WorldWideScience

Sample records for toxicological safety evaluation

  1. The principle of safety evaluation in medicinal drug - how can toxicology contribute to drug discovery and development as a multidisciplinary science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical (drug) safety assessment covers a diverse science-field in the drug discovery and development including the post-approval and post-marketing phases in order to evaluate safety and risk management. The principle in toxicological science is to be placed on both of pure and applied sciences that are derived from past/present scientific knowledge and coming new science and technology. In general, adverse drug reactions are presented as "biological responses to foreign substances." This is the basic concept of thinking about the manifestation of adverse drug reactions. Whether or not toxic expressions are extensions of the pharmacological effect, adverse drug reactions as seen from molecular targets are captured in the category of "on-target" or "off-target", and are normally expressed as a biological defense reaction. Accordingly, reactions induced by pharmaceuticals can be broadly said to be defensive reactions. Recent molecular biological conception is in line with the new, remarkable scientific and technological developments in the medical and pharmaceutical areas, and the viewpoints in the field of toxicology have shown that they are approaching toward the same direction as well. This paper refers to the basic concept of pharmaceutical toxicology, the differences for safety assessment in each stage of drug discovery and development, regulatory submission, and the concept of scientific considerations for risk assessment and management from the viewpoint of "how can multidisciplinary toxicology contribute to innovative drug discovery and development?" And also realistic translational research from preclinical to clinical application is required to have a significant risk management in post market by utilizing whole scientific data derived from basic and applied scientific research works. In addition, the significance for employing the systems toxicology based on AOP (Adverse Outcome Pathway) analysis is introduced, and coming challenges on precision

  2. Advances in Predictive Toxicology for Discovery Safety through High Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Mikael; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2016-12-19

    High content screening enables parallel acquisition of multiple molecular and cellular readouts. In particular the predictive toxicology field has progressed from the advances in high content screening, as more refined end points that report on cellular health can be studied in combination, at the single cell level, and in relatively high throughput. Here, we discuss how high content screening has become an essential tool for Discovery Safety, the discipline that integrates safety and toxicology in the drug discovery process to identify and mitigate safety concerns with the aim to design drug candidates with a superior safety profile. In addition to customized mechanistic assays to evaluate target safety, routine screening assays can be applied to identify risk factors for frequently occurring organ toxicities. We discuss the current state of high content screening assays for hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity, including recent developments and current advances.

  3. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jane; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive research on the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, uncertainty remains facilitating continued debate on medical and recreational cannabis policies at the state and federal levels. This review will include a brief description of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system; a summary of the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. The conclusions about safety and efficacy will...

  4. Safety evaluation of β-glucanase derived from Trichoderma reesei: Summary of toxicological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.M.M.; Schoenmakers, A.C.M.; Verhagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Barlican, a β-glucanase enzyme obtained from Trichoderma reesei, was produced by a fermentation process and subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use as a feed additive. The enzyme product was examined for general oral toxicity, inhalation toxicity, irritation to

  5. Toxicological Evaluation of Lactase Derived from Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300

  6. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Zou

    Full Text Available A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50 based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system.

  7. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jane; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    There is extensive research on the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, uncertainty remains facilitating continued debate on medical and recreational cannabis policies at the state and federal levels. This review will include a brief description of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system; a summary of the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. The conclusions about safety and efficacy will then be compared with the current social and political climate to suggest future policy directions and general guidelines.

  8. Toxicological evaluation of fracturing fluids; Toxikologische Bewertung von Fracking-Fluiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimmel, Fritz H.; Gordalla, Birgit [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserchemie und Wassertechnologie und DVGW-Forschungsstelle Engler-Bunte-Inst.; Ewers, Ulrich [Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Umweltmedizin und Toxikologie; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioanalytische Oekotoxikologie

    2012-11-01

    The fracturing technology utilizes chemicals which have to be evaluated according to the safety and environmental compatibility. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration present an integrated evaluation in terms of human toxicology, ecotoxicology as well as in terms of protection of drinking water on the basis of selected examples.

  9. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) to the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.; Renwick, A.G.; Feron, V.; Galli, C.L.; Gibney, M.; Greim, H.; Guy, R.H.; Lhuguenot, J.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) has been used for the safety assessment of packaging migrants and flavouring agents that occur in food. The approach compares the estimated oral intake with a TTC value derived from chronic oral toxicity data for structurally-related compounds.

  10. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel Citrus sudachi extract powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shikishima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus sudachi, an evergreen tree primarily found in the prefecture of Tokushima, Japan, is a widely used popular citrus fruit used in cooking and consumed as a juice. Citrus sudachi peels are rich in flavonoids including sudachitin (5,7,4’-trihydroxy- 6,8,3’- trimethoxyflavone, and exhibit potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic properties; additionally, several limonoids and their glucosides are found in its seeds. We examined the broad spectrum safety of a novel light yellow to golden yellow Citrus sudachi Extract Powder (CSEP, organic, nutritive from the dried fruit rind (25:1 herbs to extract ratio containing no less than 1% sudachitin in various toxicology models in GLP-approved laboratories. Methods: The acute oral toxicity study was conducted in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an up and down procedure. The single dose acute dermal LD 50 of CSEP was assessed in both male and female rats. The primary skin irritation toxicity of CSEP was assessed in female New Zealand Albino rabbits in order to determine the potential for CSEP to produce irritation after a single topical application, while primary eye irritation index of CSEP was conducted in female New Zealand Albino rabbits. Ames’ bacterial reverse mutation assay was conducted to determine the ability of CSEP to induce reverse mutation at selected histidine loci in five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium viz. TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102 in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9 at the doses of 5000, 1500, 500, 150 and 50 mg/plate. The mutagenic potential of CSEP was also evaluated in an in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test using the thymidine kinase gene of L5178 Tk+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line. Results: The acute oral LD 50 of CSEP was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. The single dose acute dermal LD 50 of CSEP was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats

  11. Waste tank safety program annual status report for FY 1993, Task 5: Toxicology and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.

    1993-09-01

    A toxicology team independently reviewed analytical data and provided advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents at the Hanford site. Most of the emphasis was directed toward Tank 241-C-103, but a preliminary assessment was also made of the toxicologic implication of the cyanide levels in the headspace of Tank 241-C-108. The objectives of this program are to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from various tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by waste-tank workers, (3) evaluate the toxicologic implications of those constituents by comparison to established toxicologic data bases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by the project manager and the cognizant Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issues Safety Resolution Manager

  12. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  13. Adaptation of the ToxRTool to Assess the Reliability of Toxicology Studies Conducted with Genetically Modified Crops and Implications for Future Safety Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' (ECVAM) ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators.

  14. Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, Flavonoid, Alkaloids, Anthraquinone, Saponin and Cardiac glycosides. This work thus justifies the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the treatment of anaemia and its safety profile. Keywords: Toxicological, Ethno toxicity, Hematological and phytochemical ...

  15. Toxicological and safety evaluation of Nigella sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicological aspects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. Methods: National Institute of Health (NIH, Islamabad provided us thirty Sprague Dawley rats that were further divided into three groups, i.e. control, N. sativa lipid fraction (4% and N. sativa volatile fraction (0.3%, respectively. The serological and haematological indices were evaluated at 4-week intervals during 56 d study. Results: The results indicated that the diabetes mellitus imparted negative effects on various serological and haematological attributes. However, supplementation of the N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction ameliorated the adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus. The diabetes induced renal toxicity and imbalanced serum chemistry were slightly modulated by experimental diets. However, the impact of essential oil was more significant as compared to the fixed oil. Conclusions: In a nutshell, experimental diets containing N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction are effective without having any toxicological effects, and experimental diets reduced toxicological and adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  17. Toxicological and radiological safety of chicken meat irradiated with 7.5 MeV X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Yunjong; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Ha-Young; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kim, Chang-Jong; Kang, Il-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicological and radiological safety of chicken meat that had been irradiated at 30 kGy with 7.5 MeV X-rays. In a sub-chronic toxicity study, ICR mice were fed X-ray-irradiated chicken meat at 2500 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days, and no mortality or abnormal clinical signs were observed throughout the study period. However, several hematological and serum biochemical parameters of the ICR mice differed significantly from those in the control group; nevertheless, the observed values were all within the normal range for the respective parameters. In addition, no toxicological effects were determined in male or female mice. Furthermore, no differences in gamma-ray spectrometric patterns were detected between the non-irradiated and irradiated samples, indicating that the radioactivity induced by 7.5 MeV X-ray irradiation was below the detection limit. These results tentatively suggest that chicken meat irradiated with 7.5 MeV X-rays would be safe for human consumption in terms of toxicology and radiology.

  18. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  19. Handbook of safety assessment of nanomaterials from toxicological testing to personalized medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeel, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    "The Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: From Toxicological Testing to Personalized Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of nanotoxicology and is a unique resource that fills up many knowledge gaps in the toxicity issue of nanomaterials in medical applications. The book is distinguished by up-to-date insights into creating a science-based framework for safety assessment of nanomedicines." -Prof. Yuliang Zhao, National Center for Nanosciences and Technology, China.

  20. Safety and toxicology assessment of chicken breast for high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Yan Jianmin; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Liu Chunquan

    2011-01-01

    Feeding wholesomeness tests of irradiated chicken breast were studied by using acute oral toxicology, Ames, micronucleus of born marrow cell, sperm shape abnormality in mice and 30 d feeding test. The LD 50 of all the rats and mice were more than 10 g/kg · BW, which means that the pet foods belonged to actually non-toxic grade; ames test, and the tests of micronucleus of born marrow cell, sampan shape abnormality in mice were all negative results; 30 d feeding test in rats demonstrated that it had no distinctive effects on routine blood, body weight and biochemical index. It is concluded that pet foods irradiated up to 25 kGy high dose were no safety and toxicology problems. (authors)

  1. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; Pascal, M.D.; Richardson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC's approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs)

  2. Precision toxicology based on single cell sequencing: an evolving trend in toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Liye; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we introduce a new concept, precision toxicology: the mode of action of chemical- or drug-induced toxicity can be sensitively and specifically investigated by isolating a small group of cells or even a single cell with typical phenotype of interest followed by a single cell sequencing-based analysis. Precision toxicology can contribute to the better detection of subtle intracellular changes in response to exogenous substrates, and thus help researchers find solutions to control or relieve the toxicological effects that are serious threats to human health. We give examples for single cell isolation and recommend laser capture microdissection for in vivo studies and flow cytometric sorting for in vitro studies. In addition, we introduce the procedures for single cell sequencing and describe the expected application of these techniques to toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration, which we believe will become a trend in toxicology.

  3. Renal studies in safety pharmacology and toxicology: A survey conducted in the top 15 pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amanda; Gallacher, David J; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Kasai, Cheiko; Ledieu, David; Levesque, Paul; Prelle, Katja; Ratcliffe, Sian; Sannajust, Frederick; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of more sensitive biomarkers to assess kidney injury preclinically, a survey was designed i) to investigate what strategies are used to investigate renal toxicity in both ICH S7A compliant Safety Pharmacology (SP) studies after a single dose of a compound and within repeat-dose toxicity studies by large pharmaceutical companies today; ii) to understand whether renal SP studies have impact or utility in drug development and/or if it may be more appropriate to assess renal effects after multiple doses of compounds; iii) to ascertain how much mechanistic work is performed by the top 15 largest pharmaceutical companies (as determined by R&D revenue size); iv) to gain an insight into the impact of the validation of DIKI biomarkers and their introduction in the safety evaluation paradigm; and v) to understand the impact of renal/urinary safety study data on progression of projects. Two short anonymous surveys were submitted to SP leaders of the top 15 pharmaceutical companies, as defined by 2012 R&D portfolio size. Fourteen multiple choice questions were designed to explore the strategies used to investigate renal effects in both ICH S7A compliant SP studies and within toxicology studies. A 67% and 60% response rate was obtained in the first and second surveys, respectively. Nine out of ten respondent companies conduct renal excretory measurements (eg. urine analysis) in toxicology studies whereas only five out of ten conduct specific renal SP studies; and all of those 5 also conduct the renal excretory measurements in toxicology studies. These companies measure and/or calculate a variety of parameters as part of these studies, and also on a case by case basis include regulatory qualified and non-qualified DIKI biomarkers. Finally, only one company has used renal/urinary functional data alone to stop a project, whereas the majority of respondents combine renal data with other target organ assessments to form an integrated decision-making set

  4. Risk assessment of medical devices: evaluation of microbiological and toxicological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorpema, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safety assessment of medical devices includes sterilization and biological evaluation or biocompatability testing. Sterilization by ETO gas is criticised for their carcinogenic potency or even banned. Mutual acceptance of biological evaluation test results is promoted by a laboratory accreditation and qualification program. (Author)

  5. Social housing of non-rodents during cardiovascular recordings in safety pharmacology and toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Bottomley, Anna; Champéroux, Pascal; Cordes, Jason; Delpy, Eric; Dybdal, Noel; Edmunds, Nick; Engwall, Mike; Foley, Mike; Hoffmann, Michael; Kaiser, Robert; Meecham, Ken; Milano, Stéphane; Milne, Aileen; Nelson, Rick; Roche, Brian; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Ward, Gemma; Chapman, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) and National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) conducted a survey and workshop in 2015 to define current industry practices relating to housing of non-rodents during telemetry recordings in safety pharmacology and toxicology studies. The aim was to share experiences, canvas opinion on the study procedures/designs that could be used and explore the barriers to social housing. Thirty-nine sites, either running studies (Sponsors or Contract Research Organisations, CROs) and/or outsourcing work responded to the survey (51% from Europe; 41% from USA). During safety pharmacology studies, 84, 67 and 100% of respondents socially house dogs, minipigs and non-human primates (NHPs) respectively on non-recording days. However, on recording days 20, 20 and 33% of respondents socially house the animals, respectively. The main barriers for social housing were limitations in the recording equipment used, study design and animal temperament/activity. During toxicology studies, 94, 100 and 100% of respondents socially house dogs, minipigs and NHPs respectively on non-recording days. However, on recording days 31, 25 and 50% of respondents socially house the animals, respectively. The main barriers for social housing were risk of damage to and limitations in the recording equipment used, food consumption recording and temperament/activity of the animals. Although the majority of the industry does not yet socially house animals during telemetry recordings in safety pharmacology and toxicology studies, there is support to implement this refinement. Continued discussions, sharing of best practice and data from companies already socially housing, combined with technology improvements and investments in infrastructure are required to maintain the forward momentum of this refinement across the industry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Considerations for the nonclinical safety evaluation of antibody drug conjugates for oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stanley A; Andrews, Paul A; Blanset, Diann; Flagella, Kelly M; Gorovits, Boris; Lynch, Carmel M; Martin, Pauline L; Kramer-Stickland, Kimberly; Thibault, Stephane; Warner, Garvin

    2013-12-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include monoclonal antibodies that are linked to cytotoxic small molecules. A number of these agents are currently being developed as anti-cancer agents designed to improve the therapeutic index of the cytotoxin (i.e., cytotoxic small molecule or cytotoxic agent) by specifically delivering it to tumor cells. This paper presents primary considerations for the nonclinical safety evaluation of ADCs and includes strategies for the evaluation of the entire ADC or the various individual components (i.e., antibody, linker or the cytotoxin). Considerations are presented on how to design a nonclinical safety assessment program to identify the on- and off-target toxicities to enable first-in-human (FIH) studies. Specific discussions are also included that provide details as to the need and how to conduct the studies for evaluating ADCs in genetic toxicology, tissue cross-reactivity, safety pharmacology, carcinogenicity, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biotransformation, toxicokinetic monitoring, bioanalytical assays, immunogenicity testing, test article stability and the selection of the FIH dose. Given the complexity of these molecules and our evolving understanding of their properties, there is no single all-encompassing nonclinical strategy. Instead, each ADC should be evaluated on a case-by-case scientifically-based approach that is consistent with ICH and animal research guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  8. In question: the scientific value of preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology studies with cell-based therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Broichhausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cell-based medicinal product containing human regulatory macrophages, known as Mreg_UKR, has been developed and conforms to expectations of a therapeutic drug. Here, Mreg_UKR was subjected to pharmacokinetic, safety pharmacology, and toxicological testing, which identified no adverse reactions. These results would normally be interpreted as evidence of the probable clinical safety of Mreg_UKR; however, we contend that, owing to their uncertain biological relevance, our data do not fully support this conclusion. This leads us to question whether there is adequate scientific justification for preclinical safety testing of similar novel cell-based medicinal products using animal models. In earlier work, two patients were treated with regulatory macrophages prior to kidney transplantation. In our opinion, the absence of acute or chronic adverse effects in these cases is the most convincing available evidence of the likely safety of Mreg_UKR in future recipients. On this basis, we consider that safety information from previous clinical investigations of related cell products should carry greater weight than preclinical data when evaluating the safety profile of novel cell-based medicinal products. By extension, we argue that omitting extensive preclinical safety studies before conducting small-scale exploratory clinical investigations of novel cell-based medicinal products data may be justifiable in some instances.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of a novel umami flavour compound: 2-(((3-(2,3-Dimethoxyphenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiomethylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of a umami flavour compound, 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiomethylpyridine (S3643; CAS 902136-79-2, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S3643 undergoes extensive oxidative metabolism in vitro with rat microsomes producing the S3643-sulfoxide and 4′-hydroxy-S3643 as the major metabolites. In incubations with human microsomes, the O-demethyl-S3643 and S3643-sulfoxide were produced as the major metabolites. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the S3643-sulfoxide represents the dominant biotransformation product. S3643 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in CHO-WBL cells. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S3643 was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered in the diet for 90 consecutive days. Keywords: Umami flavour, S3643, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation

  10. Exploring new pharmacology and toxicological screening and safety evaluation of one widely used formulation of Nidrakar Bati from South Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Afria; Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Akter, Lucky; Syeed, Sharif Hossain; Akter, Jakia; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Md Ershad; Habib, Md Ahsan; Jalil, Md Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nidrakar Bati (NKB) is an herbal remedy consisted with seven medicinal herbs widely used to cure Somnifacient (sleeping aid) in South Asia as Ayurvedic medicinal system. In the present study, pharmacological and toxicological effects of this medicine was investigated in mice to validate the safety and efficacy of the herb. Organic solvent extracts NKB were prepared using maceration method. Effect of extracts on the central nervous system was evaluated using hypnotic activity assay. Effect of the extracts on metabolic activity, assessing involvement of thyroid was conducted using hypoxia test. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were assessed in mice using acetic acid induced writhing, formalin induced paw edema, xylene induced ear edema assays. Anxiolytic activity was performed using plus maze, climbing out and forced swimming tests. Effect of the extracts on psychopharmacological effect was carried out using locomotor activity tests (open field, Hole-board and Hole-cross tests). Neuropharmacological effect of the extracts was performed using motor coordination (rotarod test). Toxicological potential of the extract was evaluated using gastro-intestinal activity (gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility tests). The studied formulation reduced the CNS stimulant effects dose independently. In the hypoxia test, only a dose of 100 mg/kg of NKB decreased the survival time. Orally administration of the NKB (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced significant inhibition (P acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and suppressed xylene induced ear edema and formalin-induced licking response of animals in both phases of the test. NKB showed locomotor activity (p < 0.05) both in higher and lower doses (100 and 400 mg/kg). NKB increased the total ambulation dose dependently (p < 0.05). NKB, at all tested doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) increased some locomotion activity parameters (ambulation, head dipping and emotional defecation) in hole board test. At higher doses (200 and 400

  11. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS AND RADIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIGSBY KM

    2011-04-07

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farms safety analysis. The basis equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included. In this revision, the time averaging for toxicological consequence evaluations is clarified based on a review of DOE complex guidance and a review of tank farm chemicals.

  12. 75 FR 25867 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM.... Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-10958 Filed 5-7-10; 8:45 am...

  13. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  14. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  15. The Sheep as a Model of Preclinical Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluations of Candidate Microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Jonathon D. S.; Cameron, David; Dias, Nicola; Holding, Jeremy; Muntendam, Alex; Oostebring, Freddy; Dreier, Peter; Rohan, Lisa; Nuttall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    When developing novel microbicide products for the prevention of HIV infection, the preclinical safety program must evaluate not only the active pharmaceutical ingredient but also the product itself. To that end, we applied several relatively standard toxicology study methodologies to female sheep, incorporating an assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and local toxicity of a dapivirine-containing human vaginal ring formulation (Dapivirine Vaginal Ring-004). We performed a...

  16. Metabolomics in Toxicology and Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Bois, Frederic Y.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Coen, Muireann; Donley, Beth; Fischer, Steven M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Fabian, Eric; Guillou, Claude; Heuer, Joachim; Hogberg, Helena T.; Jungnickel, Harald; Keun, Hector C.; Krennrich, Gerhard; Krupp, Eckart; Luch, Andreas; Noor, Fozia; Peter, Erik; Riefke, Bjoern; Seymour, Mark; Skinner, Nigel; Smirnova, Lena; Verheij, Elwin; Wagner, Silvia; Hartung, Thomas; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Leist, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological system, provides detailed information about the biochemical/physiological status of a biological system, and about the changes caused by chemicals. Metabolomics analysis is used in many fields, ranging from the analysis of the physiological status of genetically modified organisms in safety science to the evaluation of human health conditions. In toxicology, metabolomics is the -omics discipline that is most closely related to classical knowledge of disturbed biochemical pathways. It allows rapid identification of the potential targets of a hazardous compound. It can give information on target organs and often can help to improve our understanding regarding the mode-of-action of a given compound. Such insights aid the discovery of biomarkers that either indicate pathophysiological conditions or help the monitoring of the efficacy of drug therapies. The first toxicological applications of metabolomics were for mechanistic research, but different ways to use the technology in a regulatory context are being explored. Ideally, further progress in that direction will position the metabolomics approach to address the challenges of toxicology of the 21st century. To address these issues, scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory bodies came together in a workshop to discuss the current status of applied metabolomics and its potential in the safety assessment of compounds. We report here on the conclusions of three working groups addressing questions regarding 1) metabolomics for in vitro studies 2) the appropriate use of metabolomics in systems toxicology, and 3) use of metabolomics in a regulatory context. PMID:23665807

  17. Antidiabetic And Toxicological Evaluation Of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secamone afzelii Rhoem is used in ethnomedicine for hepatic diseases, diabetes, venereal diseases, amenorrhoea and toothaches. This present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic activity and to establish the toxicological profile of the plant to confirm its traditional application and justify continuous usage.

  18. 75 FR 57027 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM); Availability of Interagency..., Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-23262 Filed 9-16-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  19. 75 FR 32942 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM): Availability of the Biennial... Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-13952 Filed 6-9-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  20. Toxicologic evaluation of analytes from Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Weller, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company requested PNL to assemble a toxicology review panel (TRP) to evaluate analytical data compiled by WHC, and provide advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents. The team's objectives would be to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by workers, (3) evaluate the toxicological implications of those constituents by comparison to establish toxicological databases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by WHC. The TRP represents a wide range of expertise, including toxicology, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine. The TRP prepared a list of target analytes that chemists at the Oregon Graduate Institute/Sandia (OGI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNL used to establish validated methods for quantitative analysis of head-space vapors from Tank 241-C-103. this list was used by the analytical laboratories to develop appropriate analytical methods for samples from Tank 241-C-103. Target compounds on the list included acetone, acetonitrile, ammonia, benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, butanal, n-butanol, hexane, 2-hexanone, methylene chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, dodecane, tridecane, propane nitrile, sulfur oxide, tributyl phosphate, and vinylidene chloride. The TRP considered constituent concentrations, current exposure limits, reliability of data relative to toxicity, consistency of the analytical data, and whether the material was carcinogenic or teratogenic. A final consideration in the analyte selection process was to include representative chemicals for each class of compounds found

  1. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  2. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  3. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  4. Information resources in toxicology--Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preziosi, Paolo; Dracos, Adriana; Marcello, Ida

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of current resources in the field of toxicology in Italy. The discussion will begin with a brief history of toxicology in this country, which includes the study of the toxicity of plants and other natural substances, and the birth of industrial and forensic toxicology. We will also provide information on research, education, and hazard control in the field of toxicology. Within this context we will examine the public bodies responsible for surveillance and regulatory activities, state-owned and private structures involved in toxicological research, and the educational programs and research activities of universities. Particular emphasis will be placed on the activities of the National Health Service, which plays an important role in areas such as clinical toxicology, food safety, and animal health, as well as those of national and regional agencies dedicated to the protection of the environment. The presentation will be organized as follows: - A Brief History of Toxicology in Italy; - Professional Societies; - National Health Service; - National Bodies; - Resources for the Environment; - Biomedical Websites; - Recent Publications; - Research Structures; - Graduate and Postgraduate Programs; - Legislation

  5. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2013-17919 Filed 7-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  7. Occupational risk and toxicology evaluations of industrial water conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, G; Bramanti, O; Marchese, F M

    1997-08-01

    This study addresses the chemical and toxicological questions due to the wide use of chemical treatment programmes for industrial cooling water. First, natural problems encountered in cooling tower systems were presented and grouped into three categories: (i) scaling; (ii) corrosion and (iii) biofouling. Chemical solutions adopted in industrial plants were outlined for each one in order to minimize damage and categorized as shut-down, production loss, heat transfer reduction, upsets, etc. Above all, the purpose of the work was to identify the most dangerous chemicals normally used, which means sources of chemical risk for safety workers and their environment; thus, symptoms of exposure, prevention measures and protection tools are also described.

  8. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-01-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  9. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  10. Antimicrobial and toxicological evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of Salacia lehmbachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essien Augustine Dick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Salacia lehmbachii are used ethnomedically across Africa for the treatment of different diseases its antimicrobial activity as well as toxicological profile were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococus aureus, Shigella species, Eschericha coli and Proteus mirabilis were compared with Gentamycin. Toxicological investigation was determined by administering 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract to male Wistar rats for 21 days with distilled water as control. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as the vital organs were examined. The ethanol extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, Shigella species, E. coli and P. mirabilis to varying extents. The LD50 in rats was greater than 5000 mg/kg. Toxicological evaluation of the extract did not produce any significant effect on hematological and biochemical parameters and vital organs in rats. S. lehmbachii ethanol leaf extract did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms. Neither did it show any non-toxic effect on the parameters investigated in rats. Thus the extract can be considered safe when administered orally.

  11. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  12. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  13. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. "Seeing is believing": perspectives of applying imaging technology in discovery toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghai James; Dunn, Margaret Condon; Smith, Arthur Russell

    2009-11-01

    Efficiency and accuracy in addressing drug safety issues proactively are critical in minimizing late-stage drug attritions. Discovery toxicology has become a specialty subdivision of toxicology seeking to effectively provide early predictions and safety assessment in the drug discovery process. Among the many technologies utilized to select safer compounds for further development, in vitro imaging technology is one of the best characterized and validated to provide translatable biomarkers towards clinically-relevant outcomes of drug safety. By carefully applying imaging technologies in genetic, hepatic, and cardiac toxicology, and integrating them with the rest of the drug discovery processes, it was possible to demonstrate significant impact of imaging technology on drug research and development and substantial returns on investment.

  15. Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Gaus, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-matching of toxicological, clinical and other data improves risk analysis. • Induction of drug metabolism is linked to increased cell proliferation. • Rodents and man have differences in metabolism of Ginkgo biloba. • Controlled clinical data did not reveal any serious or specific adverse drug reaction. • Cross-matching of various sources gives strong evidence that G. biloba is safe. - Abstract: Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in Europe and the US. It may be purchased in different types of formulations, but most of the clinical studies have been performed with the controlled G. biloba extract EGb761 ® . Indications include Alzheimers disease, cardiovascular disease, dementia, memory loss, and cerebral ischemia. The pharmacological modes of action cover antioxidant effects, radical scavenging, inhibition of platelet activating factor, alterations in membrane fluidity (signal transduction), and inhibition of glucocorticoid synthesis. Due to the widespread and long-term use of G. biloba – about a million doses of EGb761 ® are sold per day – tolerability and safety are a crucial issue. Based on broad and long-term clinical use of G. biloba extracts, it is regarded as well tolerated in man. Cross matching, a tool we introduced, combines different fields of knowledge and types of data to a consolidated result. In this article, we combine toxicological and clinical data and utilize other sources of information to assess tolerability and safety of G. biloba. It is well known that because of biological differences between animals and man or even between animal species, animal experiments do not necessarily mimic the effects in humans. Therefore, for adequate risk assessment, the relevance of non-clinical toxicological findings should be correlated with human data. The cross matching of toxicological data and results from clinical studies is possible because many toxicological and clinical studies are available

  16. Toxicological Evaluations of Rare Earths and Their Health Impacts to Workers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Taek Rim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In concert with the development of new materials in the last decade, the need for toxicological studies of these materials has been increasing. These new materials include a group of rare earths (RE. The use of RE nanotechnology is being considered in some green applications, to increase their efficiency by using nano-sized RE compounds, and therefore hazard evaluation and risk assessment are highly recommended. This review was conducted through an extensive contemplation of the literatures in toxicology with in vitro and in vivo studies. Major aspects reviewed were the toxicological evaluations of these elements and metallic compounds at the molecular and cellular level, animal and human epidemiological studies and environmental and occupational health impacts on workers. We also discuss the future prospect of industries with appliances using RE together with the significance of preventive efforts for workers’ health. To establish a safe and healthy working environment for RE industries, the use of biomarkers is increasing to provide sustainable measure, due to demand for information about the health risks from unfavorable exposures. Given the recent toxicological results on the exposure of cells, animals and workers to RE compounds, it is important to review the toxicological studies to improve the current understanding of the RE compounds in the field of occupational health. This will help to establish a sustainable, safe and healthy working environment for RE industries.

  17. On-line sources of toxicological information in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, William J.; Ecobichon, Donald J.; Baril, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the on-line resources available in toxicology in Canada. It will describe a brief history of The Society of Toxicology of Canada, with reference to other societies and also provide information on education, research and other resources related to toxicology. Toxicology in Canada emerged as a distinct and vibrant discipline following the thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s. In the pharmaceutical industry and government, toxicology was readily established as an essential component of drug development and safety, and as the need for toxicologists expanded, training programs were established, usually in collaboration with departments of pharmacology. In the last two to three decades other disciplines, environmental biology, analytical chemistry and epidemiology joined the ranks of toxicology. The on-line sources of toxicology information are rapidly expanding. This article describes those sources considered by the authors to be important from a national and international perspective. The majority of these sources are professional organizations and government agencies

  18. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of a Tamarindus indica L. leaf fluid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Perez-Rosés, R; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J; Mwasi, L B; Cabrera-Sotomayor, O; Machado-García, R; Fong-Lórez, O; Alfonso-Castillo, A; Puente-Zapata, E

    2016-01-01

    In the scientific community, there is a growing interest in Tamarindus indica L. leaves, both as a valuable nutrient and as a functional food. This paper focuses on exploring its safety and antioxidant properties. A tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) wholly characterised was evaluated for its anti-DPPH activity (IC50 = 44.36 μg/mL) and its reducing power activity (IC50 = 60.87 μg/mL). TFE also exhibited a high ferrous ion-chelating capacity, with an estimated binding constant of 1.085 mol L(-1) while its influence over nitric oxide production in human leucocytes was irregular. At low concentrations, TFE stimulated NO output, but it significantly inhibited it when there was an increase in concentration. TFE was also classified as a non-toxic substance in two toxicity tests: the acute oral toxicity test and the oral mucous irritability test. Further toxicological assays are needed, although results so far suggest that TFE might become a functional dietary supplement.

  19. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies

  20. Fossil fuel toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A program is described for the investigation of the toxicology of coal-derived effluents that will utilize a battery of cellular and mammalian test systems and end points to evaluate the toxicological effects of acute, sub-acute, and long-term, low-level exposure to gaseous and particulate effluents from combustion of coal, with special emphasis on fluidized bed combustion

  1. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD 50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human. - Highlights: • Mutagenicity 2-ACBs on the microorganisms was not observed. • Several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs. • Genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested, but elucidation of the mechanism is needed. • 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted in feces. • Further studies for toxicity of 2-ACBs following

  2. A novel nasal powder formulation of glucagon: toxicology studies in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reno, Frederick E.; Normand, Patrick; McInally, Kevin; Silo, Sherwin; Stotland, Patricia; Triest, Myriam; Carballo, Dolores; Pich?, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucagon nasal powder (GNP), a novel intranasal formulation of glucagon being developed to treat insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia, contains synthetic glucagon (10?% w/w), beta-cyclodextrin, and dodecylphosphocholine. The safety of this formulation was evaluated in four studies in animal models. Methods The first study evaluated 28-day sub-chronic toxicology in rats treated intranasally with 1 and 2?mg of GNP/day (0.1 and 0.2?mg glucagon/rat/day). The second study evaluated 28-da...

  3. The sheep as a model of preclinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of candidate microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jonathon D S; Cameron, David; Dias, Nicola; Holding, Jeremy; Muntendam, Alex; Oostebring, Freddy; Dreier, Peter; Rohan, Lisa; Nuttall, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    When developing novel microbicide products for the prevention of HIV infection, the preclinical safety program must evaluate not only the active pharmaceutical ingredient but also the product itself. To that end, we applied several relatively standard toxicology study methodologies to female sheep, incorporating an assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and local toxicity of a dapivirine-containing human vaginal ring formulation (Dapivirine Vaginal Ring-004). We performed a 3-month general toxicology study, a preliminary pharmacokinetic study using drug-loaded vaginal gel, and a detailed assessment of the kinetics of dapivirine delivery to plasma, vaginal, and rectal fluid and rectal, vaginal, and cervical tissue over 28 days of exposure and 3 and 7 days after removal of the ring. The findings of the general toxicology study supported the existing data from both preclinical and clinical studies in that there were no signs of toxicity related to dapivirine. In addition, the presence of the physical dapivirine ring did not alter local or systemic toxicity or the pharmacokinetics of dapivirine. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the dapivirine ring produced significant vaginal tissue levels of dapivirine. However, no dapivirine was detected in cervical tissue samples using the methods described here. Plasma and vaginal fluid levels were lower than those in previous clinical studies, while there were detectable dapivirine levels in the rectal tissue and fluid. All tissue and fluid levels tailed off rapidly to undetectable levels following removal of the ring. The sheep represents a very useful model for the assessment of the safety and pharmacokinetics of microbicide drug delivery devices, such as the vaginal ring. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves: Genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiannan; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Liu, Haibo; Jia, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have a long history of use as an abundant source of sweetener. The aqueous extract of stevia leaves and the predominant constitutes steviol glycosides have been intensively investigated. However, rare studies provided toxicological evaluation of bioactive components in the polar extract regarding their safety on human health. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves through a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests. Negative results were unanimously obtained from bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay. Oral administration at dietary levels of 1.04%, 2.08% and 3.12% for 90 days did not induce significant behavioral, hematological, clinical, or histopathological changes in rats. Significant reduction of cholesterol, total protein and albumin was observed in female animals only at high dose level. The results demonstrated that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves ethanolic extract, which is rich in isochlorogenic acids, does not possess adverse effects through oral administration in this study. Our data provided supportive evidence for the safety of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves that may potentially be used in functional foods as well as nutritional supplements beyond sweetner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of...

  7. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  8. Toxicological evaluation of Cd-based fluorescent nanoprobes by means of in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Patricia M. A.; Ma-Hock, Lan; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium still represents a stigma for many research- and/or industrial applications. Some deleterious effects are attributed to Cadmium. In the present work, highly fluorescent Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are investigated by e.g. physical-chemical characterization. Most important however is their application as fluorescent probes for bio-imaging in living cells and tissues. This work presents their toxicological evaluation by means of in vivo studies. Bio-imaging experiments are performed without any pre-treatment. The toxicological studies performed, strongly indicate that the use of Cadmium based nanoparticles as fluorescent probes may be nonhazardous and not induce side effects for cells/tissues.

  9. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  10. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antisickling and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abere, Tavs A; Okoye, Chiagozie J; Agoreyo, Freddy O; Eze, Gerald I; Jesuorobo, Rose I; Egharevba, Clement O; Aimator, Pauline O

    2015-11-23

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) together with other medicinal plants serve as antisickling remedies in Africa. This study was aimed at investigating the antisickling activity of the leaves of the plant as well as establishing the toxicological profile. Chemical tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Evaluation of the antisickling activity involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed sickle cell patients who were not in crises. Concentrations of the crude extract and its fractions were tested with normal saline and p-hydroxybenzoic acid serving as controls. Acute toxicological evaluation was carried out in mice while 30-day assessment was done in rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Percentage sickling inhibitions of the aqueous methanol extracts of S. dulcis were significant all through the period of assay p Scoparia dulcis in the management of Sickle cell disorders and a candidate for further investigations.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kough, John; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on the toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into GM crops to impart desired traits. In many cases, introduced proteins can be shown to have a history of safe use. Where modifications have been made to proteins, experience has shown that it is highly unlikely that modification of amino acid sequences can make a non-toxic protein toxic. Moreover, if the modified protein still retains its biological function, and this function is found in related proteins that have a history of safe use (HOSU) in food, and the exposure level is similar to functionally related proteins, then the modified protein could also be considered to be “as-safe-as” those that have a HOSU. Within nature, there can be considerable evolutionary changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins within the same family, yet these proteins share the same biological function. In general, food crops such as maize, soy, rice, canola etc. are subjected to a variety of processing conditions to generate different food products. Processing conditions such as cooking, modification of pH conditions, and mechanical shearing can often denature proteins in these crops resulting in a loss of functional activity. These same processing conditions can also markedly lower human dietary exposure to (functionally active) proteins. Safety testing of an introduced protein could be indicated if its biological function was not adequately characterized and/or it was shown to be structurally/functionally related to proteins that are known to be toxic to mammals. PMID:24164515

  13. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  14. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  15. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption

  16. Toxicology: a discipline in need of academic anchoring--the point of view of the German Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, U; Barth, H; Bürkle, A; Degen, G H; Landsiedel, R

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the importance of toxicology as a discipline, its past achievements, current scientific challenges, and future development. Toxicological expertise is instrumental in the reduction of human health risks arising from chemicals and drugs. Toxicological assessment is needed to evaluate evidence and arguments, whether or not there is a scientific base for concern. The immense success already achieved by toxicological work is exemplified by reduced pollution of air, soil, water, and safer working places. Predominantly predictive toxicological testing is derived from the findings to assess risks to humans and the environment. Assessment of the adversity of molecular effects (including epigenetic effects), the effects of mixtures, and integration of exposure and biokinetics into in vitro testing are emerging challenges for toxicology. Toxicology is a translational science with its base in fundamental science. Academic institutions play an essential part by providing scientific innovation and education of young scientists.

  17. Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU. Reality and challenges for the toxicologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2004-06-15

    Council Directive 76/768/EEC, its seven amendments and 30 adaptations to technical progress form the basis of the cosmetic EU legislation today. There are actually four key principles for safety in the cosmetic legislation. (i) The full responsibility for the safety of cosmetics for human health is placed on the manufacturer, first importer in the EU or marketer. (ii) The safety evaluation of finished products is based on safety of individual ingredients, more specifically on their chemical structure, toxicological profile and their level of exposure. (iii) A compilation of information on each cosmetic product (dossier) must be kept readily available for inspection by the competent authorities of the Member State concerned. This information source, usually called a technical information file (TIF) or product information file/requirements (PIF(R)), contains, as the most important part, the safety assessment of the product undersigned by a competent safety assessor. (iv) The use of validated replacement alternative methods instead of animal testing forms the 4th key principle for safety of cosmetic products on the EU market. The 7th amendment imposes strict deadlines for the abolition of animal in vivo studies on cosmetic ingredients. These legal requirements induce a number of important challenges for the cosmetic industry and more specifically for the toxicologist involved as safety assessor.

  18. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...

  19. The FAA's postmortem forensic toxicology self-evaluated proficiency test program: the second seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Cardona, Patrick S; Rogers, Paul B; Canfield, Dennis V

    2009-05-01

    During toxicological evaluations of samples from fatally injured pilots involved in civil aviation accidents, a high degree of quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) is maintained. Under this philosophy, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a forensic toxicology proficiency-testing (PT) program in July 1991. In continuation of the first seven years of the PT findings reported earlier, PT findings of the next seven years are summarized herein. Twenty-eight survey samples (12 urine, 9 blood, and 7 tissue homogenate) with/without alcohols/volatiles, drugs, and/or putrefactive amine(s) were submitted to an average of 31 laboratories, of which an average of 25 participants returned their results. Analytes in survey samples were correctly identified and quantitated by a large number of participants, but some false positives of concern were reported. It is anticipated that the FAA's PT program will continue to serve the forensic toxicology community through this important part of the QC/QA for laboratory accreditations.

  20. Systems Toxicology: From Basic Research to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an increasing need for more predictive and accurate risk-assessment approaches. Developing such approaches requires a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ways in which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, Systems Toxicology approaches offer modern strategies for gaining such mechanistic knowledge by combining advanced analytical and computational tools. Furthermore, Systems Toxicology is a means for the identification and application of biomarkers for improved safety assessments. In Systems Toxicology, quantitative systems-wide molecular changes in the context of an exposure are measured, and a causal chain of molecular events linking exposures with adverse outcomes (i.e., functional and apical end points) is deciphered. Mathematical models are then built to describe these processes in a quantitative manner. The integrated data analysis leads to the identification of how biological networks are perturbed by the exposure and enables the development of predictive mathematical models of toxicological processes. This perspective integrates current knowledge regarding bioanalytical approaches, computational analysis, and the potential for improved risk assessment. PMID:24446777

  1. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Contemporary issues in toxicology the role of metabonomics in toxicology and its evaluation by the COMET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindon, John C.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine; Antti, Henrik; Bollard, Mary E.; Keun, Hector; Beckonert, Olaf; Ebbels, Timothy M.; Reily, Michael D.; Robertson, Donald; Stevens, Gregory J.; Luke, Peter; Breau, Alan P.; Cantor, Glenn H.; Bible, Roy H.; Niederhauser, Urs; Senn, Hans; Schlotterbeck, Goetz; Sidelmann, Ulla G.; Laursen, Steen M.; Tymiak, Adrienne; Car, Bruce D.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Colet, Jean-Marie; Loukaci, Ali; Thomas, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The role that metabonomics has in the evaluation of xenobiotic toxicity studies is presented here together with a brief summary of published studies. To provide a comprehensive assessment of this approach, the Consortium for Metabonomic Toxicology (COMET) has been formed between six pharmaceutical companies and Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine (IC), London, UK. The objective of this group is to define methodologies and to apply metabonomic data generated using 1 H NMR spectroscopy of urine and blood serum for preclinical toxicological screening of candidate drugs. This is being achieved by generating databases of results for a wide range of model toxins which serve as the raw material for computer-based expert systems for toxicity prediction. The project progress on the generation of comprehensive metabonomic databases and multivariate statistical models for prediction of toxicity, initially for liver and kidney toxicity in the rat and mouse, is reported. Additionally, both the analytical and biological variation which might arise through the use of metabonomics has been evaluated. An evaluation of intersite NMR analytical reproducibility has revealed a high degree of robustness. Second, a detailed comparison has been made of the ability of the six companies to provide consistent urine and serum samples using a study of the toxicity of hydrazine at two doses in the male rat, this study showing a high degree of consistency between samples from the various companies in terms of spectral patterns and biochemical composition. Differences between samples from the various companies were small compared to the biochemical effects of the toxin. A metabonomic model has been constructed for urine from control rats, enabling identification of outlier samples and the metabolic reasons for the deviation. Building on this success, and with the completion of studies on approximately 80 model toxins, first expert systems for prediction of liver and kidney

  3. A practice analysis of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carol S; Weis, Christopher P; Caro, Carla M; Roe, Amy

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, the American Board of Toxicology (ABT), with collaboration from the Society of Toxicology (SOT), in consultation with Professional Examination Service, performed a practice analysis study of the knowledge required for general toxicology. The purpose of this study is to help assure that the examination and requirements for attainment of Diplomate status are relevant to modern toxicology and based upon an empirical foundation of knowledge. A profile of the domains and tasks used in toxicology practice was developed by subject-matter experts representing a broad range of experiences and perspectives. An on-line survey of toxicologists, including Diplomates of the ABT and SOT members, confirmed the delineation. Results of the study can be used to improve understanding of toxicology practice, to better serve all toxicologists, and to present the role of toxicologists to those outside the profession. Survey results may also be used by the ABT Board of Directors to develop test specifications for the certifying examination and will be useful for evaluating and updating the content of professional preparation, development, and continuing education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of the flavour ingredient N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218; CAS 1622458-34-7, a flavour with modifying properties, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2218 exhibited minimal oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapidly eliminated. S2218 was not found to be mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, and was found to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus assay. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in male and female rats, the NOAEL was 140 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested for S2218 sulfate salt (S8069 when administered as a food ad-mix for 13 consecutive weeks. Furthermore, S2218 sulfate salt demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats. Keywords: Flavours with modifying properties, S2218, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation, Developmental toxicity evaluation

  5. Toxicological evaluation of clay minerals and derived nanocomposites: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Pichardo, Silvia; Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Angeles

    2015-04-01

    wildlife, with laboratory trials showing contradictory outcomes. Clay minerals have different applications in the environment, thus with a strict control of the concentrations used, they can provide beneficial uses. Despite the extensive number of reports available, there is also a need of systematic in vitro-in vivo extrapolation studies, with still scarce information on toxicity biomarkers such as inmunomodulatory effects or alteration of the genetic expression. In conclusion, a case by case toxicological evaluation is required taking into account that different clays have their own toxicological profiles, their modification can change this profile, and the potential increase of the human/environmental exposure to clay minerals due to their novel applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines

  7. Genetic toxicology in the 21st century: Reflections and future ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the

  8. Antimicrobial and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Baissea axillaries Hua used in the management of HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoreyo Freddy O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent diarrhea is a common endemic disease with high incidence among the Africans including Nigerians. It also represents a frequent opportunistic disease in people living with HIV. Diarrhea represents one of the most distressful and persistent symptoms of HIV/AIDS, which may or may not be accompanied by an infection. The leaves decoction of Baissea axillaries Hua (Apocynaceae is used by traditional herbalists in Edo state, Nigeria for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS. Determination of its antimicrobial activity and toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continuous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis were compared with Togamycin (Spectinomycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the test organisms. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wister rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The kidneys, liver, heart and testis tissues were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and cyanogenetic glycosides. The extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to varying extents, but only the ethanolic extract inhibited growth in Streptococcus faecalis. The LD50 of the extract in mice was above 5000 mg/kg body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Toxicological evaluation showed mere ballooning degeneration of the liver at 250 mg/kg while at 500 mg/kg there was tissue necrosis. The low and high doses showed ill-defined leydig cells in the testis and no remarkable changes in the heart and kidneys. Conclusion Extracts of Baissea axillaries have

  9. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattison, D R; Jelovsek, F R

    1987-01-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approa...

  11. Subsite Awareness in Neuropathology Evaluation of National Toxicology Program (NTP) Studies: A Review of Select Neuroanatomical Structures with their Functional Significance in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa B.; Little, Peter B.; Sills, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This review manuscript is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The manuscript provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across seven coronal sections of the brain. Also reviewed are three sections of the spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves (trigeminal and sciatic respectively), and intestinal autonomic ganglia. The review is limited to the evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, as light microscopic evaluation of these sections is an integral part of the first-tier toxicity screening of environmental chemicals, drugs, and other agents. Prominent neuroanatomical sites associated with major neurological disorders are noted. This guide, when used in conjunction with detailed neuroanatomic atlases may aid in an understanding of the significance of functional neuroanatomy, thereby improving the characterization of neurotoxicity in general toxicity and safety evaluation studies. PMID:24135464

  12. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  13. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing--recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, George; Knight, Derek J; Schwarz, Michael; Gocht, Tilman; Thomas, Russell S; Mahony, Catherine; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December 2015. Drawing on the experience gained in SEURAT-1 and appreciating international advancement in both basic and regulatory science, we reflect here on how SEURAT should evolve and propose that further research and development should be directed along two complementary and interconnecting work streams. The first work stream would focus on developing new 'paradigm' approaches for regulatory science. The goal here is the identification of 'critical biological targets' relevant for toxicity and to test their suitability to be used as anchors for predicting toxicity. The second work stream would focus on integration and application of new approach methods for hazard (and risk) assessment within the current regulatory 'paradigm', aiming for acceptance of animal-free testing strategies by regulatory authorities (i.e. translating scientific achievements into regulation). Components for both work streams are discussed and may provide a structure for a future research programme in the field of predictive toxicology.

  14. MicroRNAs and toxicology: A love marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schraml

    Full Text Available With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii rapid turnaround of the test result and iv most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of the ongoing physiologic processes in cells and tissues that package and release miRNAs into cell-free space. These characteristics have also established circulating miRNAs as promising biomarker candidates for toxicological studies, where they are used as biomarkers of drug-, or chemical-induced tissue injury for safety assessment. The tissue-specificity and early release of circulating miRNAs upon tissue injury, when damage is still reversible, are main factors for their clinical utility in toxicology. Here we summarize in brief, current knowledge of this field. Keywords: microRNAs, Biomarker, Toxicology, Minimal-invasive, DILI

  15. Safety evaluations required in the safety regulations for Monju and the validity confirmation of safety evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to perform the safety evaluations of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju' and to confirm the validity of the safety evaluation methods. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as a core damage analysis code, were carried out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  16. Toxicological requirements for risk assessment of shellfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing concern by consumers with regard to the health aspects and safety of foodstuffs. Most food additives and contaminants are controlled by regulatory authorities, with Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) having been set on the basis of detailed acute short- and long-term toxicological studies. The situation with ...

  17. Computational toxicology: Its essential role in reducing drug attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naven, R T; Louise-May, S

    2015-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays a critical role in reducing the failure rate of new drugs in pharmaceutical research and development. Despite recent gains in our understanding of drug-induced toxicity, however, it is urgent that the utility and limitations of our current predictive tools be determined in order to identify gaps in our understanding of mechanistic and chemical toxicology. Using recently published computational regression analyses of in vitro and in vivo toxicology data, it will be demonstrated that significant gaps remain in early safety screening paradigms. More strategic analyses of these data sets will allow for a better understanding of their domain of applicability and help identify those compounds that cause significant in vivo toxicity but which are currently mis-predicted by in silico and in vitro models. These 'outliers' and falsely predicted compounds are metaphorical lighthouses that shine light on existing toxicological knowledge gaps, and it is essential that these compounds are investigated if attrition is to be reduced significantly in the future. As such, the modern computational toxicologist is more productively engaged in understanding these gaps and driving investigative toxicology towards addressing them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Green Toxicology-Know Early About and Avoid Toxic Product Liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Toxicology uniquely among the life sciences relies largely on methods which are more than 40-years old. Over the last 3 decades with more or less success some additions to and few replacements in this toolbox took place, mainly as alternatives to animal testing. The acceptance of such new approaches faces the needs of formal validation and the conservative attitude toward change in safety assessments. Only recently, there is growing awareness that the same alternative methods, especially in silico and in vitro tools can also much earlier and before validation inform decision-taking in the product life cycle. As similar thoughts developed in the context of Green Chemistry, the term of Green Toxicology was coined to describe this change in approach. Here, the current developments in the alternative field, especially computational and more organo-typic cell cultures are reviewed, as they lend themselves to front-loaded chemical safety assessments. The initiatives of the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Green Toxicology Collaboration are presented. They aim first of all for forming a community to promote this concept and then for a cultural change in companies with the necessary training of chemists, product stewards and later regulators. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Toxicology elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work studies the different aspects of the modern toxicology: toxico-kinetic, biological, medico legal, food, professional, pharmaceuticals, environmental, social and regulatory. It is divided in three parts that consider the principle problems of general toxicology and analytical toxicology. (N.C.)

  20. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  1. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    Toxicologic analysis is an integral part of death investigation, and the use or abuse of an unsuspected substance belongs in the differential diagnosis of patients who have a sudden, unexpected change in their condition. History and physical findings may alter suspicion that intoxication played a role in a patient's decline or death, but suspicions cannot be confirmed and is performed, analysis unless toxicologic no toxicologic analysis is possible unless someone collects the proper specimens necessary for analysis. In a hospital autopsy the only specimens that can rightfully be collected are those within the restrictions stated in the autopsy permit. Autopsies performed by the medical examiner do not have these restrictions. Sometimes the importance of toxicologic testing in a case is not evident until days or weeks after the change in the patient's status, thus retaining the appropriate specimens until investigation of that case has ended is important. Proper interpretation of toxicologic findings requires integrating the clinical setting and findings with the toxicologic results in a way that makes medical sense. If called upon to testify concerning findings, answer the questions truthfully, politely, and in a way that is understandable to someone who has no special training in toxicology.

  2. A comprehensive toxicological evaluation of three adhesives using experimental cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Jerome, Ann M; Lilly, Patrick D; McKinney, Willie J; Oldham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Adhesives are used in several different manufacturing operations in the production of cigarettes. The use of new, "high-speed-manufacture" adhesives (e.g. vinyl acetate based) could affect the smoke chemistry and toxicology of cigarettes, compared with older "low-speed-manufacture" adhesives (e.g. starch based). This study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of different levels of three adhesives (ethylene vinyl acetate, polyvinyl acetate and starch) in experimental cigarettes results in different smoke chemistry and toxicological responses in in vitro and in vivo assays. A battery of tests (analytical chemistry, in vitro and in vivo assays) was used to compare the chemistry and toxicology of smoke from experimental cigarettes made with different combinations of the three adhesives. Varying levels of the different side-seam adhesives, as well as the transfer of adhesives from packaging materials, were tested. There were differences in some mainstream cigarette smoke constituents as a function of the level of adhesive added to experimental cigarettes and between the tested adhesives. None of these differences translated into statistically significant differences in the in vitro or in vivo assays. The use of newer "high-speed-manufacture" vinyl acetate-based adhesives in cigarettes does not produce toxicological profiles that prevent the adhesives from replacing the older "low-speed-manufacture" adhesives (such as starch).

  3. Predictive Toxicology: Modeling Chemical Induced Toxicological Response Combining Circular Fingerprints with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios eKoutsoukas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern drug discovery and toxicological research are under pressure, as the cost of developing and testing new chemicals for potential toxicological risk is rising. Extensive evaluation of chemical products for potential adverse effects is a challenging task, due to the large number of chemicals and the possible hazardous effects on human health. Safety regulatory agencies around the world are dealing with two major challenges. First, the growth of chemicals introduced every year in household products and medicines that need to be tested, and second the need to protect public welfare. Hence, alternative and more efficient toxicological risk assessment methods are in high demand. The Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 consortium a collaborative effort was formed to develop and investigate alternative assessment methods. A collection of 10,000 compounds composed of environmental chemicals and approved drugs were screened for interference in biochemical pathways and released for crowdsourcing data analysis. The physicochemical space covered by Tox21 library was explored, measured by Molecular Weight (MW and the octanol/water partition coefficient (cLogP. It was found that on average chemical structures had MW of 272.6 Daltons. In case of cLogP the average value was 2.476. Next relationships between assays were examined based on compounds activity profiles across the assays utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficient r. A cluster was observed between the Androgen and Estrogen Receptors and their ligand bind domains accordingly indicating presence of cross talks among the receptors. The highest correlations observed were between NR.AR and NR.AR_LBD, where it was r=0.66 and between NR.ER and NR.ER_LBD, where it was r=0.5.Our approach to model the Tox21 data consisted of utilizing circular molecular fingerprints combined with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine by modeling each assay independently. In all of the 12 sub-challenges our modeling

  4. Cornerstones of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A Wallace; Dixon, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    The 35th Annual Society of Toxicologic Pathology Symposium, held in June 2016 in San Diego, California, focused on "The Basis and Relevance of Variation in Toxicologic Responses." In order to review the basic tenants of toxicology, a "broad brush" interactive talk that gave an overview of the Cornerstones of Toxicology was presented. The presentation focused on the historical milestones and perspectives of toxicology and through many scientific graphs, data, and real-life examples covered the three basic principles of toxicology that can be summarized, as dose matters (as does timing), people differ, and things change (related to metabolism and biotransformation).

  5. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  6. Toxicological evaluation in silico and in vivo of secondary metabolites of Cissampelos sympodialis in Mus musculus mice following inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mateus Feitosa; Ferreira, Larissa Adilis Maria Paiva; Gadelha, Francisco Allysson Assis Ferreira; Ferreira, Laércia Karla Diega Paiva; Felix, Mayara Barbalho; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Scotti, Luciana; de Oliveira, Kardilândia Mendes; Dos Santos, Sócrates Golzio; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo

    2017-12-04

    The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cissampelos sympodialis showed great pharmacological potential, with inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, however, it showed some toxicological effects. Therefore, this study aims to verify the toxicological potential of alkaloids of the genus Cissampelos through in silico methodologies, to develop a method in LC-MS/MS verifying the presence of alkaloids in the infusion and to evaluate the toxicity of the infusion of the leaves of C. sympodialis when inhaled by Swiss mice. Results in silico showed that alkaloid 93 presented high toxicological potential along with the products of its metabolism. LC-MS/MS results showed that the infusion of the leaves of this plant contained the alkaloids warifteine and methylwarifteine. Finally, the in vivo toxicological analysis of the C. sympodialis infusion showed results, both in biochemistry, organ weights and histological analysis, that the infusion of C. sympodialis leaves presents a low toxicity.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and Toxicological Evaluation of a Zinc Gluconate-Based Chemical Sterilant Using In Vitro and In Silico Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Araujo-Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing agents as zinc gluconate-based chemical sterilants (Infertile® are used for chemical castration. This solution is injected into the animal testis, but there are not enough evidences of its safety profiles for the receivers. The present work aimed to establish the pharmacokinetics and toxicological activity of Infertile, using in vitro and in silico approaches. The evaluation at the endpoint showed effects in a dose-dependent manner. Since necrosis is potentially carcinogenic, the possible cell death mechanism could be apoptosis. Our data suggested that Infertile at 60 mM presented risk for animal health. Even though Infertile is a licensed product by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, it presented a high mutagenic potential. We suggest that the optimal dose must be less than 6 mM, once, at this concentration, no mutagenicity or genotoxicity was observed.

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of experimental cigarettes manufactured with banded papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Jerome, Ann M; DeSoi, Darren J; Coggins, Christopher R E; Oldham, Michael J; McKinney, Willie J

    2013-01-01

    To comply with state requirements, cigarette manufacturers have added low-permeability bands to the cigarette paper. These bands can extinguish the cigarette when it is no longer being puffed by a smoker. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicology resulting from the addition of different types of bands to experimental cigarettes. A battery of assays that are typically used in toxicology studies with cigarette smoke, namely smoke chemistry, in vitro mutagenicity and cytotoxicity, and inhalation studies with rats, were used to evaluate different band characteristics added to cigarette paper. Although differences in the amount of band material was associated with an increase in some metals measured in mainstream tobacco smoke, it was not dose responsive to any band design parameter (base paper permeability, band width, band spacing, band chalk amount, or citrate). Occasional, minor differences were produced by the different types of bands; overall, there was no increased toxicity. Although there were increases and decreases in some mainstream smoke constituents, the in vitro and in vivo testing performed demonstrated that low-permeability bands on cigarettes do not modify the toxicity of smoke inhaled by smokers.

  10. Real Patient and its Virtual Twin: Application of Quantitative Systems Toxicology Modelling in the Cardiac Safety Assessment of Citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nikunjkumar; Wiśniowska, Barbara; Jamei, Masoud; Polak, Sebastian

    2017-11-27

    A quantitative systems toxicology (QST) model for citalopram was established to simulate, in silico, a 'virtual twin' of a real patient to predict the occurrence of cardiotoxic events previously reported in patients under various clinical conditions. The QST model considers the effects of citalopram and its most notable electrophysiologically active primary (desmethylcitalopram) and secondary (didesmethylcitalopram) metabolites, on cardiac electrophysiology. The in vitro cardiac ion channel current inhibition data was coupled with the biophysically detailed model of human cardiac electrophysiology to investigate the impact of (i) the inhibition of multiple ion currents (I Kr , I Ks , I CaL ); (ii) the inclusion of metabolites in the QST model; and (iii) unbound or total plasma as the operating drug concentration, in predicting clinically observed QT prolongation. The inclusion of multiple ion channel current inhibition and metabolites in the simulation with unbound plasma citalopram concentration provided the lowest prediction error. The predictive performance of the model was verified with three additional therapeutic and supra-therapeutic drug exposure clinical cases. The results indicate that considering only the hERG ion channel inhibition of only the parent drug is potentially misleading, and the inclusion of active metabolite data and the influence of other ion channel currents should be considered to improve the prediction of potential cardiac toxicity. Mechanistic modelling can help bridge the gaps existing in the quantitative translation from preclinical cardiac safety assessment to clinical toxicology. Moreover, this study shows that the QST models, in combination with appropriate drug and systems parameters, can pave the way towards personalised safety assessment.

  11. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ListexTM P100 for the removal of Listeria monocytogenes surface contamination of raw fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of Listex™ P100 to reduce Listeria monocytogenes contamination on raw fish were assessed. The material should not present human toxicological problems because the bacteriophage P100, used as active principle, is not regarded as harmful to consumers nor...

  12. 77 FR 22321 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for... (HTS) Assays for the Tox21 Initiative AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...: April 5, 2012. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2012-8942 Filed...

  13. Genetic Toxicology in the 21st Century: Reflections and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Snyder, Ronald D.; Waters, Michael D.; Benz, R. Daniel; Kemper, Raymond A.; Tice, Raymond R.; Richard, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, using a broad array of high throughput and high content technologies for toxicity profiling of environmental chemicals, and computational toxicology modeling. Progress and challenges, including the pressing need to incorporate metabolic activation capability, are summarized. PMID:21538556

  14. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N'Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Marano, F.; Boland, S.; Leroux, M.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Peyre, L.; Rahmani, R.; Buron, N.; Porcedou, M.; Fromenty, B.; Borgne-Sanchez, A.; Rogue, A.; Spire, C.; Claude, N.; Guillouzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  15. Toxicological study of the hepatotherapeutic herbal formula, Chunggan extract, in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo-Jin Choi; Hwa-Seung Yoo; Yeon-Weol Lee; Chang-Gue Son; Jang-Woo Shin; Jin-Young Son; Dong-Seok Seo; Hark-Soo Park; Seung-Hyun Han; Ha-Jung Sung; Jung-Hyo Cho; Chong-Kwan Cho

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of a Chinese herbal formula, Chunggan extract (CGX), traditionally prescribed as a hepatotherapeutic drug via systemic acute and subacute toxicological study.METHODS: Twenty male dogs and 20 female dogs were fed doses 50 times and 4 times greater than the clinically-recommended drug dosages in an acute and a subacute toxicological study, respectively. Adverse effects were examined by comparing the differences between normal and drug-administered groups using clinical signs, necropsies, histopathologic findings, haematology,urinalysis, and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: In the acute study no change in the body weight, diarrhoea, apetite, mortality rate and histopathology of major organs was observed in male or female dogs with a single administration of CGX at 5 g/kg. No drug-induced abnormalities at analysis of histopathology,haematology, urinalysis, and biochemistry were found with any dose of this drug.CONCLUSION: CGX is supposed to be very safe when used in a clinical application with a wide therapeutic index.

  16. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, V.R.; Mortensen, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options

  17. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Harmane-β-Carboline Alkaloid: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Patel, Seema; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2017-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolites have an outstanding therapeutic potential and success over the years. In fact, it is the foundation of numerous clinically used drugs. Similarly, these is a general perception that these products are inherent safety. However, such products might have toxic/unwanted lethal effects therefore, along with biological relevance, toxicological evaluation is equally important for clinical applications. Therefore, harmane- β-carboline alkaloid was investigated for both therapeutic and toxicological potential. The literature related to the therapeutic/toxicological effects of the alkaloid was searched using various scientific data bases including Google, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, ASC. The peer reviewed articles were only selected. The harmane-β-carboline alkaloid has shown several pharmacological activities such as antianxiety, antidepressant, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase inhibition, antioxidant, antiparasitic, hypotensive, morphine withdrawal syndrome alleviation, and antinociceptive effects. On the other hand, it exhibited tremorogenic effect, for a symptom of Parkinson's disease. Adverse effect of the alkaloid on learning and memory have also been observed. All together, it is, concluded in this review that harmane elicited marked pharmacological effects but simultaneously, it possessed some serious side effects that could be the primary hurdle in the way of its clinical testing. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  20. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...

  1. History of the Journal of the American College of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mildred S

    2004-01-01

    This companion article to the History of the American College of Toxicology also is written in celebration of the 25th Anniversary of the American College of Toxicology (ACT). It relates how the official journal of the College evolved from a privately owned publication, the Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology (JEPT), into publications owned and managed by the College and its Board, for the first 17 years as the Journal of the American College of Toxicology (JACT) and currently as The International Journal of Toxicology (IJT). It relates how the first journal focused on toxicological studies, potential cancer causes and concerns associated with environmental contamination and chemical exposure safety issues. It tells how this journal was replaced by one more broadly based that addressed multiple industries and regulatory approaches, accepted previously unpublishable "no-effect" studies, so important in eliminating unwarranted animal use, and provided review articles, rather than only original research. It also described how the JACT evolved into an international journal finally recognized for its quality reviews and peer-reviewed research. Each of the three journals that represented the College is described, as well as interesting events associated with their development and publication, including the activities and contributions of the first four editors in chief, Drs. Myron A. Mehlman, Mildred S. Christian, Robert M. Diener and Harihara Mehendale.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt of multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel. removal of free water from the MCOs using the cold vacuum drying process, and inerting and testing of the MCOs before transport to the Canister Storage Building. Controls required for public safety, significant defense in depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included

  3. In vitro toxicological evaluation of essential oils and their main compounds used in active food packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, Maria; Pichardo, Silvia; Maisanaba, Sara; Puerto, Maria; Prieto, Ana I; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and their main constituent compounds have been extensively investigated due to their application in the food industry for improving the shelf life of perishable products. Although they are still not available for use in food packaging in the market in Europe, considerable research in this field has been carried out recently. The safety of these EOs should be guaranteed before being commercialized. The aim of this work was to review the scientific publications, with a primary focus on the last 10 years, with respect to different in vitro toxicological aspects, mainly focussed on mutagenicity/genotoxicity. In general, fewer genotoxic studies have been reported on EOs in comparison to their main components, and most of them did not show mutagenic activity. However, more studies are needed in this field since the guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority have not always been followed accurately. The mutagenic/genotoxic activities of these substances have been related to metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo tests are required to confirm the absence of genotoxic effects. Considering the great variability of the EOs and their main compounds, a case-by-case evaluation is needed to assure their safe use in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  5. Assessing the scientific research productivity of a leading toxicology journal: A case study of Human & Experimental Toxicology from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessments. Bibliometric indicators involve the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each journal. The main objective of this study was to conduct a bibliometric evaluation of Human & Experimental Toxicology retrieved from the Scopus database. This study obtained data from Scopus published from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2012. The keywords entered in Scopus to accomplish the objective of this study were 'Human', 'Experimental' and 'Toxicology' as 'Source Title'. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing (a) total and trends in Human & Experimental Toxicology contributions in research between 2003 and 2012; (b) Human & Experimental Toxicology authorship patterns and productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; and (d) the citations received by the publications. There were 1229 research articles published in Human & Experimental Toxicology. Of the articles included, 947 (77.1%) were original articles and 104 (8.5%) were review articles. The Hirsch-index of the retrieved documents was 35. The largest number of publications in Human & Experimental Toxicology was from the United States (19.6%), followed by India (12.8%) and Turkey (10.9%). The total number of citations was 9119, with a median (interquartile range) of 3 (1-9) in 6797 documents. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (2.7-12.7) for France, followed by 7.5 (2-22.5) for Iran and 6 (3-13.5) for the United Kingdom. The country most often citing articles that were published in Human & Experimental Toxicology was the United States, which made citations in 1508 documents, followed by India with citations in 792 documents. The documents in Human & Experimental Toxicology focus principally on original data, with very few review articles. Review articles tend to have higher citation rates

  6. Implementation of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement): validation and regulatory acceptance considerations for alternative toxicological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, Leonard M

    2002-01-01

    Toxicological testing in the current regulatory environment is steeped in a history of using animals to answer questions about the safety of products to which humans are exposed. That history forms the basis for the testing strategies that have evolved to satisfy the needs of the regulatory bodies that render decisions that affect, for the most part, virtually all phases of premarket product development and evaluation and, to a lesser extent, postmarketing surveillance. Only relatively recently have the levels of awareness of, and responsiveness to, animal welfare issues reached current proportions. That paradigm shift, although sluggish, has nevertheless been progressive. New and alternative toxicological methods for hazard evaluation and risk assessment have now been adopted and are being viewed as a means to address those issues in a manner that considers humane treatment of animals yet maintains scientific credibility and preserves the goal of ensuring human safety. To facilitate this transition, regulatory agencies and regulated industry must work together toward improved approaches. They will need assurance that the methods will be reliable and the results comparable with, or better than, those derived from the current classical methods. That confidence will be a function of the scientific validation and resultant acceptance of any given method. In the United States, to fulfill this need, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and its operational center, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), have been constituted as prescribed in federal law. Under this mandate, ICCVAM has developed a process and established criteria for the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of new and alternative methods. The role of ICCVAM in the validation and acceptance process and the criteria instituted toward that end are described. Also

  7. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

    1983-01-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30μmol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams ana of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man. (author)

  8. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  9. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future.

  10. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  11. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  13. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  14. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.

    1968-01-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [fr

  16. Residues of carcinogenic animal drugs in food: difficulties in evaluation of human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A

    1979-01-01

    The indisputable need to intensify animal production in order to provide an adequate food supply for the world population involves the use of substances that are highly potent pharmacologically and toxicologically. The history of regulatory action with regard to such additives is similar to that for other substances: first, no regulation; next, an over-reaction; and now decisions based on judicious evaluation of scientific facts. One factor that differentiates the chemicals used in animal production from other food additives is that both the parent compounds and their metabolites appear in edible products, posing problems both for the analytical detection and safety evaluation of such residues. It would be unrealistic to propose 'zero' tolerances for these additives, even if they are carcinogenic. The benefits gained from drugs that cure and prevent infections and parasitic diseases in food-producing animals, and the fact that analytical methods can now detect very small quantities make the presence of low levels of these substances in food unobjectionable.

  17. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 35395 - Draft Five-Year Plan (2013-2017) for the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... (ICCVAM) has developed a draft NICEATM-ICCVAM Five-Year Plan. The plan describes four core strategies to... innovations are driving transformative changes in toxicology and how safety testing is performed. The field of toxicology is evolving from a system based largely on animal testing toward one based on the integration of...

  19. Toxicological evaluation of a novel cooling compound: 2-(4-methylphenoxy-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl-N-(2-thienylmethylacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of a novel cooling agent, 2-(4-methylphenoxy-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl-N-(2-thienylmethyl acetamide (S2227; CAS 1374760-95-8, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2227 undergoes rapid oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat and dog pharmacokinetic studies is rapidly converted to its component carboxylic acid and secondary amine. S2227 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo. The secondary amine hydrolysis product, N-(2-thienylmethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-amine (M179, was also evaluated for genotoxicity. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S2227 was 100 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested when administered by oral gavage for 90 consecutive days. Furthermore, S2227 demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats.

  20. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  1. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  2. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to TOXNET Your resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases SEARCH ... over 3,000 chemicals (1991-1998) Environmental Health & Toxicology Resources on environmental health and toxicology Visit Site ...

  3. 10CFR50.59 safety evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grime, L.; Page, E.

    1987-01-01

    As a plant changes from the design phase to the operational phase, new regulations and standards apply. One such regulation is 10CFR50.59 on safety evaluations. Once an operating license is issued, it is mandatory to submit all applicable changes, tests, and experiments to the safety evaluation process. As preparation for this transition, Detroit Edison had procedures in place and conducted personnel training. Reviews of the safety engineering were conducted by the on-site review board. The off-site board delegated detailed reviews of most safety evaluations to the independent safety evaluation group (ISEG). The on-site group review included presentation of complete design packages by engineers. The ISEG and off-site review group's activity focused on safety evaluation. This paper addresses industry trends that were studied, Detroit Edison's recent actions, and industry issues related to 10CFR50.59 safety evaluations

  4. Synthetic vitreous fibers: a review toxicology, epidemiology and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David M

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses the characteristics which differentiate synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs, e.g., fiber glass, stonewool, slagwool, refractory ceramic fibers, etc.), how these influence the potential biopersistence and toxicity, the most recent epidemiological results and the integration of these findings into the health and safety regulations in Europe and the United States. Also presented is the historical basis for the European classification directive. The use and equivalence of the chronic inhalation toxicology and chronic intraperitoneal injection studies in laboratory rodents for evaluation of fiber toxicology is assessed as well as the impact of dose selection and design on the validity of the study. While synthetic vitreous fibers can span a wide range of chemistries, recognition and understanding of the importance of biopersistence (ability to persist in the lung) in fiber toxicity has led to the development of more and more biosoluble fibers (that break down rapidly in the lung). Still, the epidemiological data available which are largely based upon the use of fibers in past decades, indicate that the SVF do not present a human health risk at current exposure levels. The animal toxicology and biopersistence data provide a coherent basis for understanding and evaluating the parameters which affect SVF toxicity. The current regulations are based upon an extensive knowledge base of chronic studies in laboratory rodents which confirm the relationship between chronic adverse effects and the biopersistence of the longer fibers that can not be fully phagocytised and efficiently cleared from the lung. The amorphous structure of synthetic vitreous fibers facilitates designing fibers in use today with low biopersistence. Both the epidemiological data and the animal studies database provide strong assurance that there is little if any health risk associated with the use of SVFs of low biopersistence. IARC (2001) reclassified these fibers from Category 2b to

  5. Assessing the scientific research productivity of a leading toxicology journal: A case study of Human & Experimental Toxicology from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessments. Bibliometric indicators involve the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each journal. The main objective of this study was to conduct a bibliometric evaluation of Human & Experimental Toxicology retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods: This study obtained data from Scopus published from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2012. The keywords entered in Scopus to accomplish the objective of this study were ‘Human’, ‘Experimental’ and ‘Toxicology’ as ‘Source Title’. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing (a) total and trends in Human & Experimental Toxicology contributions in research between 2003 and 2012; (b) Human & Experimental Toxicology authorship patterns and productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; and (d) the citations received by the publications. Results: There were 1229 research articles published in Human & Experimental Toxicology. Of the articles included, 947 (77.1%) were original articles and 104 (8.5%) were review articles. The Hirsch-index of the retrieved documents was 35. The largest number of publications in Human & Experimental Toxicology was from the United States (19.6%), followed by India (12.8%) and Turkey (10.9%). The total number of citations was 9119, with a median (interquartile range) of 3 (1–9) in 6797 documents. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (2.7–12.7) for France, followed by 7.5 (2–22.5) for Iran and 6 (3–13.5) for the United Kingdom. The country most often citing articles that were published in Human & Experimental Toxicology was the United States, which made citations in 1508 documents, followed by India with citations in 792 documents. Conclusion: The documents in Human & Experimental Toxicology focus principally on original data, with very few

  6. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  7. PWR reload safety evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; Chapin, D.L.; Love, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The current practice for WWER safety analysis is to prepare the plant Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for initial plant operation. However, the existing safety analysis is typically not evaluated for reload cycles to confirm that all safety limits are met. In addition, there is no systematic reanalysis or reevaluation of the safety analyses after there have been changes made to the plant. The Westinghouse process is discussed which is in contrast to this and in which the SAR conclusions are re-validated through evaluation and/or analysis of each reload cycle. (Z.S.)

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  9. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  10. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS & RADIOLOGICAL & TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2005-03-03

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farm safety analyses. The current revision also includes atmospheric dispersion coefficients used for analyses of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System. The basic equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included.

  11. Metabonomics and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being an emerging field of "omics" research, metabonomics has been increasingly used in toxicological studies mostly because this technology has the ability to provide more detailed information to elucidate mechanism of toxicity. As an interdisciplinary field of science, metabonomics combines analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, statistics, and biochemistry. When applied to toxicology, metabonomics also includes aspects of patho-biochemistry, systems biology, and molecular diagnostics. During a toxicological study, the metabolic changes over time and dose after chemical treatment can be monitored. Therefore, the most important use of this emerging technology is the identification of signatures of toxicity-patterns of metabolic changes predictive of a hazard manifestation. This chapter summarizes the current state of metabonomics technology and its applications in various areas of toxicological studies.

  12. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept to the safety assessment of chemically complex food matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Koster, S.; Krul, C.A.M.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of chemically complex food matrices (CCFM) usually is very time consuming, expensive and uses many animal studies. Improvements to obtain a more efficient assessment process remain limited as long as we retain traditional approaches to toxicological risk assessment. New

  13. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as 'e-cigarettes' and 'electronic delivery devices' were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. As of October 2013, the scientific literature contains very limited information regarding the toxicity of e-cigarettes commercially available in the USA. While some preliminary toxicology data suggests that e-cigarette users are exposed to lower levels of toxicants relative to cigarette smokers, the data available is extremely limited at this time. At present, there is insufficient toxicological data available to perform thorough risk assessment analyses for e-cigarettes; few toxicology studies evaluating e-cigarettes have been conducted to date, and standard toxicological testing paradigms have not been developed for comparing disparate types of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Overall, the limited toxicology data on e-cigarettes in the public domain is insufficient to allow a thorough toxicological evaluation of this new type of tobacco product. In the future, the acquisition of scientific datasets that are derived from scientifically robust standard testing paradigms, include comprehensive chemical characterisation of the aerosol, provide information on users' toxicant exposure levels, and from studies replicated by independent researchers will improve the scientific community's ability to perform robust toxicological evaluations of e-cigarettes.

  14. Toxicological Implications of Released Particulate Matter during Thermal Decomposition of Nano-Enabled Thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, Christa; Singh, Dilpreet; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-enabled thermoplastics are part of the growing market of nano-enabled products (NEPs) that have vast utility in several industries and consumer goods. The use and disposal of NEPs at their end of life has raised concerns about the potential release of constituent engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) during thermal decomposition and their impact on environmental health and safety. To investigate this issue, industrially relevant nano-enabled thermoplastics including polyurethane, polycarbonate, and polypropylene containing carbon nanotubes (0.1 and 3% w/v, respectively), polyethylene containing nanoscale iron oxide (5% w/v), and ethylene vinyl acetate containing nanoscale titania (2 and 5% w/v) along with their pure thermoplastic matrices were thermally decomposed using the recently developed lab based Integrated Exposure Generation System (INEXS). The life cycle released particulate matter (called LCPM) was monitored using real time instrumentation, size fractionated, sampled, extracted and prepared for toxicological analysis using primary small airway epithelial cells to assess potential toxicological effects. Various cellular assays were used to assess reactive oxygen species and total glutathione as measurements of oxidative stress along with mitochondrial function, cellular viability, and DNA damage. By comparing toxicological profiles of LCPM released from polymer only (control) with nano-enabled LCPM, potential nanofiller effects due to the use of ENMs were determined. We observed associations between NEP properties such as the percent nanofiller loading, host matrix, and nanofiller chemical composition and the physico-chemical properties of released LCPM, which were linked to biological outcomes. More specifically, an increase in percent nanofiller loading promoted a toxicological response independent of increasing LCPM dose. Importantly, differences in host matrix and nanofiller composition were shown to enhance biological activity and toxicity of LCPM

  15. Safety assessment of genetically modified crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Keith T.

    2002-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer

  16. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ph.

    1963-01-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [fr

  17. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  18. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NTP? NTP develops and applies tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... depend on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, ...

  19. Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  20. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel, water-soluble undenatured type II collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Marone, Palma Ann; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Bagchi, Manashi; Shiojima, Yoshiaki

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the broad-spectrum safety of a novel, water-soluble undenatured type II collagen (NEXT-II) derived from chicken sternum cartilage. The presence of epitope in NEXT-II was confirmed by using a commercial kit. The acute oral LD₅₀ of NEXT-II was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg bw in rats, while the single-dose acute dermal LD₅₀ was greater than 2000 mg/kg bw. The primary dermal irritation index (PDII) of NEXT-II was found to be 1.8 and classified as slightly irritating to the skin. In primary eye irritation studies, the maximum mean total score (MMTS) of NEXT-II was observed to be 7.3 and classified as minimally irritating to the eye. Long-term safety studies were conducted in dogs over a period of 150 d, and no significant changes were observed in body weight, heart rate, respiration rate and blood chemistry. NEXT-II does not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains either with or without metabolic activation. Furthermore, two experiments were conducted to assess the potential of NEXT-II to induce mutations with and without metabolic activation at the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase locus using the cell line L5178Y. No biologically relevant increase of mutants was observed. Also, no dose-dependent toxicity was observed. Furthermore, colony sizing showed no clastogenic effects induced by NEXT-II under the experimental conditions. These studies demonstrated the broad spectrum of safety of NEXT-II.

  1. Evaluation of periodic safety status analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, C.; Staub, G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the evaluation of safety status analyses by the safety assessor within the periodical safety reviews of nuclear power plants safety goal oriented requirements have been formulated together with complementary evaluation criteria. Their application in an inter-disciplinary coopertion covering the subject areas involved facilitates a complete safety goal oriented assessment of the plant status. The procedure is outlined briefly by an example for the safety goal 'reactivity control' for BWRs. (orig.) [de

  2. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  4. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  5. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  6. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  7. Toxicology and safety of the tincture of Operculina alata in patients with functional constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kelly Ximenes dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tincture of Operculina alata, popularly known as "tincture of jalapa", is used in Northeast Brazil to treat constipation and encephalic vascular accident, but it has not yet been adequately tested for safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicology and safety of the tincture of O. alata in patients with functional constipation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study consisted of three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment, each phase with duration of seven days. Arterial pressure, heart rate, body weight, adverse events, hematological, metabolic, liver and kidney functions were monitored. Forty patients were randomized to receive tincture of O. alata and 43 patients to receive placebo. There were statistical differences in the clinical aspects between groups, but these changes were not considered clinically significant. Adverse events were considered not serious and of mild intensity, especially dizziness, headache, abdominal pain and nausea. This clinical trial confirmed the safety of the tincture of O. alata in the pharmaceutical form and dosage tested, allowing the product to be safely used in a larger population for the assessment of its clinical efficacy.A tintura de Operculina alata, popularmente conhecida como "tintura de jalapa", é usada no Nordeste do Brasil para tratar constipação intestinal e acidente vascular encefálico, mas sua eficácia e segurança ainda não foram confirmadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicologia e segurança da tintura de O. alata em pacientes com constipação intestinal funcional. Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, randomizado e controlado por placebo. O estudo consistiu de três fases: pré-tratamento, tratamento e pós-tratamento, cada fase com duração de sete dias. Foram monitorizados a pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, peso corporal, eventos adversos e funções hematológica, metab

  8. QT interval correction for drug-induced changes in body temperature during integrated cardiovascular safety assessment in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, Abdel-Ilah; El Amrani-Callens, Francine; Loriot, Stéphane; Singh, Pramila; Forster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety assessment requires accurate evaluation of QT interval, which depends on the length of the cardiac cycle and also on core body temperature (BT). Increases in QT interval duration have been shown to be associated with decreases in BT in dogs. An example of altered QT interval duration associated with changes in body temperature observed during a 4-week regulatory toxicology study in dogs is presented. Four groups of Beagle dogs received the vehicle or test item once on Day 1, followed by a 4-week observation period. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were continuously recorded on Days 1 and 26 by jacketed external telemetry (JET). Core body temperature (BT) was measured with a conventional rectal thermometer at appropriate time-points during the Day 1 recording period. Decreased BT was observed approximately 2h after treatment on Day 1, along with increased QT interval duration corrected according to the Van de Water formula (QTcV), but the effect was no longer observed after correction for changes in BT [QTcVcT=QTcV-14(37.5-BT)] according to the Van der Linde formula. No significant changes in QTcV were reported at the end of the observation period, on Day 26. The present study demonstrates that core body (rectal) temperature can easily be monitored at appropriate time-points during JET recording in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs, in order to correct QT interval duration values for treatment-related changes in BT. The successful application of the Van der Linde formula to correct QTc prolongation for changes in BT was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ethem Goren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008 archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After screening five-year archives using laboratory registration book, we determined that of 608 cases 49.5 % were from emergency medicine, 19.6 % from pediatric, 7.4 % from psychiatry, 4.4 % 4.4 from neurology, 2.3 % from other units of the hospital, 7.9 % from judicial authorities, 4.8 % from special requests and 6.1 % from circumjacent hospitals. 57.9 % of the cases are male and 42.1 % are female. 87.3 % of 608 cases were clinical cases, 7.9 % were forensic cases, 4.8 % special requests. 95.8 % of judicial cases were male and 85.4 % were drugs of abuse cases. 28.1 % of clinical cases were the carbon monoxide poisoning and 64.3 % of the carbon monoxide poisoning cases were female. Conclusion: When five-year data were evaluated, we determine that numbers of case are increasing every year. Males are more than in females. Forensic cases which were mostly drugs of abuse were most commonly have seen in male. When our data were investigated together with TUBIM’s data belong to 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Turkey Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, the use of drug abuse were seen most commonly in male. Also carbon monoxide poisoning in clinical cases were evaluated and we see that Carbon monoxide intoxication in winter was more than in summer due to heating. Women who exposed to carbon monoxide were more than men to be much more at home according to men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 675-680

  10. ACToR-AGGREGATED COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of the field of computational toxicology is to predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data. predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data

  11. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible toxicological risks of Allium sativum aqueous extract upon consumption were assessed in mice and rats using acute and sub-chronic treatments. 36 male Swiss albino mice were used, and the various doses administered were 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/kg body weight. Mice were observed for behavioural changes ...

  12. Computational Toxicology as Implemented by the US EPA ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the T

  13. Progress in computational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  15. Preclinical safety, toxicology, and biodistribution study of adenoviral gene therapy with sVEGFR-2 and sVEGFR-3 combined with chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Laura; Sallinen, Hanna; Kokki, Emmi; Koponen, Jonna; Anttila, Maarit; Pulkkinen, Kati; Heikura, Tommi; Toivanen, Pyry; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Heinonen, Seppo; Alitalo, Kari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Antiangiogenic and antilymphangiogenic gene therapy with soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and soluble VEGFR-3 in combination with chemotherapy is a potential new treatment for ovarian carcinoma. We evaluated the safety, toxicology, and biodistribution of intravenous AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 combined with chemotherapy in healthy rats (n=90) before entering a clinical setting. The study groups were: AdLacZ and AdLacZ with chemotherapy as control groups, low dose AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3, high dose AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3, combination of low dose AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 with chemotherapy, combination of high dose AdsVEGFR-2 and AdVEGFR-3 with chemotherapy, and chemotherapy only. The follow-up time was 4 weeks. Safety and toxicology were assessed by monitoring the clinical status of the animals and by histological, hematological, and clinical chemistry parameters. For the biodistribution studies, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used. Low dose (2×10(10) vp) AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 gene therapy was well tolerated, even when gene therapy was combined with chemotherapy. Notably, only transient elevation of liver enzymes and mild regenerative changes were seen in liver after the gene transfer in the groups that received high doses (2×10(11) vp) of AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 with or without chemotherapy. No life-threatening adverse effects were noticed in any of the treatment groups. The highest protein concentration of soluble VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2) in circulation was seen 1 week after the gene transfer. The combination of chemotherapy to gene therapy seemed to prolong the time of detectable transgene protein at least 1 week in the circulation. The expression of AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 transgenes was mainly seen in the liver and spleen as detected by qRT-PCR. According to these results, AdsVEGFR-2 and AdsVEGFR-3 gene therapy combined with

  16. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makalinao, Irma R.; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-01-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well

  17. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

    1997-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise.

  18. Evaluación toxicológica de residuos orgánicos Toxicological evaluation of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2005-12-01

    una necesidad imperiosa en la UE, dada la carencia de datos toxicológicos completos del 70% de las 106.000 sustancias ya existentes y empleadas.Se destaca el gran valor que los ensayos de mutagenicidad representan dentro de las pruebas toxicológicas de nivel básico, que se emplean en la evaluación de las sustancias nuevas y existentes. También con ello se contribuye a un mejor conocimiento del elevado número de las sustancias con datos toxicológicos incompletos. Otro aspecto a considerar de estos métodos es que son una alternativa a la experimentación animal, cumpliendo con ello uno de los requisitos básicos que establece la nueva política sobre sustancias en la UE, que se denomina y reconoce como REACH (acrónimo de registro, evaluación y autorización de sustancias químicas, parte fundamental de la estrategia europea sobre medioambiente y salud (SCALE.It is pointed out the importance of short term assays for the characterization of organic residues, specially some methods for toxicological, mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation (Vibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium and Allium cepa, used in the characterization of environmental complex mixtures lixiviates. These methods take part together with other bioassays in the evaluation by toxicological identification (VIT, which allows the evaluation of other ecotoxicological effects: a bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri; b germination and root length of Lepidum sativum; c root length of Allium cepa and Tradescantia sp.; d inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna; and e abnormalities in the development of Oryzias latipes, or medaka fish. All these assays take part in the EU battery of bioassays, applied to discriminate and select between those environmental matrixes which must be subject to more complex and specific chemical characterizations.We make a review of the methods for toxicological evaluation, used for the characterization of chemical compounds or complex mixtures, as well as

  19. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  20. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Douglas, Nicki; Helma, Christoph; Rautenberg, Micha; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Nikolova, Ivelina; Benigni, Romualdo; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Kramer, Stefan; Girschick, Tobias; Buchwald, Fabian; Wicker, Joerg; Karwath, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Maunz, Andreas; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Melagraki, Georgia; Afantitis, Antreas; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Gallagher, David; Poroikov, Vladimir; Filimonov, Dmitry; Zakharov, Alexey; Lagunin, Alexey; Gloriozova, Tatyana; Novikov, Sergey; Skvortsova, Natalia; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry; Chawla, Sunil; Ghosh, Indira; Ray, Surajit; Patel, Hitesh; Escher, Sylvia

    2010-08-31

    OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals.The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation.Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure-activity relationship modelling of REACH

  1. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator is...

  2. Highlight report: Launch of a large integrated European in vitro toxicology project: EU-ToxRisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Hengstler, Jan; Leist, Marcel; van de Water, Bob

    2016-05-01

    The integrated European project, EU-ToxRisk, proudly sees itself as "flagship" exploring new alternative-to-animal approaches to chemical safety evaluation. It promotes mechanism-based toxicity testing and risk assessment according to the principles laid down for toxicology for the twenty-first century. The project was officially launched in January 2016 with a kickoff meeting in Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands. Over 100 scientists representing academia and industry as well as regulatory authorities attended the inaugural meeting. The project will integrate advances in in vitro and in silico toxicology, read-across methods, and adverse outcome pathways. EU-ToxRisk will continue to make use of the case study strategy deployed in SEURAT-1, a FP7 initiative ended in December 2015. Even though the development of new non-animal methods is one target of EU-ToxRisk, the project puts special emphasis on their acceptance and implementation in regulatory contexts. This €30 million Horizon 2020 project involves 38 European partners and one from the USA. EU-ToxRisk aims at the "development of a new way of risk assessment."

  3. Evaluation on safety issues of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Seol, K. W.; Yoon, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Safety issues on the SMART were evaluated in the light of the compliance with the Ministerial Ordinance of Technical Requirements applying to Nuclear Installations, which was recently revised. Evaluation concludes that regulatory requirements associated with following items have to be developed as the licensing criteria for the SMART: (1) proving the safety of design or materials different form existing reactors; (2) coping with beyond design basis accidents; (3) rulemaking on the safety of reactor safeguard vessel ; (4) ensuring integrity of steam generator tubes; and (5) classifying equipment based on their safety significance. Appropriate actions including implementation of new requirements under development should be taken for safety issues such as diversity of reactivity control and in-service inspection of steam generator tubes that are not complied with the current Technical Requirements. Safety level of the SMART design will be evaluated further by the more detailed assessment according to the Technical Requirements, and additional safety issues will be identified and resolved, if it necessary

  4. Mind the Gap! A Journey towards Computational Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Alberga, Domenico; Altomare, Cosimo Damiano; Carotti, Angelo; Catto, Marco; Cellamare, Saverio; Gadaleta, Domenico; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Leonetti, Francesco; Pisani, Leonardo; Stefanachi, Angela; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2016-09-01

    Computational methods have advanced toxicology towards the development of target-specific models based on a clear cause-effect rationale. However, the predictive potential of these models presents strengths and weaknesses. On the good side, in silico models are valuable cheap alternatives to in vitro and in vivo experiments. On the other, the unconscious use of in silico methods can mislead end-users with elusive results. The focus of this review is on the basic scientific and regulatory recommendations in the derivation and application of computational models. Attention is paid to examine the interplay between computational toxicology and drug discovery and development. Avoiding the easy temptation of an overoptimistic future, we report our view on what can, or cannot, realistically be done. Indeed, studies of safety/toxicity represent a key element of chemical prioritization programs carried out by chemical industries, and primarily by pharmaceutical companies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  6. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  8. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Philip

    2004-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) has been a significant leader in organizing and providing public access to an extensive storehouse of toxicological information through its online databases. With the advent of the Internet, TEHIP has expanded its role to also serve as a pre-eminent portal to toxicological information worldwide. Its primary databases reside within the web-based TOXNET system, and include the scientifically peer-reviewed Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Toxics Release Inventory, the National Cancer Institute's Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS) and the TOXLINE file of over 3 million bibliographic references. TEHIP's ChemIDplus is an extensive chemical dictionary that extends beyond simple nomenclature to offer displays of molecular structures and links from particular chemicals to other databases containing more information. Specialty files in occupational safety and health, and household products have recently been added to TEHIP's suite of resources. Additional databases in risk assessment, drugs, toxicology education, and global resources, are under development. ''Special Topics'' pages lead users to structured summaries and links in areas such as arsenic, chemical warfare agents, biological warfare, and West Nile Virus. A database on alternatives to the use of live animals, a three-module toxicology tutor, and a glossary of terms in toxicology are among TEHIP's other information aids, as well an increasing commitment to serving consumers, as witnessed by the animated ToxTown program. Outside the sphere of TEHIP, NLM offers additional databases, such as PubMed, of significant value to toxicology researchers

  9. Clinical and anatomic pathology effects of serial blood sampling in rat toxicology studies, using conventional or microsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Bartels, T; Dorchies, O; Gury, T; Chalier, Catherine; Benning, Véronique

    2015-08-01

    As a general practice in rodent toxicology studies, satellite animals are used for toxicokinetic determinations, because of the potential impact of serial blood sampling on toxicological endpoints. Besides toxicological and toxicokinetic determinations, blood samples obtained longitudinally from a same animal may be used for the assessment of additional parameters (e.g., metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety biomarkers) to maximize information that can be deduced from rodents. We investigated whether removal of up to 6 × 200 μL of blood over 24h can be applied in GLP rat toxicology studies without affecting the scientific outcome. 8 week-old female rats (200-300 g) were dosed for up to 1 month with a standard vehicle and subjected or not (controls) to serial blood sampling for sham toxicokinetic/ancillary determinations, using miniaturized methods allowing collection of 6 × 50, 100 or 200 μL over 24h. In-life endpoints, clinical pathology parameters and histopathology of organs sensitive to blood volume reduction were evaluated at several time points after completion of sampling. In sampled rats, minimal and reversible changes in red blood cell mass (maximally 15%) and subtle variations in liver enzymes, fibrinogen and neutrophils were not associated with any organ/tissue macroscopic or microscopic correlate. Serial blood sampling (up to 6 × 200 μL over 24h) is compatible with the assessment of standard toxicity endpoints in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program must...

  11. Forthcoming Challenges in Mycotoxins Toxicology Research for Safer Food-A Need for Multi-Omics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-04

    The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins.

  12. Toxicological evaluation and metabolism of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds: N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available Toxicological evaluations of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds, N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide (S807, CAS 745047-51-2 and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide (S9229, CAS 851669-60-8, were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. Both S807 and S9229 undergo rapid oxidative metabolism by both rat and human liver microsomes in vitro. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the systemic exposure to S9229 on oral administration is very low at all doses (% F < 1%, while that of S807 demonstrated a non-linear dose dependence. In metabolism studies in rats, hydroxylation of the C-4 aryl methyl group was found to be the dominant metabolic pathway for S9229. The dominant metabolic pathway for S807 in the rat involved oxidative scission of the methylenedioxy moiety to produce the corresponding 3,4-dihydroxybenamide which is further converted by Phase II metabolic enzymes to the 3- and 4-O-methyl ethers as well as their corresponding glucuronides. Both S807 and S9229 were not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for S807 was 20 mg/kg bw/day when administered in the diet for 13 weeks. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S9229 in rats was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered in the diet for 28 consecutive days. Keywords: S807, S9229, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation

  13. Toxicological awakenings: the rebirth of hormesis as a central pillar of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses historical reasons that may account for the marginalization of hormesis as a dose-response model in the biomedical sciences in general and toxicology in particular. The most significant and enduring explanatory factors are the early and close association of the concept of hormesis with the highly controversial medical practice of homeopathy and the difficulty in assessing hormesis with high-dose testing protocols which have dominated the discipline of toxicology, especially regulatory toxicology. The long-standing and intensely acrimonious conflict between homeopathy and 'traditional' medicine (allopathy) lead to the exclusion of the hormesis concept from a vast array of medical- and public health-related activities including research, teaching, grant funding, publishing, professional societal meetings, and regulatory initiatives of governmental agencies and their advisory bodies. Recent publications indicate that the hormetic dose-response is far more common and fundamental than the dose-response models [threshold/linear no threshold (LNT)] used in toxicology and risk assessment, and by governmental regulatory agencies in the establishment of exposure standards for workers and the general public. Acceptance of the possibility of hormesis has the potential to profoundly affect the practice of toxicology and risk assessment, especially with respect to carcinogen assessment

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of monogram inks added to experimental cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C; Wiecinski, Paige N; Coggins, Christopher R E; Banty, Tamara H; Oldham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Cigarettes often have a small identifying mark (monogram) printed either on the cigarette paper toward the filter end of the cigarette or on the tipping paper. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicology of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes manufactured with different monogram inks. Cigarettes with different concentrations of different pigments were compared with cigarettes without ink, and with a control ink. Smoke from each of the experimental cigarettes was evaluated using analytical chemistry and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity (Salmonella, five strains, ± S9) and cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) assays. No differences were observed between experimental cigarettes printed with three different pigment loads of iron oxide-based Black pigment and non-printed cigarettes. In general, no dose response was observed. However, increases in certain smoke constituents were found to correlate with Pigment Yellow 14 (also known as benzidine yellow) and Pigment Blue 15 (copper phthalocyanine). Increases in bacterial mutagenicity were observed for high-level print of Pigment Yellow 14 in TA98 and TA1537 and the high-level print of Pigment Blue 15 in TA98. In vitro cytotoxicity of mainstream smoke was unaffected by the presence of monogram ink on cigarettes. Statistically significant dose-responsive constituent changes and an increase in mutagenicity were observed with inclusion of Pigment Yellow 14 and Pigment Blue 15. Other pigments showed minimal toxicological activity.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY-WHERE IS THE DATA? ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource). This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource).

  16. Toxicological characteristics of edible insects in China: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Wang, Di; Xu, Meng-Lei; Shi, Shu-Sen; Xiong, Jin-Feng

    2018-04-10

    Edible insects are ideal food sources, which contain important nutrients and health-promoting compounds. With a rapid development of industrial insect farming, insect-derived food is a novel and emerging food industry. Edible insects have been traditionally consumed in various communities, while continuously gaining relevance in today's society; however, they currently remain underutilized. Although there are a large number of literature on edible insects, these literature primarily focus on the nutritional value edible insects. The toxicity assessment data of edible insects remain incomprehensive, especially for the new national standard that is currently in effect; and many data and conclusions are not accurately specified/reported. Therefore, we performed a literature review and summarized the data on the toxicological assessment of edible insects in China. The review first describes the research progress on safety toxicological assessment, and then offers references regarding the development of 34 edible insect species in China. These data can be a platform for the development of future toxicological assessment strategies, which can be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, possibly consisting of food engineers, agronomists, farmers, and so on, to improve the acceptability of edible insects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (Interagency Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 8, 2011, the Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (External Review Draft) was released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. In the new IRIS process, introduced by the EPA Administrator, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices will be made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments with EPA's response and the interagency science consultation draft of the IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol and the charge to external peer reviewers are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  18. Model-based analysis of thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 as biomarkers in the safety evaluation of naproxen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Sanderson, Ian; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of safety in traditional toxicology protocols relies on evidence arising from observed adverse events (AEs) in animals and on establishing their correlation with different measures of drug exposure (e.g., C max and AUC). Such correlations, however, ignore the role of biomarkers, which can provide further insight into the underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Here we use naproxen as a paradigm drug to explore the feasibility of a biomarker-guided approach for the prediction of AEs in humans. A standard toxicology protocol was set up for the evaluation of effects of naproxen in rat, in which four doses were tested (7.5, 15, 40 and 80 mg/kg). In addition to sparse blood sampling for the assessment of exposure, thromboxane B 2 and prostaglandin E 2 were also collected in satellite groups. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to evaluate the predictive performance of the approach. A one-compartmental model with first order absorption was found to best describe the pharmacokinetics of naproxen. A nonlinear relationship between dose and bioavailability was observed which leads to a less than proportional increase in naproxen concentrations with increasing doses. The pharmacodynamics of TXB 2 and PGE 2 was described by direct inhibition models with maximum pharmacological effects achieved at doses > 7.5 mg/kg. The predicted PKPD relationship in humans was within 10-fold of the values previously published. Moreover, our results indicate that biomarkers can be used to assess interspecies differences in PKPD and extrapolated data from animals to humans. Biomarker sampling should be used systematically in general toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Prediction of a drug's safety profile from preclinical protocols remains challenging. • Pharmacokinetic measures of safe exposure (e.g., AUC) ignore the role of biomarkers. • PKPD relationships enable the evaluation of adverse events in a mechanistic manner. • Major differences exist between rats and

  19. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, Jorma; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul

    2005-01-01

    RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalisation of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures

  20. Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Project Director Penelope Jeggo

    2003-02-15

    Genetic toxicology represents a study of the genetic damage that a cell can incur, the agents that induce such damage, the damage response mechanisms available to cells and organisms, and the potential consequences of such damage. Genotoxic agents are abundant in the environment and are also induced endogenously. The consequences of such damage can include carcinogenesis and teratogenesis. An understanding of genetic toxicology is essential to carry out risk evaluations of the impact of genotoxic agents and to assess how individual genetic differences influence the response to genotoxic damage. In recent years, the importance of maintaining genomic stability has become increasingly recognized, in part by the realization that failure of the damage response mechanisms underlies many, if not all, cancer incidence. The importance of these mechanisms is also underscored by their remarkable conservation between species, allowing the study of simple organisms to provide significant input into our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It has also become clear that the damage response mechanisms interface closely with other aspects of cellular metabolism including replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Moreover, defects in many of these mechanisms, as observed for example in ataxia telangiectasia patients, confer disorders with associated developmental abnormalities demonstrating their essential roles during growth and development. In short, while a decade ago, a study of the impact of DNA damage was seen as a compartmentalized area of cellular research, it is now appreciated to lie at the centre of an array of cellular responses of crucial importance to human health. Consequently, this has become a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. The Genetic Toxicology Gordon Research Conference is biannual with an evolving change in the emphasis of the meetings. From evaluating the nature of genotoxic chemicals, which lay at the centre of the early

  1. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  2. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  3. Current status and prospects of the toxicological assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacchiarotti, Francesca; Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Leter, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Nano toxicology is a branch of experimental toxicology dealing with identification and characterization of the harmful biological effects of engineered nanomaterials. The physico-chemical properties of these materials affect their biological level interactions. From the first generation of experimental studies it showed the need for adaptation to nanomaterials methodologies and toxicological evaluation of current strategies. Special challenges are presented by the variety of materials to be tested, from the definition of relevant dose quantities, by the standardization of the preparation and characterization of the nanomaterial in the biological sample matrices, by techniques for the determination of the biodistribution in the body. 'Omics' technologies are now an innovative tool for toxicological approach based on understanding the mechanisms of action, which will allow the most advanced laboratories to implement high-performance screening test. [it

  4. 21 CFR 315.6 - Evaluation of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of safety. 315.6 Section 315.6 Food and... USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.6 Evaluation of safety. (a) Factors considered in the safety...)(1) To establish the safety of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, FDA may require, among other...

  5. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  6. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Severe Toxicological Exposures: Review of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G S; Levitan, R; Wiegand, T J; Lowry, J; Schult, R F; Yin, S

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality.

  7. Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Nelson, Keith N; Sargeant, Aaron M; Jacob, Binod; McKeag, Sean; Haruna, Julius; Vemireddi, Vimala; Greeley, Melanie; Brocksmith, Derek; Navratil, Nicole; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  9. Behavior as a common focus of toxicology and nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    Behavior as an index of toxicity parallels its role as an index of nutritional impairment, just as toxicology and nutrition share other common themes. Intersections among the three disciplines arise because foodstuffs serve as one of the major routes of toxic exposure and also because food elements modify toxicity. With this perspective, the safety of our food supply is examined in the contexts of essential nutrients, toxins, toxic metals, manufactured contaminants, self-administered toxicants, and food additives.

  10. Agenda of behavioral toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B

    1978-01-01

    The author describes behavioral toxicology as a new discipline and contrasts it to the fields of physics and pharmacology. Several questions are raised and discussed concerning the field of behavioral toxicology. Some of these questions are: (1) how is an adverse behavioral effect recognized; (2) how can the non-specific be specified; (3) are standardized test batteries feasible. The problem of chronic intake is discussed as well as drawing information from other related disciplines such as neurochemistry, neuropathology and neurophysiology. The author concludes with several statements concerning new directions in the discipline of behavioral toxicology.

  11. Criticality safety evaluation in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Nobutoshi; Nakajima, Masayoshi; Takaya, Akikazu; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Koji; Suto, Toshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Criticality limits for equipments in Tokai Reprocessing Plant which handle fissile material solution and are under shape and dimension control were reevaluated based on the guideline No.10 'Criticality safety of single unit' in the regulatory guide for reprocessing plant safety. This report presents criticality safety evaluation of each equipment as single unit. Criticality safety of multiple units in a cell or a room was also evaluated. The evaluated equipments were ones in dissolution, separation, purification, denitration, Pu product storage, and Pu conversion processes. As a result, it was reconfirmed that the equipments were safe enough from a view point of criticality safety of single unit and multiple units. (author)

  12. Toxicology of tetramethyltin and other organometals used in photovoltaic cell manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L. D.; Medeiros, W. H.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Rybicka, K.

    1988-07-01

    In photovoltaic cell fabrication, organometals (alkyl metals) may be used in such processes as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, transparent contact oxide deposition, doping, and ion implantation. Although these compounds offer potential performance advantages over earth metals and possibly greater safety in handling than metal hydrides, they are not without risk to health and property. Most organometals can ignite spontaneously in air. Some also react violently with water. Oxidation by-products from these reactions are hazardous to health. Of the organometals used in photovoltaic cell fabrication, only the toxicology of organotins (triethyl-, trimethyl- and tetramethyltin) was studied extensively. In mammalian systems, tetramethyltin is rapidly dealkylated to trimethyltin. Although tin was classified by some investigators as an essential trace element, the effects of organotin compounds on humans are poorly known. Animal studies show that the most prominent effects of trimethyltin are on the central nervous system. Several observations of poisoning were reported; effects ranged from reversible neurologic disorders to death. Limited available data suggest that humans respond to single acute doses and more alarmingly to repeated sub-toxic doses, suggesting a cumulative effect. Toxicologic properties of diethyltelluride also were evaluated in animal experiments. The compound had toxic effects on the blood, liver, kidney, heart, and skin. Based on these studies and others of related compounds (e.g., methylmercury, tributyltin) extreme caution should be exercised in using organometal compounds in photovoltaic cell manufacturing.

  13. Site evaluation for nuclear installations. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1). It takes account of developments relating to site evaluations for nuclear installations since the Code on Siting was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for site evaluation are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear installations. It is recognized that there are steady advances in technology and scientific knowledge, in nuclear safety and in what is considered adequate protection. Safety requirements change with these advances and this publication reflects the present consensus among States. This Safety Requirements publication was prepared under the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear installations. It establishes requirements and provides criteria for ensuring safety in site evaluation for nuclear installations. The Safety Guides on site evaluation listed in the references provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements established in this Safety Requirements publication. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements for the elements of a site evaluation for a nuclear installation so as to characterize fully the site specific conditions pertinent to the safety of a nuclear installation. The purpose is to establish requirements for criteria, to be applied as appropriate to site and site-installation interaction in operational states and accident conditions, including those that could lead to emergency measures for: (a) Defining the extent of information on a proposed site to be presented by the applicant; (b) Evaluating a proposed site to ensure that the site

  14. Guide for understanding and evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report was the guide of understanding and evaluation of safety culture. Operator's activities for enhancement of safety culture in nuclear installations became an object of safety regulation in the management system. Evaluation of operator's activities (including top management's involvement) to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate in daily works needed understanding of safety culture and diversity of operator's activities. This guide was prepared to check indications of degradation of safety culture and organization climate in operator's activities in daily works and encourage operator's activities to enhance safety culture improvement and good practice. Comprehensive evaluation of operator's activities to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate would be performed from the standpoints of 14 safety culture elements such as top management commitment, clear plan and implementation of upper manager, measures to avoid wrong decision making, questioning attitude, reporting culture, good communications, accountability and openness, compliance, learning system, activities to prevent accidents or incidents beforehand, self-assessment or third party evaluation, work management, change management and attitudes/motivation. Element-wise examples and targets for evaluation were attached with evaluation check tables. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K.

    2004-01-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  16. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  17. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest. Responses should ideally be translated into tissue-, organ-, and organism-level effects. It must be economical and scalable. Using a High Throughput Transcriptomics platform within US EPA provides broader coverage of biological activity space and toxicological MOAs and helps fill the toxicological data gap. Slide presentation at the 2016 ToxForum on using High Throughput Transcriptomics at US EPA for broader coverage biological activity space and toxicological MOAs.

  18. Summary introduction to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzow, B.; Jessen, H.; Wendorff, D.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental consciousness and the increasing public interest in environmental medicine and toxicology is much appreciated by the Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology. This information brochure gives the reader some insight into the importance of environmental toxicology and into the waste of the Research Institute. In response to the current situation, the authors have included an appendix on radiation protection. (orig./PW) [de

  19. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  20. Finding toxicological information: An approach for occupational health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be difficult for occupational health professionals to assess which toxicological databases available on the Internet are the most useful for answering their questions. Therefore we evaluated toxicological databases for their ability to answer practical questions about exposure and prevention. We also propose recommended practices for searching for toxicological properties of chemicals. Methods We used a systematic search to find databases available on the Internet. Our criteria for the databases were the following: has a search engine, includes factual information on toxic and hazardous chemicals harmful for human health, and is free of charge. We developed both a qualitative and a quantitative rating method, which was used by four independent assessors to determine appropriateness, the quality of content, and ease of use of the database. Final ratings were based on a consensus of at least two evaluators. Results Out of 822 results we found 21 databases that met our inclusion criteria. Out of these 21 databases 14 are administered in the US, five in Europe, one in Australia, and one in Canada. Nine are administered by a governmental organization. No database achieved the maximum score of 27. The databases GESTIS, ESIS, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, TOXNET and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards all scored more than 20 points. The following approach was developed for occupational health professionals searching for the toxicological properties of chemicals: start with the identity of the chemical; then search for health hazards, exposure route and measurement; next the limit values; and finally look for the preventive measures. Conclusion A rating system of toxicological databases to assess their value for occupational health professionals discriminated well between databases in terms of their appropriateness, quality of information, and ease of use. Several American and European databases yielded high scores and

  1. Survey and evaluation of inherent safety characteristics and passive safety systems for use in probabilistic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Scharfe, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present report examines the possibilities and limits of a probabilistic safety analysis to evaluate passive safety systems and inherent safety characteristics. The inherent safety characteristics are based on physical principles, that together with the safety system lead to no damage. A probabilistic evaluation of the inherent safety characteristic is not made. An inventory of passive safety systems of accomplished nuclear power plant types in the Federal Republic of Germany was drawn up. The evaluation of the passive safety system in the analysis of the accomplished nuclear power plant types was examined. The analysis showed that the passive manner of working was always assumed to be successful. A probabilistic evaluation was not performed. The unavailability of the passive safety system was determined by the failure of active components which are necessary in order to activate the passive safety system. To evaluate the passive safety features in new concepts of nuclear power plants the AP600 from Westinghouse, the SBWR from General Electric and the SWR 600 from Siemens, were selected. Under these three reactor concepts, the SWR 600 is specially attractive because the safety features need no energy sources and instrumentation in this concept. First approaches for the assessment of the reliability of passively operating systems are summarized. Generally it can be established that the core melt frequency for the passive concepts AP600 and SBWR is advantageous in comparison to the probabilistic objectives from the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). Under the passive concepts is the SWR 600 particularly interesting. In this concept the passive systems need no energy sources and instrumentation, and has active operational systems and active safety equipment. Siemens argues that with this concept the frequency of a core melt will be two orders of magnitude lower than for the conventional reactors. (orig.) [de

  2. Pilot-Reported Beta-Blockers Identified by Forensic Toxicology Analysis of Postmortem Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Dennis V; Dubowski, Kurt M; Whinnery, James M; Forster, Estrella M

    2018-01-01

    This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approach: Compare the drug found by toxicology analysis with the drug reported by the pilot. This study uniquely examined first the pilot-reported medication and then compared it to that detected by toxicology analysis. This study will serve two purposes: (i) to determine the capability of a toxicology laboratory to detect reported medications, and (ii) to identify pilots with medications below detectable limits. All information required for this study was extracted from the Toxicology Data Base system and was searched using ToxFlo or SQL Server Management Studio. The following information was collected and analyzed: pilot-reported trade and/or generic drug, date specimens received, time of accident, type of aviation operations (CFR), state, pilot level, age, class of medical, specimen type, specimen concentration, dose reported, frequency reported associated with the accident, quantity reported, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident event number, and all NTSB reports. There were 319 pilots that either reported taking a beta-blocker or were found to be taking a beta-blocker by postmortem toxicology analysis. Time of death, therapeutic concentration and specimen type were found to be factors in the ability of the laboratory to detect beta-blockers. Beta-blockers taken by pilots will, in most cases, be found by a competent postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory at therapeutic concentrations. The dose taken by the pilot was not found to be a factor in the ability of the laboratory to identify beta-blockers. Time of dose, route of administration, specimen tested and therapeutic concentration of the drug were found to be factors in the ability of the laboratory to identify beta-blockers in postmortem specimens

  3. Integrating Personalized Technology in Toxicology: Sensors, Smart Glass, and Social Media Applications in Toxicology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Chai, Peter R; Carey, Jennifer; Chapman, Brittany; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-06-01

    Rapid proliferation of mobile technologies in social and healthcare spaces create an opportunity for advancement in research and clinical practice. The application of mobile, personalized technology in healthcare, referred to as mHealth, has not yet become routine in toxicology. However, key features of our practice environment, such as frequent need for remote evaluation, unreliable historical data from patients, and sensitive subject matter, make mHealth tools appealing solutions in comparison to traditional methods that collect retrospective or indirect data. This manuscript describes the features, uses, and costs associated with several of common sectors of mHealth research including wearable biosensors, ingestible biosensors, head-mounted devices, and social media applications. The benefits and novel challenges associated with the study and use of these applications are then discussed. Finally, opportunities for further research and integration are explored with a particular focus on toxicology-based applications.

  4. History of Japanese Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 1981, the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) has grown into an organization of nearly 3,000 members working together to advance the nation's scientific knowledge and understanding of toxicology through the implementation of planning that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and is closely aligned with a strategy for accomplishing the Society's long-range plans. To promote public education in toxicology, the Society organizes public lectures during each year's annual meeting. Other activities include hosting scientific conferences, promoting continuing education, and facilitating international collaboration. Internally, the JSOT operates five standing committees: General Affairs, Educational, Editorial, Finance, and Science and Publicity to handle its necessary relationships. To bestow official recognition, the Society established its Toxicologist Certification Program in 1997, and has certified 536 members as Diplomat Toxicologists (DJSOT) as of May 1, 2016. Furthermore, on the same date, 43 JSOT members were certified as Emeritus Diplomats of the JSOT (EDJSOT). The Society has launched two official journals, the "Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)" in 1981 and "Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)" in 2014. As for participation in the international organizations, the JSOT (then known as the Toxicological Research Group) joined the International Union of Toxicology as a charter member in 1980, and became a founding member of the Asian Society of Toxicology at its inauguration in 1994. Into the future, the JSOT will continue working diligently to advance knowledge and understanding of toxicology and secure its place among the interdisciplinary fields of science, humane studies, and ethics.

  5. SERS as a tool for in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate M; McLeish, Jennifer A; Jamieson, Lauren E; Jiang, Jing; Hopgood, James R; McLaughlin, Stephen; Donaldson, Ken; Campbell, Colin J

    2016-06-23

    Measuring markers of stress such as pH and redox potential are important when studying toxicology in in vitro models because they are markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and viability. While surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to the measurement of redox potential and pH in live cells, the time-intensive nature and perceived difficulty in signal analysis and interpretation can be a barrier to its broad uptake by the biological community. In this paper we detail the development of signal processing and analysis algorithms that allow SERS spectra to be automatically processed so that the output of the processing is a pH or redox potential value. By automating signal processing we were able to carry out a comparative evaluation of the toxicology of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles and correlate our findings with qPCR analysis. The combination of these two analytical techniques sheds light on the differences in toxicology between these two materials from the perspective of oxidative stress.

  6. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Pinkston, Rakeysha; Mclemore, Benathel; Dorsey, Waneene C; Batra, Sanjay

    2018-03-31

    Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs) are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  7. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping.

  8. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology, the...

  9. Toxicology in Asia--Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX), which consists of the seven national toxicology member societies of Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, and Iran, now boasts of more than 3,000 members from a variety of industries, academia, and regulatory organizations. ASIATOX congresses are spaced three years apart and rotated among the member societies. In 1995, ASIATOX joined the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) as a regional society, and now serves as the scientific voice of toxicology in Asia under the IUTOX umbrella. Since its inauguration, the society has worked diligently to handle matters deemed essential to promoting the vision set fourth by its founders. Future perspectives of ASIATOX include the establishment of education and training programs, and the certification and accreditation of toxicologists. As the leading voice of toxicology in Asia, the society seeks to extend knowledge of toxicological issues to developing nations in Asia based on the following missions and goals: (1) to provide leadership as a worldwide scientific organization that objectively addresses global issues involving the toxicological sciences, (2) to broaden the geographical base of toxicology as a discipline and profession to all countries of the world, and (3) to pursue capacity building in toxicology, particularly in developing countries, while utilizing its global perspective and network to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Barry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals. The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation. Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure

  11. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  12. Nuclear safety culture evaluation model based on SSE-CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Peng Guojian

    2012-01-01

    Safety culture, which is of great significance to establish safety objectives, characterizes level of enterprise safety production and development. Traditional safety culture evaluation models emphasis on thinking and behavior of individual and organization, and pay attention to evaluation results while ignore process. Moreover, determining evaluation indicators lacks objective evidence. A novel multidimensional safety culture evaluation model, which has scientific and completeness, is addressed by building an preliminary mapping between safety culture and SSE-CMM's (Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model) process area and generic practice. The model focuses on enterprise system security engineering process evaluation and provides new ideas and scientific evidences for the study of safety culture. (authors)

  13. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating SGLT2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes: pharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2014-05-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), which increase urinary glucose excretion independently of insulin, are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the pharmacokinetic characteristics, toxicological issues and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors in humans. This review focuses on three compounds (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) with results obtained in healthy volunteers (including drug-drug interactions), patients with T2DM (single dose and multiple doses) and special populations (those with renal or hepatic impairment). The three pharmacological agents share an excellent oral bioavailability, long half-life allowing once-daily administration, low accumulation index and renal clearance, the absence of active metabolites and a limited propensity to drug-drug interactions. No clinically relevant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in T2DM patients or in patients with mild/moderate renal or hepatic impairment. Adverse events are a slightly increased incidence of mycotic genital and rare benign urinary infections. SGLT2 inhibitors have the potential to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular outcome trials are currently ongoing. The best positioning of SGLT2 inhibitors in the armamentarium for treating T2DM is still a matter of debate.

  15. Advancing the use of noncoding RNA in regulatory toxicology: Report of an ECETOC workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Achim; Buesen, Roland; Gant, Tim; Gooderham, Nigel; Greim, Helmut; Hackermüller, Jörg; Hubesch, Bruno; Laffont, Madeleine; Marczylo, Emma; Meister, Gunter; Petrick, Jay S; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Sauer, Ursula G; Schmidt, Kerstin; Seitz, Hervé; Slack, Frank; Sukata, Tokuo; van der Vies, Saskia M; Verhaert, Jan; Witwer, Kenneth W; Poole, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) organised a workshop to discuss the state-of-the-art research on noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) as biomarkers in regulatory toxicology and as analytical and therapeutic agents. There was agreement that ncRNA expression profiling data requires careful evaluation to determine the utility of specific ncRNAs as biomarkers. To advance the use of ncRNA in regulatory toxicology, the following research priorities were identified: (1) Conduct comprehensive literature reviews to identify possibly suitable ncRNAs and areas of toxicology where ncRNA expression profiling could address prevailing scientific deficiencies. (2) Develop consensus on how to conduct ncRNA expression profiling in a toxicological context. (3) Conduct experimental projects, including, e.g., rat (90-day) oral toxicity studies, to evaluate the toxicological relevance of the expression profiles of selected ncRNAs. Thereby, physiological ncRNA expression profiles should be established, including the biological variability of healthy individuals. To substantiate the relevance of key ncRNAs for cell homeostasis or pathogenesis, molecular events should be dose-dependently linked with substance-induced apical effects. Applying a holistic approach, knowledge on ncRNAs, 'omics and epigenetics technologies should be integrated into adverse outcome pathways to improve the understanding of the functional roles of ncRNAs within a regulatory context. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Koutsogiannis, Zeff; Graeme, Kimberlie; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2015-09-01

    The international boundaries to medical education are becoming less marked as new technologies such as multiuser videoconferencing are developed and become more accessible to help bridge the communication gaps. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP) is aimed at connecting clinicians in countries with established clinical toxicology services to clinicians in countries without clinical toxicologists around the globe. Centers that manage or consult on toxicology cases were registered through the American College of Medical Toxicology website via Survey Monkey®. Data was analyzed retrospectively from February 2014 to January 2015. Google hangouts® was used as the main conferencing software, but some sites preferred the use of Skype®. Registration data included contact details and toxicology background and qualifications. Thirty sites in 19 different countries in Australasia, Europe, Africa, and America were registered. Twenty-eight (93 %) sites were located in a major urban center, one (3.5 %) site in a major rural center and one (3.5 %) a private practice. Expectations of GETUP included sharing toxicology cases and education (30, 100 % of sites), assistance with toxicology management guidelines (2, 7 %), assistance with providing a toxicology teaching curriculum in languages other than English (2, 7 %), and managing toxicology presentations in resource-poor settings, international collaboration, and toxicovigilance (2 sites, 7 %). Twenty-two conferences were performed during the first 12 months with a mean of 3 cases per conference. GETUP has connected countries and clinical units with and without toxicology services and will provide a platform to improve international collaboration in clinical toxicology.

  17. Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U; Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Severin, I; Dahbi, L; Dahlman, O; Lhuguenot, J-C; Andersson, M A; Hakulinen, P; Hoornstra, D; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Turco, L; Stammati, A; Zucco, F; Weber, A; von Wright, A

    2010-03-01

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  19. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber latex film vulcanized with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vania E.; Higa, Olga Z.; Guedes, Selma M.L.; Hanada, Seico

    1999-01-01

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made worldwide by conventional process using sulphur, but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. The main advantages of this process are related to absence of toxic effect promoted by chemical substances added to the NRL on the conventional process. In this research was tested the toxicological properties of the films vulcanized by the alternative process in relation to that vulcanized by the conventional process. The toxicity was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo systemic toxicity assay. The results showed that vulcanized films by gamma ray are less cytotoxic. The systemic toxicity assay showed that only the vulcanized film using sulphur induced allaying and motor in coordination on the animals for a short period of time. these results evidence the less cytotoxic properties of vulcanized films by gamma ray in relation to that vulcanized by conventional process using sulphur. (author)

  2. Model-based analysis of thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} as biomarkers in the safety evaluation of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Sanderson, Ian; Danhof, Meindert [Division of Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden (Netherlands); Della Pasqua, Oscar [Division of Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden (Netherlands); Clinical Pharmacology Modelling and Simulation, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of safety in traditional toxicology protocols relies on evidence arising from observed adverse events (AEs) in animals and on establishing their correlation with different measures of drug exposure (e.g., C{sub max} and AUC). Such correlations, however, ignore the role of biomarkers, which can provide further insight into the underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Here we use naproxen as a paradigm drug to explore the feasibility of a biomarker-guided approach for the prediction of AEs in humans. A standard toxicology protocol was set up for the evaluation of effects of naproxen in rat, in which four doses were tested (7.5, 15, 40 and 80 mg/kg). In addition to sparse blood sampling for the assessment of exposure, thromboxane B{sub 2} and prostaglandin E{sub 2} were also collected in satellite groups. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to evaluate the predictive performance of the approach. A one-compartmental model with first order absorption was found to best describe the pharmacokinetics of naproxen. A nonlinear relationship between dose and bioavailability was observed which leads to a less than proportional increase in naproxen concentrations with increasing doses. The pharmacodynamics of TXB{sub 2} and PGE{sub 2} was described by direct inhibition models with maximum pharmacological effects achieved at doses > 7.5 mg/kg. The predicted PKPD relationship in humans was within 10-fold of the values previously published. Moreover, our results indicate that biomarkers can be used to assess interspecies differences in PKPD and extrapolated data from animals to humans. Biomarker sampling should be used systematically in general toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Prediction of a drug's safety profile from preclinical protocols remains challenging. • Pharmacokinetic measures of safe exposure (e.g., AUC) ignore the role of biomarkers. • PKPD relationships enable the evaluation of adverse events in a mechanistic manner. • Major

  3. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Interest of toxicological analysis for poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Baud, Frédéric J

    2008-04-30

    The clinical approach of the poisoned patients is mainly based on the analysis of the circumstances of intoxication and the search for toxidromes. Toxicological analysis aims to detect the toxicants or measure their concentrations, in order to confirm the hypothesis of poisoning, to evaluate its severity and to help the follow-up regarding the treatment efficiency. Emergent toxicological analysis appears only useful if the method is specific and the results rapidly obtained. Therefore, systematic screening using immunochesmistry-based tests is not recommended in the situation of emergency. Measurement of blood concentrations of the toxicants is only indicated if it may influence the patient management. However, in the perspective of research, the study of toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic relationships, i.e. the relationships between the toxicant effects and its blood concentrations, may be helpful to understand the inter-individual variability of the response to a toxicant.

  5. Evaluating the Impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: A Case Study on Hexavalent Chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Holmgren, Stephanie; Andrews, Danica M K; Wolfe, Mary S

    2017-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of federally funded research with a broad, methodical, and objective approach is important to ensure that public funds advance the mission of federal agencies. We aimed to develop a methodical approach that would yield a broad assessment of National Toxicology Program's (NTP's) effectiveness across multiple sectors and demonstrate the utility of the approach through a case study. A conceptual model was developed with defined activities, outputs (products), and outcomes (proximal, intermediate, distal) and applied retrospectively to NTP's research on hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Proximal outcomes were measured by counting views of and requests for NTP's products by external stakeholders. Intermediate outcomes were measured by bibliometric analysis. Distal outcomes were assessed through Web and LexisNexis searches for documents related to legislation or regulation changes. The approach identified awareness of NTP's work on CrVI by external stakeholders (proximal outcome) and citations of NTP's research in scientific publications, reports, congressional testimonies, and legal and policy documents (intermediate outcome). NTP's research was key to the nation's first-ever drinking water standard for CrVI adopted by California in 2014 (distal outcome). By applying this approach to a case study, the utility and limitations of the approach were identified, including challenges to evaluating the outcomes of a research program. This study identified a broad and objective approach for assessing NTP's effectiveness, including methodological needs for more thorough and efficient impact assessments in the future. Citation: Xie Y, Holmgren S, Andrews DMK, Wolfe MS. 2017. Evaluating the impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: a case study on hexavalent chromium. Environ Health Perspect 125:181-188; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP21.

  6. Squale: evaluation criteria of functioning safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deswarte, Y.; Kaaniche, M.; Benoit, P.

    1998-05-01

    The SQUALE (security, safety and quality evaluation for dependable systems) project is part of the ACTS (advanced communications, technologies and services) European program. Its aim is to develop confidence evaluation criteria to test the functioning safety of systems. All industrial sectors that use critical applications (nuclear, railway, aerospace..) are concerned. SQUALE evaluation criteria differ from the classical evaluation methods: they are independent of the application domains and industrial sectors, they take into account the overall functioning safety attributes, and they can progressively change according to the level of severity required. In order to validate the approach and to refine the criteria, a first experiment is in progress with the METEOR automatic underground railway and another will be carried out on a telecommunication system developed by Bouygues company. (J.S.)

  7. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  8. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  9. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  10. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  11. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for 'statistical significance' is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena

  12. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  13. Double-Mutated 5-Enol Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Protein Expressed in MZHG0JG Corn (Zea mays L.) Has No Impact on Toxicological Safety and Nutritional Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bethany A; Launis, Karen L; Bauman, Patricia A; Juba, Nicole C

    2017-09-27

    MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment. In addition to the safety data available for these proteins, further studies were conducted on MZHG0JG corn to assess levels of mEPSPS as compared to previously registered genetically modified (GM) corn. The results support the conclusion of no impact on toxicological safety or nutritional composition.

  14. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-10-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  15. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage

  17. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  18. Safety evaluation of large ventilation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrocas, M.; Pruchon, P.; Robin, J.P.; Rouyer, J.L.; Salmon, P.

    1981-01-01

    For large ventilation networks, it is necessary to make a safety evaluation of their responses to perturbations such as blower failure, unexpected transfers, local pressurization. This evaluation is not easy to perform because of the many interrelationships between the different parts of the networks, interrelationships coming from the circulations of workers and matetials between cells and rooms and from the usefulness of air transfers through zones of different classifications. This evaluation is all the more necessary since new imperatives in energy savings push for minimizing the air flows, which tends to render the network more sensitive to perturbations. A program to evaluate safety has been developed by the Service de Protection Technique in cooperation with operators and designers of big nuclear facilities and the first applications presented here show the weak points of the installation studied from the safety view point

  19. Toxicological evaluation of the flavour ingredient 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid(S9632; CAS 1359963-68-0, a flavour with modifying properties,was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. No Phase I biotransformations of S9632 were observed in rat or human microsomes in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapidly eliminated. S9632 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei or indicate interactions with the mitotic spindle in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the NOEL was 100 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested for S9632 when administered as a food ad-mix for 90 consecutive days. Furthermore, S9632 demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOEL of 1000 mg/kg/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats.

  20. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals: Non-clinical and clinical safety signals and non-clinical testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Enni-Kaisa; Palomäki, Tiina; Pasanen, Markku

    2017-11-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers are oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals with a promising role in targeted therapies. Currently, five oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals have achieved marketing authorization in Europe or USA and many more are undergoing clinical testing. However, several safety concerns have been raised in non-clinical and clinical studies. Oligonucleotides share properties with both chemical and biological pharmaceuticals and therefore they pose challenges also from the regulatory point of view. We have analyzed the safety data of oligonucleotides and evaluated the applicability of current non-clinical toxicological guidelines for assessing the safety of oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals display a similar toxicological profile, exerting adverse effects on liver and kidney, evoking hematological alterations, as well as causing immunostimulation and prolonging the coagulation time. It is possible to extrapolate some of these effects from non-clinical studies to humans. However, evaluation strategies for genotoxicity testing of "non-natural" oligonucleotides should be revised. Additionally, the selective use of surrogates and prediction of clinical endpoints for non-clinically observed immunostimulation is complicated by its multiple potential manifestations, demanding improvements in the testing strategies. Utilizing more relevant and mechanistic-based approaches and taking better account of species differences, could possibly improve the prediction of relevant immunological/proinflammatory effects in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of Nuclear Safety evaluation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiashu

    1999-01-01

    Chinese nuclear safety management and control follows international practice, the regulations are mainly from IAEA with the Chinese condition. The regulatory body is National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). The nuclear safety management, surveillance, safety review and evaluation are guided by NNSA with technical support by several units. Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety is one of these units, which was founded in 1987 within Beijing Institute of nuclear Engineering (BINE), co-directed by NNSA and BINE, it is the first technical support team to NNSA. Most of the safety reviews and evaluations of Chinese nuclear installations has been finished by this unit. It is described briefly in this paper that the NNSA's main function and organization, regulations on the nuclear safety, procedure of application and issuing of license, the main activities performed by Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety, the situation of severe accident analyses in China, etc. (author)

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  3. Measuring Impact of EPAs Computational Toxicology Research (BOSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Toxicology (CompTox) research at the EPA was initiated in 2005. Since 2005, CompTox research efforts have made tremendous advances in developing new approaches to evaluate thousands of chemicals for potential health effects. The purpose of this case study is to trac...

  4. Safety evaluation of Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP). Report of safety evaluation of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takamichi; Maki, Akira; Nojiri, Ichiro

    1999-02-01

    The fire and explosion incident of the bituminization facility happened in March 1997 although JNC had taken enough care of the safety of TRP. JNC reflected on it and decided to evaluate the safety of TRP voluntarily. This evaluation has included five activities, that is, (1) confirmation of the structure and organization of TRP, (2) research of the data for operation, radiation and maintenance of TRP, (3) research of reflection of the accidents and troubles which have happened at the past, (4) evaluation on the prevention system, (5) evaluation on the mitigation system. We publish this report to contribute to inheritance of accumulated knowledge and techniques from generation to generation, and remind us of lesson from the fire and explosion incident of the bituminization. (author)

  5. The DOE policy for protection against radiological and toxicological sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, C. Jr.; Callahan, S.; Myers, D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to a Department of Energy Office of Security Evaluations study on radiological and toxicological sabotage, the Under Secretary of Energy has directed that all departmental elements initiate analyses to determine the extent of radiological and toxicological sabotage threats within the department. To accomplish this, a plan was adopted whereby radioactive and other hazardous materials at DOE sites would be assessed by an interdisciplinary team as to quantities, ranked according to their hazards, subjected to a vulnerability assessment, and appropriate upgrades selected and monitored. This paper is a discussion of those efforts

  6. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  7. How adverse outcome pathways can aid the development and use of computational prediction models for regulatory toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are underway to transform regulatory toxicology and chemical safety assessment from a largely empirical science based on direct observation of apical toxicity outcomes in whole organism toxicity tests to a predictive one in which outcomes and risk are inferred from accumu...

  8. Toxicological profile for uranium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Uranium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  9. Toxicological profile for radon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radon is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  10. Toxicological profile for plutonium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Plutonium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  11. Toxicological profile for radium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances' toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  12. Safety Evaluation Approach with Security Controls for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, H. S.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts of safety and security and relations between them for assessing effects of security features in safety systems. Also, evaluation approach for avoiding confliction with safety requirements and cyber security features which may be adopted in safety-related digital I and C system will be described. In this paper, safety-security life cycle model based confliction avoidance method was proposed to evaluate the effects when the cyber security control features are implemented in the safety I and C system. Also, safety effect evaluation results using the proposed evaluation method were described. In case of technical security controls, many of them are expected to conflict with safety requirements, otherwise operational and managerial controls are not relatively. Safety measures and cyber security measures for nuclear power plants should be implemented not to conflict with one another. Where safety function and security features are both required within the systems, and also where security features are implemented within safety systems, they should be justified

  13. Safety Evaluation Approach with Security Controls for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, H. S. [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Works Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper addresses concepts of safety and security and relations between them for assessing effects of security features in safety systems. Also, evaluation approach for avoiding confliction with safety requirements and cyber security features which may be adopted in safety-related digital I and C system will be described. In this paper, safety-security life cycle model based confliction avoidance method was proposed to evaluate the effects when the cyber security control features are implemented in the safety I and C system. Also, safety effect evaluation results using the proposed evaluation method were described. In case of technical security controls, many of them are expected to conflict with safety requirements, otherwise operational and managerial controls are not relatively. Safety measures and cyber security measures for nuclear power plants should be implemented not to conflict with one another. Where safety function and security features are both required within the systems, and also where security features are implemented within safety systems, they should be justified.

  14. Impact of online toxicology training on health professionals: the Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Dawson, Andrew H; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP), supported by the American College of Medical Toxicology, links countries with and without toxicology services via distance education with the aim to improve education. Due to the lack of toxicology services in some countries there is a knowledge gap in the management of poisonings. We describe our experience with the worldwide delivery of an online introductory toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and other health professionals treating poisoned patients. We delivered a 15-module introductory Internet-based toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and health professionals, conducted from August to December 2016. This Internet-based curriculum was adapted from one used to teach emergency residents toxicology in the United States. Modules covered themes such as pharmaceutical (n = 8), toxidromes (n = 2) and agrochemicals (n = 5) poisoning. Participants completed pre-test and post-test multiple choice questions (MCQs) before and after completing the online module, respectively, throughout the course. We collected information on participant demographics, education and training, and perception of relevance of the curriculum. Participants gave feedback on the course and how it affected their practice. One hundred and thirty-six health professionals from 33 countries participated in the course: 98 emergency doctors/medical officers, 25 physicians, eight pharmacists/poisons information specialists, two toxicologists, two medical students and one nurse. Median age of participants was 34 years. Median number of years postgraduate was seven. Ninety (65%) had access to either a poisons information centre over the phone or toxicologist and 48 (35%) did not. All participants expected the course to help improve their knowledge. Overall median pre-module MCQ scores were 56% (95%CI: 38, 75%) compared to post-module MCQ scores median 89% (95% CI: 67, 100%) (p education to health professionals treating

  15. Resource Guide to Careers in Toxicology, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of Toxicology, Reston, VA.

    This resource guide was prepared by the Tox 90's Educational Issues Task Force of the Society of Toxicology. The introduction provides information on the Society of Toxicology and financial support for graduate students in toxicology. Other sections include career opportunities in toxicology, academic and postdoctoral programs in toxicology, and…

  16. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future; Toxicologie predictive: les voies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N' Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A. [and others

    2010-07-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  17. Advancing Toxicology Research Using In Vivo High Throughput Toxicology with Small Fish Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Allen, David; Ceger, Patricia; Casey, Warren; Hinton, David; Kanungo, Jyotshna; Kullman, Seth W.; Tal, Tamara; Bondesson, Maria; Burgess, Shawn M.; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie; Reif, David M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Hamm, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Summary Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity. Workshop participants agreed that the lack of standardized protocols is an impediment to broader acceptance of these models, whereas development of standardized protocols, validation, and subsequent regulatory acceptance would facilitate greater usage. Given the advantages and increasing application of small fish models, there was widespread interest in follow-up workshops to review and discuss developments in their use. In this article, we summarize the recommendations formulated by workshop participants to enhance the utility of small fish species in toxicology studies, as well as many of the advances in the field of toxicology that resulted from using small fish species, including advances in developmental toxicology, cardiovascular toxicology, neurotoxicology, and immunotoxicology. We also review many emerging issues that will benefit from using small fish species, especially zebrafish, and new technologies that will enable using these organisms to yield results unprecedented in their information content to better understand how toxicants affect development and health. PMID:27328013

  18. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  19. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Evaluation of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute beagle dog closed breeding colony: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustgarten, C.S.; Hobbs, C.H.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Hahn, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    Since early 1968, a closed breeding colony has been in operation at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to produce experimental dogs for inhalation toxicology studies and to replace colony breeding stock for producing dogs with a stable gene pool. From March 1, 1968 through July 15, 1974, 123 bitches were bred 613 times, resulting in 540 litters and 2809 puppies: a conception rate for this period of 88.9 percent. An average of 3.74 pups survived to one year of age. (U.S.)

  1. How Adverse Outcome Pathways Can Aid the Development and Use of Computational Prediction Models for Regulatory Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwehr, Clemens; Aladjov, Hristo; Ankley, Gerald; Byrne, Hugh J; de Knecht, Joop; Heinzle, Elmar; Klambauer, Günter; Landesmann, Brigitte; Luijten, Mirjam; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Meek, M E Bette; Paini, Alicia; Perkins, Edward; Sobanski, Tomasz; Villeneuve, Dan; Waters, Katrina M; Whelan, Maurice

    2017-02-01

    Efforts are underway to transform regulatory toxicology and chemical safety assessment from a largely empirical science based on direct observation of apical toxicity outcomes in whole organism toxicity tests to a predictive one in which outcomes and risk are inferred from accumulated mechanistic understanding. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a systematic approach for organizing knowledge that may support such inference. Likewise, computational models of biological systems at various scales provide another means and platform to integrate current biological understanding to facilitate inference and extrapolation. We argue that the systematic organization of knowledge into AOP frameworks can inform and help direct the design and development of computational prediction models that can further enhance the utility of mechanistic and in silico data for chemical safety assessment. This concept was explored as part of a workshop on AOP-Informed Predictive Modeling Approaches for Regulatory Toxicology held September 24-25, 2015. Examples of AOP-informed model development and its application to the assessment of chemicals for skin sensitization and multiple modes of endocrine disruption are provided. The role of problem formulation, not only as a critical phase of risk assessment, but also as guide for both AOP and complementary model development is described. Finally, a proposal for actively engaging the modeling community in AOP-informed computational model development is made. The contents serve as a vision for how AOPs can be leveraged to facilitate development of computational prediction models needed to support the next generation of chemical safety assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  2. TAPS safety evaluation criteria for reload fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra Nath; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1976-01-01

    To improve operating performance of Tarapur reactors, several proposals are under consideration such as core expansion, change-over to an improved fuel design with lower heat rating, extension of fuel cycle lengths etc., which have a bearing on overall plant operating characteristics and reactor safety. For evaluating safety implications of the various proposals, it is necessary to formulate safety evaluation criteria for reload fuelling. Salient features of these criteria are discussed. (author)

  3. Experiment to evaluate software safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system by the safety authorities, including softwares. The criticality of these softwares obliges the manufacturer to develop in accordance with the IEC 880 standard 'Computer software in nuclear power plant safety systems' issued by the International Electronic Commission. The evaluation approach, a two-stage assessment is described in detail. In this context, the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety), the technical support body of the safety authority uses the MALPAS tool to analyse the quality of the programs. (R.P.). 4 refs

  4. Evaluation of high-resolution mass spectrometry for urine toxicology screening in a pain management setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; West, Robert; Nguyen, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) for urine toxicology screening, 29 analytes were quantitated in 152 urine specimens from patients with chronic pain using two unique mass spectrometry platforms. De-identified specimens were quantitated in April of 2011 by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and by full-scan LC-HR-MS at Millennium Laboratories. Considering LC-MS-MS as the reference method, false positive results were identified in 19 specimens measured by LC-HR-MS. Application of relative retention times using deuterium labeled internal standards improved the rate of false positive detection to only five specimens, with four occurring for the same analyte. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (R = 100,000 at m/z 200) showed no improvement over high-resolution mass spectrometry (R = 10,000 at m/z 200) in the number of false positives detected. Quantitative results measured by LC-MS-MS and LC-HR-MS showed good agreement over four orders of dynamic range. This study demonstrates that LC-HR-MS is a suitable platform for toxicology screening for a pain management population and that quantitative accuracy and sensitivity are comparable to that achieved with LC-MS-MS. The specificity of LC-HR-MS is improved by the addition of deuterium labeled internal standards and the implementation of relative retention time matching.

  5. [Safety evaluation and risk control measures of Cassiae Semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Meng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xue-Min; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Chun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over

  6. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.

  7. Method of safety evaluation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, P.; Zahn, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel quantitative technique for evaluating safety of subsystems of nuclear power plants based on expert estimations is presented. It includes methods of mathematical psychology recognizing the effect of subjective factors in the expert estimates and, consequently, contributes to further objectification of evaluation. It may be applied to complementing probabilistic safety assessment. As a result of such evaluations a characteristic 'safety of nuclear power plants' is obtained. (author)

  8. In vitro data combined with human disease data to improve toxicological hazard assessment: the ASAT Knowledge Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, J; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Caiment, Florian; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; van der Veen, J; Tsamou, Maria; Russel, Frans G. M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; Stierum, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In line with the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become feasible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., 2004). ASAT assumes that activation of human disease mechanisms in in vitro models can be used for toxicological assessment. Therefore,

  9. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  10. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  12. Distance learning and toxicology: New horizons for Paracelsus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, Jane; Morris, John; Peterson, C. Erik

    2005-01-01

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional 'face-to-face' lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class (!). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional 'face-to-face' model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine 'face-to-face' interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do 'review' or 'remedial' work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers

  13. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  14. Cell-based in vitro models in environmental toxicology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poteser Michael

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of biological effects induced by environmental toxins and exposure-related evaluation of potential risks for health and environment represent central tasks in classical biomonitoring. While epidemiological data and population surveys are clearly the methodological frontline of this scientific field, cellbased in vitro assays provide information on toxin-affected cellular pathways and mechanisms, and are important sources for the identification of relevant biomarkers. This review provides an overview on currently available in vitro methods based on cultured cells, as well as some limitations and considerations that are of specific interest in the context of environmental toxicology. Today, a large number of different endpoints can be determined to pinpoint basal and specific toxicological cellular effects. Technological progress and increasingly refined protocols are extending the possibilities of cell-based in vitro assays in environmental toxicology and promoting their increasingly important role in biomonitoring.

  15. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  16. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  17. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  18. Safety evaluation of advance street name signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) organized a pooled fund study of 26 States to evaluate low-cost safety strategies as part of its strategic highway safety effort. The objective of the pooled fund study was to estimate the safety effectivenes...

  19. 40 CFR 161.340 - Toxicology data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicology data requirements. 161.340... Toxicology data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements and the substance to be tested. Kind of data required (b) Notes...

  20. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Wojak, Anna; Neagu, Daniel; Ridley, Mick; Travis, Kim

    2011-07-13

    Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity) and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results). This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality) and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas) of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper, data governance is identified as the new challenge in

  2. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results. Results This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. Conclusions While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper

  3. The Annapolis Accords on the use of toxicology in decision-making. Annapolis Center Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.M.; Baskin, S.I.; Charnley, G.; Cohen, J.T.; Gold, L.S.; Kerkvliet, N.I.; Koenig, H.M.; Lewis, S.C.; McClain, R.M.; Rhomberg, L.R.; Snyder, J.W.; Weekley, L.B.

    2000-12-01

    The science of toxicology plays an important role in identifying safe conditions of use or exposure for many different kinds of environmental agents. The use of toxicologic information in risk assessment requires careful analysis, evaluation of data, and scientific judgment. These Annapolis Accords are intended to guide appropriate use in risk assessment of the scientific information from toxicology. We believe that application of these principles will improve the scientific credibility of risk assessment and the quality of decisions aimed at reducing and eliminating risks to human health and the environment.

  4. Current role of ICP-MS in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology: a metallic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Saussereau, Elodie; Mahieu, Loïc; Guerbet, Michel

    2014-08-01

    As metal/metalloid exposure is inevitable owing to its omnipresence, it may exert toxicity in humans. Recent advances in metal/metalloid analysis have been made moving from flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the multi-elemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques as ICP atomic emission spectrometry and ICP-MS. ICP-MS has now emerged as a major technique in inorganic analytical chemistry owing to its flexibility, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. This in depth review explores the ICP-MS metallic profile in human toxicology. It is now routinely used and of great importance, in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology to explore biological matrices, specifically whole blood, plasma, urine, hair, nail, biopsy samples and tissues.

  5. Toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones--specific radiolytic products in irradiated fat-containing food--in bacteria and human cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartwig, A; Pelzer, A; Burnouf, D; Titéca, H; Delincée, H; Briviba, K; Soika, C; Hodapp, C; Raul, F; Miesch, M; Werner, D; Horvatovich, P; Marchioni, E

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation has been considered as a safe processing technology to improve food safety and preservation, eliminating efficiently bacterial pathogens, parasites and insects. This study aims to characterize the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of

  6. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-01

    TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the

  7. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  8. Safety indicators as a tool for operational safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e; Schirru, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Performance indicators have found a wide use in the conventional and nuclear industries. For the conventional industry, the goal is to optimize production, reducing loss of time with accidents, human error and equipment downtimes. In the nuclear industry, nuclear safety is an additional goal. This paper presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The use of performance indicators is not new. The NRC has its own methodology and the IAEA presents methodology suggestions, but there is no detailed documentation about indicators selection, criteria and bases used. Additionally, only the NRC methodology performs a limited integrated evaluation. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. On the establishment of the intervals and boundaries, a probabilistic safety study, operational experience, international and national standards and technical specifications were used. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This evaluation uses well-defined and clear rules and weights for each indicator to be considered. These rules were implemented by means of a computational language, on a friendly interface, so that it is possible to obtain a quick response about operational safety. This methodology can be used to identify situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can

  9. Toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds: 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(3-hydroxybenzylimidazolidine-2,4-dione and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds, 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(3-hydroxybenzylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (S6821, CAS 1119831-25-2 and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (S7958, CAS 1217341-48-4, were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. S6821 undergoes oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies both S6821 and S7958 are rapidly converted to the corresponding O-sulfate and O-glucuronide conjugates. S6821 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo. S7958, a close structural analog of S6821, was also found to be non-mutagenic in vitro. In short term and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for both S7958 and S6821 was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered as a food ad-mix for either 28 or 90 consecutive days, respectively. Furthermore, S6821 demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats. Keywords: S6821, S7958, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation

  10. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1). Teratological study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-03-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30..mu..mol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams or of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man.

  11. Novel Method for Calculating a Nonsubjective Informative Prior for a Bayesian Model in Toxicology Screening: A Theoretical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.

    2015-01-01

    In toxicology screening (forensic, food-safety), due to several analytical errors (e.g., retention time shift, lack of repeatability in m/z scans, etc.), the ability to confidently identify/confirm a compound remains a challenge. Due to these uncertainties, a probabilistic approach is currently

  12. Approach to uncertainty evaluation for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Katsunori

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety used to be verified and confirmed through accident simulations using computer codes generally because it is very difficult to perform integrated experiments or tests for the verification and validation of the plant safety due to radioactive consequence, cost, and scaling to the actual plant. Traditionally the plant safety had been secured owing to the sufficient safety margin through the conservative assumptions and models to be applied to those simulations. Meanwhile the best-estimate analysis based on the realistic assumptions and models in support of the accumulated insights could be performed recently, inducing the reduction of safety margin in the analysis results and the increase of necessity to evaluate the reliability or uncertainty of the analysis results. This paper introduces an approach to evaluate the uncertainty of accident simulation and its results. (Note: This research had been done not in the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization but in the Tokyo Institute of Technology.) (author)

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-12-15

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste.

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste

  15. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  16. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  17. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  18. RNAi technologies in agricultural biotechnology: The Toxicology Forum 40th Annual Summer Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, James H; Munyikwa, Tichafa; Chan, Stephen Y; Petrick, Jay S; Witwer, Kenneth W; Choudhuri, Supratim

    2015-11-01

    During the 40th Annual Meeting of The Toxicology Forum, the current and potential future science, regulations, and politics of agricultural biotechnology were presented and discussed. The meeting session described herein focused on the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) in agriculture. The general process by which RNAi works, currently registered RNAi-based plant traits, example RNAi-based traits in development, potential use of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) as topically applied pesticide active ingredients, research related to the safety of RNAi, biological barriers to ingested dsRNA, recent regulatory RNAi science reviews, and regulatory considerations related to the use of RNAi in agriculture were discussed. Participants generally agreed that the current regulatory framework is robust and appropriate for evaluating the safety of RNAi employed in agricultural biotechnology and were also supportive of the use of RNAi to develop improved crop traits. However, as with any emerging technology, the potential range of future products, potential future regulatory frameworks, and public acceptance of the technology will continue to evolve. As such, continuing dialogue was encouraged to promote education of consumers and science-based regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicology and teratology of the active ingredients of professional therapy MuscleCare products during pregnancy and lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Fox, Colleen; Koren, Gideon

    2015-03-05

    The rates of muscle aches, sprains, and inflammation are significantly increased during pregnancy. However, women are afraid to use systemic analgesics due to perceptions of fetal risks. Thus, topical products are important alternatives to consider for those women. Of interest, Professional Therapy MuscleCare (PTMC) has shown to be effective in alleviating the myofascial pain as reported in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five topical analgesics. However, to date, there is no complete review or long-term safety studies on the safety of these products during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, the aim of this article was to review toxicological, developmental, and reproductive effects associated with the use of PTMC products. We performed a systematic review on safety of PTMC from all toxicological articles investigating the effects of PTMC's ingredients. This search was conducted through medical and toxicological databases including, Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline, and Micromedix. Both reported and theoretical adverse effects were extensively reviewed. Of the 1500 publications reviewed, 100 papers were retrieved and included in the review. Although some ingredients in PTMC products might cause adverse reproductive effects at high systemic doses, these doses are hundreds to thousands fold greater than those systemically available from topical use at the recommended maximum dose (i.e. 10 g/day). This study provides evidence that, when used as indicated, PTMC is apparently safe for pregnant women and their unborn babies as well as for breastfed infants.

  20. A Guidebook for Evaluating Organizations in the Nuclear Industry - an example of safety culture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, Pia; Pietikaeinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu

    2011-06-01

    Organizations in the nuclear industry need to maintain an overview on their vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to safety. Systematic periodical self assessments are necessary to achieve this overview. This guidebook provides suggestions and examples to assist power companies but also external evaluators and regulators in carrying out organizational evaluations. Organizational evaluation process is divided into five main steps. These are: 1) planning the evaluation framework and the practicalities of the evaluation process, 2) selecting data collection methods and conducting the data acquisition, 3) structuring and analysing the data, 4) interpreting the findings and 5) reporting the evaluation results with possible recommendations. The guidebook emphasises the importance of a solid background framework when dealing with multifaceted phenomena like organisational activities and system safety. The validity and credibility of the evaluation stem largely from the evaluation team's ability to crystallize what they mean by organization and safety when they conduct organisational safety evaluations - and thus, what are the criteria for the evaluation. Another important and often under-considered phase in organizational evaluation is interpretation of the findings. In this guidebook a safety culture evaluation in a Nordic nuclear power plant is presented as an example of organizational evaluation. With the help of the example, challenges of each step in the organizational evaluation process are described. Suggestions for dealing with them are presented. In the case example, the DISC (Design for Integrated Safety culture) model is used as the evaluation framework. The DISC model describes the criteria for a good safety culture and the organizational functions necessary to develop a good safety culture in the organization

  1. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  2. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT NO.6331 AND TOXICOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Workers exposureto variety of hazardous chemicals related to the type of work carried out. Regulationsabout chemicals which may be unsafe for workers is regulated at theOccupational Health and Safety Act No.6331.In this review regulatory framework of occupational health and safety forchemicals are assessed in order for chemicals to be used properly andsafely. 

  3. Toxicological effect of consumption of extract of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The leaves of J. tanjorensis are locally consumed as vegetable added to daily foods and has also served a medicinal purpose, however, it toxicological effects is yet to be fully evaluated in our environment. Aim: The present research was to assess the effects of the extract of the leaf of Jatropha tanjorensis on ...

  4. Studies and activities in the field of chemical toxicology carried out by the service d'hygiene industrielle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.; Archimbaud, M.; Teulon, F.

    1988-02-01

    The Service d'Hygiene Industrielle (Industrial hygiene service, Institute of protection and nuclear safety, Department of health protection - IPSN-DPS) has acquired an unquestionable proficiency in chemical toxicology on account of 1) its missions of research on and monitoring of workers, working conditions and the environment on the Tricastin industrial complex and 2) of its actions of technical assistance to the CEA group and of valorization outside the group. The report presents how toxicological hazards originated from the use of chemical products by the nuclear industry are taken into consideration. A global methodology of assessment of chemical-toxicological hazards has been developed; it is based on the experience gained in various occupational branches (nuclear and non-nuclear industry, agriculture, administrations,...). The Service d'hygiene industrielle is developing R and D studies in the field of biology and analytical chemistry based on the present knowledge and doctrine in radiotoxicology (uranium especially). The contribution of radiation protection and radiotoxicology to non-nuclear industrial hygiene can thus be appreciated [fr

  5. Toxicological profile for thorium. Draft report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Thorium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  6. Accelerating the Development of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome of a Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L.; Barrow, Craig; Andersen, Melvin E.; Boekelheide, Kim; Carmichael, Paul L.; Holsapple, Michael P.; Lafranconi, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st century” calls for a fundamental shift in the way that chemicals are tested for human health effects and evaluated in risk assessments. The new approach would move toward in vitro methods, typically using human cells in a high-throughput context. The in vitro methods would be designed to detect significant perturbations to “toxicity pathways,” i.e., key biological pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed, lead to adverse health outcomes. To explore progress on the report’s implementation, the Human Toxicology Project Consortium hosted a workshop on 9–10 November 2010 in Washington, DC. The Consortium is a coalition of several corporations, a research institute, and a non-governmental organization dedicated to accelerating the implementation of 21st-century Toxicology as aligned with the NRC vision. The goal of the workshop was to identify practical and scientific ways to accelerate implementation of the NRC vision. The workshop format consisted of plenary presentations, breakout group discussions, and concluding commentaries. The program faculty was drawn from industry, academia, government, and public interest organizations. Most presentations summarized ongoing efforts to modernize toxicology testing and approaches, each with some overlap with the NRC vision. In light of these efforts, the workshop identified recommendations for accelerating implementation of the NRC vision, including greater strategic coordination and planning across projects (facilitated by a steering group), the development of projects that test the proof of concept for implementation of the NRC vision, and greater outreach and communication across stakeholder communities. PMID:21948868

  7. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  8. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP

  9. Parameters Evaluation of PLC Dependability and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on evaluation of dependability and safety parameters of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller. Achievement of requested level of these parameters is an application assumption for using PLC in control of safety critical processes. Evaluation of these parameters can be made on the base of suitable model and it can be influenced by system architecture when necessary.

  10. Safety evaluation status report for the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The NRC reviewers relied extensively on the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev.1 (NUREG-1200), to evaluate the acceptability of the information provided in the EMCB PLASAR. The NRC staff selected certain review areas in the PLASAR for development of safety evaluation report input to provide examples of safety assessments that are necessary as part of a licensing review. Because of the fictitious nature of the assumed disposal site, and the decision to limit the review to essentially first-round review status, the NRC staff report is labeled a ''Safety Evaluation Status Report'' (SESR). Appendix A comprises the NRC review comments and questions on the information that DOE submitted in the PLASAR. The NRC concentrated its review on the design and operations-related portions of the EMCB PLASAR

  11. Safety culture management and quantitative indicator evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discuses a relationship between safety culture and evaluation of quantitative indicators. It shows how a systematic use of generally shared operational safety indicators may contribute to formation and reinforcement of safety culture characteristics in routine plant operation. The report also briefly describes the system of operational safety indicators used at the Dukovany plant. It is a PC database application enabling an effective work with the indicators and providing all users with an efficient tool for making synoptic overviews of indicator values in their links and hierarchical structure. Using color coding, the system allows quick indicator evaluation against predefined limits considering indicator value trends. The system, which has resulted from several-year development, was completely established at the plant during the years 2001 and 2002. (author)

  12. A tool for safety evaluations of road improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Harri; Rajamäki, Riikka; Luoma, Juha

    2013-11-01

    Road safety impact assessments are requested in general, and the directive on road infrastructure safety management makes them compulsory for Member States of the European Union. However, there is no widely used, science-based safety evaluation tool available. We demonstrate a safety evaluation tool called TARVA. It uses EB safety predictions as the basis for selecting locations for implementing road-safety improvements and provides estimates of safety benefits of selected improvements. Comparing different road accident prediction methods, we demonstrate that the most accurate estimates are produced by EB models, followed by simple accident prediction models, the same average number of accidents for every entity and accident record only. Consequently, advanced model-based estimates should be used. Furthermore, we demonstrate regional comparisons that benefit substantially from such tools. Comparisons between districts have revealed significant differences. However, comparisons like these produce useful improvement ideas only after taking into account the differences in road characteristics between areas. Estimates on crash modification factors can be transferred from other countries but their benefit is greatly limited if the number of target accidents is not properly predicted. Our experience suggests that making predictions and evaluations using the same principle and tools will remarkably improve the quality and comparability of safety estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aging evaluation methodology of periodic safety review in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung-Bae; Jung, Sung-Gyu; Jin, Tae-Eun; Jeong, Ill-Seok

    2002-01-01

    In Korea plant lifetime management (PLIM) study for Kori Unit 1 has been performed since 1993. Meanwhile, periodic safety review (PSR) for all operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been started with Kori Unit 1 since 2000 per IAEA recommendation. The evaluation period is 10 years, and safety (evaluation) factors are 11 per IAEA guidelines as represented in table 1. The relationship between PSR factors and PLIM is also represented. Among these factors evaluation of 'management of aging' is one of the most important and difficult factor. This factor is related to 'actual condition of the NPP', 'use of experience from other nuclear NPPs and of research findings', and 'management of aging'. The object of 'management of aging' is to obtain plant safety through identifying actual condition of system, structure and components (SSCs) and evaluating aging phenomena and residual life of SSCs using operating experience and research findings. The paper describes the scope and procedure of valuation of 'management of aging', such as, screening criteria of SSCs, Code and Standards, evaluation of SSCs and safety issues as represented. Evaluating SSCs are determined using final safety analysis report (FSAR) and power unit maintenance system for Nuclear Ver. III (PUMAS/N-III). The screening criteria of SSCs are safety-related items (quality class Q), safety-impact items (quality class T), backfitting rule items (fire protection (10CFR50.48), environmental qualification (10CFR50.49), pressurized thermal shock (10CFR50.61), anticipated transient without scram (10CFR50.62), and station blackout (10CFR50.63)) and regulating authority requiring items[1∼3]. The purpose of review of Code and Standards is identifying actual condition of the NPP and evaluating aging management using effective Code and Standards corresponding to reactor facilities. Code and Standards is composed of regulating laws, FSAR items, administrative actions, regulating actions, agreement items, and other

  14. Toxicología clínica comunitaria Community Clinical Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Leal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En algunos países de América Latina las intoxicaciones agudas se manejan de manera profesional por médicos especialistas en la mate-ria. Algo similar ocurre con las intoxicaciones crónicas de origen laboral en el sector formal. No obstante, una realidad diferente ocurre en cuanto a la evaluación de las intoxicaciones crónicas de origen ambiental, dado que éstas por su naturaleza, son más difíciles de diagnosticar. Para el tratamiento de las intoxicaciones agudas se han organizado Centros de Información y Atención Toxicológica, pero para las intoxicaciones crónicas ambientales no se ha generado organismos semejantes. Por consiguiente, en este trabajo sugerimos un modelo de atención de la intoxicaciones crónicas a través de grupos multidisciplinarios bajo el esquema de una nueva disciplina: la Toxicología Clínica Comunitaria, cuyo objetivo sería la atención simultánea de las intoxicaciones agudas que generalmente se atienden en un ámbito hospitalario y de las intoxicaciones ambientales que por lo normal se presentan a nivel comunitario. El objetivo final es aprovechar la experiencia que existe en la Región en cuanto a Toxicología Clínica para organizar el trabajo comunitario.In some Latin American countries acute intoxication is professionally managed by specialized physicians qualified in the area. Something similar occurs with work-related chronic intoxication in the formal sector. However, a different reality prevails for the assessment of chronic intoxication of environmental origin, since it is by definition more difficult to diagnose. For treatment of acute intoxication, Toxicological Information and Care Centers have been set up, though similar bodies have not been created for chronic environmental intoxication. Therefore, in this study a model of chronic intoxication care is proposed, using multidisciplinary teams adopting a new approach, namely Community Clinical Toxicology, the goal of which would be the

  15. TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) integrated control decision team (ICDT) meetings January 22 - 31,1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladin, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 97-MSD-163 dated January 15, 1997, directed the Project Hanford Management Contractor (Contractor), Fluor Daniel Hanford, inc., to form a joint RL-Contractor Integrated Control Decision Team (ICDT) to evaluate the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accident scenarios that were identified to be above the risk evaluation guidelines (radiological and/or toxicological) defined by the April 8, 1996, letter from J. Kinzer, RL-TWRS (96-MSO-069) to Dr. A. L. Trego, Westinghouse Hanford Company. The ICDT evaluated six postulated accidents from the draft FSAR which had analyzed consequences above the DOE directed risk evaluation guidelines after controls were applied. The accidents were: (1) Organic Solvent Fires; (2) Organic Salt-Nitrate Fire; (3) Spray Leak; (4) Flammable Gas; (5) Steam Intrusion; and (6) Seismic Event. Five of the postulated accidents exceed radiological risk guidelines. Although the postulated steam intrusion accident does not exceed the radiological risk guidelines, it was considered in the ICDT evaluation because its calculated consequences exceed toxicological risk evaluation guidelines. Figure 1 delineates the mitigated and unmitigated risk evaluations performed for the FSAR

  16. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  17. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle [University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Orlov, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.orlov@stonybrook.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed.

  18. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish; Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle; Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh; Orlov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed

  19. Resolution of aviation forensic toxicology findings with the aid of DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Kupfer, Doris M; Burian, Dennis; Canfield, Dennis V

    2011-03-20

    Body components of aviation accident fatalities are often scattered, disintegrated, commingled, contaminated, and/or putrefied at accident scenes. These situations may impose difficulties in victim identification/tissue matching. The prevalence of misidentification in relation to aviation accident forensic toxicology has not been well established. Therefore, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology database was searched for the 1998-2008 period for those cases wherein DNA profiling was performed to resolve identity issue of the samples submitted to CAMI for toxicological evaluation. During this period, biological samples from the casualties of a total of 3523 accidents were submitted to CAMI. The submitted samples were primarily from pilots. Out of the 3523 accidents, at least, one fatality had occurred in 3366 (≈ 96%) accidents; thus, these accidents were considered fatal accidents. Accordingly, biological samples from 3319 pilots (3319 of the 3366 accidents) were received at CAMI for toxicological testing. Of these 3319 pilots, 3275 (≈ 99%) were fatally injured. DNA profiling was performed in 15 (≈ 0.5%) of the 3319 accidents. The profiling was conducted upon the requests of families in two accidents, accident investigators in three, and pathologists in four. In six accidents, contradictory toxicological findings led CAMI to initiate DNA profiling. The requests made by families and investigators were primarily triggered by inconsistency between the toxicological results and the history of drug use of the victims, while by pathologists because of commingling of samples. In three (20%) of the 15 accidents, at least one submitted sample was misidentified or mislabeled. The present study demonstrated that the number of aviation accident cases requiring DNA profiling was small and this DNA approach was effectively applied in resolving aviation toxicology findings associated with those accidents. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. PROBLEM OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS SAFETY: A TOXICOLOGIST’S VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Levitsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the published literature regarding the problem of safety of consuming food products containing genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified food products are given a brief definition, purpose and methods of their production are described, and the pro- and contra- arguments for their consumption are presented. The discussion is mostly focused on results of evaluating possible toxicity of such foods and their safety for macroorganism using traditional methods of toxicological analysis. Test results for long-term toxic effects, namely allergenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, and the possibility of mutagenic effects of these food products on the human body and the intestinal microflora are discussed separately. These data are based on the current understanding of the laws of the penetration and functioning of foreign genetic material outside the body, its entry and the possibility of integration into the genome during intake of foods manufactured by genetic engineering. The basic principles of the toxicological and hygienic regulation of these food products are also considered. An analysis of published experimental results allowed to draw a general conclusion about the absence of reliable scientific information indicating the presence of the toxic properties of genetically modified foods, and therefore of credible evidence of the dangers of consuming for humans and pets.

  1. [Clinical toxicology of the Academy: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G A; Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'mich, V G; Fomichev, A V

    2013-12-01

    National toxicology school of the Kirov Military Medical Academy, demonstrates the unity of clinical and experimental approaches related to one purpose throughout its history--saving human life and health from exposure to toxic substances of chemical nature. For more than three centuries the russian science of toxicology has been steadily developing, often ahead of the world science. It helped to create the means of protection and develop methods of treatment for chemical lesions. Currently, toxicology departments of military field therapy and military toxicology and medical protection are actively involved in the current study of military medicine, restructuring policy to provide toxicological aid in the Armed Forces, the development and introduction of Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of victims of toxicological etiology.

  2. Safety Culture Evaluation at Research Reactors of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.A.; Saeed, A.; Shah, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of safety culture was presented by IAEA in document INSAG-4 (1991), delineated as “assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establish that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance”. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of safety culture at research reactors of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Evaluating the safety culture of a particular organization poses some challenges which can be resolved by using safety culture evaluation models like those of Sachein (1992) and Harber-Barrier(1998). In PAEC, safety culture is the integral part of management system which not only promotes safety culture throughout the organization but also enhances its significance. To strengthen the safety culture, PAEC is also participating in a number of international and regional meetings of IAEA regarding safety culture. PAEC and the national regulator Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) are also arranging workshops, peer reviews, sharing operational experiences and interacting with IAEA missions to enhance its capabilities in the field of safety culture. The Directorate General of Safety (DOS) is a corporate office of PAEC for safety and regulatory matters. DOS is in the process of implementing a program to evaluate safety culture at nuclear installations of PAEC to ensure that safety culture is included as a vital segment of the Integral Management System of the establishment. In this regard, training sessions and lectures on safety culture evaluation are normally conducted in PAEC for awareness and enhancement of the safety culture program. Safety culture is also addressed in PNRA Regulations like PAK-909 and PAK-913. In this paper we will focus on the safety culture evaluation in our research reactors, i.e., PARR-1 and PARR-2. The evaluation results will be based on observations, interviews of employees, group discussions

  3. The Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Combined Passive and On-Board Active Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Zangmeister, Tobias; Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Hermitte, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of the European TRACE project (TRaffic Accident Causation in Europe, 2006–2008) was to estimate the proportion of injury accidents that could be avoided and/or the proportion of injury accidents where the severity could be mitigated for on-the-market safety applications, if 100 % of the car fleet would be equipped with them. We have selected for evaluation the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and the Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) applications. As for passive safety systems, recent cars are designed to offer overall safety protection. Car structure, load limiters, front airbags, side airbags, knee airbags, pretensioners, padding and non aggressive structures in the door panel, the dashboard, the windshield, the seats, and the head rest also contribute to applying more protection. The whole safety package is very difficult to evaluate separately, one element independently segmented from the others. We decided to consider evaluating the effectivenessof the whole passive safety package, This package,, for the sake of simplicity, was the number of stars awarded at the Euro NCAP testing. The challenges were to compare the effectiveness of some safety configuration SC I, with the effectiveness of a different safety configuration SC II. A safety configuration is understood as a package of safety functions. Ten comparisons have been carried out such as the evaluation of the safety benefit of a fifth star given that the car has four stars and an EBA. The main outcome of this analysis is that any addition of a passive or active safety function selected in this analysis is producing increased safety benefits. For example, if all cars were five stars fitted with EBA and ESC, instead of four stars without ESC and EBA, injury accidents would be reduced by 47.2% for severe injuries and 69.5% for fatal injuries. PMID:20184838

  4. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  5. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety

  7. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia

    2009-04-01

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety - it is

  8. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  9. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  10. International handbook of evaluated criticality safety benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculational techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span over 55,000 pages and contain 516 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4,405 critical, near critical, or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 200 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these evaluations; however, benchmark specifications are not derived for such experiments (in some cases models are provided in an appendix). Approximately 770 experimental configurations are categorized as unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments. Additional evaluations are in progress and will be

  11. Safety evaluation of the Dalat research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, V.H.; Lam, P.V.; An, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    After an introduction presenting the essential characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor, the document presents i) The safety assurance condition of the reactor, ii) Its safety behaviour after 5 years of operation, iii) Safety research being realized on the reactor. Following is questionnaire of safety evaluation and a list of attachments, which concern the reactor

  12. Job safety in magnetic particle inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Gerald S.

    2007-01-01

    Safety in the workplace is utmost importance to both employees and employers. It is a shared responsibility to make safety a way of life. General precautions to be exercised when performing magnetic particle inspection include consideration of exposure to oils, paste, and electrical current. It is important that the following minimum safety requirement to be observed when performing magnetic particle inspection. Always consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the specific product or products you will be using to insure all necessary safety precautions are taken for potential health effects, first aid, fire hazard, accidental release measures, exposure controls, personal protection, physical properties,stability, reactivity toxicological information, disposal and transportation. (author)

  13. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams (“big data”), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity. PMID:28362102

  14. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; FitzGerald, Rex E; Jennings, Paul; Mirams, Gary R; Peitsch, Manuel C; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Shah, Imran; Wilks, Martin F; Sturla, Shana J

    2017-04-17

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams ("big data"), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity.

  15. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Zubkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the deficiencies identified in the current safety management system by participants of this meeting were proposed.In addition, the problems of evaluating flight safety level based on operation data of an aviation enterprise were analyzed. This analysis made it possible to take into account the problems listed in this article as a tool for a comprehensive study of SMS parameters and allows to analyze the quantitative indicators of the flights safety level.The concepts of Acceptable Safety Level (ASL indicators are interpreted differently depending on the available/applicable methods of their evaluation and how to implement them in SMS. However, the indicators for assessing ASL under operational condition at the aviation enterprise should become universal. Currently, defined safety levels and safety indicators are not yet established functionally and often with distorted underrepresented models describing their contextual contents, as well as ways of integrating them into SMS aviation enterprise.The results obtained can be used for better implementation of SMS and solving problems determining the aviation enterprise technical level of flight safety.

  16. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent of...

  17. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  18. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  19. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  20. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  2. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  4. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  5. Criticality safety benchmark evaluation project: Recovering the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, E.F.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of the Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is provided in this paper. The purpose of the project is to provide a source of evaluated criticality safety experiments in an easily usable format. Another project goal is to search for any experiments that may have been lost or contain discrepancies, and to determine if they can be used. Results of evaluated experiments are being published as US DOE handbooks.

  6. Evaluation of a Hungarian acaricide original molecule based on its environmental toxicological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, D; Oláh, B; Hirka, G; Pap, L; Gáty, S

    2000-07-01

    The results of the environmental toxicological investigations and their results of a new hungarian acaricide molecule (SZI-121) developed by the CHINOIN were summarized. The toxicological effects of the test item on different ecotoxicological test systems were investigated in the following tests: Bacterium, alga, and plant growth inhibition tests, acute immobilization and 21 days reproduction tests on Daphnia magna, acute fish test, closed bottle test, mobility, aerob degradation and adsorption/desorption tests on three different soils. No toxic effect was found in the bacterium, alga, plant growth inhibition and acute fish tests in the highest concentrations used. In the Daphnia immobilization test 0.14 mg/l LC50 value was established in the concentration range of 0.0128-40 mg/l applied. The test item showed similar characteristics as the reference item during the mobility test in soils, the adsorption/desorption study and the degradation investigations. In order to determine the environmental degradation rate further degradation investigations, as well as the nitrogen mineralization test and the model of concentration change in natural waters were performed.

  7. Importance of clinical toxicology teaching and its impact in improving knowledge: sharing experience from a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Fayyaz, J.; Khan, U.R.; Feroze, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a one-day clinical toxicology workshop in improving knowledge. Methods: A one-day clinical toxicology workshop was conducted as a pre-conference workshop of the Annual Emergency Medicine Conference at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, in April 2012. The course was composed of poisoning-related common clinical scenarios. The pre-test and post-test understanding was used to assess the impact of the course in improving knowledge. The participants also evaluated the workshop as a whole thorough written evaluation forms. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Result: There were 22 participants in the course. The pre-test mean score was 31.6+-15.1% (95% CI; 24-40; n=19) compared to the post-test the mean score of 56.0+-10.8% (95% CI; 47- 61; n=17). The positive difference was also statistically significant (p<0.001). The overall workshop was evaluated as excellent by 08 (47.46%) and very good by 10 (52.63%) participants. Conclusion: Short training in clinical toxicology improved knowledge of the participants. (author)

  8. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: Myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development

  9. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: Myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kejian, E-mail: kejian.wang.bio@gmail.com [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Zuquan [Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki (Japan); Sun, Liya [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); He, Lin, E-mail: helin@Bio-X.com [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development.

  10. Safety evaluation of synthetic β-carotene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Appel, M.J.; Berg, H. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ

  11. A novel safety assessment strategy applied to non-selective extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Sander; Leeman, Winfried; Verheij, Elwin; Dutman, Ellen; van Stee, Leo; Nielsen, Lene Munch; Ronsmans, Stefan; Noteborn, Hub; Krul, Lisette

    2015-06-01

    A main challenge in food safety research is to demonstrate that processing of foodstuffs does not lead to the formation of substances for which the safety upon consumption might be questioned. This is especially so since food is a complex matrix in which the analytical detection of substances, and consequent risk assessment thereof, is difficult to determine. Here, a pragmatic novel safety assessment strategy is applied to the production of non-selective extracts (NSEs), used for different purposes in food such as for colouring purposes, which are complex food mixtures prepared from reference juices. The Complex Mixture Safety Assessment Strategy (CoMSAS) is an exposure driven approach enabling to efficiently assess the safety of the NSE by focussing on newly formed substances or substances that may increase in exposure during the processing of the NSE. CoMSAS enables to distinguish toxicologically relevant from toxicologically less relevant substances, when related to their respective levels of exposure. This will reduce the amount of work needed for identification, characterisation and safety assessment of unknown substances detected at low concentration, without the need for toxicity testing using animal studies. In this paper, the CoMSAS approach has been applied for elderberry and pumpkin NSEs used for food colouring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversification in toxicology: man and environment. EUROTOX proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P. [Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines (IOCM), Bern (Switzerland); Autrup, J.L.; Autrup, H. [eds.] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Steno Inst. of Public Health

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the main papers presented at the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Aaarhus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is not seen as splitting into subfields, but as the application of basic science to such diverse areas as man and his environment. The pressing issues which have been dealt with not only include reproductive effects of environmental chemicals (`xenoestrogens`), but also receptor-mediated toxic responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of cancer and molecular approaches in toxicological research. The practical and ethical facets of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, complex chemical mixtures as well as animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, are also treated. (orig.)

  13. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Diel, J.H.; Martinez, B.S.

    1979-12-01

    Research information is given by the annual report from the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute with abstracts for each of the 109 papers. Major sections of interest are nuclear energy toxicology, solar energy toxicology, diesel technology toxicology, coal technology toxicology, and conservation technology toxicology. Also included are seven appendices covering publications of technical reports and publications in open literature, abstracts publications in the open literature, seminars presented by visiting scientists and presentations before scientific meetings, organization of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the status of experiments using beagle dogs

  14. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. La toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla

    OpenAIRE

    Puerto Rodríguez, María; Cameán Fernández, Ana María; Moreno Navarro, Isabel María; Pichardo Sánchez, Silvia; Prieto Ortega, Ana Isabel; Jos Gallego, Ángeles Mencía

    2010-01-01

    La docencia del Área de Toxicología en la Universidad de Sevilla se desarrolla en la actualidad en dos titulaciones, Farmacia y Bioquímica. En los planes de estudios actuales la carga lectiva del Área viene dada por las asignaturas de Toxicología (asignatura troncal), y Toxicología Alimentaria (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Farmacia, y de Toxicología Molecular (asignatura optativa) en la Licenciatura de Bioquímica. Una vez aprobados por la Agencia Nacional de la Evaluación de la ...

  16. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  17. [Forensic medicine as the cradle of toxicology in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L; Grebeniuk, A N; Pigolkin, Iu I; Tolmachev, I A; Bozhchenko, A P; Timoshevskiĭ, A A

    2013-01-01

    Modern toxicology as a science and educational subject originated from forensic medicine in the middle of the XIXth century. In the beginning, selected toxicological problems were taught in the Emperor's Medical Surgical Academy (presently S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Sankt-Peterburg) and at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University (presently I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow). The greatest contribution to the development of toxicology was made by such outstanding scientists as professors S.A. Gromov, P.P. Pelekhin, P.P. Zablotsky-Desyatovsky, E.V. Pelikan, Ya.A. Chistovich, G.I. Blosfel'd, I.M. Sorokin, D.P. Kosorotov, A.V. Grigoriev, V.V. Andreev, A.A. Glebovich, A.N. Grigoriev, B.I. Predtechensky, V.M. Rozhkov, S.S. Vail, M.N. Lubotsky, etc. The works of these researchers predetermined the further development of toxicology in this country, its main purpose being provision of medical aid in case of poisoning and diseases of chemical etiology. Another line of toxicological research became industrial and environmental toxicology having the purpose of hygienic rating and prevention of poisoning. Nevertheless, all aspects of the multifaceted science of toxicology are related to forensic medicine as the cradle in which it originated, evolved, and turned into a self-consistent science.

  18. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: safety evaluation of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goals, general safety principles, specificity of the argilite repository safety approach, general approach; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, repository architecture; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: time and space scales, safety approach by functions, functional analysis methodology, analysis of safety functions during the construction, exploitation and observation phases, safety functions analysis during post-closure phase; 4 - operational safety: dosimetric evaluation, risk analysis (explosible gases, fire hazards, lift cage drop, container drop); 5 - long-term efficiency of the disposal facility: normal evolution scenario, from conceptual models to the safety calculation model, description of the safety model, quantitative evaluation of the normal evolution scenario, main lessons learnt from the efficiency analysis; 6 - management of uncertainties: identification, building up of altered situations, mastery of uncertainties; 7 - evaluation of altered evolution scenarios: sealing defect scenario, container defect scenario, drilling scenario, strongly degraded operation scenario; 8 - conclusions: lessons learnt, possible improvements. (J.S.)

  20. Different approaches to the toxicological evaluation of irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhaut, R.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicological evaluation of irradiated starch is performed either through long-term experiments on rats (24 months) and mice (18 months) or through determination of the semichronic toxicity in rats (6 months) of previously identified and determined radiation-induced products. A trial with five groups each of 80 rats (40 males and 40 females; controls receiving the diet raw or cooked; other animals receiving the diet raw after irradiation to 300krad and raw or cooked after irradiation to 600krad) consists of a toxicity test and a study of the reproductive functions. The trial with mice - the same number of animals divided into three groups (standard control, control and 300krad) - consists of a study of the reproductive functions with an examination of teratogenicity and the study of cancerogenic and mutagenic potentiality. In no case have the authors found significant differences between the groups. Of the 35 starch radiolysis products so far identified the authors considered nine (formic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malonaldehyde and glyoxal). After an acute and subacute toxicity trial with a mixture of the nine compounds, a six-month semichronic toxicity trial was carried out with four groups of animals (15 males and 15 females). The daily uptake of 0.3g of the mixture per kilogram was found to have no effect on the rats. This daily uptake corresponds to a quantity of radiolytic products 800 times greater than what would be taken up by a baby consuming 30g of irradiated starch (300krad) and is below the threshold of true general toxicity, which is masked here by the caustic effect of the formic acid. (author)

  1. OpenTox predictive toxicology framework: toxicological ontology and semantic media wiki-based OpenToxipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Benigni, Romualdo; Nikolova, Ivelina; Jeliazkova, Nina; Escher, Sylvia E; Batke, Monika; Baier, Thomas; Poroikov, Vladimir; Lagunin, Alexey; Rautenberg, Micha; Hardy, Barry

    2012-04-24

    The OpenTox Framework, developed by the partners in the OpenTox project (http://www.opentox.org), aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data, predictive models and validation procedures. Interoperability of resources is achieved using a common information model, based on the OpenTox ontologies, describing predictive algorithms, models and toxicity data. As toxicological data may come from different, heterogeneous sources, a deployed ontology, unifying the terminology and the resources, is critical for the rational and reliable organization of the data, and its automatic processing. The following related ontologies have been developed for OpenTox: a) Toxicological ontology - listing the toxicological endpoints; b) Organs system and Effects ontology - addressing organs, targets/examinations and effects observed in in vivo studies; c) ToxML ontology - representing semi-automatic conversion of the ToxML schema; d) OpenTox ontology- representation of OpenTox framework components: chemical compounds, datasets, types of algorithms, models and validation web services; e) ToxLink-ToxCast assays ontology and f) OpenToxipedia community knowledge resource on toxicology terminology.OpenTox components are made available through standardized REST web services, where every compound, data set, and predictive method has a unique resolvable address (URI), used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation, or to initiate the associated calculations and generate new RDF-based resources.The services support the integration of toxicity and chemical data from various sources, the generation and validation of computer models for toxic effects, seamless integration of new algorithms and scientifically sound validation routines and provide a flexible framework, which allows building arbitrary number of applications, tailored to solving different problems by end users (e.g. toxicologists). The OpenTox toxicological ontology projects may be accessed via the Open

  2. Overview of Forensic Toxicology, Yesterday, Today and in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heesun; Choe, Sanggil

    2017-01-01

    The scope of forensic toxicology has been tremendously expanded over the past 50 years. From two general sections forensic toxicology can be further classified into 8-9 sections. The most outstanding improvement in forensic toxicology is the changes brought by instrumental development. The field of forensic toxicology was revolutionized by the development of immunoassay and benchtop GC-MS in the 1980's and LC-MS-MS in 2000's. Detection of trace amounts of analytes has allowed the use of new specimens such as hair and oral fluids, along with blood and urine. Over a longer period of time, continuous efforts have been made to efficiently extract and separate drug and poison from biological fluids. International endeavors to develop high quality standards and guidelines for drugs and poisons in biological specimens and to promote them in order to increase reliability of laboratories are also part of the recent advancement of forensic toxicology. Interpretation of postmortem toxicology encompasses various factors including postmortem redistribution and stability. Considering the recent trend, the interpretation of toxicological results should account for autopsy findings, crime scene information, and related medical history. The fields of forensic toxicology will continuously develop to improve analysis of target analytes from various specimens, quality assurance program, and results interpretation. In addition, the development of analytical techniques will also contribute further advancement of forensic toxicology. The societies of forensic toxicologists, such as TIAFT, will play an important role for the advancement of forensic toxicology by collaborating and sharing ideas between toxicologists from both developed and developing countries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Titanium dioxide: inhalation toxicology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hext, Paul M; Tomenson, John A; Thompson, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications and is normally considered to be toxicologically inert. Findings of tumours in the lungs of rats exposed chronically to high concentrations of TiO(2), but not in similarly exposed mice or hamsters, suggest that the tumorigenic response may be a rat-specific phenomenon but nonetheless raises concerns for potential human health effects. With the limited toxicological understanding of species differences in response to inhaled TiO(2) and a similarly limited amount of epidemiological information with respect to TiO(2) exposure in the workplace, a consortium of TiO(2) manufacturers in Europe (under the European Chemistry Industry Council; CEFIC) and in North America (under the American Chemistry Council; ACC) initiated a programme of research to investigate inter-species differences as a result of exposure to TiO(2) and to conduct detailed epidemiological surveys of the major manufacturing sites. The toxicology studies exposed rats, mice and hamsters to pigment-grade TiO(2) (PG-TiO(2), 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg m(-3)) or ultrafine TiO(2) (UF-TiO(2), 0, 0.5, 2 and 10 mg m(-3)) for 90 days and the lung burdens and tissue responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure period and for up to 1 year after exposure. Results demonstrated clear species differences. Rats and mice had similar lung burdens and clearance rates while hamsters showed high clearance rates. At high lung particle burdens, rats showed a marked progression of histopathological lesions throughout the post-exposure period while mice and hamsters showed minimal initial lesions with recovery apparent during the post-exposure period. Lung neutrophil responses, a sensitive marker of inflammatory changes, reflected the development or recovery of the histopathological lesions. The use of surface area rather than gravimetric lung burden provided closer correlates of the burden to the biological effect

  4. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

  5. Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Kleensang, André; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment. PMID:26977253

  6. Evaluation of reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Although the operation of nuclear reactors has a remarkably good record of safety, the prevention of possible reactor accidents is one of the major factors that atomic planners have to contend with. At the same time, excessive caution may breed an attitude that hampers progress, either by resisting new development or by demanding unnecessarily elaborate and expensive precautions out of proportion to the actual hazards involved. The best course obviously is to determine the possible dangers and adopt adequate measures for their prevention, providing of course, for a reasonable margin of error in judging the hazards and the effectiveness of the measures. The greater the expert understanding and thoroughness with which this is done, the narrower need the margin be. This is the basic idea behind the evaluation of reactor safety

  7. Systems toxicology: applications of toxicogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Kienhuis, A.S.; Ommen, van B.; Stierum, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicogenomics can facilitate the identification and characterization of toxicity, as illustrated in this review. Toxicogenomics, the application of the functional genomics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in toxicology enables the study of adverse effects of xenobiotic

  8. Africa's present and future needs in toxicology education: Southern African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulumian, Mary; Ginsburg, Carren; Stewart, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Degrees and diplomas as well as certificates that are granted by universities and technikons in South Africa in scientific disciplines, such as forensic medicine, pharmacology, marine and veterinary sciences, environmental health, and occupational hygiene, include toxicology as one of the subjects in their overall syllabus. However, aspects of toxicology included in each of these courses are biased towards that particular subdiscipline and basic level of toxicology may be taught. Educational needs in toxicology in South Africa can be summarized as follows: (a) recognition of toxicology as a discipline in its own right at these tertiary education institutions and (b) creation of opportunities to study and obtain higher degrees in one or more of the many subdisciplines of toxicology. The results from a survey conducted on the toxicology syllabi offered at these tertiary education institutions are used to substantiate these needs

  9. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, B. J.; Dean, V. F.; Pesic, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to properly manage the risk of a nuclear criticality accident, it is important to establish the conditions for which such an accident becomes possible for any activity involving fissile material. Only when this information is known is it possible to establish the likelihood of actually achieving such conditions. It is therefore important that criticality safety analysts have confidence in the accuracy of their calculations. Confidence in analytical results can only be gained through comparison of those results with experimental data. The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the US Department of Energy. The project was managed through the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), but involved nationally known criticality safety experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Savannah River Technology Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant, Hanford, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Rocky Flats Plant. An International Criticality Safety Data Exchange component was added to the project during 1994 and the project became what is currently known as the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP). Representatives from the United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Spain, and Israel are now participating on the project In December of 1994, the ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency's (OECD-NEA) Nuclear Science Committee. The United States currently remains the lead country, providing most of the administrative support. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to: (1) identify and evaluate a comprehensive set of critical benchmark data; (2) verify the data, to the extent possible, by reviewing original and subsequently revised documentation, and by talking with the

  10. Toxicological risks of selected flame-retardant chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created ca...

  11. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created ca...

  12. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  13. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  14. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as ‘e-cigarettes’ and ‘electronic delivery devices’ were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. Results As ...

  15. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  16. Nuclear criticality safety parameter evaluation for uranium metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Abe, Alfredo, E-mail: andreasdpz@hotmail.com, E-mail: abye@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety during fuel fabrication process, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials requires criticality safety analysis. Normally the analysis involves computer calculations and safety parameters determination. There are many different Criticality Safety Handbooks where such safety parameters for several different fissile mixtures are presented. The handbooks have been published to provide data and safety principles for the design, safety evaluation and licensing of operations, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials. The data often comprise not only critical values, but also subcritical limits and safe parameters obtained for specific conditions using criticality safety calculation codes such as SCALE system. Although many data are available for different fissile and fissionable materials, compounds, mixtures, different enrichment level, there are a lack of information regarding a uranium metal alloy, specifically UMo and UNbZr. Nowadays uranium metal alloy as fuel have been investigated under RERTR program as possible candidate to became a new fuel for research reactor due to high density. This work aim to evaluate a set of criticality safety parameters for uranium metal alloy using SCALE system and MCNP Monte Carlo code. (author)

  17. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  18. Margins of safety provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Nicas, Mark

    2006-03-01

    COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's Risk-phrases (R-phrases), whereas the Toolkit uses R-phrases and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. Each hazard band is associated with a range of airborne concentrations, termed exposure bands, which are to be attained by the implementation of recommended control technologies. Here we analyze the margin of safety afforded by the systems and, for each hazard band, define the minimal margin as the ratio of the minimum airborne concentration that produced the toxicological endpoint of interest in experimental animals to the maximum concentration in workplace air permitted by the exposure band. We found that the minimal margins were always occupational exposure limits, we argue that the minimal margins are better indicators of health protection. Further, given the small margins observed, we feel it is important that revisions of these systems provide the exposure bands to users, so as to permit evaluation of control technology capture efficiency.

  19. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  20. Evaluation and Customization of WHO Safety Checklist for Patient Safety in Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Yogesh; Velankar, Haritosh; Suryanarayan, Sneha; Dabholkar, Twinkle Y; Saberwal, Akanksha A; Verma, Bhavika

    2018-03-01

    The WHO has designed a safe surgery checklist to enhance communication and awareness of patient safety during surgery and to minimise complications. WHO recommends that the check-list be evaluated and customised by end users as a tool to promote safe surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of WHO safety checklist on patient safety awareness in otorhinolaryngology and to customise it for the speciality. A prospective structured questionnaire based study was done in ENT operating room for duration of 1 month each for cases, before and after implementation of safe surgery checklist. The feedback from respondents (surgeons, nurses and anaesthetists) was used to arrive at a customised checklist for otolaryngology as per WHO guidelines. The checklist significantly improved team member's awareness of patient's identity (from 17 to 86%) and each other's identity and roles (from 46 to 94%) and improved team communication (from 73 to 92%) in operation theatre. There was a significant improvement in preoperative check of equipment and critical events were discussed more frequently. The checklist could be effectively customised to suit otolaryngology needs as per WHO guidelines. The modified checklist needs to be validated by otolaryngology associations. We conclude from our study that the WHO Surgical safety check-list has a favourable impact on patient safety awareness, team-work and communication of operating team and can be customised for otolaryngology setting.

  1. A guideline for comprehensive evaluation of a licensee's effort to cultivate safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Ishii, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Japan had held excellent performance in safety in the world during 90's. However recent events stem from organizational factors and defects of safety culture are pointed out in their contexts. In order to reduce accidents caused by organizational factors, the Japanese Regulatory body NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) decided to evaluate a licensee's effort for the cultivation of safety culture, and to order all licensses to add the provision of cultivating safety culture to their safety preservation rules. The inspection for the new safety preservation rules started in December, 2007. For a measure of evaluation by resident inspectors, NISA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) prepared a guideline for the prevention of degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. In this guideline, 14 items were defined as the components of the safety culture or as the viewpoints to evaluate the effort made to prevent any degradation of safety culture and organizational climate in the daily safety preservation activities. The 14 items are also used to establish the method to comprehensively evaluate the effort to prevent degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. This method consists of 10 steps: two steps to taken prior to start of the evaluation, two steps to be taken during the evaluation period, 5 steps to be taken during a comprehensive evaluation period and a final step to be taken for comprehensive findings for safety culture. This paper mainly describes the viewpoints to evaluate comprehensively a licensee's effort for cultivation of safety culture. (author)

  2. Drug screening in clinical or forensic toxicology: are there differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2010-09-01

    Legal and medical practitioners need to remember that, with respect to drug analysis, there are two distinct disciplines in analytical toxicology concerned with human biological matrices, namely clinical and forensic toxicology. Both fields use similar analytical techniques designed to detect and quantify drugs, chemicals and poisons in fluids or tissues. In clinical toxicology, analytical results help to specify the appropriate treatment of a poisoned or intoxicated patient. In forensic toxicology, the results often play a vital role in determining the possible impairment or behavioural changes in an individual, or the contribution of drugs or poisons to death in a medico-legal investigation. This column provides an overview of the similarities and differences inherent in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2004-12-02

    tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

  4. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  5. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P

    2015-07-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Briasco; Priscilla Capra; Arianna Cecilia Cozzi; Barbara Mannucci; Paola Perugini

    2016-01-01

    In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packag...

  7. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-09-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred thirteen endpoints were observed in those 30 papers, and most studies had sample size less than 10, with the median and the mode being 6 and 3 & 6, respectively. Mean (105/113, 93%) was dominantly used to measure central tendency, and standard error of the mean (64/113, 57%) and standard deviation (39/113, 34%) were used to measure dispersion, while few studies provide justifications regarding why the methods being selected. Inferential statistics were frequently conducted (93/113, 82%), with one-way ANOVA being most popular (52/93, 56%), yet few studies conducted either normality or equal variance test. These results suggest that more consistent and appropriate use of statistical method is necessary which may enhance the role of toxicology in public health.

  8. Systematic safety evaluation of old nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dredemis, G.; Fourest, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French safety authorities have undertaken a systematic evaluation of the safety of old nuclear power plants. Apart from a complete revision of safety documents (safety analysis report, general operating rules, incident and accident procedures, internal emergency plan, quality organisation manual), this examination consisted of analysing the operating experience of systems frequently challenged and a systematic examination of the safety-related systems. This paper is based on an exercise at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Plant which has been in operation for 15 years. This paper also summarizes the main surveys and modifications relating to this power plant. (orig.)

  9. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System

  10. [Toxicological consultation data management system based on experience of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr Maciej; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the structure of poisonings is described, based on the material collected from tele-toxicology consults by the Pomeranian Center of Toxicology in Gdańsk and harvested from its Electronic Poison Information Management System. In addition, we analyzed conclusions drawn from a 27-month operation of the system. Data were harvested from the Electronic Poison Information Management System developed in 2012 and used by the Pomeranian Center of Toxicology since then. The research was based on 2550 tele-toxicology consults between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Subsequently the data were electronically cleaned and presented using R programming language. The Pomeranian voivodeship was the prevalent localisation of calls (N = 1879; 73.7%). Most of the calls came from emergency rooms (N = 1495; 58.63%). In the case of 1396 (54.7%) patients the time-lag between intoxication and the consult was less than 6 h. There were no differences in the age distribution between genders. Mean age was 26.3 years. Young people predominated among intoxicated individuals. The majority of intoxications were incidental (N = 888; 34.8%) or suicidal (N = 814; 31.9%) and the most of them took place in the patient's home. Information about Poison Control Center consultations access should be better spread among medical service providers. The extent of poison information collected by Polish Poison Control Centers should be limited and unified. This should contribute to the increased percentage of properly documented consultations. Additional duties stemming from the need of digital archiving of consults provided, require the involvement of additional staff, leading to the increased operation costs incurred by Poison Control Centers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Evaluating Performance of Safety Management and Occupational Health Using Total Quality Safety Management Model (TQSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadfam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All organizations, whether public or private, necessitate performance evaluation systems in regard with growth, stability, and development in the competitive fields. One of the existing models for performance evaluation of occupational health and safety management is Total Quality Safety Management model (TQSM. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate performance of safety management and occupational health utilizing TQSM model. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the population consisted of 16 individuals, including managers, supervisors, and members of technical protection and work health committee. Then the participants were asked to respond to TQSM questionnaire before and after the implementation of Occupational Health & Safety Advisory Services 18001 (OHSAS18001. Ultimately, the level of each program as well as the TQSM status were determined before and after the implementation of OHSAS18001. Results: The study results showed that the scores obtained by the company before OHSAS 18001’s implementation, was 43.7 out of 312. After implementing OHSAS 18001 in the company and receiving the related certificate, the total score of safety program that company could obtain was 127.12 out of 312 demonstrating a rise of 83.42 scores (26.8%. The paired t-test revealed that mean difference of TQSM scores before and after OHSAS 18001 implementation was proved to be significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that TQSM can be regarded as an appropriate model in order to monitor the performance of safety management system and occupational health, since it possesses the ability to quantitatively evaluate the system performance.

  12. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... evaluating an agency's occupational safety and health program. To accomplish this, the Secretary shall...

  13. Long Non-Coding RNAs: A Novel Paradigm for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Joseph L; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are over 200 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from the mammalian genome in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated pattern. There is growing recognition that lncRNAs are novel biomarkers and/or key regulators of toxicological responses in humans and animal models. Lacking protein-coding capacity, the numerous types of lncRNAs possess a myriad of transcriptional regulatory functions that include cis and trans gene expression, transcription factor activity, chromatin remodeling, imprinting, and enhancer up-regulation. LncRNAs also influence mRNA processing, post-transcriptional regulation, and protein trafficking. Dysregulation of lncRNAs has been implicated in various human health outcomes such as various cancers, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases, as well as intermediary metabolism such as glucose, lipid, and bile acid homeostasis. Interestingly, emerging evidence in the literature over the past five years has shown that lncRNA regulation is impacted by exposures to various chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, cadmium, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bisphenol A, phthalates, phenols, and bile acids. Recent technological advancements, including next-generation sequencing technologies and novel computational algorithms, have enabled the profiling and functional characterizations of lncRNAs on a genomic scale. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and general biological functions of lncRNAs, highlight the important roles of lncRNAs in human diseases and especially during the toxicological responses to various xenobiotics, evaluate current methods for identifying aberrant lncRNA expression and molecular target interactions, and discuss the potential to implement these tools to address fundamental questions in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  14. Toxicological assessment of polyhexamethylene biguanide for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiedu-Gyekye Isaac J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB is an antiseptic with antiviral and antibacterial properties used in a variety of products including wound care dressings, contact lens cleaning solutions, perioperative cleansing products, and swimming pool cleaners. There are regulatory concerns with regard to its safety in humans for water treatment. We decided to assess the safety of this chemical in Sprague-Dawley rats. PHMB was administered in a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube as per the manufacturer’s instruction within a dose range of 2 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Subchronic toxicity studies were also conducted at doses of 2 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg body weight and hematological, biochemical and histopathological findings of the major organs were assessed. Administration of a dose of 25.6 mg/kg, i.e. 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB solution (equivalent to 6.4×103 mg/L of 0.1% solution resulted in 50% mortality. Histopathological analysis in the acute toxicity studies showed that no histopathological lesions were observed in the heart and kidney samples but 30% of the animals had mild hydropic changes in zone 1 of their liver samples, while at a dosage of 32 mg/kg in the subchronic toxicity studies, 50% of the animals showed either mild hepatocyte cytolysis with or without lymphocyte infiltration and feathery degeneration. Lymphocyte infiltration was, for the first time, observed in one heart sample, whereas one kidney sample showed mild tubular damage. The acute studies showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 is 25.6 mg/kg (LC50 of 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB. Subchronic toxicological studies also revealed few deleterious effects on the internal organs examined, as seen from the results of the biochemical parameters evaluated. These results have implications for the use of PHMB to make water potable.

  15. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  16. Flibe use in fusion reactors: An initial safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF 2 ) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material

  17. Toxicological Studies of Mycotoxins Using Enzymatic and Histochemical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Mihaela, E-mail: badeamihaela@yahoo.com; Taus, Nicoleta [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania); Potrovita, Monica [Sanitary-Veterinary and Food Safety Direction of Brasov (Romania); Moarcas, Monica [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania)

    2009-08-15

    Studies concerning mycotoxins involve activities of relevant potential for furthering knowledge in the fields of toxicology and environmental analysis. Using bioanalytical methods (biosensors, histochemistry), the conducted research aims at contributing to raising the awareness of local, national, and international media in relation to the safety of obtaining and processing vegetal and animal foods, by analyzing the possible effects of aflatoxins and ochratoxins, promoting animal health, food hygiene, in view of ensuring animal and human health. The study using laboratory animals (mice) while being part of one of the current national research directions, also holds international priority, by its contribution to a better understanding of several fundamental mechanisms of life at molecular level and to the characterization of certain biological processes that appear in mycotoxicosis.

  18. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety and...

  19. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (environmental health and safety). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Effects of pollution on public health and safety; Toxicology; Industrial health; Physiology; Psychology; Clinical medicine; Radiobiology; Animals used as research experimental models.

  20. A reliability evaluation method for NPP safety DCS application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunjian; Zhang Lei; Liu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) digital i and c application, reliability evaluation for safety DCS application software is a key obstacle to be removed. In order to quantitatively evaluate reliability of NPP safety DCS application software, this paper propose a reliability evaluating method based on software development life cycle every stage's v and v defects density characteristics, by which the operating reliability level of the software can be predicted before its delivery, and helps to improve the reliability of NPP safety important software. (authors)

  1. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Israel, Spain, and Brazil are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.' The 2003 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark model specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for validating computer codes that calculate effective neutron multiplication and for testing basic nuclear data. (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of essential oil from Piper glabratum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Lidiane Schultz; Santos, Joyce Alencar; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Mota, Jonas da Silva; Junior, Ubirajara Lanza; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2017-02-23

    Although some of the species of the genus Piper exhibit interesting biological properties, studies on Piper glabratum Kunth are very limited. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and the toxicological profile of the essential oil from P. glabratum leaves (OEPG) in mice. The acute toxicity of OEPG was evaluated by oral administration to female mice as single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 or 5000mg/kg/body weight. In the subacute toxicity test, the females received 500 or 1000mg/kg/body weight of OEPG for 28 days. The anti-inflammatory potential of OEPG was evaluated using four models including pleurisy, edema, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia models in mouse paws. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD 50 is greater than 5000mg/kg. The subacute exposure to OEPG produced no significant changes in the hematological or biochemical parameters. Similarly, the histology of the organs and the estrus cycle displayed no marked alterations. OEPG exhibited anti-inflammatory activity as indicated by inhibition of the leukocyte migration (100, 300, 700mg/kg) and the protein extravasation into the pleural exudates (700mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of carrageenan, it was observed that the 700mg/kg dose of OEPG reduced edema formation and decreased the sensitivity to mechanical stimulation and cold. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potential of the essential oil of P. glabratum leaves in the absence of toxicity in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operational safety evaluation for minor reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address a concern of applying conservatism in analysing minor reactor incidents. A so-called ''conservative'' safety analysis may exaggerate the system responses and result in a reactor scram tripped by the reactor protective system (RPS). In reality, a minor incident may lead the reactor to a new thermal hydraulic steady-state without scram, and the mitigation or termination of the incident may entirely depend on operator actions. An example on a small steamline break evaluation for a pressurized water reactor recently investigated by the staff at the Washington Public Power Supply System is presented to illustrate this point. A safety evaluation using mainly the safety-related systems to be consistent with the conservative assumptions used in the Safety Analysis Report was conducted. For comparison, a realistic analysis was also performed using both the safety- and control-related systems. The analyses were performed using the RETRAN plant simulation computer code. The ''conservative'' safety analysis predicts that the incident can be turned over by the RPS scram trips without operator intervention. However, the realistic analysis concludes that the reactor will reach a new steady-state at a different plant thermal hydraulic condition. As a result, the termination of the incident at this stage depends entirely on proper operator action. On the basis of this investigation it is concluded that, for minor incidents, ''conservative'' assumptions are not necessary, sometimes not justifiable. A realistic investigation from the operational safety point of view is more appropriate. It is essential to highlight the key transient indications for specific incident recognition in the operator training program

  4. Preliminary safety assessment of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J E P S; Pereda, M C V; Nogueira, C; Dieamant, G; Cesar, C K M; Assanome, K M; Silva, M S; Torello, C O; Queiroz, M L S; Eberlin, S

    2016-02-01

    Most of the cosmetic compounds with preservative properties available in the market pose some risks concerning safety, such as the possibility of causing sensitization. Due to the fact that there are few options, the proper development of new molecules with this purpose is needed. Xylitol is a natural sugar, and the antimicrobial properties of xylitol-derived compounds have already been described in the literature. C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters may be useful for the development of skincare products. As an initial screen for safety of chemicals, the combination of in silico methods and in vitro testing can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal and human testing. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters regarding carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization through alternative methods. For the initial safety assessment, quantitative structure-activity relationship methodology was used. The prediction of the parameters carcinogenicity/mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization was generated from the chemical structure. The analysis also comprised physical-chemical properties, Cramer rules, threshold of toxicological concern and Michael reaction. In silico results of candidate molecules were compared to 19 compounds with preservative properties that are available in the market. Additionally, in vitro tests (Ames test for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity tests and hen's egg test--chorioallantoic membrane for irritation) were performed to complement the evaluation. In silico evaluation of both molecules presented no structural alerts related to eye and skin irritation, corrosion and sensitization, but some alerts for micronucleus and carcinogenicity were detected. However, by comparison, C-8 xylitol monoester, xylitol

  5. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  6. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  7. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaur...

  8. Innovative Strategies to Develop Chemical Categories Using a Combination of Structural and Toxicological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Batke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1.AbstractInterest is increasing in the development of non-animal methods for toxicological evaluations. These methods are however, particularly challenging for complex toxicological endpoints such as repeated dose toxicity. European Legislation, e.g. the European Union´s Cosmetic Directive and REACH, demands the use of alternative methods. Frameworks, such as the Read-across Assessment Framework or the Adverse Outcome Pathway Knowledge Base, support the development of these methods. The aim of the project presented in this publication was to develop substance categories for a read-across with complex endpoints of toxicity based on existing databases. The basic conceptual approach was to combine structural similarity with shared mechanisms of action. Substances with similar chemical structure and toxicological profile form candidate categories suitable for read-across. We combined two databases on repeated dose toxicity, RepDose database and ELINCS database to form a common database for the identification of categories. The resulting database contained physicochemical, structural and toxicological data, which were refined and curated for cluster analyses. We applied the Predictive Clustering Tree (PCT approach for clustering chemicals based on structural and on toxicological information to detect groups of chemicals with similar toxic profiles and pathways/mechanisms of toxicity. As many of the experimental toxicity values were not available, this data was imputed by predicting them with a multi-label classification method, prior to clustering. The clustering results were evaluated by assessing chemical and toxicological similarities with the aim of identifying clusters with a concordance between structural information and toxicity profiles/mechanisms. From these chosen clusters, seven were selected for a quantitative read-across, based on a small ratio of NOAEL of the members with the highest and the lowest NOAEL in the cluster (<5. We discuss

  9. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Pharmacology and toxicology of the novel investigational agent Cantrixil (TRX-E-002-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Heaton, Andrew; Lilischkis, Kimberley; Garner, James; Brown, David M

    2017-02-01

    Recurrent, chemo-resistant ovarian cancer is thought to be due to a subgroup of slow-growing, drug-resistant cancer cells with stem-like properties and a high capacity for tumour repair. Cantrixil targets this sub-population of cells and is being developed as an intraperitoneal therapy to be used as first-line therapy in combination with carboplatin for epithelial ovarian cancer. The studies presented here justify further development. A GLP dog CV study using a 4 × 4 Latin Square Crossover study was conducted using telemetric ECG recordings from dogs post IP administration to assess for cardiac abnormalities. Mutagenic potential was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Clastogenicity was assessed by determining micronuclei formation in the bone marrow of SPF Arc(S) Swiss mice dosed at clinical concentrations. TRX-E-002-1 toxicology was evaluated in GLP-compliant MTD and 28-day repeat-dose studies in rats and dogs. In vitro TRX-E-002-1 has potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells including CD44+/MyD88+ ovarian cancer stem cells. TRX-E-002-1 increased phosphorylated c-Jun levels in these cancer cells resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis. In vivo, Cantrixil was active in a model of disseminated ovarian cancer as a monotherapy and in combination with Cisplatin. Cantrixil was active as maintenance therapy in a model of drug-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer and in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. In animals, this clinical formulation and route of administration of Cantrixil demonstrated acceptable activity, safety pharmacology, genotoxicity and toxicology profile and constituted a successful Investigational New Drug application to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: heterocyclic nitrogen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Merski, Jerome A; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, 2,3-diethylpyrazine (DEP), 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), and 2-acetyl pyridine (AP), are naturally present in tobacco and are also added to tobacco as flavor ingredients. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes containing the three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds added individually at three different levels. The lowest target inclusion level of the ingredient was 10 ppm, and the highest was 10,000 ppm. Smoke from experimental and control cigarettes was evaluated in analytical smoke chemistry, in vitro cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity assays. The cigarettes with added DEP produced some minor (approximately 10%) changes in smoke chemistry when compared with the cigarettes containing no DEP. Smoke chemistry was effectively unchanged by the addition of either AP or TMP. Cytotoxicity, assessed by the neutral red uptake assay using both gas-vapor and particulate phases of smoke, was unaffected by the addition of any of the test ingredients. Mutagenicity, assessed in five strains of Salmonella treated with mainstream cigarette smoke condensate, also was unaffected by any of the test ingredients. Despite the exaggerated ingredient levels relative to commercial-use levels, there was a lack of a toxicological response for the three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds in the test systems used.

  12. Construction of Earthquake-Proof Safety Evaluation Methods for Pipes with Wall Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Takizawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the extreme importance of 'system safety' evaluation has been recognized. In this study, some fundamental ways of thinking about the concept of 'system safety' for operating plants is shown, and concrete evaluation structures of system safety are proposed. System safety for nuclear power plants and safety assessment for aging plants are constructed. (author)

  13. FFTF railroad tank car Safety Evaluation for Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations considered necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14

  14. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  15. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  16. 75 FR 74053 - Availability of Final Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... CONTACT: Ms. Olga Dawkins, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances... Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4700 Buford Highway..., except legal holidays. Availability This notice announces the availability of one new and six updated...

  17. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  18. LC-MS (/MS) in clinical toxicology screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viette, Véronique; Hochstrasser, Denis; Fathi, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Toxicological screening is the analysis of biological samples to detect and identify unknown compounds. The high selectivity and sensitivity of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technology provide an attractive alternative to the current methods (LC-UV, GC/MS, etc.). For these reasons, an increasing number of applications are being published. This paper is a brief overview of LC-MS(/MS) screening methods developed for clinical toxicology in recent years. Various sample treatments, chromatographic separations and detection by mass spectrometry can be combined to obtain screening methods adapted to the constraints and needs of clinical toxicology laboratories. Currently the techniques are in the hands of specialists, mainly in academic institutions. However, the evolution in technology should allow application of these techniques as a tool in toxicology laboratories, thus allowing a more widespread exploitation of their potential.

  19. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Toxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in (sources of) drinking water is required to identify potential health risks and prioritize chemicals for abatement or monitoring. In such assessments, concentrations of chemicals in drinking water or sources are compared to either (i) health-based (statutory) drinking water guideline values, (ii) provisional guideline values based on recent toxicity data in absence of drinking water guidelines, or (iii) generic drinking water target values in absence of toxicity data. Here, we performed a toxicological risk assessment for 163 CEC that were selected as relevant for drinking water. This relevance was based on their presence in drinking water and/or groundwater and surface water sources in downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse, in combination with concentration levels and physicochemical properties. Statutory and provisional drinking water guideline values could be derived from publically available toxicological information for 142 of the CEC. Based on measured concentrations it was concluded that the majority of substances do not occur in concentrations which individually pose an appreciable human health risk. A health concern could however not be excluded for vinylchloride, trichloroethene, bromodichloromethane, aniline, phenol, 2-chlorobenzenamine, mevinphos, 1,4-dioxane, and nitrolotriacetic acid. For part of the selected substances, toxicological risk assessment for drinking water could not be performed since either toxicity data (hazard) or drinking water concentrations (exposure) were lacking. In absence of toxicity data, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach can be applied for screening level risk assessment. The toxicological information on the selected substances was used to evaluate whether drinking water target values based on existing TTC levels are sufficiently protective for drinking water relevant CEC. Generic drinking water target levels of 37 μg/L for

  20. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  2. Reactor safety; Description and evaluation of safety activities in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Gunsell, L.

    1998-03-01

    The report gives a description of safety activities in the nuclear power industry. The study has been carried out as a part of the four year programme in Nordic Safety Research (NKS) which was completed in 1997. The objective of the NKS/RAK-1.1 project 'A survey and an evaluation of safety activities in nuclear power' was to make a broad description of various activities important for safety and to make an assessment of their efficiency. A special consideration was placed on a comparison of practices in Finland and Sweden, and between their nuclear utilities. The study has been divided into two parts, one theoretical part in which a model of the relationships between various activities important for safety has been constructed and one practical part where a total of 62 persons have been interviewed at the authorities, the nuclear utilities and one reactor vendor. To restrict the amount of work two activities, safety analysis and experience feedback, were selected. A few cases connected to incidents at nuclear power plants were discussed in more detail. The report has been structured around a simple model of nuclear safety consisting of the concepts of goals, means and outcomes. This model illustrates the importance of goal formulation, systematic planning and feedback of operational experience as major components in nuclear safety. In assessing organisation and management at authorities and the power utilities there is a clear trend of decentralisation and delegation of authority. The general impression from the study is that the safety activities in Finland and Sweden are efficient and well targeted. The experience from the methodology is favourable and the comparison of practices gives a good ground for a discussion of contents and targeting of safety activities. (EG) activities. (EG)

  3. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues,after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products,this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making.First of all,it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products;subsequently,given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both reciprocal and complementary judgment matrices in the process of jointly participating in evaluation arising from personal preference,it proposes to assemble expert information in order to obtain indicator weight using the OWA operator;finally,the process of evaluating safety of agricultural products is given.

  4. Evaluating fuel cycle safety for CITa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Reilly, H.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A safety concern in the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) currently being designed in the U. S. is the accidental release of tritium. To evaluate the basis for that concern, an assessment of the risk to the public posed by CIT was conducted that made use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques. These include both frequency and consequence elements of risk. This analysis concluded that the tritium systems on the CIT could be designed and operated as planned with negligible safety impact, well within the established guidelines. (author)

  5. Safety Evaluation of Sclerotium from a Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus cameronensis (Cultivar: Preclinical Toxicology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Shien Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups while control groups received only distilled water. At the end of the study (29th day, the animals were sacrificed followed by blood and organs collection for analysis. Subacute toxicity studies done shows that sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg did not induce treatment related changes on behavioral patterns, gross physical appearance, growth pattern, body weight gain, values of hematological and clinical biochemical panels as well as histopathological findings on kidney, spleen, heart, lung and liver of the experimental rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level dose for sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar in 28-days sub-acute toxicity study is determined to be 1000 mg/kg.

  6. [Development and Application of Metabonomics in Forensic Toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Shen, Min

    2015-06-01

    Metabonomics is an important branch of system biology following the development of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. It can perform high-throughput detection and data processing with multiple parameters, potentially enabling the identification and quantification of all small metabolites in a biological system. It can be used to provide comprehensive information on the toxicity effects, toxicological mechanisms and biomarkers, sensitively finding the unusual metabolic changes caused by poison. This article mainly reviews application of metabonomics in toxicological studies of abused drugs, pesticides, poisonous plants and poisonous animals, and also illustrates the new direction of forensic toxicology research.

  7. Optimized Evaluation System to Athletic Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Li

    2015-01-01

    This study presented a new method of optimizing evaluation function in athletic food safety information programming by particle swarm optimization. The process of food information evaluation function is to automatically adjust these parameters in the evaluation function by self-optimizing method accomplished through competition, which is a food information system plays against itself with different evaluation functions. The results show that the particle swarm optimization is successfully app...

  8. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  9. Safety and cost evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Korhonen, R.

    1989-11-01

    The report introduces the results of the nuclear waste management safety and cost evaluation research carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1984-1988. The emphasis is on the description of the state-of-art of performance and cost evaluation methods. The report describes VTT's most important assessment models. Development, verification and validation of the models has largely taken place within international projects, including the Stripa, HYDROCOIN, INTRACOIN, INTRAVAL, PSACOIN and BIOMOVS projects. Furthermore, VTT's other laboratories are participating in the Natural Analogue Working Group,k the CHEMVAL project and the CoCo group. Resent safety analyses carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory include a concept feasibility study of spent fuel disposal, safety analyses for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR's) of the repositories to be constructed for low and medium level operational reactor waste at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa power plants as well as safety analyses of disposal of decommissioning wastes. Appendix 1 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail

  10. Evaluation for nuclear safety-critical software reliability of DCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the development of control and information technology at NPPs, software reliability is important because software failure is usually considered as one form of common cause failures in Digital I and C Systems (DCS). The reliability analysis of DCS, particularly qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the nuclear safety-critical software reliability belongs to a great challenge. To solve this problem, not only comprehensive evaluation model and stage evaluation models are built in this paper, but also prediction and sensibility analysis are given to the models. It can make besement for evaluating the reliability and safety of DCS. (author)

  11. Toxicology and Biodistribution Studies for MGH2.1, an Oncolytic Virus that Expresses Two Prodrug-activating Genes, in Combination with Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Kasai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MGH2.1 is a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 oncolytic virus that expresses two prodrug-activating transgenes: the cyclophosphamide (CPA-activating cytochrome P4502B1 (CYP2B1 and the CPT11-activating secreted human intestinal carboxylesterase (shiCE. Toxicology and biodistribution of MGH2.1 in the presence/absence of prodrugs was evaluated in mice. MGH2.1 ± prodrugs was cytotoxic to human glioma cells, but not to normal cells. Pharmacokinetically, intracranial MGH2.1 did not significantly alter the metabolism of intraperitoneally (i.p. administered prodrugs in mouse plasma, brain, or liver. MGH2.1 did not induce an acute inflammatory reaction. MGH2.1 DNA was detected in brains of mice inoculated with 108 pfus for up to 60 days. However, only one animal showed evidence of viral gene expression at this time. Expression of virally encoded genes was restricted to brain. Intracranial inoculation of MGH2.1 did not induce lethality at 108 pfus in the absence of prodrugs and at 106 pfus in the presence of prodrugs. This study provides safety and toxicology data justifying a possible clinical trial of intratumoral injection of MGH2.1 with peripheral administration of CPA and/or CPT11 prodrugs in humans with malignant gliomas.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  15. International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) - ICSBEP 2015 Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span approximately 69000 pages and contain 567 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4874 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 31 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 207 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for neutron activation foil and thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed at the SILENE critical assembly in Valduc, France as part of a joint venture in 2010 between the US DOE and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these

  16. THE FUTURE OF TOXICOLOGY-PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY: AN EXPANDED VIEW OF CHEMICAL TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chemistry approach to predictive toxicology relies on structure−activity relationship (SAR) modeling to predict biological activity from chemical structure. Such approaches have proven capabilities when applied to well-defined toxicity end points or regions of chemical space. T...

  17. Toxicodynetics: A new discipline in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Houzé, P; Villa, A; Borron, S W; Carli, P

    2016-05-01

    Regarding the different disciplines that encompass the pharmacology and the toxicology, none is specifically dedicated to the description and analysis of the time-course of relevant toxic effects both in experimental and clinical studies. The lack of a discipline devoted to this major field in toxicology results in misconception and even in errors by clinicians. Review of the basic different disciplines that encompass pharmacology toxicology and comparing with the description of the time-course of effects in conditions in which toxicological analysis was not performed or with limited analytical evidence. Review of the literature clearly shows how misleading is the current extrapolation of toxicokinetic data to the description of the time-course of toxic effects. A new discipline entitled toxicodynetics should be developed aiming at a more systematic description of the time-course of effects in acute human and experimental poisonings. Toxicodynetics might help emergency physicians in risk assessment when facing a poisoning and contribute to a better assessment of quality control of data collected by poison control centres. Toxicodynetics would also allow a quantitative approach to the clinical effects resulting from drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. The impact of WASH-1400 on reactor safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Trends in reactor safety evaluation in France following the publication of WASH-1400 (the Rasmussen Report) are presented. What is called 'the meteorite case' is first schematically presented as follows: WASH-1400 shows nuclear risk equivalent to meteorite risk and reasonable corrections cannot make many orders of magnitude, consequently present safety rules are adequate. The very impact of WASH-1400 on safety approach is then discussed as for: assistance to deterministic safety analysis, introduction of probabilistic safety criteria, acceptable level of risk, and the use of results in research and reactor operating experience

  19. Palladium Nanoparticles: Toxicological Effects and Potential Implications for Occupational Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruscka Leso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing technological applications of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs and their consequent enhancing release into the community and occupational environments, have raised public health concerns regarding possible adverse effects for exposed subjects, and particularly for workers chronically and highly exposed to these materials, whose toxico-kinetic and dynamic behavior remains to be fully understood. Therefore, this review aimed to critically analyze literature data to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge on the toxicological profile of Pd-NPs. Results from available studies demonstrated the potential for these chemicals to affect the ecosystem function, to exert cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as to induce early alterations in different target organs in in vivo models. However, our revision pointed out the need for future studies aimed to clarify the role of the NP physico-chemical properties in determining their toxicological behavior, as well as the importance to carry out investigations focused on environmental and biological monitoring to verify and validate experimental biomarkers of exposure and early effect in real exposure contexts. Overall, this may be helpful to support the definition of suitable strategies for the assessment, communication and management of Pd-NP occupational risks to protect the health and safety of workers.

  20. Criticality safety evaluations - a open-quotes stalking horseclose quotes for integrated safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility's criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE

  1. Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices With Integral Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    323 Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices with Integral Information Technology Jiajie Zhang, Vimla L. Patel, Todd R...errors are due to inappropriate designs for user interactions, rather than mechanical failures. Evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical ...the users on the identified trouble spots in the devices. We developed two methods for evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical devices

  2. Safety Assessment of Polyether Lanolins as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan; Heldreth, Bart

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these polyether lanolin ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  3. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-01

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  4. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  5. Toxicology research projects directory, 1978. Monthly repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Toxicology Research Projects Directory is a monthly publication of ongoing research projects in toxicology and related fields selected from the files of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE). Each issue lists toxicology-related research projects reported to SSIE during the one-month period preceding that issue. Each of the summaries is categorized by scientific discipline and assigned a unique identification number for cross-referencing from the Directory Indexes--Subject, Investigator, Performing Organization, Supporting Agency, and Master Grant Number. The thirteenth issue consists of Cumulative Indexes for the entire volume with referencing to projects in all of the previous twelve issues. The emphasis of the Directory is on the manifestations of the exposure of man and animals to toxic substances. Projects are classified by toxic agents, research orientation, and areas of environmental concern

  6. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  7. Downloadable Computational Toxicology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s computational toxicology research generates data that investigates the potential harm, or hazard of a chemical, the degree of exposure to chemicals as well as the unique chemical characteristics. This data is publicly available here.

  8. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  9. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  10. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE and high-density polyethylene (HDPE, are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

  11. Squale: evaluation criteria of functioning safety; Squale: criteres d`evaluation de la surete de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deswarte, Y; Kaaniche, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d` Analyse et d` Architecture des Systemes; Corneillie, P [CE2A-DI, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Benoit, P [Matra Transport International, 92 - Montrouge (France)

    1998-05-01

    The SQUALE (security, safety and quality evaluation for dependable systems) project is part of the ACTS (advanced communications, technologies and services) European program. Its aim is to develop confidence evaluation criteria to test the functioning safety of systems. All industrial sectors that use critical applications (nuclear, railway, aerospace..) are concerned. SQUALE evaluation criteria differ from the classical evaluation methods: they are independent of the application domains and industrial sectors, they take into account the overall functioning safety attributes, and they can progressively change according to the level of severity required. In order to validate the approach and to refine the criteria, a first experiment is in progress with the METEOR automatic underground railway and another will be carried out on a telecommunication system developed by Bouygues company. (J.S.) 15 refs.

  12. An evaluation of sharp safety blood evacuation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joanna; Phillips, Peter

    This article describes an evaluation of three sharp safety blood evacuation devices in seven Welsh NHS boards and the Welsh Blood Service. Products consisted of two phlebotomy needles possessing safety shields and one phlebotomy device with wings, tubing and a retractable needle. The device companies provided the devices and appropriate training. Participating healthcare workers used the safety device instead of the conventional device to sample blood during the evaluation period and each type of device was evaluated in random order. Participants filled in a questionnaire for each type of device and then a further questionnaire comparing the two shielded evacuation needles with each other Results showed that responses to all three products were fairly positive, although each device was not liked by everyone who used it. When the two shielded evacuation devices were compared with each other, most users preferred the device with the shield positioned directly above the needle to the device with the shield at the side. However, in laboratory tests, the preferred device produced more fluid splatter than the other shielded device on activation.

  13. [Continuous challenges in Japanese forensic toxicology practice: strategy to address specific goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageura, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the status quo of forensic toxicology in Japan and the West is surveyed and a strategy to address future goals of Japanese forensic toxicology is proposed. Forensic toxicology in the West consists of three main areas--post-mortem forensic toxicology, human-performance forensic toxicology and forensic urine drug testing. In Japan, post-mortem forensic toxicology is practiced in university forensic medicine departments while most of the human-performance forensic toxicology is carried out in police laboratories. However, at least at present, strictly controlled workplace urine drug testing is not being performed, despite the abuse of drugs even by uniformed members of the National Defence Forces and police. For several years, the author has been introducing Western forensic toxicology guidelines and recommendations, translated into Japanese with the help of Western forensic toxicologists, to Japanese forensic toxicologists. Western forensic toxicology practice is at an advanced stage, whereas Japanese practice is in a critical condition and holds many problems awaiting solution, as exemplified by the urine drug testing in police laboratories. There is never any sample left for re-examination by the defence in all cases, though the initial volume of the urine sample available for examination is 30-50 ml. Only one organisation carries out everything from sampling to reporting and, in addition, the parent drug and its metabolites are not quantified. It is clear that the police laboratories do not work within good laboratory practice guidelines, nor do they have quality manuals or standard operating procedures manuals. A basic change in Japanese forensic toxicology practice is now essential. The author strongly recommends that, first of all, Japanese toxicologists should prepare forensic toxicology guidelines based on the Western models. The guidelines would progress the following objectives for forensic toxicology laboratories: 1) to have documented good

  14. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-wu Fan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  15. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. 1960.79 Section 1960.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs...

  16. Does GLP enhance the quality of toxicological evidence for regulatory decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J.; Becker, Richard A.; Carlton, Betsy D.; Hanson, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Patricia L.; Sue Marty, Mary; McCarty, Lynn S.; Quill, Terry F.; Solomon, Keith; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Witorsch, Raphael J.; Don Yi, Kun

    2016-01-01

    There is debate over whether the requirements of GLP are appropriate standards for evaluating the quality of toxicological data used to formulate regulations. A group promoting the importance of non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine disruptors contend that scoring systems giving primacy to GLP are biased against non-GLP studies from the literature and are merely record-keeping exercises to prevent fraudulent reporting of data from non-published guideline toxicology studies. They argue that guideline studies often employ insensitive species and outdated methods, and ignore the perspectives of subject-matter experts in endocrine disruption, who should be the sole arbiters of data quality. We believe regulatory agencies should use both non-GLP and GLP studies, that GLP requirements assure fundamental tenets of study integrity not typically addressed by journal peer-review, and that use of standardized test guidelines and GLP promotes consistency, reliability, comparability, and harmonization of various types of studies used by regulatory agencies worldwide. This debate suffers two impediments to progress: a conflation of different phases of study interpretation and levels of data validity, and a misleading characterization of many essential components of GLP and regulatory toxicology. Herein we provide clarifications critical for removing those impediments. PMID:27208076

  17. The New Toxicology of Sophisticated Materials: Nanotoxicology and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Warheit, David B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the physical form of materials can mediate their toxicity—the health impacts of asbestiform materials, industrial aerosols, and ambient particulate matter are prime examples. Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the nanoscale and biological interactions. With the rapid rise of the field of nanotechnology and the design and production of increasingly complex nanoscale materials, it has become ever more important to understand how the physical form and chemical composition of these materials interact synergistically to determine toxicity. As a result, a new field of research has emerged—nanotoxicology. Research within this field is highlighting the importance of material physicochemical properties in how dose is understood, how materials are characterized in a manner that enables quantitative data interpretation and comparison, and how materials move within, interact with, and are transformed by biological systems. Yet many of the substances that are the focus of current nanotoxicology studies are relatively simple materials that are at the vanguard of a new era of complex materials. Over the next 50 years, there will be a need to understand the toxicology of increasingly sophisticated materials that exhibit novel, dynamic and multifaceted functionality. If the toxicology community is to meet the challenge of ensuring the safe use of this new generation of substances, it will need to move beyond “nano” toxicology and toward a new toxicology of sophisticated materials. Here, we present a brief overview of the current state of the science on the toxicology of nanoscale materials and focus on three emerging toxicology-based challenges presented by sophisticated materials that will become increasingly important over the next 50 years: identifying relevant materials for study, physicochemical characterization, and

  18. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tu, W.; Shih, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, W.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C.; Chen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  19. The use of living PSA in safety management, a procedure developed in the nordic project ''safety evaluation, NKS/SIK-1''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.; Holmberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    The essential objective with the development of a living PSA concept is to bring the use of the plant specific PSA model out to the daily safety work to allow operational risk experience feedback and to increase the risk awareness of the intended users. This paper will present results of the Nordic project ''Safety Evaluation, NKS/SIK-1''. The SIK-1 project has defined and demonstrated the practical use of living PSA for safety evaluation and for identification of possible improvements in operational safety. Subjects discussed in this paper are dealing with the practical implementation and use of PSA to make proper safety related decisions and evaluation. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian

    2008-07-02

    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  1. Chemicals in marine and coastal environments: the need for toxicological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.R.

    1982-04-01

    The tremendous increase in the number and amount of chemicals produced and transported in past years has resulted in increasing problems with accidental spills and uncontrolled waste sites involving these chemicals. The United States government has accordingly developed a mechanism for responding to such incidents. As part of that mechanism, the Hazardous Materials Response Project serves to coordinate scientific activities and facilitate in the gathering of scientific information needed for response to chemical spill or waste site emergencies involving coastal waters. Inevitably, much information of a toxicological nature is required to adequately evaluate potential hazards and appropriate responses. The Hazardous Materials Response Project is also able to provide a framework for significant progress in scientific understanding because it can bring together and encourage collaboration among experts in the various disciplines which are relevant to the environmental toxicological problems encountered.

  2. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [Ist. Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  3. Toxicological perspectives of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Amanda J; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2014-07-01

    The human respiratory system is an important route for the entry of inhaled therapeutics into the body to treat diseases. Inhaled materials may consist of gases, vapours, aerosols and particulates. In all cases, assessing the toxicological effect of inhaled therapeutics has many challenges. This article provides an overview of in vivo and in vitro models for testing the toxicity of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles implemented in drug delivery. Traditionally, inhalation toxicity has been performed on test animals to identify the median lethal concentration of airborne materials. Later maximum tolerable concentration denoted by LC0 has been introduced as a more ethically acceptable end point. More recently, in vitro methods have been developed, allowing the direct exposure of airborne material to cultured human target cells on permeable porous membranes at the air-liquid interface. Modifications of current inhalation therapies, new pulmonary medications for respiratory diseases and implementation of the respiratory tract for systemic drug delivery are providing new challenges when conducting well-designed inhalation toxicology studies. In particular, the area of nanoparticles and nanocarriers is of critical toxicological concern. There is a need to develop toxicological test models, which characterise the toxic response and cellular interaction between inhaled particles and the respiratory system.

  4. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references

  5. Screening-Level Safety Assessment of Personal Care Product Constituents Using Publicly Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest S. Fung

    2018-06-01

    are commonly used in other personal care and cosmetic products, and ingredients with available safety information are generally considered safe for the intended use. The scope of this analysis is limited to frequency of use information and available toxicological data. Additional testing including in silico, in vitro, and clinical studies may be needed to evaluate the potential toxicity of an ingredient.

  6. Evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/consequence models supporting safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Woodard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two DOE Working Groups have completed evaluation of accident phenomenology and consequence methodologies used to support DOE facility safety documentation. The independent evaluations each concluded that no one computer model adequately addresses all accident and atmospheric release conditions. MACCS2, MATHEW/ADPIC, TRAC RA/HA, and COSYMA are adequate for most radiological dispersion and consequence needs. ALOHA, DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM, TSCREEN, and SLAB are recommended for chemical dispersion and consequence applications. Additional work is suggested, principally in evaluation of new models, targeting certain models for continued development, training, and establishing a Web page for guidance to safety analysts

  7. Periodic safety re-evaluations in NPPs in EC member states, Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The work on periodic safety re-evaluations summarized in this report was performed by a Task Force of the CEC Working Group on the Safety of Thermal Reactors. The periodic safety re-evaluations under review in this study were those that are carried out in addition to other reviews which represent the primary means of safety assurance. The periodic safety re-evaluation is broader and more comprehensive in nature. The cumulative effects of experience (national and international), advances in knowledge and analysis techniques, improvements in safety standards and operating practices, overall effects of plant ageing, and the totality of all modifications over the period in question need to be taken into account. All countries have recognized the value of such periodic reviews, and licensees, either as a regulatory requirement or as a voluntary action, are carrying them out. The scope and contents of each country's review showed many similarities of approach, any differences being explained by the age and type of reactor in operation. Many similarities emerged in the topics selected for re-evaluation and in the approach to re-evaluation itself. The overall conclusion was that while approaches may differ in some respects, for practical purposes comparable levels of safety are achieved in the periodic safety re-evaluation of nuclear power plants

  8. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding

    2017-08-01

    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  10. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are di