace. The study provides evidence to support on-site interactive, computer based training as a means for improved workplace safety. IPV and the Workplace training effectively increased knowledge and positively changed workplace climate. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:538-548, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Toxicological profile for thorium. Draft report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Thorium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  15. Integration of QSAR and in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, M D

    1998-01-01

    The principles of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are based on the premise that the properties of a chemical are implicit in its molecular structure. Therefore, if a mechanistic hypothesis can be proposed linking a group of related chemicals with a particular toxic end point, the hypothesis can be used to define relevant parameters to establish a QSAR. Ways in which QSAR and in vitro toxicology can complement each other in development of alternatives to live animal experiments are described and illustrated by examples from acute toxicological end points. Integration of QSAR and in vitro methods is examined in the context of assessing mechanistic competence and improving the design of in vitro assays and the development of prediction models. The nature of biological variability is explored together with its implications for the selection of sets of chemicals for test development, optimization, and validation. Methods are described to support the use of data from in vivo tests that do not meet today's stringent requirements of acceptability. Integration of QSAR and in vitro methods into strategic approaches for the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals is described with examples. PMID:9599692

  16. The need for a paradigm shift in toxicology xx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript briefly reviews the impact of the NAS report “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy” and it’s potential impact on the field of toxicology. ). This report provides a strategic and tactical framework for attaining the goals of deter...

  17. Toxicología clínica comunitaria Community Clinical Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Leal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En algunos países de América Latina las intoxicaciones agudas se manejan de manera profesional por médicos especialistas en la mate-ria. Algo similar ocurre con las intoxicaciones crónicas de origen laboral en el sector formal. No obstante, una realidad diferente ocurre en cuanto a la evaluación de las intoxicaciones crónicas de origen ambiental, dado que éstas por su naturaleza, son más difíciles de diagnosticar. Para el tratamiento de las intoxicaciones agudas se han organizado Centros de Información y Atención Toxicológica, pero para las intoxicaciones crónicas ambientales no se ha generado organismos semejantes. Por consiguiente, en este trabajo sugerimos un modelo de atención de la intoxicaciones crónicas a través de grupos multidisciplinarios bajo el esquema de una nueva disciplina: la Toxicología Clínica Comunitaria, cuyo objetivo sería la atención simultánea de las intoxicaciones agudas que generalmente se atienden en un ámbito hospitalario y de las intoxicaciones ambientales que por lo normal se presentan a nivel comunitario. El objetivo final es aprovechar la experiencia que existe en la Región en cuanto a Toxicología Clínica para organizar el trabajo comunitario.In some Latin American countries acute intoxication is professionally managed by specialized physicians qualified in the area. Something similar occurs with work-related chronic intoxication in the formal sector. However, a different reality prevails for the assessment of chronic intoxication of environmental origin, since it is by definition more difficult to diagnose. For treatment of acute intoxication, Toxicological Information and Care Centers have been set up, though similar bodies have not been created for chronic environmental intoxication. Therefore, in this study a model of chronic intoxication care is proposed, using multidisciplinary teams adopting a new approach, namely Community Clinical Toxicology, the goal of which would be the

  18. [Clinical toxicology of the Academy: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G A; Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'mich, V G; Fomichev, A V

    2013-12-01

    National toxicology school of the Kirov Military Medical Academy, demonstrates the unity of clinical and experimental approaches related to one purpose throughout its history--saving human life and health from exposure to toxic substances of chemical nature. For more than three centuries the russian science of toxicology has been steadily developing, often ahead of the world science. It helped to create the means of protection and develop methods of treatment for chemical lesions. Currently, toxicology departments of military field therapy and military toxicology and medical protection are actively involved in the current study of military medicine, restructuring policy to provide toxicological aid in the Armed Forces, the development and introduction of Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of victims of toxicological etiology.

  19. Evaluation of a Hungarian acaricide original molecule based on its environmental toxicological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, D; Oláh, B; Hirka, G; Pap, L; Gáty, S

    2000-07-01

    The results of the environmental toxicological investigations and their results of a new hungarian acaricide molecule (SZI-121) developed by the CHINOIN were summarized. The toxicological effects of the test item on different ecotoxicological test systems were investigated in the following tests: Bacterium, alga, and plant growth inhibition tests, acute immobilization and 21 days reproduction tests on Daphnia magna, acute fish test, closed bottle test, mobility, aerob degradation and adsorption/desorption tests on three different soils. No toxic effect was found in the bacterium, alga, plant growth inhibition and acute fish tests in the highest concentrations used. In the Daphnia immobilization test 0.14 mg/l LC50 value was established in the concentration range of 0.0128-40 mg/l applied. The test item showed similar characteristics as the reference item during the mobility test in soils, the adsorption/desorption study and the degradation investigations. In order to determine the environmental degradation rate further degradation investigations, as well as the nitrogen mineralization test and the model of concentration change in natural waters were performed.

  20. Workplace field testing of the pressure drop of particulate respirators using welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study, we concluded that respirator testing with a sodium chloride aerosol gave a conservative estimate of filter penetration for welding fume aerosols. A rapid increase in the pressure drop (PD) of some respirators was observed as fumes accumulated on the filters. The present study evaluated particulate respirator PD based on workplace field tests. A field PD tester was designed and validated using the TSI 8130 Automatic Filter Tester, designed in compliance with National Institute for Occupational and Safety and Health regulation 42 CFR part 84. Three models (two replaceable dual-type filters and one replaceable single-type filter) were evaluated against CO(2) gas arc welding on mild steel in confined booths in the workplace. Field tests were performed under four airborne concentrations (27.5, 15.4, 7.9, and 2.1 mg m(-3)). The mass concentration was measured by the gravimetric method, and number concentration was monitored using P-Trak (Model 8525, TSI, USA). Additionally, photos and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to visualize and analyze the composition of welding fumes trapped in the filters. The field PD tester showed no significant difference compared with the TSI tester. There was no significant difference in the initial PD between laboratory and field results. The PD increased as a function of fume load on the respirator filters for all tested models. The increasing PD trend differed by models, and PD increased rapidly at high concentrations because greater amount of fumes accumulated on the filters in a given time. The increase in PD as a function of fume load on the filters showed a similar pattern as fume load varied for a particular model, but different patterns were observed for different models. Images and elemental analyses of fumes trapped on the respirator filters showed that most welding fumes were trapped within the first layer, outer web cover, and second layer, in order, while no fumes

  1. Resolution of aviation forensic toxicology findings with the aid of DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Kupfer, Doris M; Burian, Dennis; Canfield, Dennis V

    2011-03-20

    Body components of aviation accident fatalities are often scattered, disintegrated, commingled, contaminated, and/or putrefied at accident scenes. These situations may impose difficulties in victim identification/tissue matching. The prevalence of misidentification in relation to aviation accident forensic toxicology has not been well established. Therefore, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology database was searched for the 1998-2008 period for those cases wherein DNA profiling was performed to resolve identity issue of the samples submitted to CAMI for toxicological evaluation. During this period, biological samples from the casualties of a total of 3523 accidents were submitted to CAMI. The submitted samples were primarily from pilots. Out of the 3523 accidents, at least, one fatality had occurred in 3366 (≈ 96%) accidents; thus, these accidents were considered fatal accidents. Accordingly, biological samples from 3319 pilots (3319 of the 3366 accidents) were received at CAMI for toxicological testing. Of these 3319 pilots, 3275 (≈ 99%) were fatally injured. DNA profiling was performed in 15 (≈ 0.5%) of the 3319 accidents. The profiling was conducted upon the requests of families in two accidents, accident investigators in three, and pathologists in four. In six accidents, contradictory toxicological findings led CAMI to initiate DNA profiling. The requests made by families and investigators were primarily triggered by inconsistency between the toxicological results and the history of drug use of the victims, while by pathologists because of commingling of samples. In three (20%) of the 15 accidents, at least one submitted sample was misidentified or mislabeled. The present study demonstrated that the number of aviation accident cases requiring DNA profiling was small and this DNA approach was effectively applied in resolving aviation toxicology findings associated with those accidents. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing

  3. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  4. Importance of clinical toxicology teaching and its impact in improving knowledge: sharing experience from a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Fayyaz, J.; Khan, U.R.; Feroze, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a one-day clinical toxicology workshop in improving knowledge. Methods: A one-day clinical toxicology workshop was conducted as a pre-conference workshop of the Annual Emergency Medicine Conference at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, in April 2012. The course was composed of poisoning-related common clinical scenarios. The pre-test and post-test understanding was used to assess the impact of the course in improving knowledge. The participants also evaluated the workshop as a whole thorough written evaluation forms. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Result: There were 22 participants in the course. The pre-test mean score was 31.6+-15.1% (95% CI; 24-40; n=19) compared to the post-test the mean score of 56.0+-10.8% (95% CI; 47- 61; n=17). The positive difference was also statistically significant (p<0.001). The overall workshop was evaluated as excellent by 08 (47.46%) and very good by 10 (52.63%) participants. Conclusion: Short training in clinical toxicology improved knowledge of the participants. (author)

  5. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  6. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  7. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings.

  8. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  9. Toxcast and the Use of Human Relevant In Vitro Exposures: Incorporating High-Throughput Exposure and Toxicity Testing Data for 21st Century Risk Assessments (British Toxicological Society Annual Congress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The path for incorporating new approach methods and technologies into quantitative chemical risk assessment poses a diverse set of scientific challenges. These challenges include sufficient coverage of toxicological mechanisms to meaningfully interpret negative test results, dev...

  10. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  11. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  12. Development of methodology for alternative testing strategies for the assessment of the toxicological profile of nanoparticles used in medical diagnostics. NanoTEST - EC FP7 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbo, Lise Maria; Heimstad, Eldbjorg; Harju, Mikael; Bartonova, Alena; Tran, Lang; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Halamoda, Blanka; Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja; Saunders, Margaret; Cartwright, Laura; Carreira, Sara; Thawley, Susan; Whelan, Maurice; Klein, Christoph; Housiadas, Christos; Volkovova, Katarina; Tulinska, Jana; Beno, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique, potentially beneficial properties, but their possible impact on human health is still not known. The area of nanomedicine brings humans into direct contact with NPs and it is essential for both public confidence and the nanotech companies that appropriate risk assessments are undertaken in relation to health and safety. There is a pressing need to understand how engineered NPs can interact with the human body following exposure. The FP7 project NanoTEST (www.nanotest-fp7.eu) addresses these requirements in relation to the toxicological profile of NPs used in medical diagnostics.

  13. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols used in pharmacology, toxicology, and psychology. Although there is a range of protocols in use today, all focus on detailed observations and specific tests of reflexes and responses. Several neurological functions are typically assessed, including autonomic, neuromuscular, and sensory, as well as levels of activity and excitability. The tests have been shown to be valid in detecting expected effects of known neurotoxicants, and reliable and reproducible whn compared across laboratories. Regardless of the specific protocol used, proper conduct and statistical analyses of the data are critical. Interpretation is based on the information from individual end points as well as the profile, or pattern, of effects observed. As long as continual refinements are made, behavioral screening methods will continue to be important tools with which to protect human health in the future.autonomic function; behavior; behavioral phenotypes; behavioral toxicity; excitability; functional observational battery ; motor activity; mouse; neuromuscular function; positive controls; rat; screening battery ; sensory function Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; how

  14. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  15. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  16. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  17. Transformational leadership and workplace injury and absenteeism: analysis of a National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Coustasse, Alberto; Sikula, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TL) has long been popular among management scholars and health services researchers, but no research studies have empirically tested the association of TL with workplace injuries and absenteeism among nursing assistants (NAs). This cross-sectional study seeks to explore whether TL is associated with workplace injuries and absenteeism among NAs. We analyzed the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey data (n = 2,882). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the role of TL in the context of workplace performances. Results reveal that the TL model was positively linked to workplace injury in the level of NAs. Injury-related absenteeism was also associated with the TL style, indicating that TL behaviors may help address workplace absence among NAs. Findings suggest that introducing TL practices may benefit NAs in improving workplace performances.

  18. Different workplace-related strains and different workplace-related anxieties in different professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Similar to the spectrum of the traditional anxiety disorders, there are also different types of workplace-related anxieties. The question is whether in different professional settings different facets of workplace-related anxieties are predominant. A convenience sample of 224 inpatients (71% women) from a department of psychosomatic medicine was investigated. They were assessed with a structured diagnostic interview concerning anxiety disorders and specific workplace-related anxieties. Office workers suffer relatively most often from specific social anxiety, insufficiency, and workplace phobia. Service workers suffer predominantly from unspecific social anxiety. Health care workers are characterized by insufficiency, adjustment disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and workplace phobia. Persons in production and education are least often affected by workplace-related anxieties. Different types of anxiety are seen in different professional domains, parallel to workplace characteristics.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  1. Assessing the scientific research productivity of a leading toxicology journal: A case study of Human & Experimental Toxicology from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessments. Bibliometric indicators involve the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each journal. The main objective of this study was to conduct a bibliometric evaluation of Human & Experimental Toxicology retrieved from the Scopus database. This study obtained data from Scopus published from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2012. The keywords entered in Scopus to accomplish the objective of this study were 'Human', 'Experimental' and 'Toxicology' as 'Source Title'. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing (a) total and trends in Human & Experimental Toxicology contributions in research between 2003 and 2012; (b) Human & Experimental Toxicology authorship patterns and productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; and (d) the citations received by the publications. There were 1229 research articles published in Human & Experimental Toxicology. Of the articles included, 947 (77.1%) were original articles and 104 (8.5%) were review articles. The Hirsch-index of the retrieved documents was 35. The largest number of publications in Human & Experimental Toxicology was from the United States (19.6%), followed by India (12.8%) and Turkey (10.9%). The total number of citations was 9119, with a median (interquartile range) of 3 (1-9) in 6797 documents. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (2.7-12.7) for France, followed by 7.5 (2-22.5) for Iran and 6 (3-13.5) for the United Kingdom. The country most often citing articles that were published in Human & Experimental Toxicology was the United States, which made citations in 1508 documents, followed by India with citations in 792 documents. The documents in Human & Experimental Toxicology focus principally on original data, with very few review articles. Review articles tend to have higher citation rates

  2. Pilot-Reported Beta-Blockers Identified by Forensic Toxicology Analysis of Postmortem Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Dennis V; Dubowski, Kurt M; Whinnery, James M; Forster, Estrella M

    2018-01-01

    This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approach: Compare the drug found by toxicology analysis with the drug reported by the pilot. This study uniquely examined first the pilot-reported medication and then compared it to that detected by toxicology analysis. This study will serve two purposes: (i) to determine the capability of a toxicology laboratory to detect reported medications, and (ii) to identify pilots with medications below detectable limits. All information required for this study was extracted from the Toxicology Data Base system and was searched using ToxFlo or SQL Server Management Studio. The following information was collected and analyzed: pilot-reported trade and/or generic drug, date specimens received, time of accident, type of aviation operations (CFR), state, pilot level, age, class of medical, specimen type, specimen concentration, dose reported, frequency reported associated with the accident, quantity reported, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident event number, and all NTSB reports. There were 319 pilots that either reported taking a beta-blocker or were found to be taking a beta-blocker by postmortem toxicology analysis. Time of death, therapeutic concentration and specimen type were found to be factors in the ability of the laboratory to detect beta-blockers. Beta-blockers taken by pilots will, in most cases, be found by a competent postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory at therapeutic concentrations. The dose taken by the pilot was not found to be a factor in the ability of the laboratory to identify beta-blockers. Time of dose, route of administration, specimen tested and therapeutic concentration of the drug were found to be factors in the ability of the laboratory to identify beta-blockers in postmortem specimens

  3. Diversification in toxicology: man and environment. EUROTOX proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P. [Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines (IOCM), Bern (Switzerland); Autrup, J.L.; Autrup, H. [eds.] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Steno Inst. of Public Health

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the main papers presented at the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Aaarhus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is not seen as splitting into subfields, but as the application of basic science to such diverse areas as man and his environment. The pressing issues which have been dealt with not only include reproductive effects of environmental chemicals (`xenoestrogens`), but also receptor-mediated toxic responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of cancer and molecular approaches in toxicological research. The practical and ethical facets of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, complex chemical mixtures as well as animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, are also treated. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of a workplace bullying cognitive rehearsal program in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel; Jones, Ruth Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2011-09-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious problem faced by nurses nationally. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of workplace bullying and evaluate the effectiveness of a training program on cognitive rehearsal of responses to common bullying behaviors. This program to increase staff nurses' knowledge of management of workplace bullying consisted of three components: pilot survey testing, a piloted Internet-based survey administered to the medical and surgical nurses, and a 2-hour cognitive rehearsal training program on management of workplace bullying. The results showed that 80% of the nurses surveyed had experienced workplace bullying over the previous year. After the training program, nurses' knowledge of workplace bullying management significantly increased. Additionally, nurses were significantly more likely to report that they had observed bullying and had bullied others. Further, nurses felt more adequately prepared to handle workplace bullying. Results of the research support the provision of a workplace bullying management program for nurses and the need for a specific policy on workplace bullying. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Diel, J.H.; Martinez, B.S.

    1979-12-01

    Research information is given by the annual report from the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute with abstracts for each of the 109 papers. Major sections of interest are nuclear energy toxicology, solar energy toxicology, diesel technology toxicology, coal technology toxicology, and conservation technology toxicology. Also included are seven appendices covering publications of technical reports and publications in open literature, abstracts publications in the open literature, seminars presented by visiting scientists and presentations before scientific meetings, organization of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the status of experiments using beagle dogs

  6. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  7. Workplace injuries, safety climate and behaviors: application of an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, A Mohammed; Karadal, Himmet; Bayighomog, Steven W; Merdan, Ethem

    2018-05-09

    This article proposes and tests a model for the interaction effect of the organizational safety climate and behaviors on workplace injuries. Using artificial neural network and survey data from 306 metal casting industry employees in central Anatolia, we found that an organizational safety climate mitigates workplace injuries, and safety behaviors enforce the strength of the negative impact of the safety climate on workplace injuries. The results suggest a complex relationship between the organizational safety climate, safety behavior and workplace injuries. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in light of decreasing workplace injuries in the Anatolian metal casting industry.

  8. Systems Toxicology: From Basic Research to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an increasing need for more predictive and accurate risk-assessment approaches. Developing such approaches requires a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ways in which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, Systems Toxicology approaches offer modern strategies for gaining such mechanistic knowledge by combining advanced analytical and computational tools. Furthermore, Systems Toxicology is a means for the identification and application of biomarkers for improved safety assessments. In Systems Toxicology, quantitative systems-wide molecular changes in the context of an exposure are measured, and a causal chain of molecular events linking exposures with adverse outcomes (i.e., functional and apical end points) is deciphered. Mathematical models are then built to describe these processes in a quantitative manner. The integrated data analysis leads to the identification of how biological networks are perturbed by the exposure and enables the development of predictive mathematical models of toxicological processes. This perspective integrates current knowledge regarding bioanalytical approaches, computational analysis, and the potential for improved risk assessment. PMID:24446777

  9. La toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla

    OpenAIRE

    Puerto Rodríguez, María; Cameán Fernández, Ana María; Moreno Navarro, Isabel María; Pichardo Sánchez, Silvia; Prieto Ortega, Ana Isabel; Jos Gallego, Ángeles Mencía

    2010-01-01

    La docencia del Área de Toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla se desarrolla en la actualidad en dos titulaciones, Farmacia y Bioquímica. En los planes de estudios actuales la carga lectiva del Área viene dada por las asignaturas de Toxicología (asignatura troncal), y Toxicología Alimentaria (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Farmacia, y de Toxicología Molecular (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Bioquímica. Una vez aprobados por la Agencia Nacional de la Evaluación de la ...

  10. The role of psychological factors in workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Martina; Steyn, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Workplace safety researchers and practitioners generally agree that it is necessary to understand the psychological factors that influence people's workplace safety behaviour. Yet, the search for reliable individual differences regarding psychological factors associated with workplace safety has lead to sparse results and inconclusive findings. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between the psychological factors, cognitive ability, personality and work-wellness of employees involved in workplace incidents and accidents and/or driver vehicle accidents and those who are not. The study population (N = 279) consisted of employees employed at an electricity supply organisation in South Africa. Mann-Whitney U-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to determine the differences in the respective psychological factors between the groups. These results showed that cognitive ability did not seem to play a role in workplace incident/accident involvement, including driver vehicle accidents, while the wellness factors burnout and sense of coherence, as well as certain personality traits, namely conscientiousness, pragmatic and gregariousness play a statistically significant role in individuals' involvement in workplace incidents/accidents/driver vehicle accidents. Safety practitioners, managers and human resource specialists should take cognisance of the role of specifically work-wellness in workplace safety behaviour, as management can influence these negative states that are often caused by continuously stressful situations, and subsequently enhance work place safety.

  11. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  12. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  13. [Forensic medicine as the cradle of toxicology in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L; Grebeniuk, A N; Pigolkin, Iu I; Tolmachev, I A; Bozhchenko, A P; Timoshevskiĭ, A A

    2013-01-01

    Modern toxicology as a science and educational subject originated from forensic medicine in the middle of the XIXth century. In the beginning, selected toxicological problems were taught in the Emperor's Medical Surgical Academy (presently S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Sankt-Peterburg) and at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University (presently I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow). The greatest contribution to the development of toxicology was made by such outstanding scientists as professors S.A. Gromov, P.P. Pelekhin, P.P. Zablotsky-Desyatovsky, E.V. Pelikan, Ya.A. Chistovich, G.I. Blosfel'd, I.M. Sorokin, D.P. Kosorotov, A.V. Grigoriev, V.V. Andreev, A.A. Glebovich, A.N. Grigoriev, B.I. Predtechensky, V.M. Rozhkov, S.S. Vail, M.N. Lubotsky, etc. The works of these researchers predetermined the further development of toxicology in this country, its main purpose being provision of medical aid in case of poisoning and diseases of chemical etiology. Another line of toxicological research became industrial and environmental toxicology having the purpose of hygienic rating and prevention of poisoning. Nevertheless, all aspects of the multifaceted science of toxicology are related to forensic medicine as the cradle in which it originated, evolved, and turned into a self-consistent science.

  14. Experimental and mathematical modeling methods for the investigation of toxicological interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Masri, Hisham A.

    2007-01-01

    While procedures have been developed and used for many years to assess risk and determine acceptable exposure levels to individual chemicals, most cases of environmental contamination can result in concurrent or sequential exposure to more than one chemical. Toxicological predictions of such combinations must be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of action and interaction of the components of the mixtures. Statistical and experimental methods test the existence of toxicological interactions in a mixture. However, these methods are limited to experimental data ranges for which they are derived, in addition to limitations caused by response differences from experimental animals to humans. Empirical methods such as isobolograms, median-effect principle and response surface methodology (RSM) are based on statistical experimental design and regression of data. For that reason, the predicted response surfaces can be used for extrapolation across dose regions where interaction mechanisms are not anticipated to change. In general, using these methods for predictions can be problematic without including biologically based mechanistic descriptions that can account for dose and species differences. Mechanistically based models, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models, include explicit descriptions of interaction mechanisms which are related to target tissues levels. These models include dose-dependent mechanistic hypotheses of toxicological interactions which can be tested by model-directed experimental design and used to identify dose regions where interactions are not significant

  15. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  16. OpenTox predictive toxicology framework: toxicological ontology and semantic media wiki-based OpenToxipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Benigni, Romualdo; Nikolova, Ivelina; Jeliazkova, Nina; Escher, Sylvia E; Batke, Monika; Baier, Thomas; Poroikov, Vladimir; Lagunin, Alexey; Rautenberg, Micha; Hardy, Barry

    2012-04-24

    The OpenTox Framework, developed by the partners in the OpenTox project (http://www.opentox.org), aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data, predictive models and validation procedures. Interoperability of resources is achieved using a common information model, based on the OpenTox ontologies, describing predictive algorithms, models and toxicity data. As toxicological data may come from different, heterogeneous sources, a deployed ontology, unifying the terminology and the resources, is critical for the rational and reliable organization of the data, and its automatic processing. The following related ontologies have been developed for OpenTox: a) Toxicological ontology - listing the toxicological endpoints; b) Organs system and Effects ontology - addressing organs, targets/examinations and effects observed in in vivo studies; c) ToxML ontology - representing semi-automatic conversion of the ToxML schema; d) OpenTox ontology- representation of OpenTox framework components: chemical compounds, datasets, types of algorithms, models and validation web services; e) ToxLink-ToxCast assays ontology and f) OpenToxipedia community knowledge resource on toxicology terminology.OpenTox components are made available through standardized REST web services, where every compound, data set, and predictive method has a unique resolvable address (URI), used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation, or to initiate the associated calculations and generate new RDF-based resources.The services support the integration of toxicity and chemical data from various sources, the generation and validation of computer models for toxic effects, seamless integration of new algorithms and scientifically sound validation routines and provide a flexible framework, which allows building arbitrary number of applications, tailored to solving different problems by end users (e.g. toxicologists). The OpenTox toxicological ontology projects may be accessed via the Open

  17. Overview of Forensic Toxicology, Yesterday, Today and in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heesun; Choe, Sanggil

    2017-01-01

    The scope of forensic toxicology has been tremendously expanded over the past 50 years. From two general sections forensic toxicology can be further classified into 8-9 sections. The most outstanding improvement in forensic toxicology is the changes brought by instrumental development. The field of forensic toxicology was revolutionized by the development of immunoassay and benchtop GC-MS in the 1980's and LC-MS-MS in 2000's. Detection of trace amounts of analytes has allowed the use of new specimens such as hair and oral fluids, along with blood and urine. Over a longer period of time, continuous efforts have been made to efficiently extract and separate drug and poison from biological fluids. International endeavors to develop high quality standards and guidelines for drugs and poisons in biological specimens and to promote them in order to increase reliability of laboratories are also part of the recent advancement of forensic toxicology. Interpretation of postmortem toxicology encompasses various factors including postmortem redistribution and stability. Considering the recent trend, the interpretation of toxicological results should account for autopsy findings, crime scene information, and related medical history. The fields of forensic toxicology will continuously develop to improve analysis of target analytes from various specimens, quality assurance program, and results interpretation. In addition, the development of analytical techniques will also contribute further advancement of forensic toxicology. The societies of forensic toxicologists, such as TIAFT, will play an important role for the advancement of forensic toxicology by collaborating and sharing ideas between toxicologists from both developed and developing countries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  19. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

  20. Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Kleensang, André; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment. PMID:26977253

  1. Systems toxicology: applications of toxicogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Kienhuis, A.S.; Ommen, van B.; Stierum, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicogenomics can facilitate the identification and characterization of toxicity, as illustrated in this review. Toxicogenomics, the application of the functional genomics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in toxicology enables the study of adverse effects of xenobiotic

  2. Africa's present and future needs in toxicology education: Southern African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulumian, Mary; Ginsburg, Carren; Stewart, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Degrees and diplomas as well as certificates that are granted by universities and technikons in South Africa in scientific disciplines, such as forensic medicine, pharmacology, marine and veterinary sciences, environmental health, and occupational hygiene, include toxicology as one of the subjects in their overall syllabus. However, aspects of toxicology included in each of these courses are biased towards that particular subdiscipline and basic level of toxicology may be taught. Educational needs in toxicology in South Africa can be summarized as follows: (a) recognition of toxicology as a discipline in its own right at these tertiary education institutions and (b) creation of opportunities to study and obtain higher degrees in one or more of the many subdisciplines of toxicology. The results from a survey conducted on the toxicology syllabi offered at these tertiary education institutions are used to substantiate these needs

  3. Workplace bullying: the effectiveness of a workplace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2013-08-01

    Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Toxicological risks of selected flame-retardant chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created ca...

  5. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created ca...

  6. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  7. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: An Emerging Technology in the Toxicology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Wei, Bin; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanhua; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has seen enormous growth in routine toxicology laboratories. LC-MS/MS offers significant advantages over other traditional testing, such as immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. Major strengths of LC-MS/MS include improvement in specificity, flexibility, and sample throughput when compared with other technologies. Here, the basic principles of LC-MS/MS technology are reviewed, followed by advantages and disadvantages of this technology compared with other traditional techniques. In addition, toxicology applications of LC-MS/MS for simultaneous detection of large panels of analytes are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Workplace nutrition knowledge questionnaire: psychometric validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K

    2016-11-01

    Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.

  9. Global corporate workplaces implementing new global workplace standards in a local context

    CERN Document Server

    Hodulak, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, multinational corporations were increasingly engaged in the development of standardized global workplace models. For their implementation and feasibility, it is decisive as how these standards fit the diverse regional workplace cultures. This topic was pursued in the course of a research project, comparing established workplaces in Germany, USA and Japan against global workplace standards of multinational corporations. The analysis confirmed the expected differences among local workplaces and on the other hand a predominant mainstream among global corporate workplace standards. Conspicuous however, are the fundamental differences between local models and corporate standards. For the implementation of global standards in local context, this implies multiple challenges on cultural, organizational and spatial level. The analysis findings provide information for assessing current projects and pinpointing optimization measures. The analysis framework further provides a tool to uncover and assess n...

  10. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  11. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH. Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of mechanistic information in the hazard identification and characterization steps of the risk assessment process. The EU Integrated Project ReProTect (6th Framework Programme implemented an array of in vitro tests to study different building blocks of the mammalian reproductive cycle: methodological developments and results on male and female germ cells, prostate and placenta are presented.

  12. Drug screening in clinical or forensic toxicology: are there differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2010-09-01

    Legal and medical practitioners need to remember that, with respect to drug analysis, there are two distinct disciplines in analytical toxicology concerned with human biological matrices, namely clinical and forensic toxicology. Both fields use similar analytical techniques designed to detect and quantify drugs, chemicals and poisons in fluids or tissues. In clinical toxicology, analytical results help to specify the appropriate treatment of a poisoned or intoxicated patient. In forensic toxicology, the results often play a vital role in determining the possible impairment or behavioural changes in an individual, or the contribution of drugs or poisons to death in a medico-legal investigation. This column provides an overview of the similarities and differences inherent in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  13. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  14. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  15. CEBS: a comprehensive annotated database of toxicological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Isabel A.; Gong, Hui; Paleja, Anand; Rashid, Asif; Fostel, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Chemical Effects in Biological Systems database (CEBS) is a comprehensive and unique toxicology resource that compiles individual and summary animal data from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing program and other depositors into a single electronic repository. CEBS has undergone significant updates in recent years and currently contains over 11 000 test articles (exposure agents) and over 8000 studies including all available NTP carcinogenicity, short-term toxicity and genetic toxicity studies. Study data provided to CEBS are manually curated, accessioned and subject to quality assurance review prior to release to ensure high quality. The CEBS database has two main components: data collection and data delivery. To accommodate the breadth of data produced by NTP, the CEBS data collection component is an integrated relational design that allows the flexibility to capture any type of electronic data (to date). The data delivery component of the database comprises a series of dedicated user interface tables containing pre-processed data that support each component of the user interface. The user interface has been updated to include a series of nine Guided Search tools that allow access to NTP summary and conclusion data and larger non-NTP datasets. The CEBS database can be accessed online at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/databases/cebs/. PMID:27899660

  16. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  17. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  18. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  19. [Toxicological consultation data management system based on experience of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr Maciej; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the structure of poisonings is described, based on the material collected from tele-toxicology consults by the Pomeranian Center of Toxicology in Gdańsk and harvested from its Electronic Poison Information Management System. In addition, we analyzed conclusions drawn from a 27-month operation of the system. Data were harvested from the Electronic Poison Information Management System developed in 2012 and used by the Pomeranian Center of Toxicology since then. The research was based on 2550 tele-toxicology consults between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Subsequently the data were electronically cleaned and presented using R programming language. The Pomeranian voivodeship was the prevalent localisation of calls (N = 1879; 73.7%). Most of the calls came from emergency rooms (N = 1495; 58.63%). In the case of 1396 (54.7%) patients the time-lag between intoxication and the consult was less than 6 h. There were no differences in the age distribution between genders. Mean age was 26.3 years. Young people predominated among intoxicated individuals. The majority of intoxications were incidental (N = 888; 34.8%) or suicidal (N = 814; 31.9%) and the most of them took place in the patient's home. Information about Poison Control Center consultations access should be better spread among medical service providers. The extent of poison information collected by Polish Poison Control Centers should be limited and unified. This should contribute to the increased percentage of properly documented consultations. Additional duties stemming from the need of digital archiving of consults provided, require the involvement of additional staff, leading to the increased operation costs incurred by Poison Control Centers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Critical issues in psychological test use in the South African workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Paterson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various factors in South African workplaces, ranging from unemployment and equity considerations to rapid occupational change driven by technological inputs, have placed greater emphasis on effective selection and development of human resources. This leads to greater demands on psychological assessment in the organizational setting with respect to ensuring responsible, ethical and equitable assessment. The study aims to investigate the extent and purposes of psychological test usage, the influence of the changing world of work on assessment, equity and cross-cultural applicability of tests and competence of test users in South Africa. The results are based on twenty two structured individual interviews, which were conducted with purposively sampled stakeholders from various economic sectors. Opsomming Verskeie faktore in Suid-Afrikaanse werkomgewing, wat wissel van werkloosheid en billikheidsoorwegings tot by vinnig veranderende beroepsomstandighede as gevolg van tegnologiese ontwikkeling, plaas toenemende druk op die doeltreffende keuring en ontwikkeling van menslike hulpbronne. Dit lei tot toenemende eise wat in die organisasie konteks aan sielkundige meting gestel word om verantwoordelike, etiese en billike assessering te verseker. Hierdie studie was daarop gerig om die doel met en omvang van die gebruik van sielkundige toetse, die invloed van die veranderende wêreld van werk op die assessering, billike en kruiskulturele toepaslikheid van toetse, asook die bevoegdheid van toetsgebruikers in Suid-Afrika te ondersoek. Die resultate is gebaseer op ’n doelgerigte steekproef van twee-en-twintig gestruktureerde onderhoude wat met belanghebbers uit verskillende ekonomiese sektore, gevoer is.

  1. Developement of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is one of behaviors which occur in various forms at workplaces. These types of behaviors are associated with diverse range of behaviors and other variables. Considering the lack of instrument to assess supervisor's bullying in workplaces of Iran, this research was carried out to constructing and studying reliability and validity of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace. Statistical population of this research was all of Isfahan oil refinery’s staff that 402 participants was chosen as participant by simple random sampling mehod. The tools included perceived organizational justice questionnaire, organizational citizenship behaviors questionnaire and deviant behaviors questionnaire which used for studying convergent and divergent validity of researcher-made questionnaire of supervisor's bullying. Data were analyzed by using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, canonical correlation coefficient (for studying convergent and divergent validity and reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha and test- retest reliability. Results showed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has five factor structures which named: supervisors’ threat, insult and scorn by supervisor, anger and revengefulness of supervisor, ignorance and unconventional work pressure of supervisor, supervisors’ boring and cheap. Cronbach’s alpha for the five factors was equal to 0.87, 0.84, 0.82, 0.81, 0.81, and test-retest reliability for those five factors was equal to 0.81, 0.59, 0.58, 0.83, and 0.77. The results of this study revealed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has suitable validity and reliability for assessment the level of supervisor's bullying at workplaces.

  2. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  3. Pocket atlas of toxicology. Substances, effects, environment. 2. ed.; Taschenatlas der Toxikologie. Substanzen, Wirkungen, Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    The revised and enhanced edition of this atlas explains and illustrates the effects of substances with ecological effects that may be harmful to vegetation, animals, and humans. The most recent findings in this respect are taken into account. Risk assessments in case of exposure are made by competent experts and in consideration of the most recent limiting values, enabling the interested lay public to assess environmental hazards on their own. What makes the book particularly valuable is the mention of most recent findings, e.g. newly discovered poisonous birds and mammals and their toxic effects. The former two-section structure of the book has been retained. The first part (general toxicology) contains updated fundamental information on toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, test methods, aspects of clinical toxicology, and new findings of environmental medicine and environmental toxicology. In the second part (special toxicology), the various groups of noxious and toxic substances are presented, including the effects of radiation and noise. Current limiting values are presented for pollutants and environmental factors that facilitate risk assessment in case of exposure. (orig.)

  4. The Effect of Implementing Workplace Organization Technigue on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hoseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Physical characteristics of the workplace are among the factors affecting nurses’ job satisfaction. Nurses are employed in crowded environments. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of implementing 5S workplace organization technique on nurses’ job satisfaction. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 70 nurses from medical and surgical wards of two therapeutic-education centers in Gorgan in 2015 were studied. Nurses were selected through census and then were assigned into intervention and control groups (each group 35 persons. The intervention group took advantage from organized working environment for 6 weeks. Visual workplace audit checklist was used in order to assess the need for organizing the workplace before and one month after the intervention. Nurses’ job satisfaction was measured through the questionnaire by Kohli and Jaworski before and after the intervention in both groups. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, independent t-test and paired t-test in SPSS 20. Results: The mean score of job satisfaction of nurses was changed after the intervention from 14.94 ± 2.66 to 18.48 ± 2.03 in intervention group (p > 0.001 and from 15.31 ± 1.54 to 14.80 ± 1.47 in control group. This difference was significant between the groups after the intervention (p > 0.001. Conclusion: Results showed that the implementing of workplace organization technique could improve nurses’ Job satisfaction. According to simplicity of this technique, nursing managers can use it as an effective way to improve nurses’ job satisfaction.

  5. Bystander Helping Behavior in Response to Workplace Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Hellemans, Catherine; Dal Cason, Davide; Casini, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the role of colleagues in workplace bullying. While colleagues could often intervene to support the victim or stop the situation, passive behaviors and non-intervention are more frequent. The bystander effect highlighted by Latané and Darley (1970) has been studied in the context of school bullying and sexual harassment, but only rarely in the context of workplace bullying. We tested the impact of the belief in a just world for others, self-efficacy, perceived severity,...

  6. Workplace phobia, workplace problems, and work ability among primary care patients with chronic mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Work-related anxieties are frequent and have a negative effect on the occupational performance of patients and absence due to sickness. Most important is workplace phobia, that is, panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This study is the first to estimate the prevalence of workplace phobia among primary care patients suffering from chronic mental disorders and to describe which illness-related or workplace-specific context factors are associated with workplace phobia. A convenience sample of 288 primary care patients with chronic mental disorders (70% women) seen by 40 primary care clinicians in Germany were assessed using a standardized diagnostic interview about mental disorders and workplace problems. Workplace phobia was assessed by the Workplace Phobia Scale and a structured Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interview. In addition, capacity and participation restrictions, illness severity, and sick leave were assessed. Workplace phobia was found in 10% of patients with chronic mental disorders, that is, approximately about 3% of all general practice patients. Patients with workplace phobia had longer durations of sick leave than patients without workplace phobia and were impaired to a higher degree in work-relevant capacities. They also had a higher degree of restrictions in participation in other areas of life. Workplace phobia seems to be a frequent problem in primary care. It may behoove primary care clinicians to consider workplace-related anxiety, including phobia, particularly when patients ask for a work excuse for nonspecific somatic complaints. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. Sexual harassment in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...

  8. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvioe, Sari; Savolainen, Kai, E-mail: sari.sirvio@ttl.fi [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-06

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  9. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-07-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  10. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirvioe, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  11. Workplace Violence and Components of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rod; Heybrock, Denise

    2017-01-01

    As episodes of workplace-centered violence have increased in the United States, a focus on emotional and mental health matters is more essential than ever. It is imperative for organizations to be proactive about violence prevention and have a plan that is supported by top management and understood by all managers and employees. Employers can take a number of steps in collaboration with a comprehensive violence prevention plan to promote a supportive and safe work environment. This article addresses workplace violence, risk factors and the components of a violence prevention plan as well as the importance of building a psychologically healthy workplace.

  12. A review of the toxicology and epidemiology of wollastonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; McConnell, E E

    2005-08-01

    Wollastonite is a naturally occurring calcium silicate (CaSiO(3)) that is produced in both powder and fibrous forms. It is a valuable industrial mineral used in plastics, ceramics, metallurgical applications, paint, and friction products. For some applications wollastonite serves as an asbestos replacement. To varying degrees, wollastonite grades contain respirable particles/fibers, some of which have lengths and diameters that might be biologically active if deposited and retained in the lung. In this review we provide background information on wollastonite properties, markets, production and use, regulatory classification, and occupational exposure limits. We also summarize the available studies on the toxicology and epidemiology of wollastonite. We conclude that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of wollastonite in animals and, based on strong evidence that wollastonite is not biopersistent, believe that a well-designed animal inhalation bioassay would have a negative result. The epidemiological evidence for wollastonite is limited, but does not suggest that workers are at significant risk of an increased incidence of pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, or mesothelioma. Morbidity studies have demonstrated a nonspecific increase in bronchitis and reduced lung function. It is prudent, however, to continue product stewardship efforts by wollastonite producers to control workplace exposures and to monitor scientific developments.

  13. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  14. Liquid Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...

  15. Toxicological screening of basic drugs in whole blood using UPLC-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Rasmussen, Brian Schou; Müller, Irene Breum

    2012-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was established for toxicological screening of basic drugs in whole blood and tested on authentic samples. Whole blood samples (0.2 ml) were extracted using a Gilson apparatus equipped with Bond...

  16. Workplace Disability Diversity and Job-Related Well-Being in Britain: A WERS2004 Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Getinet Astatike

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish empirically whether there is a link between workplace disability and employee job-related well-being. Using nationally representative linked employer-employee data for Britain, I employ alternative econometric techniques to account for unobserved workplace heterogeneity. I find that workplace disability diversity is associated with lower employee well-being among people with no reported disability. Tests conducted also indicate that workplace equality policies...

  17. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  18. 75 FR 74053 - Availability of Final Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... CONTACT: Ms. Olga Dawkins, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances... Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4700 Buford Highway..., except legal holidays. Availability This notice announces the availability of one new and six updated...

  19. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  20. LC-MS (/MS) in clinical toxicology screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viette, Véronique; Hochstrasser, Denis; Fathi, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Toxicological screening is the analysis of biological samples to detect and identify unknown compounds. The high selectivity and sensitivity of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technology provide an attractive alternative to the current methods (LC-UV, GC/MS, etc.). For these reasons, an increasing number of applications are being published. This paper is a brief overview of LC-MS(/MS) screening methods developed for clinical toxicology in recent years. Various sample treatments, chromatographic separations and detection by mass spectrometry can be combined to obtain screening methods adapted to the constraints and needs of clinical toxicology laboratories. Currently the techniques are in the hands of specialists, mainly in academic institutions. However, the evolution in technology should allow application of these techniques as a tool in toxicology laboratories, thus allowing a more widespread exploitation of their potential.

  1. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  2. The Role of Perceived Workplace Development Opportunities in Enhancing Individual Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mattia; Cavenago, Dario

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the effects on workers' employability of workplace development opportunities during employment as perceived by the workers themselves. Data was collected through a survey conducted in 2012 in Italy using a sample of 558 workers. The aim was to test the effects of participation in training courses, workplace learning…

  3. Assessing the scientific research productivity of a leading toxicology journal: A case study of Human & Experimental Toxicology from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessments. Bibliometric indicators involve the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each journal. The main objective of this study was to conduct a bibliometric evaluation of Human & Experimental Toxicology retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods: This study obtained data from Scopus published from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2012. The keywords entered in Scopus to accomplish the objective of this study were ‘Human’, ‘Experimental’ and ‘Toxicology’ as ‘Source Title’. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing (a) total and trends in Human & Experimental Toxicology contributions in research between 2003 and 2012; (b) Human & Experimental Toxicology authorship patterns and productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; and (d) the citations received by the publications. Results: There were 1229 research articles published in Human & Experimental Toxicology. Of the articles included, 947 (77.1%) were original articles and 104 (8.5%) were review articles. The Hirsch-index of the retrieved documents was 35. The largest number of publications in Human & Experimental Toxicology was from the United States (19.6%), followed by India (12.8%) and Turkey (10.9%). The total number of citations was 9119, with a median (interquartile range) of 3 (1–9) in 6797 documents. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (2.7–12.7) for France, followed by 7.5 (2–22.5) for Iran and 6 (3–13.5) for the United Kingdom. The country most often citing articles that were published in Human & Experimental Toxicology was the United States, which made citations in 1508 documents, followed by India with citations in 792 documents. Conclusion: The documents in Human & Experimental Toxicology focus principally on original data, with very few

  4. Workplace Culture Emotional Intelligence and Trust in the Prediction of Workplace Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stough, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study. The first was to assess the reliability of a new measure of emotional intelligence (EI, the Workplace Culture version of the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT which was designed to measure EI at a group level. The second aim of the study was to investigate the pre-conditions required for the formation of an emotionally intelligent group culture. Specifically, the study proposed that team leader trustworthiness at the leader/member dyad level was required for the formation of an emotionally intelligent culture at the group level. The sample comprised of 142 participants, of which 54 were male and 88 were female. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceptions of group EI, leader trustworthiness, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results of the study showed that the Workplace Culture SUEIT was reliable and predicted job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, trustworthiness of the team leader was found to be significantly correlated to dimensions of group level EI, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. It was concluded that the Workplace Culture SUEIT is a valid and useful tool for measuring group level EI. Furthermore, it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between group level EI and leader/member trust. Implications of the results and future research concerning group and leader EI are discussed.

  5. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  6. Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Salamanca-Buentello, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decision making about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.

  7. [Development and Application of Metabonomics in Forensic Toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Shen, Min

    2015-06-01

    Metabonomics is an important branch of system biology following the development of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. It can perform high-throughput detection and data processing with multiple parameters, potentially enabling the identification and quantification of all small metabolites in a biological system. It can be used to provide comprehensive information on the toxicity effects, toxicological mechanisms and biomarkers, sensitively finding the unusual metabolic changes caused by poison. This article mainly reviews application of metabonomics in toxicological studies of abused drugs, pesticides, poisonous plants and poisonous animals, and also illustrates the new direction of forensic toxicology research.

  8. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational Toxicology as Implemented by the US EPA ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the T

  10. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  11. Pregnancy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, H M; Myers, J; August, E M

    2012-03-01

    Women constitute a large percentage of the workforce in industrialized countries. As a result, addressing pregnancy-related health issues in the workplace is important in order to formulate appropriate strategies to promote and protect maternal and infant health. To explore issues affecting pregnant women in the workplace. A systematic literature review was conducted using Boolean combinations of the terms 'pregnant women', 'workplace' and 'employment' for publications from January 1990 to November 2010. Studies that explicitly explored pregnancy in the workplace within the UK, USA, Canada or the European Union were included. Pregnancy discrimination was found to be prevalent and represented a large portion of claims brought against employers by women. The relationship between environmental risks and exposures at work with foetal outcomes was inconclusive. In general, standard working conditions presented little hazard to infant health; however, pregnancy could significantly impact a mother's psychosocial well-being in the workplace. Core recommendations to improve maternal and infant health outcomes and improve workplace conditions for women include: (i) shifting organizational culture to support women in pregnancy; (ii) conducting early screening of occupational risk during the preconception period and (iii) monitoring manual labour conditions, including workplace environment and job duties.

  12. Problems in the Workplace: AIDS, Drug Testing, Sexual Harassment, and Smoking Restrictions. LERC Monograph Series No. 7. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Robert; And Others

    This document presents discussions of four problems that may be found in the workplace. "AIDS in the Workplace: Employee Safety and Rights" (Robert Durham and Burton White) explores issues of employee/employer relationship and the issue of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. It concludes that the management of the AIDS…

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  15. Antisickling and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abere, Tavs A; Okoye, Chiagozie J; Agoreyo, Freddy O; Eze, Gerald I; Jesuorobo, Rose I; Egharevba, Clement O; Aimator, Pauline O

    2015-11-23

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) together with other medicinal plants serve as antisickling remedies in Africa. This study was aimed at investigating the antisickling activity of the leaves of the plant as well as establishing the toxicological profile. Chemical tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Evaluation of the antisickling activity involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed sickle cell patients who were not in crises. Concentrations of the crude extract and its fractions were tested with normal saline and p-hydroxybenzoic acid serving as controls. Acute toxicological evaluation was carried out in mice while 30-day assessment was done in rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Percentage sickling inhibitions of the aqueous methanol extracts of S. dulcis were significant all through the period of assay p Scoparia dulcis in the management of Sickle cell disorders and a candidate for further investigations.

  16. THE FUTURE OF TOXICOLOGY-PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY: AN EXPANDED VIEW OF CHEMICAL TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chemistry approach to predictive toxicology relies on structure−activity relationship (SAR) modeling to predict biological activity from chemical structure. Such approaches have proven capabilities when applied to well-defined toxicity end points or regions of chemical space. T...

  17. Toxicodynetics: A new discipline in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Houzé, P; Villa, A; Borron, S W; Carli, P

    2016-05-01

    Regarding the different disciplines that encompass the pharmacology and the toxicology, none is specifically dedicated to the description and analysis of the time-course of relevant toxic effects both in experimental and clinical studies. The lack of a discipline devoted to this major field in toxicology results in misconception and even in errors by clinicians. Review of the basic different disciplines that encompass pharmacology toxicology and comparing with the description of the time-course of effects in conditions in which toxicological analysis was not performed or with limited analytical evidence. Review of the literature clearly shows how misleading is the current extrapolation of toxicokinetic data to the description of the time-course of toxic effects. A new discipline entitled toxicodynetics should be developed aiming at a more systematic description of the time-course of effects in acute human and experimental poisonings. Toxicodynetics might help emergency physicians in risk assessment when facing a poisoning and contribute to a better assessment of quality control of data collected by poison control centres. Toxicodynetics would also allow a quantitative approach to the clinical effects resulting from drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. EU Framework 6 Project: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox)-overview and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Laura; Schroeder, Susanne; Meyer, Kirstin; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Amberg, Alexander; Wendt, Maria; Gmuender, Hans; Mally, Angela; Boitier, Eric; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Matheis, Katja; Pfannkuch, Friedlieb

    2011-01-01

    In this publication, we report the outcome of the integrated EU Framework 6 Project: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox), including methodological aspects and overall conclusions. Specific details including data analysis and interpretation are reported in separate articles in this issue. The project, partly funded by the EU, was carried out by a consortium of 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 SMEs, and 3 universities. The effects of 16 test compounds were characterized using conventional toxicological parameters and 'omics' technologies. The three major observed toxicities, liver hypertrophy, bile duct necrosis and/or cholestasis, and kidney proximal tubular damage were analyzed in detail. The combined approach of 'omics' and conventional toxicology proved a useful tool for mechanistic investigations and the identification of putative biomarkers. In our hands and in combination with histopathological assessment, target organ transcriptomics was the most prolific approach for the generation of mechanistic hypotheses. Proteomics approaches were relatively time-consuming and required careful standardization. NMR-based metabolomics detected metabolite changes accompanying histopathological findings, providing limited additional mechanistic information. Conversely, targeted metabolite profiling with LC/GC-MS was very useful for the investigation of bile duct necrosis/cholestasis. In general, both proteomics and metabolomics were supportive of other findings. Thus, the outcome of this program indicates that 'omics' technologies can help toxicologists to make better informed decisions during exploratory toxicological studies. The data support that hypothesis on mode of action and discovery of putative biomarkers are tangible outcomes of integrated 'omics' analysis. Qualification of biomarkers remains challenging, in particular in terms of identification, mechanistic anchoring, appropriate specificity, and sensitivity.

  19. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies

  20. Workplace health promotion in the context of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe M. Masanotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern societies, work is the source of most individual, corporate and community wealth. The level of each society’s health is therefore particularly vulnerable to disruption caused by employee illness. Today healthy workplaces are one of the most important determinants of health. However, public health has tended to completely ignore health in the workplace and occupational medicine has tended to ignore it in part. This article refers to the Italian and European context and, through a review of international recommendations, research and direct field experiences, presents workplace health promotion as an important tool in the field of public health.

    Through the years, several initiatives have been tested. One of the platforms that has demonstrated to be cost effective is based on the principles included in the Ottawa Charter which, when applied to the workplace, define workplace health promotion. In the last twelve years, the European Commission has recognized the workplace as a key determinant of health and has outlined a methodology of workplace health promotion as defined in the Luxemburg Declaration. The basis of this methodology is planning. Without correct strategy and policy development it will not be possible to create a sustainable society. The enforcement of Lisbon treaty seems to be a substantial step forward for Europe.

  1. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, V.R.; Mortensen, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options

  2. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ``NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,`` supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance.

  3. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ''NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,'' supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance

  4. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  5. Workplace Environment Characteristics as Antecedents of Affective Well-being in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Waratta Authayarat; Hiroyuki Umemuro

    2012-01-01

    Workplace environment characteristics may positively or negatively evoke an individual’s affective experiences, and these experiences can influence affective experiences of others. This study investigates the relations between employees’ affective experiences and workplace environment characteristics. A questionnaire-based investigation was conducted with employees in Thai companies. Participants were asked to evaluate various aspects of their own workplace environments and their affective we...

  6. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future.

  7. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  8. Toxicology research projects directory, 1978. Monthly repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Toxicology Research Projects Directory is a monthly publication of ongoing research projects in toxicology and related fields selected from the files of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE). Each issue lists toxicology-related research projects reported to SSIE during the one-month period preceding that issue. Each of the summaries is categorized by scientific discipline and assigned a unique identification number for cross-referencing from the Directory Indexes--Subject, Investigator, Performing Organization, Supporting Agency, and Master Grant Number. The thirteenth issue consists of Cumulative Indexes for the entire volume with referencing to projects in all of the previous twelve issues. The emphasis of the Directory is on the manifestations of the exposure of man and animals to toxic substances. Projects are classified by toxic agents, research orientation, and areas of environmental concern

  9. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  10. Downloadable Computational Toxicology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s computational toxicology research generates data that investigates the potential harm, or hazard of a chemical, the degree of exposure to chemicals as well as the unique chemical characteristics. This data is publicly available here.

  11. New graduate nurses' perception of the workplace: have they experienced bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpohl, Darla A; Rice, Susan K; Edwards, Mary Ellen; Bork, Christopher E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the bullying experience in the workplace of newly licensed registered nurses (RNs). Preventing newly licensed nurses from leaving the profession is important, especially because there is a nursing shortage. Education of staff and administrators provides recognition of negative behaviors in the workplace. Participants in this research study included 135 newly licensed RN's from 5 nursing schools in Northwestern Ohio licensed in years 2007-2010. Quantitative methods and a descriptive design process included chi-square tests and descriptive statistical methods. Bullying workplace behaviors were identified by participants utilizing the survey tool, the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, and a questionnaire on work relationships and bullies recognized in the workplace. Nursing peers, physicians, or a patient's family were the main sources of bullying, and 29.5% had considered leaving the nursing profession. Education of staff is imperative for providing recognition of negative behaviors in the workplace. Bullying occurs in the workplace and is affecting the new graduates' work performance. Retaining newly graduated nurses is the ultimate goal for maintaining RN's in the workforce. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing--recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, George; Knight, Derek J; Schwarz, Michael; Gocht, Tilman; Thomas, Russell S; Mahony, Catherine; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December 2015. Drawing on the experience gained in SEURAT-1 and appreciating international advancement in both basic and regulatory science, we reflect here on how SEURAT should evolve and propose that further research and development should be directed along two complementary and interconnecting work streams. The first work stream would focus on developing new 'paradigm' approaches for regulatory science. The goal here is the identification of 'critical biological targets' relevant for toxicity and to test their suitability to be used as anchors for predicting toxicity. The second work stream would focus on integration and application of new approach methods for hazard (and risk) assessment within the current regulatory 'paradigm', aiming for acceptance of animal-free testing strategies by regulatory authorities (i.e. translating scientific achievements into regulation). Components for both work streams are discussed and may provide a structure for a future research programme in the field of predictive toxicology.

  13. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  15. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, E; Afanador, ZR; Deep-Soboslay, A; Gallegos, G; Darwin, WD; Lowe, RH; Barnes, AJ; Huestis, MA; Cadet, JL; Herman, MM; Hyde, TM; Kleinman, JE; Freed, WJ

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine, and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and 9 opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine, and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identif...

  16. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Severe Toxicological Exposures: Review of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G S; Levitan, R; Wiegand, T J; Lowry, J; Schult, R F; Yin, S

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality.

  17. Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2015-06-01

    Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.

  18. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. A...

  19. The New Toxicology of Sophisticated Materials: Nanotoxicology and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Warheit, David B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the physical form of materials can mediate their toxicity—the health impacts of asbestiform materials, industrial aerosols, and ambient particulate matter are prime examples. Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the nanoscale and biological interactions. With the rapid rise of the field of nanotechnology and the design and production of increasingly complex nanoscale materials, it has become ever more important to understand how the physical form and chemical composition of these materials interact synergistically to determine toxicity. As a result, a new field of research has emerged—nanotoxicology. Research within this field is highlighting the importance of material physicochemical properties in how dose is understood, how materials are characterized in a manner that enables quantitative data interpretation and comparison, and how materials move within, interact with, and are transformed by biological systems. Yet many of the substances that are the focus of current nanotoxicology studies are relatively simple materials that are at the vanguard of a new era of complex materials. Over the next 50 years, there will be a need to understand the toxicology of increasingly sophisticated materials that exhibit novel, dynamic and multifaceted functionality. If the toxicology community is to meet the challenge of ensuring the safe use of this new generation of substances, it will need to move beyond “nano” toxicology and toward a new toxicology of sophisticated materials. Here, we present a brief overview of the current state of the science on the toxicology of nanoscale materials and focus on three emerging toxicology-based challenges presented by sophisticated materials that will become increasingly important over the next 50 years: identifying relevant materials for study, physicochemical characterization, and

  20. Computational toxicology: Its essential role in reducing drug attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naven, R T; Louise-May, S

    2015-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays a critical role in reducing the failure rate of new drugs in pharmaceutical research and development. Despite recent gains in our understanding of drug-induced toxicity, however, it is urgent that the utility and limitations of our current predictive tools be determined in order to identify gaps in our understanding of mechanistic and chemical toxicology. Using recently published computational regression analyses of in vitro and in vivo toxicology data, it will be demonstrated that significant gaps remain in early safety screening paradigms. More strategic analyses of these data sets will allow for a better understanding of their domain of applicability and help identify those compounds that cause significant in vivo toxicity but which are currently mis-predicted by in silico and in vitro models. These 'outliers' and falsely predicted compounds are metaphorical lighthouses that shine light on existing toxicological knowledge gaps, and it is essential that these compounds are investigated if attrition is to be reduced significantly in the future. As such, the modern computational toxicologist is more productively engaged in understanding these gaps and driving investigative toxicology towards addressing them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  2. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian

    2008-07-02

    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  3. Does GLP enhance the quality of toxicological evidence for regulatory decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J.; Becker, Richard A.; Carlton, Betsy D.; Hanson, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Patricia L.; Sue Marty, Mary; McCarty, Lynn S.; Quill, Terry F.; Solomon, Keith; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Witorsch, Raphael J.; Don Yi, Kun

    2016-01-01

    There is debate over whether the requirements of GLP are appropriate standards for evaluating the quality of toxicological data used to formulate regulations. A group promoting the importance of non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine disruptors contend that scoring systems giving primacy to GLP are biased against non-GLP studies from the literature and are merely record-keeping exercises to prevent fraudulent reporting of data from non-published guideline toxicology studies. They argue that guideline studies often employ insensitive species and outdated methods, and ignore the perspectives of subject-matter experts in endocrine disruption, who should be the sole arbiters of data quality. We believe regulatory agencies should use both non-GLP and GLP studies, that GLP requirements assure fundamental tenets of study integrity not typically addressed by journal peer-review, and that use of standardized test guidelines and GLP promotes consistency, reliability, comparability, and harmonization of various types of studies used by regulatory agencies worldwide. This debate suffers two impediments to progress: a conflation of different phases of study interpretation and levels of data validity, and a misleading characterization of many essential components of GLP and regulatory toxicology. Herein we provide clarifications critical for removing those impediments. PMID:27208076

  4. A spirited workplace: Employee perspectives on the meaning of workplace spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. van Tonder

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although views on the nature of workplace spirituality abound, the meaning of the concept and its relatedness to other organisational constructs are everything but clear. Using a qualitative approach, the current study set out to explore the meaning of workplace spirituality among a group comprising 31 employees of a South African manufacturing concern. The findings derived through content analysis align well with literature perspectives on the phenomenon. The findings however also reveal that employee awareness and understanding of workplace spirituality are limited.

  5. Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D; de Castro, A Butch

    2014-05-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices to occupational health disparities. We conducted a broad review of research and other reports on the impact of workplace discrimination, harassment, and bullying on workers' health and on family and job outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies show that workplace injustice can influence workers' health through effects on workers' family life and job-related outcomes. Injustice is a key contributor to occupational health injustice and prospective studies with oversample of disadvantaged workers and refinement of methods for characterizing workplace injustices are needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding

    2017-08-01

    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Workplace Support, Discrimination, and Person-Organization Fit: Tests of the Theory of Work Adjustment with LGB Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the links of 2 workplace contextual variables--perceptions of workplace heterosexist discrimination and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)-supportive climates--with job satisfaction and turnover intentions in a sample of LGB employees. An extension of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) was used as the conceptual framework…

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 3, 2009, the Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White Hous...

  9. Can individual health differences be explained by workplace characteristics?--A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Staffan; Bolin, Malin; von Essen, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Research on work-related health has mainly focused on individual factors. The present study expands the focus by exploring the role of organizational characteristics of workplaces for different individual health outcomes. The aim of the study was to look at differences in relative effect of workplace variations on five health outcomes, and to explain those differences in health outcomes by organizational characteristics. The sample encompassed 90 workplaces in Sweden and about 4300 individuals employed within these workplaces. Measurement of the workplace characteristics was carried out independently of the measurement of the individual's working conditions and health. Organizational data were collected by interviews with local managers at participating workplaces, and individual data were obtained by means of a survey of the employees. The results showed that a significant proportion of the variance in sickness absence, work ability, general health, and musculoskeletal disorders was attributed to the workplace. Of eight tested organizational characteristics, customer adaptation, lean production, and performance control could explain some of this workplace variance. The results also showed that only one organizational effect remained significant when controlled for the individual confounder of age and gender. High customer adaptation is associated with higher sickness absence. This association is not mediated via differences in mental and physical job strain.

  10. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Elwér

    Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing

  11. Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  12. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  13. Safety evaluation of β-glucanase derived from Trichoderma reesei: Summary of toxicological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.M.M.; Schoenmakers, A.C.M.; Verhagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Barlican, a β-glucanase enzyme obtained from Trichoderma reesei, was produced by a fermentation process and subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use as a feed additive. The enzyme product was examined for general oral toxicity, inhalation toxicity, irritation to

  14. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  15. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometry in toxicology: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) approaches using time-of-flight or Orbitrap techniques for research and application in various toxicology fields, particularly in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology published since 2013 and referenced in PubMed. In the introduction, an overview on applications of HRMS in various toxicology fields is given with reference to current review articles. Papers concerning HRMS in metabolism, screening, and quantification of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxins in human body samples are critically reviewed. Finally, a discussion on advantages as well as limitations and future perspectives of these methods is included.

  17. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  18. The adverse outcome pathway concept: a pragmatic tool in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu

    2013-10-04

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are novel tools in toxicology and human risk assessment with broad potential. AOPs are designed to provide a clear-cut mechanistic representation of critical toxicological effects that span over different layers of biological organization. AOPs share a common structure consisting of a molecular initiating event, a series of intermediate steps and key events, and an adverse outcome. Development of AOPs ideally complies with OECD guidelines. This also holds true for AOP evaluation, which includes consideration of the Bradford Hill criteria for weight-of-evidence assessment and meeting a set of key questions defined by the OECD. Elaborate AOP frameworks have yet been proposed for chemical-induced skin sensitization, cholestasis, liver fibrosis and liver steatosis. These newly postulated AOPs can serve a number of ubiquitous purposes, including the establishment of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships, the development of novel in vitro toxicity screening tests and the elaboration of prioritization strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Women and the Violent Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sharon Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Globally workplace violence is a pressing concern. It is an ever increasing problem and thus an extensive field to research. Despite an increase in interest, there are specific areas of workplace violence that remain relatively unexplored, and this is further compounded because workplace violence is not clearly defined and neither is it readily understood (Dolan 2000, Webster et al 2007). Women’s experiences of workplace violence have been overlooked, primarily because women exist within a...

  20. Metabolomics in Toxicology and Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Bois, Frederic Y.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Coen, Muireann; Donley, Beth; Fischer, Steven M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Fabian, Eric; Guillou, Claude; Heuer, Joachim; Hogberg, Helena T.; Jungnickel, Harald; Keun, Hector C.; Krennrich, Gerhard; Krupp, Eckart; Luch, Andreas; Noor, Fozia; Peter, Erik; Riefke, Bjoern; Seymour, Mark; Skinner, Nigel; Smirnova, Lena; Verheij, Elwin; Wagner, Silvia; Hartung, Thomas; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Leist, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological system, provides detailed information about the biochemical/physiological status of a biological system, and about the changes caused by chemicals. Metabolomics analysis is used in many fields, ranging from the analysis of the physiological status of genetically modified organisms in safety science to the evaluation of human health conditions. In toxicology, metabolomics is the -omics discipline that is most closely related to classical knowledge of disturbed biochemical pathways. It allows rapid identification of the potential targets of a hazardous compound. It can give information on target organs and often can help to improve our understanding regarding the mode-of-action of a given compound. Such insights aid the discovery of biomarkers that either indicate pathophysiological conditions or help the monitoring of the efficacy of drug therapies. The first toxicological applications of metabolomics were for mechanistic research, but different ways to use the technology in a regulatory context are being explored. Ideally, further progress in that direction will position the metabolomics approach to address the challenges of toxicology of the 21st century. To address these issues, scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory bodies came together in a workshop to discuss the current status of applied metabolomics and its potential in the safety assessment of compounds. We report here on the conclusions of three working groups addressing questions regarding 1) metabolomics for in vitro studies 2) the appropriate use of metabolomics in systems toxicology, and 3) use of metabolomics in a regulatory context. PMID:23665807

  1. The four cornerstones of Evolutionary Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, John W

    2011-05-01

    Evolutionary Toxicology is the study of the effects of chemical pollutants on the genetics of natural populations. Research in Evolutionary Toxicology uses experimental designs familiar to the ecotoxicologist with matched reference and contaminated sites and the selection of sentinel species. It uses the methods of molecular genetics and population genetics, and is based on the theories and concepts of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. Although it is a relatively young field, interest is rapidly growing among ecotoxicologists and more and more field studies and even controlled laboratory experiments are appearing in the literature. A number of population genetic impacts have been observed in organisms exposed to pollutants which I refer to here as the four cornerstones of Evolutionary Toxicology. These include (1) genome-wide changes in genetic diversity, (2) changes in allelic or genotypic frequencies caused by contaminant-induced selection acting at survivorship loci, (3) changes in dispersal patterns or gene flow which alter the genetic relationships among populations, and (4) changes in allelic or genotypic frequencies caused by increased mutation rates. It is concluded that population genetic impacts of pollution exposure are emergent effects that are not necessarily predictable from the mode of toxicity of the pollutant. Thus, to attribute an effect to a particular contaminant requires a careful experimental design which includes selection of appropriate reference sites, detailed chemistry analyses of environmental samples and tissues, and the use of appropriate biomarkers to establish exposure and effect. This paper describes the field of Evolutionary Toxicology and discusses relevant field studies and their findings. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  2. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  3. Using Pareto points for model identification in predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Predictive toxicology is concerned with the development of models that are able to predict the toxicity of chemicals. A reliable prediction of toxic effects of chemicals in living systems is highly desirable in cosmetics, drug design or food protection to speed up the process of chemical compound discovery while reducing the need for lab tests. There is an extensive literature associated with the best practice of model generation and data integration but management and automated identification of relevant models from available collections of models is still an open problem. Currently, the decision on which model should be used for a new chemical compound is left to users. This paper intends to initiate the discussion on automated model identification. We present an algorithm, based on Pareto optimality, which mines model collections and identifies a model that offers a reliable prediction for a new chemical compound. The performance of this new approach is verified for two endpoints: IGC50 and LogP. The results show a great potential for automated model identification methods in predictive toxicology. PMID:23517649

  4. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing.

  5. Behind closed doors: in-home workers' experience of sexual harassment and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K

    2001-07-01

    The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.

  6. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  7. Docking-based classification models for exploratory toxicology studies on high-quality estrogenic experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exploratory toxicology is a new emerging research area whose ultimate mission is that of protecting human health and environment from risks posed by chemicals. In this regard, the ethical and practical limitation of animal testing has encouraged the promotion of compu...

  8. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  9. Test Methods for Effects on Organisms:Springtails

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    NORD-UTTE er Nordisk koordineringsgrupp för utvekling av testmetoder inom toxicologi och ekotoxicology. The Nordic Co-ordination Group for the Development of Test Methods for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

  10. History of the Journal of the American College of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mildred S

    2004-01-01

    This companion article to the History of the American College of Toxicology also is written in celebration of the 25th Anniversary of the American College of Toxicology (ACT). It relates how the official journal of the College evolved from a privately owned publication, the Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology (JEPT), into publications owned and managed by the College and its Board, for the first 17 years as the Journal of the American College of Toxicology (JACT) and currently as The International Journal of Toxicology (IJT). It relates how the first journal focused on toxicological studies, potential cancer causes and concerns associated with environmental contamination and chemical exposure safety issues. It tells how this journal was replaced by one more broadly based that addressed multiple industries and regulatory approaches, accepted previously unpublishable "no-effect" studies, so important in eliminating unwarranted animal use, and provided review articles, rather than only original research. It also described how the JACT evolved into an international journal finally recognized for its quality reviews and peer-reviewed research. Each of the three journals that represented the College is described, as well as interesting events associated with their development and publication, including the activities and contributions of the first four editors in chief, Drs. Myron A. Mehlman, Mildred S. Christian, Robert M. Diener and Harihara Mehendale.

  11. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  12. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  13. A workplace stretching program. Physiologic and perception measurements before and after participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T M

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a primary prevention program in the workplace targeted to prevent muscle strains. Physiologic and perception measurements were taken before and after participation in a stretching program developed to improve flexibility through conditioning. A one group pre-test post-test design was used with 60 employees enrolled in a 36 session stretching program in the workplace. Flexibility was measured by a flexibility profile including the sit and reach test, bilateral body rotation measurements, and shoulder rotation measurements. A statistically significant increase was found in all flexibility measurements at the conclusion of the study for the participants as a total group. Perception, as measured by the Fox Physical Self Perception Profile, was statistically significant in relation to participants' perceptions of their body attractiveness, physical conditioning, and overall self worth at the program's conclusion. In addition, participants who completed the program had zero occurrences of musculoskeletal injuries during the 2 month period. The results of this study suggest that continued development and implementation of stretching programs in the workplace may benefit employees by increasing flexibility and potentially preventing injuries due to muscle strains. Stretching programs in the workplace also may improve components of employees' perceptions of their physical bodies.

  14. An investigation of the genetic toxicology of irradiated foodstuffs using short-term systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.J.; Kranz, E.; Elias, P.S.; Muenzner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The genetic toxicology of irradiated foodstuffs has been investigated by the use of a battery of short-term tests for genetic damage. Appropriate methods are discussed for the preparation of food samples for testing by techniques involving micro-organisms and mammalian cells in culture. A new method of sample preparation by enzymatic digestion in vitro is described and its use in the testing of three irradiated foodstuffs by the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test is reported. The results of the mutation tests provide further evidence of the lack of genetic toxicity of irradiated foods. (author)

  15. Workplace Learning as a Cultural Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Nicky

    2001-01-01

    Despite the raised status of learning in workplace culture, workplace learning may be experienced as oppressive or disempowering when it must conform to cultural norms or learner differences are made invisible. Workplace educators should understand culture as an evolving entity and challenge oppressive workplace practices. (Contains 16…

  16. Recessions are Bad for Workplace Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wuellrich, J.P.; Zweimuller, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fl uctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. Our paper uses unique data on workplace accidents from an Austrian matched worker-firm dataset to study in detail how economic incentives affect workplace accidents. We find that workers who reported an accident in a par...

  17. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  18. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND OF BOARD ON AND ON NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the t...

  19. An Integrated Chemical Environment to Support 21st-Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Shannon M; Phillips, Jason; Sedykh, Alexander; Tandon, Arpit; Sprankle, Catherine; Morefield, Stephen Q; Shapiro, Andy; Allen, David; Shah, Ruchir; Maull, Elizabeth A; Casey, Warren M; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C

    2017-05-25

    SUMMARY : Access to high-quality reference data is essential for the development, validation, and implementation of in vitro and in silico approaches that reduce and replace the use of animals in toxicity testing. Currently, these data must often be pooled from a variety of disparate sources to efficiently link a set of assay responses and model predictions to an outcome or hazard classification. To provide a central access point for these purposes, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods developed the Integrated Chemical Environment (ICE) web resource. The ICE data integrator allows users to retrieve and combine data sets and to develop hypotheses through data exploration. Open-source computational workflows and models will be available for download and application to local data. ICE currently includes curated in vivo test data, reference chemical information, in vitro assay data (including Tox21 TM /ToxCast™ high-throughput screening data), and in silico model predictions. Users can query these data collections focusing on end points of interest such as acute systemic toxicity, endocrine disruption, skin sensitization, and many others. ICE is publicly accessible at https://ice.ntp.niehs.nih.gov. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1759.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (Tca) (Final ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. The draft Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.

  1. The internationalised workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2017-01-01

    The Danish workplace is becoming more and more international. Not only has the number of foreign employees living and working in Denmark increased over the past few years, there is also a significant number of commuters crossing the border every day to go to their workplace in Denmark. In total...

  2. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  3. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Interagency ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2017, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  5. Opportunity for Collaboration Between Radiation Injury Treatment Network Centers and Medical Toxicology Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlantes, Elizabeth; Shartar, Samuel; Venero, Jennifer; Steck, Alaina; Langston, Amelia; Kazzi, Ziad N

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) comprises >50 centers across the United States that are poised to care for victims of a radiation emergency. The network is organized around bone marrow transplant centers because these facilities excel in both radiation medicine and the care of patients with severe bone marrow depression. A radiation emergency may cause not only irradiation from an external source but also internal contamination with radioactive material. Because medical toxicologists are trained in radiation injury management and have expertise in the management of internal contamination, RITN centers may benefit from partnerships with medical toxicology resources, which may be located at academic medical centers, hospital inpatient clinical services, outpatient clinics, or poison control centers. We determined the locations of existing RITN centers and assessed their proximity to various medical toxicology resources, including medical toxicology fellowship programs, inpatient toxicology services, outpatient toxicology clinics, and poison control centers. Data were derived from publicly available Internet sources in March 2015. The majority of RITN centers do not have a medical toxicology fellowship, an inpatient toxicology service, or an outpatient toxicology clinic within the same institution. Fifty-seven percent of RITN centers have at least one of these resources located in the same city, however, and 73% of centers have at least one of these resources or a poison control center within the same city. Ninety-five percent of RITN centers have at least one medical toxicology resource within the state. Most RITN centers are located in the same city as at least one medical toxicology resource. Establishing relationships between RITN centers and medical toxicologists needs to be explored further.

  6. Zebrafish neurotransmitter systems as potential pharmacological and toxicological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, E P; Rosemberg, D B; Seibt, K J; Capiotti, K M; Da Silva, R S; Bonan, C D

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in neurobiology have emphasized the study of brain structure and function and its association with numerous pathological and toxicological events. Neurotransmitters are substances that relay, amplify, and modulate electrical signals between neurons and other cells. Neurotransmitter signaling mediates rapid intercellular communication by interacting with cell surface receptors, activating second messenger systems and regulating the activity of ion channels. Changes in the functional balance of neurotransmitters have been implicated in the failure of central nervous system function. In addition, abnormalities in neurotransmitter production or functioning can be induced by several toxicological compounds, many of which are found in the environment. The zebrafish has been increasingly used as an animal model for biomedical research, primarily due to its genetic tractability and ease of maintenance. These features make this species a versatile tool for pre-clinical drug discovery and toxicological investigations. Here, we present a review regarding the role of different excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish, such as dopaminergic, serotoninergic, cholinergic, purinergic, histaminergic, nitrergic, glutamatergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic systems, and emphasizing their features as pharmacological and toxicological targets. The increase in the global knowledge of neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish and the elucidation of their pharmacological and toxicological aspects may lead to new strategies and appropriate research priorities to offer insights for biomedical and environmental research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Harmane-β-Carboline Alkaloid: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Patel, Seema; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2017-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolites have an outstanding therapeutic potential and success over the years. In fact, it is the foundation of numerous clinically used drugs. Similarly, these is a general perception that these products are inherent safety. However, such products might have toxic/unwanted lethal effects therefore, along with biological relevance, toxicological evaluation is equally important for clinical applications. Therefore, harmane- β-carboline alkaloid was investigated for both therapeutic and toxicological potential. The literature related to the therapeutic/toxicological effects of the alkaloid was searched using various scientific data bases including Google, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, ASC. The peer reviewed articles were only selected. The harmane-β-carboline alkaloid has shown several pharmacological activities such as antianxiety, antidepressant, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase inhibition, antioxidant, antiparasitic, hypotensive, morphine withdrawal syndrome alleviation, and antinociceptive effects. On the other hand, it exhibited tremorogenic effect, for a symptom of Parkinson's disease. Adverse effect of the alkaloid on learning and memory have also been observed. All together, it is, concluded in this review that harmane elicited marked pharmacological effects but simultaneously, it possessed some serious side effects that could be the primary hurdle in the way of its clinical testing. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Toxicological analysis of 1-P-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimov, I.F.; Kimsanov, A.B.; Khaydarov, K.; Kimsanov, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have researched the toxicological analyse of 1-p-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol on white rats during the chronic infusion. The influence of, the preparation 1-p-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol on exponents, of the whole stable of the existence of tested animals was observed. It obviously shows that during 30 days in 25 and 50 mg/kg doses the masses of the body of the animals didn't show any phenomenon of the organisms, (allergy, anaphylaxis). The mass of a body of the tested and controlled groups of animals in same extent increased. The changes in blood there quite normal

  9. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  10. Operational Toxicology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    techniques for perchlorate in water, groundwater, soil and biological matrices such as blood, urine, milk . thyroid and other tissues required for...toxicity when they are inhaled or ingested and they are irritating to the skin and mucus membranes (Committee on Toxicology, 1996). When compared to...the data collected. Develop analytical techniques for perchlorate in water, groundwater, soil, and biological matrices such as blood, urine, milk

  11. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  12. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  13. Status and the evaluation of workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Gelfand, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Bias in the evaluation of workplace misbehavior is hotly debated in courts and corporations, but it has received little empirical attention. Classic sociological literature suggests that deviance by lower-status actors will be evaluated more harshly than deviance by higher-status actors. However, more recent psychological literature suggests that discrimination in the evaluation of misbehavior may be moderated by the relative status of the evaluator because status influences both rule observance and attitudes toward social hierarchy. In Study 1, the psychological experience of higher status decreased rule observance and increased preferences for social hierarchy, as we theorized. In three subsequent experiments, we tested the hypothesis that higher-status evaluators would be more discriminating in their evaluations of workplace misbehavior, evaluating fellow higher-status deviants more leniently than lower-status deviants. Results supported the hypothesized interactive effect of evaluator status and target status on the evaluation of workplace deviance, when both achieved status characteristics (Studies 2a and 2b) and ascribed status characteristics (i.e., race and gender in Study 3) were manipulated.

  14. Exploring national surveillance for health-related workplace absenteeism: lessons learned from the 2009 influenza A pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Matthew R; Konicki, Doris L; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Gomaa, Ahmed; Koonin, Lisa M

    2013-04-01

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention did a pilot study to test the feasibility of using national surveillance of workplace absenteeism to assess the pandemic's impact on the workplace to plan for preparedness and continuity of operations and to contribute to health awareness during the emergency response. Population-based and sentinel worksite approaches were used. Monthly measures of the 1-week prevalence of health-related absenteeism among full-time workers were estimated using nationally representative data from the Current Population Survey. Enhanced passive surveillance of absenteeism was conducted using weekly data from a convenience sample of sentinel worksites. Nationally, the pandemic's impact on workplace absenteeism was small. Estimates of 1-week absenteeism prevalence did not exceed 3.7%. However, peak workplace absenteeism was correlated with the highest occurrence of both influenza-like illness and influenza-positive laboratory tests. Systems for monitoring workplace absenteeism should be included in pandemic preparedness planning.

  15. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Workplace bullying: A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja van den Broeck

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying. Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749. Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying.

  17. The study of forensic toxicology should not be neglected in Japanese universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Yajima, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroko; Nagasawa, Sayaka; Nara, Akina; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-04-01

    Forensic toxicology is aimed at identifying the relationship between drugs or poison and the cause of death or crime. In the authors' toxicology laboratory at Chiba University, the authors analyze almost every body for drugs and poisons. A simple inspection kit was used in an attempt to ascertain drug abuse. A mass spectrometer is used to perform highly accurate screening. When a poison is detected, quantitative analyses are required. A recent topic of interest is new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although NPS-related deaths may be decreasing, use of NPS as a cause of death is difficult to ascertain. Forensic institutes have recently begun to perform drug and poison tests on corpses. However, this approach presents several problems, as are discussed here. The hope is that highly accurate analyses of drugs and poisons will be performed throughout the country.

  18. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  20. [Clinical characteristics of patients with workplace-associated mood disorder --comparison with non-workplace-associated group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Tsubasa; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with workplace-associated mood disorder. We conducted a clinical survey involving 84 clinical cases (regular employees suffering from mood disorder) who were hospitalized in the Psychiatry Department of Jichi Medical University Hospital, for a period over 8 years and 4 months between April 1st, 2000 and July 31st, 2008. The size of the workplace-associated group as a percentage of those patients in whom the onset of the symptom was occasioned by an evident issue at their workplace was 65%. This rate accounted for 74% of the total patients if clinical cases in which an evident issue at the workplace served as a significant trigger for the symptom were added to these patients in the case of an initial episode in the "non-workplace associated group". In the workplace-associated group, cases in which the premorbid character was a "depression-related personality" comprised only 42%, and was noticeably characterized by a perfection-oriented habit, enthusiastic character, conformity with other people, etc. Furthermore, the percentage of patients who were diagnosed with a "depression-related personality" comprised only 59% of the "overworked group", in which a heavy workload was evident in the workplace-associated group. In the workplace-associated group, the percentage of cases involving managerial workers was significantly high; their rate as initial cases was significantly high, as well the proportion of favorable outcomes. In the workplace-associated group, the percentage of patients who showed unambiguous depression at the initial stage was significantly low. Likewise, a similar result was obtained in the overworked group. Workplace-associated mood disorder today tends to have a stress-related aspect, or aspect of adjustment disorder. There was a period in many cases during which the main symptoms were insomnia, headache, panic attack, etc., prior to the onset of unambiguous depression

  1. Understanding good practice in workplace coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumpopoulou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    Workplace coaching is growing rapidly and many organisations use it as a way to motivate and support their employees in their careers. This paper is a theoretical paper that draws upon the authors' experiences of workplace coaching. The author discusses the main aspects of successful workplace coaching while it summarises the most important behaviours and attitudes of an effective workplace coach.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  3. Toward the Rational Use of Exposure Information in Mixtures Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of all the disciplines of toxicology, perhaps none is as dependent on exposure information as Mixtures Toxicology. Identifying real world mixtures and replicating them in the laboratory (or in silico) is critical to understanding their risks. Complex mixtures such as cigarett...

  4. A longitudinal investigation of workplace bullying, basic need satisfaction, and employee functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Austin, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on self-determination theory, this study proposes and tests a model investigating the role of basic psychological need satisfaction in relation to workplace bullying and employee functioning (burnout, work engagement, and turnover intention). For this study, data were collected at 2 time points, over a 12-month period, from a sample of 699 nurses. The results from cross-lagged analyses support the proposed model. Results show that workplace bullying thwarts the satisfaction of employees' basic psychological needs and fosters burnout 12 months later. In addition, when taking into account the cross-lagged effect of workplace bullying on employee functioning, basic need satisfaction fosters work engagement and hinders turnover intention over time. Implications for workplace bullying research and managerial practices are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Best Practices for Workplace Safety, Health, and Well-Being: The Workplace Integrated Safety and Health Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Glorian; Sparer, Emily; Williams, Jessica A R; Gundersen, Daniel; Boden, Leslie I; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Katz, Jeffrey N; McLellan, Deborah L; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Revette, Anna; Wagner, Gregory R

    2018-05-01

    To present a measure of effective workplace organizational policies, programs, and practices that focuses on working conditions and organizational facilitators of worker safety, health and well-being: the workplace integrated safety and health (WISH) assessment. Development of this assessment used an iterative process involving a modified Delphi method, extensive literature reviews, and systematic cognitive testing. The assessment measures six core constructs identified as central to best practices for protecting and promoting worker safety, health and well-being: leadership commitment; participation; policies, programs, and practices that foster supportive working conditions; comprehensive and collaborative strategies; adherence to federal and state regulations and ethical norms; and data-driven change. The WISH Assessment holds promise as a tool that may inform organizational priority setting and guide research around causal pathways influencing implementation and outcomes related to these approaches.

  6. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  7. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  8. When employees strike back: investigating mediating mechanisms between psychological contract breach and workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Tang, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    In this article, psychological contract breach, revenge, and workplace deviance are brought together to identify the cognitive, affective, and motivational underpinnings of workplace deviance. On the basis of S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennett's (1997) model of workplace deviance, the authors proposed that breach (a cognitive appraisal) and violation (an affective response) initiate revenge seeking. Motivated by revenge, employees then engage in workplace deviance. Three studies tested these ideas. All of the studies supported the hypothesized relationships. In addition, self-control was found to be a moderator of the relationship between revenge cognitions and deviant acts; the relationship was weaker for people high in self-control.

  9. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...

  10. Cannabis Impairment in the Workplace: A Jurisdictional Analysis of Drug Testing Policies and Recommendations in the Context of Canadian Legalization and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Pelt, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis impairment can affect safety in the workplace. However, the proposed Cannabis Act does not include a framework for cannabis impairment in the workplace, as workplace health and safety in Canada is a provincial jurisdiction for most industries. In British Columbia, workplace health and safety is regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (OHSR) under the Workers Compensation Act (WCA). Part 4 – General Conditions of the OHSR contains regulations for impairment in the ...

  11. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; Pascal, M.D.; Richardson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC's approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs)

  12. American College of Medical Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Journal of Medical Toxicology About ACMT About Us History of ACMT ACMT Fact Sheet Strategic Plan ACMT ... Policies IJMT JMT Editorial Board About ACMT About Us History of ACMT ACMT Fact Sheet Strategic Plan ACMT ...

  13. La toxicología en la atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martínez Cabrera

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la función que debe desempeñar la toxicología en Cuba para contribuir al logro de la meta de Salud para todos en el año 2000, así como los factores que condicionan el surgimiento de la toxicología preventiva. Se expresan los principales elementos que debe conocer el médico de la familia sobre toxicología y la necesidad de ampliar la interacción en el terreno docente, asistencial e investigativo entre la toxicología y el nivel de atención primaria de salud.

  14. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  15. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  17. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern - Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e.g., 100. In doing so, TTC aims to compare exposure information (dose) with a threshold below which any hazard manifestation is very unlikely to occur. The history and current developments of this concept are reviewed and the application of TTC for different regulated products and their hazards is discussed. TTC lends itself as a pragmatic filter to deprioritize testing needs whenever real-life exposures are much lower than levels where hazard manifestation would be expected, a situation that is called "negligible exposure" in the REACH legislation, though the TTC concept has not been fully incorporated in its implementation (yet). Other areas and regulations - especially in the food sector and for pharmaceutical impurities - are more proactive. Large, curated databases on toxic effects of chemicals provide us with the opportunity to set TTC for many hazards and substance classes and thus offer a precautionary second tier for risk assessments if hazard cannot be excluded. This allows focusing testing efforts better on relevant exposures to chemicals.

  18. Workshop III: Improving the Workplace Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Igle; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, participants heard about initiatives taking place in Canada, the UK, Japan, and India to improve the workplace environment and shared good practices from around the world. Some of the less tangible aspects of the workplace environment, such as unconscious bias and accumulation of advantage and disadvantage, were explored.

  19. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  20. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  1. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  2. The New South Wales Allied Health Workplace Learning Study: barriers and enablers to learning in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Bradley; Pfeiffer, Daniella; Dominish, Jacqueline; Heading, Gaynor; Schmidt, David; McCluskey, Annie

    2014-03-25

    Workplace learning refers to continuing professional development that is stimulated by and occurs through participation in workplace activities. Workplace learning is essential for staff development and high quality clinical care. The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to and enablers of workplace learning for allied health professionals within NSW Health. A qualitative study was conducted with a purposively selected maximum variation sample (n =46) including 19 managers, 19 clinicians and eight educators from 10 allied health professions. Seven semi-structured interviews and nine focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. The 'framework approach' was used to guide the interviews and analysis. Textual data were coded and charted using an evolving thematic framework. Key enablers of workplace learning included having access to peers, expertise and 'learning networks', protected learning time, supportive management and positive staff attitudes. The absence of these key enablers including heavy workload and insufficient staffing were important barriers to workplace learning. Attention to these barriers and enablers may help organisations to more effectively optimise allied health workplace learning. Ultimately better workplace learning may lead to improved patient, staff and organisational outcomes.

  3. The New South Wales Allied Health Workplace Learning Study: barriers and enablers to learning in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace learning refers to continuing professional development that is stimulated by and occurs through participation in workplace activities. Workplace learning is essential for staff development and high quality clinical care. The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to and enablers of workplace learning for allied health professionals within NSW Health. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with a purposively selected maximum variation sample (n = 46) including 19 managers, 19 clinicians and eight educators from 10 allied health professions. Seven semi-structured interviews and nine focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. The ‘framework approach’ was used to guide the interviews and analysis. Textual data were coded and charted using an evolving thematic framework. Results Key enablers of workplace learning included having access to peers, expertise and ‘learning networks’, protected learning time, supportive management and positive staff attitudes. The absence of these key enablers including heavy workload and insufficient staffing were important barriers to workplace learning. Conclusion Attention to these barriers and enablers may help organisations to more effectively optimise allied health workplace learning. Ultimately better workplace learning may lead to improved patient, staff and organisational outcomes. PMID:24661614

  4. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Workplace Bullying Scale: The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Doğar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to adapt the Workplace Bullying Scale (Tınaz, Gök & Karatuna, 2013 to Albanian language and to examine its psychometric properties. The research was conducted on 386 person from different sectors of Albania. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Albanian scale yielded 2 factors different from original form because of cultural differences. Internal consistency coefficients are,890 -,801 and split-half test reliability coefficients, 864 -,808. Comfirmatory Factor Analysis results change from,40 to,73. Corrected item-total correlations ranged,339 to,672 and according to t-test results differences between each item’s means of upper 27% and lower 27% points were significant. Thus Workplace Bullying Scale can be use as a valid and reliable instrument in social sciences in Albania.

  6. Pre implanted mouse embryos as model for uranium toxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Miriam S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The search of 'in vitro' toxicology model that can predict toxicology effects 'in vivo' is a permanent challenge. A toxicology experimental model must to fill to certain requirements: to have a predictive character, an appropriate control to facilitate the interpretation of the data among the experimental groups, and to be able to control the independent variables that can interfere or modify the results that we are analyzing. The preimplantation embryos posses many advantages in this respect: they are a simple model that begins with the development of only one cell. The 'in vitro' model reproduces successfully the 'in vivo' situation. Due to the similarity that exists among the embryos of mammals during this period the model is practically valid for other species. The embryo is itself a stem cell, the toxicology effects are early observed in his clonal development and the physical-chemical parameters are easily controllable. The purpose of the exhibition is to explain the properties of the pre implanted embryo model for toxicology studies of uranium and to show our experimental results. The cultivation 'in vitro' of mouse embryos with uranylo nitrate demonstrated that the uranium causes from the 13 μgU/ml delay of development, decrease the number of cells per embryo and hipoploidy in the embryonic blastomere. (author)

  7. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology.

  8. MBA Students' Workplace Writing: Implications for Business Writing Pedagogy and Workplace Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Employers frequently complain about the state of their employees' writing skills. Much of the current research on this subject explores workplace writing skills from the employer's perspective. However, this article examines workplace writing from the employees' perspective. Specifically, it analyzes MBA students' responses to a course assignment…

  9. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. THE EFFECT OF WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY DIMENSIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT WITH PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Haryokusumo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to test the effect of workplace spirituality dimensions (inner life, meaningful work, and condition for community on organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative and also to test the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. 130 questionnaires were collected from six organizations in Yogyakarta.The result of this research shows the workplace spirituality dimensions have positive effect on affective commitment. Testing of moderation effect shows perceived organizational support does not moderate the positive effect of workplace spirituality dimensions on components of organizational commitment. Based on this research, condition for community has the biggest effect on affective commitment, while inner life has biggest effect on normative and continuance commitment. Implication for management theory and practice are discussed.

  11. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  12. Discrimination, Harassment, Abuse and Bullying in the Workplace: Contribution of Workplace Injustice to Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664

  13. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report

  14. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  15. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  16. Understanding and Influencing Workplace Sedentary Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    NYSSA TEGAN HADGRAFT

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (or sitting) is a recently identified chronic disease risk factor. Many adults spend the majority of their working hours sitting, making the workplace a key setting for public health interventions. This thesis aimed to identify factors that influence workplace sitting time and the feasibility of reducing this behaviour. The most prominent factors identified were: the nature of work, social norms and workplace culture, and the workplace physical environment. These findings ...

  17. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  18. Alcohol and drug use in the workplace : managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The importance of implementing comprehensive drug and alcohol policies in the workplace was discussed with particular emphasis on the procedures which are needed to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements regarding alcoholism and drug abuse. A study of workplace substance abuse issues in Alberta revealed that 80 per cent of the Alberta workforce uses alcohol, 27 per cent use cold medication, and 6.5 per cent use illicit drugs. The impact of drug and alcohol use in the workplace was also reviewed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policy procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities. 3 refs.

  19. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings that deal will radioactive particles. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics

  20. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96 ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  1. Distance learning and toxicology: New horizons for Paracelsus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, Jane; Morris, John; Peterson, C. Erik

    2005-01-01

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional 'face-to-face' lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class (!). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional 'face-to-face' model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine 'face-to-face' interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do 'review' or 'remedial' work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers

  2. 20 CFR 439.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 439.635 Section 439.635 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  3. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  4. 28 CFR 83.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 83.635 Section 83.635 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  5. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  6. A comparison of simulation-based education versus lecture-based instruction for toxicology training in emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddry, Joseph K; Varney, Shawn M; Sessions, Daniel; Heard, Kennon; Thaxton, Robert E; Ganem, Victoria J; Zarzabal, Lee A; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2014-12-01

    Simulation-based teaching (SIM) is a common method for medical education. SIM exposes residents to uncommon scenarios that require critical, timely actions. SIM may be a valuable training method for critically ill poisoned patients whose diagnosis and treatment depend on key clinical findings. Our objective was to compare medical simulation (SIM) to traditional lecture-based instruction (LEC) for training emergency medicine (EM) residents in the acute management of critically ill poisoned patients. EM residents completed two pre-intervention questionnaires: (1) a 24-item multiple-choice test of four toxicological emergencies and (2) a questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale to rate the residents' comfort level in diagnosing and treating patients with specific toxicological emergencies. After completing the pre-intervention questionnaires, residents were randomized to SIM or LEC instruction. Two toxicologists and three EM physicians presented four toxicology topics to both groups in four 20-min sessions. One group was in the simulation center, and the other in a lecture hall. Each group then repeated the multiple-choice test and questionnaire immediately after instruction and again at 3 months after training. Answers were not discussed. The primary outcome was comparison of immediate mean post-intervention test scores and final scores 3 months later between SIM and LEC groups. Test score outcomes between groups were compared at each time point (pre-test, post-instruction, 3-month follow-up) using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Data were summarized by descriptive statistics. Continuous variables were characterized by means (SD) and tested using t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum. Categorical variables were summarized by frequencies (%) and compared between training groups with chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Thirty-two EM residents completed pre- and post-intervention tests and comfort questionnaires on the study day. Both groups had higher post-intervention mean test

  7. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  8. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  9. 45 CFR 1173.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1173.635 Section 1173.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  10. 21 CFR 1405.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1405.635 Section 1405.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a...

  11. 49 CFR 32.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 32.635 Section 32.635 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  12. 10 CFR 607.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 607.635 Section 607.635 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  13. 22 CFR 210.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 210.635 Section 210.635 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  14. 36 CFR 1212.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1212.635... RULES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  15. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  16. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance...

  17. 7 CFR 3021.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 3021.635 Section 3021.635..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 3021.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  18. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance...

  19. Conceptualizing the dynamics of workplace stress: a systems-based study of nursing aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Kernan, Laura; Kurowski, Alicia

    2017-01-05

    with attention both to interactions among causes and avoidance of adverse unintended consequences. While additional research is needed to further test the modeling approach, findings might underscore the need to direct workplace interventions towards changing organizational conditions for nursing aides.

  20. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    ... employed in recent studies. The coverage discusses the environmental behavior and toxicological effects of mercury on organisms, including humans, and provides case studies at the end of each chapter...

  1. Imaging mass spectrometry in drug development and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2017-06-01

    During the last decades, imaging mass spectrometry has gained significant relevance in biomedical research. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry have paved the way for in situ studies on drug development, metabolism and toxicology. In contrast to whole-body autoradiography that images the localization of radiolabeled compounds, imaging mass spectrometry provides the possibility to simultaneously determine the discrete tissue distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry features high molecular specificity and allows comprehensive, multiplexed detection and localization of hundreds of proteins, peptides and lipids directly in tissues. Toxicologists traditionally screen for adverse findings by histopathological examination. However, studies of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning toxicological and pathologic findings induced by candidate drugs or toxins are important to reach a mechanistic understanding and an effective risk assessment strategy. One of IMS strengths is the ability to directly overlay the molecular information from the mass spectrometric analysis with the tissue section and allow correlative comparisons of molecular and histologic information. Imaging mass spectrometry could therefore be a powerful tool for omics profiling of pharmacological/toxicological effects of drug candidates and toxicants in discrete tissue regions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of imaging mass spectrometry, with particular focus on MALDI imaging mass spectrometry, and its use in drug development and toxicology in general.

  2. Recent trends in analytical procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Jan F

    2005-12-01

    Forensic toxicology is a very demanding discipline,heavily dependent on good analytical techniques. That is why new trends appear continuously. In the past years. LC-MS has revolutionized target compound analysis and has become the trend, also in toxicology. In LC-MS screening analysis, things are less straightforward and several approaches exist. One promising approach based on accurate LC-MSTOF mass measurements and elemental formula based library searches is discussed. This way of screening has already proven its applicability but at the same time it became obvious that a single accurate mass measurement lacks some specificity when using large compound libraries. CE too is a reemerging approach. The increasingly polar and ionic molecules encountered make it a worthwhile addition to e.g. LC, as illustrated for the analysis of GHB. A third recent trend is the use of MALDI mass spectrometry for small molecules. It is promising for its ease-of-use and high throughput. Unfortunately, re-ports of disappointment but also accomplishment, e.g. the quantitative analysis of LSD as discussed here, alternate, and it remains to be seen whether MALDI really will establish itself. Indeed, not all new trends will prove themselves but the mere fact that many appear in the world of analytical toxicology nowadays is, in itself, encouraging for the future of (forensic) toxicology.

  3. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  4. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  5. 2 CFR 182.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 182.635 Section 182.635... Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  6. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  7. 13 CFR 147.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 147.635... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  8. 40 CFR 36.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 36.635 Section 36... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  9. 43 CFR 43.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 43.635 Section 43.635 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site...

  10. 24 CFR 21.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 21.635 Section... Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  11. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  12. 75 FR 25867 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM.... Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-10958 Filed 5-7-10; 8:45 am...

  13. Design and validation of an ontology-driven animal-free testing strategy for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2018-03-13

    Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area. Given the impressive progress in mechanistic knowledge of human biology and toxicology, the time is right for a conceptual approach for designing testing strategies that cover the integral mechanistic landscape of developmental neurotoxicity. The ontology approach provides a framework for defining this landscape, upon which an integral in silico model for predicting toxicity can be built. It subsequently directs the selection of in vitro assays for rate-limiting events in the biological network, to feed parameter tuning in the model, leading to prediction of the toxicological outcome. Validation of such models requires primary attention to coverage of the biological domain, rather than classical predictive value of individual tests. Proofs of concept for such an approach are already available. The challenge is in mining modern biology, toxicology and chemical information to feed intelligent designs, which will define testing strategies for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a workplace hemochromatosis screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, G M; Mignogna, J J; Powell, G S; Hunt, C M

    1999-05-01

    Hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism with significant health consequences for the employed population. Although screening for hemochromatosis has been recommended, workplace screening programs remain uncommon. In the first year of a newly initiated corporate screening program, 1968 employees were tested. The screening algorithm included measurement of serum iron and transferrin and subsequent ferritin levels in those employees with elevated iron/transferrin ratios. Thirteen percent of men and 21% of women had elevated iron/transferrin ratios. Of these, 14 men and 2 women had elevated ferritin levels. Of these 16, three had liver biopsies and all three have hemochromatosis. The cost of the screening program was $27,850. The cost per diagnosis was $9283 and the cost per year of life saved was $928. These costs compare very favorably with other common workplace screening programs. Several barriers to obtaining definitive diagnoses on all patients with a positive screening result were identified; strategies to overcome these barriers would further enhance the cost effectiveness of the program. We conclude that workplace hemochromatosis screening is highly cost effective and should be incorporated into health promotion/disease prevention programs.

  15. Recessions are Bad for Workplace Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wuellrich, J.P.; Zweimuller, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fl uctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. Our paper uses unique

  16. Clinical, cytogenetic and toxicological studies in rural workers exposed to pesticides in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Marcia Bréga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides, hepatic enzyme dosage (GOT, GPT, AR and acetylcholinesterase activity were performed in 16 workers and 8 controls. In the exposed workers, the most relevant clinical symptoms were poor digestion with fullness sensation after meals, irritated eyes, headache and fasciculations. The exposed group showed significantly lower manganese dosage and acetylcholinesterase activity, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase. Cytogenetic studies showed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group compared to the control group. Although the workers used protection against the pesticide's fog, the results revealed that the workers were contaminated with the pesticides. Therefore, the cytogenetic, toxicological studies with clinical examination are necessary for monitoring workers who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.

  17. A social exchange-based model of the antecedents of workplace exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin L; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Zagenczyk, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies of coworker dyads to test a theoretical model exploring why and under what circumstances employees are the targets of workplace exclusion. Adopting a victim precipitation perspective, we integrate belongingness and social exchange theories to propose that employees who display workplace incivility are distrusted and therefore are targets of workplace exclusion. Highlighting the importance of the context of the perpetrator-target relationship, we also find support for the postulation that this mediated relationship is strengthened when the target employee is perceived to be a weak exchange partner and is attenuated when he or she is viewed as a valuable exchange partner. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Risk, Uncertainty and Precaution in Science: The Threshold of the Toxicological Concern Approach in Food Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschir, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty. In many contexts, however, uncertainties play a role not only in the application of scientific models but also in their development. Building on recent literature in the philosophy of science, this paper argues that precaution should be exercised at the stage when tools for risk assessment are developed as well as when they are used to inform decision-making. The relevance and consequences of this claim are discussed in the context of the threshold of the toxicological concern approach in food toxicology. I conclude that the approach does not meet the standards of an epistemic version of the precautionary principle.

  19. Modeling workplace bullying using catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, J; Ceja, L; Navarro, J; Zapf, D

    2013-10-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as negative behaviors directed at organizational members or their work context that occur regularly and repeatedly over a period of time. Employees' perceptions of psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying victimization, and workplace bullying perpetration were assessed within a sample of nearly 5,000 workers. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes in workplace bullying. More specifically, the present study examines whether a nonlinear dynamical systems model (i.e., a cusp catastrophe model) is superior to the linear combination of variables for predicting the effect of psychosocial safety climate and workplace bullying victimization on workplace bullying perpetration. According to the AICc, and BIC indices, the linear regression model fits the data better than the cusp catastrophe model. The study concludes that some phenomena, especially unhealthy behaviors at work (like workplace bullying), may be better studied using linear approaches as opposed to nonlinear dynamical systems models. This can be explained through the healthy variability hypothesis, which argues that positive organizational behavior is likely to present nonlinear behavior, while a decrease in such variability may indicate the occurrence of negative behaviors at work.

  20. 29 CFR 1472.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1472.635 Section 1472.635 Labor... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.38 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1260.38 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.38 Drug-free workplace. Drug-Free Workplace October 2000 (a) Definitions... use of any controlled substance. Drug-free workplace means the site(s) for the performance of work...

  2. 15 CFR 29.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 29.635 Section 29... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  3. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  4. 14 CFR 1267.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1267.635 Section 1267... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  5. Workplace Counselling: Implications For Enhanced Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further presents a model of workplace counseling and concludes that increase in work related trauma and stress, accidents at the workplace, harassment and bullying, absenteeism, low productivity/poor performance and labour turnover will be nipped in the bud if counseling service is provided at the workplace.

  6. Distance learning in toxicology: Resident and remote; Scotland, IPCS, IUPAC, and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffus, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Globally, very few college or university chemistry courses incorporate toxicology although public perception of chemicals and the chemical industry as threats to health and the environment has had an adverse effect on chemistry and on the use of its products. The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) through its Commission on Toxicology recognized this and, with the support of the Committee on the Teaching of Chemistry has used the IUPAC web site to promote distance learning in toxicology for chemists. After preparation of a thoroughly refereed consensus Glossary of Terms for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology, a textbook Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists and a set of educational modules entitled Essential Toxicology were compiled and put through the normal thorough review procedure of IUPAC before being approved by the organization. There is now an additional Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicokinetics. The modules are freely downloadable in Adobe PDF format and are designed to be used both by educators and by students. Educators are asked to select whatever is appropriate to their students and to use the material as they wish, adding content specifically relevant to their circumstances. For self-study, the web modules have self-assessment questions and model answers. Currently the original Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology is being revised and it is expected that this will lead to further developments. The currently available components of the IUPAC programme may be accessed through the IUPAC website at the Subcommittee on Toxicology and Risk Assessment page: http://www.iupac.org/divisions/VII/VII.C.2/index.html

  7. SERS as a tool for in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate M; McLeish, Jennifer A; Jamieson, Lauren E; Jiang, Jing; Hopgood, James R; McLaughlin, Stephen; Donaldson, Ken; Campbell, Colin J

    2016-06-23

    Measuring markers of stress such as pH and redox potential are important when studying toxicology in in vitro models because they are markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and viability. While surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to the measurement of redox potential and pH in live cells, the time-intensive nature and perceived difficulty in signal analysis and interpretation can be a barrier to its broad uptake by the biological community. In this paper we detail the development of signal processing and analysis algorithms that allow SERS spectra to be automatically processed so that the output of the processing is a pH or redox potential value. By automating signal processing we were able to carry out a comparative evaluation of the toxicology of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles and correlate our findings with qPCR analysis. The combination of these two analytical techniques sheds light on the differences in toxicology between these two materials from the perspective of oxidative stress.

  8. Effects of workplace intervention on affective well-being in employees' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B

    2016-05-01

    Using a group-randomized field experimental design, this study tested whether a workplace intervention-designed to reduce work-family conflict-buffered against potential age-related decreases in the affective well-being of employees' children. Daily diary data were collected from 9- to 17-year-old children of parents working in an information technology division of a U.S. Fortune 500 company prior to and 12 months after the implementation of the Support-Transform-Achieve-Results (STAR) workplace intervention. Youth (62 with parents in the STAR group, 41 in the usual-practice group) participated in 8 consecutive nightly phone calls, during which they reported on their daily stressors and affect. Well-being was indexed by positive and negative affect and affective reactivity to daily stressful events. The randomized workplace intervention increased youth positive affect and buffered youth from age-related increases in negative affect and affective reactivity to daily stressors. Future research should test specific conditions of parents' work that may penetrate family life and affect youth well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Implications of the stability behavior of zinc oxide nanoparticles for toxicological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tobias; Oelschlägel, Kathrin; Potthoff, Annegret

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in sunscreens and other cosmetic products demands a risk assessment that has to be done in toxicological studies. Such investigations require profound knowledge of the behavior of ZnO in cell culture media. The current study was performed to get well-dispersed suspensions of a hydrophilic (ZnO-hydro) and a lipophilic coated (ZnO-lipo) ZnO nanomaterial for use in in vitro tests. Therefore, systematic tests were carried out with common dispersants (phosphate, lecithin, proteins) to elucidate chemical and physical changes of ZnO nanoparticles in water and physiological solutions (PBS, DMEM). Non-physiological stock suspensions were prepared using ultrasonication. Time-dependent changes of pH, conductivity, zeta potential, particle size and dissolution were recorded. Secondly, the stock suspensions were added to physiological media with or without albumin (BSA) or serum (FBS), to examine characteristics such as agglomeration and dissolution. Stable stock suspensions were obtained using phosphate as natural and physiological electrostatic stabilizing agent. Lecithin proved to be an effective wetting agent for ZnO-lipo. Although the particle size remained constant, the suspension changed over time. The pH increased as a result of ZnO dissolution and formation of zinc phosphate complexes. The behavior of ZnO in physiological media was found to depend strongly on the additives used. Applying only phosphate as additive, ZnO-hydro agglomerated within minutes. In the presence of lecithin or BSA/serum, agglomeration was inhibited. ZnO dissolution was higher under physiological conditions than in the stock suspension. Serum especially promoted this process. Using body-related dispersants (phosphate, lecithin) non-agglomerating stock suspensions of hydrophilic and lipophilic ZnO were prepared as a prerequisite to perform meaningful toxicological investigation. Both nanomaterials showed a non-negligible dissolution behavior

  10. Workplace stress: what is the role of positive mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kathryn M; Milner, Allison J; Martin, Angela; Turrell, Gavin; Giles-Corti, Billie; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-08-01

    To examine whether positive mental health (PMH)-a positively focused well-being construct-moderates the job stress-distress relationship. Longitudinal regression was used to test two waves of matched, population-level data from a sample of older, working Australian adults (n = 3291) to see whether PMH modified the relationship between work stress and later psychological distress. Time 1 work stress was positively associated with distress at both time points. Positive mental health was negatively associated with work stress at both time points. Positive mental health modified the impact of work stress on psychological distress. This effect only occurred for those with the highest levels of PMH. Positive mental health may help protect workers from the effect of workplace stress but only in a small proportion of the population. Therefore, to improve workplace mental health, workplaces need to both prevent stress and promote PMH.

  11. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  12. 77 FR 22321 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for... (HTS) Assays for the Tox21 Initiative AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...: April 5, 2012. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2012-8942 Filed...

  13. Integrating Personalized Technology in Toxicology: Sensors, Smart Glass, and Social Media Applications in Toxicology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Chai, Peter R; Carey, Jennifer; Chapman, Brittany; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-06-01

    Rapid proliferation of mobile technologies in social and healthcare spaces create an opportunity for advancement in research and clinical practice. The application of mobile, personalized technology in healthcare, referred to as mHealth, has not yet become routine in toxicology. However, key features of our practice environment, such as frequent need for remote evaluation, unreliable historical data from patients, and sensitive subject matter, make mHealth tools appealing solutions in comparison to traditional methods that collect retrospective or indirect data. This manuscript describes the features, uses, and costs associated with several of common sectors of mHealth research including wearable biosensors, ingestible biosensors, head-mounted devices, and social media applications. The benefits and novel challenges associated with the study and use of these applications are then discussed. Finally, opportunities for further research and integration are explored with a particular focus on toxicology-based applications.

  14. A new experimental facility for studying aerosol sampling in workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Witstchger, O.

    2000-01-01

    The european council directive 96/29/EURATOM requires its implementation into national regulations. This directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. This directive allows to use aerosol characteristics (particle size distribution, airborne concentration, morphology and chemical composition) measured in workplace to assess the effective radiation dose of workers resulting from the intake by inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Tests of performances of instruments used for the health-related sampling of particles in workplace are usually carried out in a wind tunnel or a calm air chamber. In these test conditions, instruments are exposed to uniform wind and steady homogeneous aerosol. In a real workplace situation, these instruments are usually exposed to highly non-uniform airflows and local emissions of particles. Moreover, it is not clear how differences in airflow pattern, proximity of the localised contamination source, worker location or activity would affect the personal/static measurement ratio. The objective of our experimental work is to investigate the relevant parameters that affect the aerosol characteristics in the microenvironment of a worker (including breathing zone) and in the workplace. The first part of that study was to design and built an experimental room CEPIA (french acronym for room for studying personal and area samplers). The ventilated chamber (volume 36 m 3 ) is equipped with an air delivery system to insure different ventilation patterns and flowrates. The CEPIA chamber should offer possibilities for performing experiments in situations representing a workplace environment, with airflows and aerosol parameters well controlled and characterised. (authors)

  15. Workplace suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)

  16. Retirement and drinking outcomes: lingering effects of workplace stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Zlatoper, Kenneth W; Zackula Ehmke, Jennifer L; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2006-05-01

    This study assesses the degree to which sexual harassment (SH), generalized workplace abuse (GWA), and psychological workload (PWL) impact drinking behaviors in retirement. A mail survey was completed at four points in time by a cohort of 1654 employees initially drawn from a university workplace. Questionnaires assessed experiences of SH, GWA, PWL and drinking behaviors. Hypotheses were tested involving (1) the extent to which SH, GWA, and PWL experienced while working were associated with frequency and quantity of drinking in retirement, (2) the extent to which drinking levels of retirees differed from those of current employees experiencing similar stress levels, and (3) the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. Retirees reporting earlier stressful work environments report higher levels of alcohol consumption during retirement compared to those retirees reporting less stressful earlier work environments. Gender moderated these relationships. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a residual effect of workplace stress during retirement.

  17. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future; Toxicologie predictive: les voies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N' Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A. [and others

    2010-07-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  18. Romance in the Workplace: Analysis of Justice Perception toward Policies Concerning Romance in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Syaebani, Muhammad Irfan; Rachmawati, Riani

    2017-01-01

    Romance in the workplace is a common phenomenon and inevitable from organization dynamics. Romance in the workplace has double effects to the organization: positive and negative. Therefore, organization must be careful in formulating policies concerning this phenomenon. Literature said that in formulation policies concerning romance in the workplace it must be started from organizational justice theory. This research tries to find out what policies which perceived as the most fair. Quasi expe...

  19. Looking at genes in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, C

    1982-07-23

    The Office of Technology Assessment recently testified at a congressional hearing that many corporations are considering genetic screening of employees. Biochemical genetic screening of "susceptible" workers is aimed at identifying individuals unsuitable for specific jobs, and cytogenic monitoring involves the testing of groups of workers for chromosome aberrations that might occur as a result of exposure to chemicals. The apparent surge of interest in such testing requires that several legal, ethical, and policy issues be addressed, including the potential for discrimination, the misuse of screening as an alternative to cleaning up the workplace, the predictive capability of the tests, and the necessity for the development of guidelines for screening programs.

  20. Workplaces slow to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Oksanen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Regulations on radon in workplaces are based on the Radiation Act, which came into force in Finland at the beginning of 1992. An employer is required to have the working conditions investigated if it is suspected that the radon concentration exceeds the maximum. The annual average in regular work must not exceed 400 becquerels per cubic metre. Employers have shown so little interest in radon measurements that the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has had to send letters prompting employers in the worst radon areas to conduct measurements at workplaces. According to preliminary estimates, thousands of workplaces have concentrations exceeding the permissible maximum. (orig.)