WorldWideScience

Sample records for toxicity testing methods

  1. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  2. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, C.A.; Mayo, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  3. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  4. Testing of toxicity based methods to develop site specific clean up objectives - phase 1: Toxicity protocol screening and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, H.; Kerr, D.; Thorne, W.; Taylor, B.; Zadnik, M.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.

    1994-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a cost-effective and practical protocol for using bio-assay based toxicity assessment methods for remediation of decommissioned oil and gas production, and processing facilities. The objective was to generate site-specific remediation criteria for contaminated sites. Most companies have used the chemical-specific approach which, however, did not meet the ultimate land use goal of agricultural production. The toxicity assessment method described in this study dealt with potential impairment to agricultural crop production and natural ecosystems. Human health concerns were not specifically addressed. It was suggested that chemical-specific methods should be used when human health concerns exist. . Results showed that toxicity tests will more directly identify ecological stress caused by site contamination than chemical-specific remediation criteria, which can be unnecessarily protective. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    survivorship) and sublethal endpoints (e.g., growth, reproduction) and are in concept more sensitive than acute lethality tests. • Control– negative ...organism is unable to swim /move after gentle agitation with a transfer pipette but is still alive • LC50-Lethal concentration at which a median effect on...from Zumwalt et al. (1994) The original apparatus uses water splitting channels to perform water changes on 8 beakers at once; the modified apparatus

  6. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  7. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  8. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  10. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    term impacts of the DM while settling through the water column (elutriate toxicity tests), and long-term toxicity (whole sediment toxicity tests) and...elutriates are prepared according to guidance (USEPA/USACE 1991; 1998) by mixing sediment and site water and allowing settling for prescribed periods...of water and waste water . 17th ed. Washington, DC: APHA. Arnold, W. R., R. L. Diamond, and D. S. Smith. 2010a. The effects of salinity, pH, and

  11. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  12. What Food and Feeding Rates are Optimum for the Chironomus dilutus Sediment Toxicity Test Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the toxicity of both contaminated sediments and individual chemicals. Among the standard procedures for benthic macroinvertebrates are 10-d, 20-d, and life cycle exposures using the midge, Chironomus ...

  13. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  14. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  15. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  16. Comparative analysis of the toxic effects of natural toxins and harmful substances produced by conventional processing methods or by irradiation and of toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Arndt, K.; Groeger, G.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    In this review, tasks and methods of food toxicology as well as the application of the different toxicity tests for the risk assessment of food ingredients are described. Particular reference is made to short-term genotoxicity tests. Enzymatic digestion and extraction methods for complex foodstuffs which are used in the toxicological testing of foods in in vitro systems are described. Radiolytic products which result from irradiation of foods or components of foodstuffs and corresponding results of toxicity testing are reviewed. Foodstuffs irradiated with doses of up to 10 kGy are regarded as toxicologically safe. A survey of the toxicologically tested irradiated foodstuffs as well as the applied maximum doses are given in tables at the end of chapter 8. Among the great number of toxicological studies of irradiated foods those are especially mentioned which have given rise to discussions on the health risks involved. In addition, the difficulties associated with the testing of toxicity of irradiated foodstuffs in feeding experiments are discussed. Short-term tests used to establish the benotoxicity of irradiated foods and essential results of toxicological testing are also presented in tables. An overview is given of the occurrence, frequency and health risks of natural toxins in foods and harmful substances produced by conventional methods of cooking and preservation, in order to enable a comparison with the health risks of irradiated foods. The relevance of animal experiments and in vitro investigations for the prediction of toxic effects of harmful substances of foodstuffs in man is discussed in the final chapter. (VHE) [de

  17. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  18. Evaluation and improvements of a mayfly, Neocloeon (Centroptilum) triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) toxicity test method - SETAC Europe 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published test method for Neocloeon triangulifer assessed the survival and growth of larval mayflies exposed to several reference toxicants (NaCl, KCl, and CuSO4). Results were not able to be replicated in subsequent experiments. To identify potential sources of variab...

  19. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  20. Dermal and inhalation acute toxic class methods: test procedures and biometric evaluations for the Globally Harmonized Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhütter, H G; Genschow, E; Diener, W; Schlede, E

    2003-05-01

    The acute toxic class (ATC) methods were developed for determining LD(50)/LC(50) estimates of chemical substances with significantly fewer animals than needed when applying conventional LD(50)/LC(50) tests. The ATC methods are sequential stepwise procedures with fixed starting doses/concentrations and a maximum of six animals used per dose/concentration. The numbers of dead/moribund animals determine whether further testing is necessary or whether the test is terminated. In recent years we have developed classification procedures for the oral, dermal and inhalation routes of administration by using biometric methods. The biometric approach assumes a probit model for the mortality probability of a single animal and assigns the chemical to that toxicity class for which the best concordance is achieved between the statistically expected and the observed numbers of dead/moribund animals at the various steps of the test procedure. In previous publications we have demonstrated the validity of the biometric ATC methods on the basis of data obtained for the oral ATC method in two-animal ring studies with 15 participants from six countries. Although the test procedures and biometric evaluations for the dermal and inhalation ATC methods have already been published, there was a need for an adaptation of the classification schemes to the starting doses/concentrations of the Globally Harmonized Classification System (GHS) recently adopted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Here we present the biometric evaluation of the dermal and inhalation ATC methods for the starting doses/concentrations of the GHS and of some other international classification systems still in use. We have developed new test procedures and decision rules for the dermal and inhalation ATC methods, which require significantly fewer animals to provide predictions of toxicity classes, that are equally good or even better than those achieved by using the conventional LD(50)/LC

  1. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  2. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  3. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  4. Review on toxicity testing with marine macroalgae and the need for method standardization--exemplified with copper and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta T; Kautsky, Lena

    2003-02-01

    Toxic effects on macroalgae have been compiled. Eighty-two articles have been found in literature during 1959-2000. A total of 120 substances were investigated using 65 different macroalgae species. About one-third of the tested compounds were organic substances (33%), another third metal-organic substances (35%), and the last third were oils (14%), metals (8%), detergents (7.5%) and other inorganic chemicals (2.5%). Half of the substances were only tested once on a single species. Likewise, toxicity data has only been reported for one chemical tested on a single occasion for about half of the 65 species. Thus little is known about the toxic effects on marine macroalgae. The objectives of the previous studies undertaken varied and therefore the toxicity data was presented in numerous ways, e.g. using different exposure times, temperature, light intensity, light regime, salinity, and nutrients, which makes a direct comparison of the data difficult. This review also shows that many stages in the lifecycle of macroalgae are often more sensitive to toxic substances than other aquatic organisms. Consequently, tests using macroalgae may discover toxicity earlier, which would in turn also protect the fauna. If toxic compounds have a negative affect on the distribution and growth of structurally and functionally dominating macroalgae, there may indirectly be a large and harmful influence on the whole marine coastal ecosystem. For this reason tests on macroalgae should be included in control programs along the coasts.

  5. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as

  6. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  7. Progress in the development of short term chronic toxicity testing methods for crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Bidwell, J.R.; Yeager, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The specific concerns addressed by this research are the use of unweathered Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil instead of the more expensive, less environmentally realistic distillate ANS-521, and the appropriate laboratory preparation methodology for the water soluble fraction (WSF) used in testing. Seven-day chronic tests exposing the inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) and estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) to the water soluble fraction of unweathered ANS and ANS-521 showed that mysids responded similarly to the two types of oils while silversides were more sensitive to unweathered ANS. In the presence of a CBA and WSF, the mortality of the organisms and the mysid growth were similar in both types of oil. The NOEC for silverside growth, however, was lower in the combined exposure of a CBA with ANS-521 WSF than it was in the CBA-WSF unweathered ANS. Testing is underway to determine if the stirring time length effects the toxicity of the WSF, or the WSF and CBA combination. In chronic tests using both the silverside and mysid there were no differences in growth and mortality of the organisms tested in WSF prepared from 10 and 20 hours of stirring, however, the 5 hour stirring exposure is less toxic to both organisms

  8. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  9. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration-...... days to 2 days (minitest as well as larger volume tests) in order to avoid excessive biomass growth. Shortening tests to 2 days appears necessary if light intensity and temperature are near the upper limits of the intervals stated in the ISO standard.......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  10. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  11. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  12. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Francois; Barrow, Paul C.; Burge, Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  13. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    the inventory that contribute significantly to the impact categories on ecotoxicity and human toxicity to focus the characterisation work. The reason why the selection methods are more important for the chemical-related impact categories than for other impact categories is the extremely high number......Characterization of toxic emissions in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is in many cases severely limited by the lack of characterization factors for the emissions mapped in the inventory. The number of substances assigned characterization factors for (eco)toxicity included in the dominating LCA....... The methods are evaluated against a set of pre-defined criteria (comprising consistency with characterization and data requirement) and applied to case studies and a test set of chemicals. The reported work is part of the EU-project OMNIITOX....

  14. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast–cerophyll–trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca.

  16. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  18. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  19. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  20. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  1. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  2. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  3. A SEDIMENT TOXICITY METHOD USING LEMNA MINOR, DUCKWEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a Lemna minor sediment toxicity test method to assess sediment contaminants which may affect plants. This 96-hour test used 15 ml of sediment and 2 ml of overlying water which was renewed after 48 hours. Sand was used as the control sediment and also to dilute test ...

  4. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 (“Release of an acute toxic gas”) in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert , Pierre; Samaali , Ismahen; Molina , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as “Release of an acute toxic gas”: waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, ...

  5. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process.

  6. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  7. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD 421 reproductive toxicity screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an

  8. Predictive acute toxicity tests with pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V K

    1983-01-01

    By definition pesticides are biocidal products and this implies a probability that pesticides may be acutely toxic to species other than the designated target species. The ways in which pesticides are manufactured, formulated, packaged, distributed and used necessitates a potential for the exposure of non-target species although the technology exists to minimize adventitious exposure. The occurrence of deliberate exposure of non-target species due to the misuse of pesticides is known to happen. The array of predictive acute toxicity tests carried out on pesticides and involving the use of laboratory animals can be justified as providing data on which hazard assessment can be based. This paper addresses the justification and rationale of this statement.

  9. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  10. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  11. Ecological toxicity estimation of solid waste products of Tekely Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise of OJSC 'Kaztsink' using biological testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Goldobina, E.A.; Kosmukhambetov, A.R.; Kulikova, O.V.; Ismailova, Zh.B.; Gurikova, N.D.; Kozlova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    Results are examined of solid waste products estimation using methods of biological testing at testing-objects of different phylogenetic development levels (simple aqua animals, algae, supreme water plants). Correlation is found between lead and zinc content in the extract of leaching out and exact reaction of all under-test objects. Conclusion is made that performing of the complex express economical analysis is necessary using methods of biological testing of industrial waste products monitoring and other man-made pollutants. (author)

  12. Prediction of toxicity and comparison of alternatives using WebTEST (Web-services Toxicity Estimation Software Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Java-based web service is being developed within the US EPA’s Chemistry Dashboard to provide real time estimates of toxicity values and physical properties. WebTEST can generate toxicity predictions directly from a simple URL which includes the endpoint, QSAR method, and ...

  13. Tracking pyrethroid toxicity in surface water samples: Exposure dynamics and toxicity identification tools for laboratory tests with Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2018-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging as a result of their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the analytical methods detection limits (MDLs). Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod Hyalella azteca and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In the present study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and presented a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cubitainers (Fisher Scientific) at 4 °C of 5 pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:462-472. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINING EFFLUENT TOXICITY USING DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckweed (Lemna minor), a small vascular plant, grows rapidly, is sensitive to a wide variety of toxicants and is easy to culture. ethod is described that measures duckweed frond growth and chlorophyll levels as indicators of growth inhibition. he method requires a small testing ...

  15. TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) Ver 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) has been developed to allow users to easily estimate toxicity and physical properties using a variety of QSAR methodologies. T.E.S.T allows a user to estimate toxicity without requiring any external programs. Users can input a chem...

  16. Diagnosis of toxic alcohols: limitations of present methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol intoxications are associated with cellular dysfunction and an increased risk of death. Adverse effects can develop quickly; thus, there is a need for methods for rapidly detecting their presence. To examine the value and limitations of present methods to diagnose patients with possible toxic alcohol exposure. I searched MEDLINE for articles published between 1969 and 2014 using the terms: toxic alcohols, serum osmolality, serum osmol gap, serum anion gap, metabolic acidosis, methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and fomepizole. Each article was reviewed for additional references. The diagnosis of toxic alcohol exposure is often made on the basis of this history and physical findings along with an increase in the serum osmol and anion gaps. However, an increase in the osmol and/or anion gaps is not always present. Definitive detection in blood requires gas or liquid chromatography, laborious and expensive procedures which are not always available. Newer methods including a qualitative colorimetric test for detection of all alcohols or enzymatic tests for a specific alcohol might allow for more rapid diagnosis. Exposure to toxic alcohols is associated with cellular dysfunction and increased risk of death. Treatment, if initiated early, can markedly improve outcome, but present methods of diagnosis including changes in serum osmol and anion gap, and use of gas or liquid chromatography have important limitations. Development of more rapid and effective tests for detection of these intoxications is essential for optimal care of patients.

  17. Method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. [Pimephales promelas; Carassius auratus; Ictalurus punctatus; Lepomis macrochirus; Salmo gairdneri; Orconectes immunis; Aplexa hypnorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.L.; Holcombe, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC/sub 50/ values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials and chemical analysis for measured concentration tests. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, goldfish Carassius auratus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, crayfish Orconectes immunis and snails Aplexa hypnorum. Compounds tested were pentachlorophenol, 2-chloroethanol, 2,4-pentanedione, hexachloroethane, ..cap alpha..-bromo-2',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, benzaldehyde, 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitro-benzene, dursban, sevin and cadmium chloride. The LC/sub 50/ values from these multiple species tests compared favourably with those determined using single species tests at this laboratory, usually within 20%.

  18. Toxicity tests, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, M.; Purwati; Dewi, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. This research aims to investigate the toxicity, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of chitosan from shrimp chitin. In this study, chitin extracted from shrimp waste material. Chitin is then deacetylation with 60% NaOH so that chitosan produced. Degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, toxicity test, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of chitosan then evaluated. Toxicity test using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The antioxidant analysis was performed using DPPH method (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FTC method (ferric thiocyanate) in which the radical formed will reduce Ferro to Ferri resulting in a complex with thiocyanate. To determine the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal in Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by measuring antimicrobial effects and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Based on the result of research, the value of degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, and LC50 values of chitosan synthesis was 94,32, 1052.93 g/mol and 1364.41 ppm, respectively. In general, the antioxidative activities increased as the concentration of chitosan increased. MIC value of chitosan against S. aureus, C. albicans, and A. niger was 10 ppm, 15.6 ppm, and 5 ppm, respectively.

  19. 78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... additive for food Rat--Up-and-Down processing, and as Procedure. ingredient in aluminum Micronucleus Test... Toxicity to Fish; Acute Toxicity to Daphnia; Toxicity to Algae; Acute Toxicity to Mammals; Bacterial..., cold Study in Zebra Fish set, and sheet-fed (Brachydanio rerio). applications. Acute Toxicity Study in...

  20. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  1. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  2. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  3. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  5. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2016-01-06

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  6. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  7. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  8. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  9. Effect of soil contaminant extraction method in determining toxicity using the Microtox(reg.) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, G.A.; Young, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the influence of different extraction methods on the measured toxicity of contaminated soils collected from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites differing in soil composition and contaminant concentration. Aged soils from a number of MGP sites were extracted using a saline solution, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was assessed using two forms of Microtox tests: acute aqueous tests on saline and SFE soil extracts and solid-phase tests (SPTs) on soil particles. Microtox SPTs were performed on soils before and after SFE to determine resulting toxicity reduction. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Toxicity of soil extracts is related to contaminant concentrations of the extracts, (2) measured toxicity significantly decreases with less vigorous methods of extraction, and (3) supercritical fluid extractability correlates with measured toxicity. The EC50s for SPTs performed before and after SFE were not different for some soils but were significantly greater after extraction for other soils tested. The most significant toxicity reductions were observed for soils exhibiting the highest toxicity in both preextraction SPTs and acute aqueous tests. Acute Microtox tests performed on SFE extracts showed significantly lower EC50s than those reported from saline-based extraction procedures. Toxicity of the soils measured by Microtox SPTs was strongly correlated with both SFE efficiency and measures of contaminant aging. Data from this project provide evidence of sequestration and reduced availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils extracted via physiologically based procedures compared to vigorous physical extraction protocols

  10. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r2 = 0.28; p embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r2 = 0.64; p embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-op

  12. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  13. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slabbert, JL

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available and management purposes of effluents. If receiving water is used for drinking water purposes, the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity and toad embryo teratogenicity tests should be included in the battery of tests. Some of the rapid microbiotests, the petrozoan oxygen...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test organisms and eliminating loss of organisms in outflow water. (6) “Static system” means a test..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is... in chronic toxicity tests should originate from laboratory cultures in order to ensure the...

  15. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  16. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  17. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  18. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Yang Wanqi

    1991-01-01

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  20. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Timing of lead addition and worms to soil affects the response of the worms to soil affects the response of the worms to lead. - Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC 50 s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 μg Pb g -1 soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 μg Pb g -1 soil . The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 μg g -1 soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ) than those in the 3000 μg g -1 soil (2.21 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 μg Pb g -1 soil . Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 deg. C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration

  1. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the chronic toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental... with the test design into retention chambers within the test and the control chambers. Mysids in the... and experimental history. Mysids used for establishing laboratory cultures may be purchased...

  2. Semiconductor testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen.

    1992-01-01

    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  3. Materials and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide, in cooperation with ORNL and LANL, specimens required for studies to develop organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnetic confinement. To develop test methods and analytical procedures for assessing radiation damage. To stimulate and participate in international cooperation directed toward accomplishing these objectives. The system for producing uniaxially reinforced, 3-4 mm (0.125 in) diameter rod specimens has been refined and validated by production of excellent quality specimens using liquid-mix epoxy resin systems. The methodology is undergoing further modification to permit use of hot-melt epoxy and polyimide resin systems as will be required for the experimental program to be conducted in the NLTNIF reactor at ORNL. Preliminary studies indicate that short beam and torsional shear test methods will be useful in evaluating radiation degradation. Development of these and other applicable test methods are continuing. A cooperative program established with laboratories in Japan and in England has resulted in the production and testing of specimens having an identical configuration

  4. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.; Harmon, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods. Acute toxicity tests showed that when comparing LC50 values for C. dubia and D. ambigua, D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) while more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Results of chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in the same NOEC/LOEC values for both species. When exposed to unaltered SRS stream water, C. dubia demonstrated a 'toxic' response for two of the three streams tested, while reproduction for D. ambigua was higher in all stream samples. Acute toxicity tests with sodium chloride in stream water, generally followed the sensitivity trend noted in tests conducted with regular laboratory water

  5. Optimizing the performance of Hyalella azteca in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing in the United States and elsewhere. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Under the methods in the man...

  6. Prediction of toxicity and comparison of alternatives using WebTEST (Web-services Toxicity Estimation Software Tool)(Bled Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Java-based web service is being developed within the US EPA’s Chemistry Dashboard to provide real time estimates of toxicity values and physical properties. WebTEST can generate toxicity predictions directly from a simple URL which includes the endpoint, QSAR method, and ...

  7. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  8. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  9. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2017-12-05

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds\\' features may improve model\\'s performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  10. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds' features may improve model's performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  11. Development of Cardiovascular and Neurodevelopmental Metrics as Sublethal Endpoints for the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykwa, Julie C; Olivas, Alexis; Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin

    2018-06-19

    The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i.e., spontaneous contraction frequency and heart rate) and 2) investigated the responsiveness of several sublethal endpoints related to growth (wet weight, length, and growth-related gene expression), neurodevelopment (spontaneous contraction frequency, and neurodevelopmental gene expression), and cardiovascular function and development (pericardial area, eye size and cardiovascular related gene expression) as additional FET test metrics using the model toxicant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Of the growth, neurological and cardiovascular endpoints measured, length, eye size and pericardial area were found to more responsive than the other endpoints, respectively. Future studies linking alterations in these endpoints to longer-term adverse impacts are needed to fully evaluate the predictive power of these metrics in chemical and whole effluent toxicity testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Indicators of Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity test performance and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, M.M.; Bedwell, N.J.; Ausley, L.W. [North Carolina Division of Environmental Management, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The North Carolina Division of Environmental Management has begun evaluation of the sensitivity of test results used for measuring chronic whole effluent toxicity in North Carolina wastewater discharges. Approximately 67% of 565 facilities required to monitor toxicity by an NPDES permit perform a Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic, single effluent concentration (pass/fail) analysis. Data from valid Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic pass/fail tests performed by approximately 20 certified biological laboratories and submitted by North Carolina NPDES permittees were recorded beginning January 1992. Control and treatment reproduction data from over 2,500 tests submitted since 1992 were analyzed to determine the minimum significant difference (MSD) at a 99% confidence level for each test and the percent reduction from the control mean that the MSD represents (%MSD) for each certified laboratory. Initial results for the 20 laboratories indicate that the average intralaboratory percent MSD ranges 12.72% (n = 367) to 34.91% (n = 7) with an average of 23.08%. Additionally, over 3,800 tests were analyzed to determine the coefficient of variation (CV) for control reproduction for each test and the average for each certified biological laboratory. Preliminary review indicates that average interlaboratory control reproduction CV values range from 10.59% (n = 367) to 31.08% (n = 572) with a mean of 20.35%. The statistics investigated are indicators of intra/interlaboratory performance and sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia chronic toxicity analyses.

  13. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCastTM. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize l...

  14. A NEW APPROACH FOR CULTURING LEMNA MINOR (DUCKWEED) AND STANDARDIZED METHOD FOR USING ATRAZINE AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  15. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; Aulock, Sonja von

    2006-01-01

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After ri...

  16. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced....

  17. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.; Boehnke, Mv.; von Domarus, D.; Draeger, J.

    1985-11-01

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity.

  18. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Stefania Falvella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T, fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C, conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

  19. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  20. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.

  1. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Aifeng; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Guo, Yingqing; Zhao, Liqian

    2016-12-21

    Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri , zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N), and total nitrogen (TN) were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU) decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri . The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH₄⁺-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.

  2. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  3. New and emerging technologies for genetic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anthony M; Sasaki, Jennifer C; Elespuru, Rosalie; Jacobson-Kram, David; Thybaud, Véronique; De Boeck, Marlies; Aardema, Marilyn J; Aubrecht, Jiri; Benz, R Daniel; Dertinger, Stephen D; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A; Escobar, Patricia A; Fornace, Albert; Honma, Masamitsu; Naven, Russell T; Rusling, James F; Schiestl, Robert H; Walmsley, Richard M; Yamamura, Eiji; van Benthem, Jan; Kim, James H

    2011-04-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Project Committee on the Relevance and Follow-up of Positive Results in In Vitro Genetic Toxicity (IVGT) Testing established an Emerging Technologies and New Strategies Workgroup to review the current State of the Art in genetic toxicology testing. The aim of the workgroup was to identify promising technologies that will improve genotoxicity testing and assessment of in vivo hazard and risk, and that have the potential to help meet the objectives of the IVGT. As part of this initiative, HESI convened a workshop in Washington, DC in May 2008 to discuss mature, maturing, and emerging technologies in genetic toxicology. This article collates the abstracts of the New and Emerging Technologies Workshop together with some additional technologies subsequently considered by the workgroup. Each abstract (available in the online version of the article) includes a section addressed specifically to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the respective technology. Importantly, an overview of the technologies and an indication of how their use might be aligned with the objectives of IVGT are presented. In particular, consideration was given with regard to follow-up testing of positive results in the standard IVGT tests (i.e., Salmonella Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and mouse lymphoma assay) to add weight of evidence and/or provide mechanism of action for improved genetic toxicity risk assessments in humans. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    the comparison of endpoints relevant for reproduction in invertebrates often shows a much higher sensitivity in molluscs vs. e.g. daphnids. The OECD test guideline programme has thus been extended to cover reproduction effects of chemicals in molluscs. Existing mollusc toxicity test protocols have been reviewed...... in an OECD Detailed Review Paper that identifies two relevant candidate species for developing freshwater tests: Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis. However, this review did not clarify which toxicity test design/conditions are the most appropriate for chemicals assessment. Therefore, a mollusc...... reproduction test guideline will be developed describing partial- and full- life-cycle test protocols in these species, so as to propose a balanced suite of apical mollusc toxicity tests applicable for the assessment of any type of chemical, including endocrine disruptors, as level 4 and 5 assays of the EDTA...

  5. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  6. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita

  7. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  8. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  9. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  10. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  11. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  12. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests.

  13. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V

    2008-04-01

    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the

  14. Test system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at a second distance from the centre, the second distance being larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged...... larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged for sensing the at least one optical detectable member...

  15. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  16. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poštulková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG. The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHMG on zebrafish (Danio rerio and green algae (Desmodesmus communis. We determined the acute toxicity in fish according to ČSN EN ISO 7346-1, and conducted the freshwater algae growth inhibition test according to ČSN ISO 8692 methodology. For inhibition tests with green algae we chose Guanicid and PHMG concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 ml/L. For fish short-term acute toxicity tests we chose Guanicid concentrations of 0.010, 0.050, 0.150, 0.200, 0.250, and 0.300 ml/L and PHMG concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.125 ml/L. In case of zebrafish (Danio rerio, the LC50 value for Guanicid is 0.086 ml/L, while the LC50 value for PHMG is 0.043 ml/L. Effects of Guanicid on inhibition of green algae (Desmodesmus communis appear highly significant (p < 0.010 at a concentration of 0.010 ml/L. For PHMG, these effects are highly significant (p < 0.001 at concentrations of 0.005 and 0.010 ml/L in 48 hours.

  17. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  18. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  19. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  20. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... vivo acute dermal systemic toxicity tests. Corresponding acute oral LD 50 data for the same compounds....), estimated LD 50 , and incidence of death and other adverse effects. Background Information on ICCVAM and... tests. DATES: Nominations and test method data for the acute dermal and oral tests should be submitted...

  1. An empirical comparison of effective concentration estimators for evaluating aquatic toxicity test responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailer, A.J.; Hughes, M.R.; Denton, D.L.; Oris, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests are statistically evaluated by either hypothesis testing procedures to derive a no-observed-effect concentration or by inverting regression models to calculate the concentration associated with a specific reduction from the control response. These latter methods can be described as potency estimation methods. Standard US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) potency estimation methods are based on two different techniques. For continuous or count response data, a nominally nonparametric method that assumes monotonic decreasing responses and piecewise linear patterns between successive concentration groups is used. For quantal responses, a probit regression model with a linear dose term is fit. These techniques were compared with a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition estimator, RIp. This method is based on fitting generalized linear models, followed by estimation of the concentration associated with a particular decrement relative to control responses. These estimators, with levels of inhibition (p) of 25 and 50%, were applied to a series of chronic toxicity tests in a US EPA region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Biological responses evaluated in these toxicity tests included the number of young produced in three broods by the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and germination success and tube length data from the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The greatest discrepancy between the RIp and standard US EPA estimators was observed for C. dubia. The concentration-response pattern for this biological endpoint exhibited nonmonotonicity more frequently than for any of the other endpoint. Future work should consider optimal experimental designs to estimate these quantities, methods for constructing confidence intervals, and simulation studies to explore the behavior of these estimators under known conditions.

  2. "Cold combustion" as a new method of toxic waste destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Юрьевна Ткаченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a promising new method for the destruction of toxic industrial waste, obsolete pesticides and military poisons and explosives. The proposed method can be used to create mobile modular units that will produce the destruction of the "field", to clean the soil and water containing low concentrations of a pollutant, to solve the problem of disposal of explosives, which is often accompanied by the destruction of uncontrolled detonation. The proposed method is environmentally friendly, using ice as the working body

  3. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be exercised to introduce the daphnids below the surface of any solution to avoid trapping air under..., treatments, feeding history, acclimation procedures, and culture method. The age of the daphnids used in the..., the way the test was begun (e.g., conditioning, test chemical additions), the number of test organisms...

  4. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  5. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  6. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2006-06-30

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After rinsing, the beads are incubated with human whole blood and the release of the endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1beta is measured as a marker of pyrogenic activity. Intentional contaminations with lipopolysaccharide were retrieved from the chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel, cisplatin and liposomal daunorubicin, the antibiotic gentamicin, the antifungal agent liposomal amphotericin B, and the corticosteroid prednisolone at lower dilutions than in the standard in vitro pyrogen test. This represents a promising new approach for the detection of pyrogenic contamination in drugs or in drugs containing interfering additives and should lead to improved safety levels.

  7. Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs. They were also studied quite frequently with omics technologies and an overview of the study results can serve to answer the question if screening for established targets of nanotoxicity (e.g. cell death, proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation is sufficient or if omics techniques are needed to reveal new targets. Regulated pathways identified by omics techniques were confirmed by phenotypic assays performed in the same study and comparison of particle types and cells by the same group indicated a more cell/organ-specific than particle specific regulation pattern. Between different studies moderate overlap of the regulated pathways was observed and cell-specific regulation is less obvious. The lack of standardization in particle exposure, in omics technologies, difficulties to translate mechanistic data to phenotypes and comparison with human in vivo data currently limit the use of these technologies in the prediction of toxic effects by NPs.

  8. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  9. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  10. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity testing of polymer materials for dialysis equipment: reconsidering in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U G; Liebsch, M; Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    In fulfilment of the aims of the European Union Biocidal Directive (Directive 98/8/EC), Technical Guidance Documents are currently being compiled. Part I of these Technical Guidance Documents covers data requirements for active substances and biocidal products. The Three Rs principle has been applied in certain parts of the toxicity and ecotoxicity testing scheme for pesticides, such as testing for acute oral toxicity, skin and eye irritation, skin sensitisation, and dermal absorption. Further recommendations on how to proceed with regard to the continuing replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments in this field of regulatory testing are included for consideration. In this context, besides stressing the necessity to validate and accept further alternatives, emphasis is placed on providing the possibility of waiving unnecessary tests and on the continuous evaluation of whether certain tests are needed at all. 2000 FRAME.

  12. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, Regulatory Limits and Reference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina Visciano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms are natural phenomena caused by the massive growth of phytoplankton that may contain highly toxic chemicals, the so-called marine biotoxins causing illness and even death to both aquatic organisms and humans. Their occurrence has been increased in frequency and severity, suggesting a worldwide public health risk. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in bivalve molluscs and regulatory limits have been set for some classes according to European Union legislation. These compounds can be distinguished in water- and fat-soluble molecules. The first group involves those of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, whereas the toxins soluble in fat can cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning. Due to the lack of long-term toxicity studies, establishing tolerable daily intakes for any of these marine biotoxins was not possible, but an acute reference dose can be considered more appropriate, because these molecules show an acute toxicity. Dietary exposure assessment is linked both to the levels of marine biotoxins present in bivalve molluscs and the portion that could be eaten by consumers. Symptoms may vary from a severe gastrointestinal intoxication with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps to neurological disorders such as ataxia, dizziness, partial paralysis, and respiratory distress. The official method for the detection of marine biotoxins is the mouse bioassay (MBA showing some limits due to ethical restrictions and insufficient specificity. For this reason, the liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method has replaced MBA as the reference technique. However, the monitoring of algal blooms producing marine biotoxins should be regularly assessed in order to obtain more reliable, accurate estimates of bloom toxicity and their potential impacts.

  13. Isolation and toxicity test of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sekayu region soil, South Sumatra on Spodopteralitura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriani, S. R.; Pujiastuti, Y.; Irsan, C.; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain bacterial isolates B. thuringiensis potential as a biological control against pests Spodoptera litura. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Pest and Disease Department, Agricultural Faculty of Sriwijaya University, Campus Inderalaya Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera, from March to June 2017. The study was conducted with survey method and laboratory trial. The results showed that of the 50 soil samples from three villages selected through morphological observation, reaction staining, KOH test, catalase test, producing 13 bacterial isolates. Screening of the 13th toxicity of the isolates suspected B. thuringiensis against S. litura larvae was investigated. Based on the toxicity screening test the following facts were obtained: five isolates ie KJ2M2, KJ3E1, KJ3JB1, KJ3D3 and KJ3D5 were lower toxicity than Dipel, two isolates ie KJ3K4 and KJ3D3 which had the same toxicity to Dipel. Five isolates the KJ3E3, KJ3BW5, KJ3JB5, KJ3D1 and LC2, LC3 known to have effectiveness until the seventh day reached 40%. There was one isolate that is KJ3BW5 which was more effective compared to Dipel as comparison.

  14. 40 CFR 797.1330 - Daphnid chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... daphnids below the surface of any solution so as not to trap air under the carapace. (vi) Acclimation. (A..., age, source, treatments, feeding history, acclimation procedures, and culture methods. The age of the... in the chambers, the way the test was begun (e.g., conditioning, test substance additions), the...

  15. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    from the Columbia Laboratory and its field laboratories. It presents definitive acute toxicity data on 271 chemicals tested against a variety of freshwater invertebrates and fishes. The chemicals represent all major groups of pesticides, as well as numerous industrial chemicals. This compilation should serve as a useful database for the many agencies and organizations dealing with research and management programs concerned with the impact of chemicals on aquatic resources.The Columbia Laboratory has played a major role in developing currently used standard methodology for static acute toxicity testing. The use of standardized methodology greatly reduces variation in results. The data presented here have been carefully scrutinized to eliminate tests that failed to follow acceptable procedures. Handling of test organisms and procedures for static toxicity tests followed those described by Lennon and Walker (1964) and Macek and McAllister (1970), and conform well with those recommended by Brauhn and Schoettger (1975) and the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic Organisms (1975).The species of fish and invertebrates that were tested are listed in phylogenetic order in Tables 1 and 2. Fish were obtained from Federal and State hatcheries as either eggs or fry. Original stocks of invertebrates were collected and cultured from wild populations with no known source of contamination; these populations were replenished regularly. The invertebrates were cultured in the Laboratory by methods similar to those described by Sanders and Cope (1966).Test chemicals usually consisted of technical or analytical grade samples of known purity. Formulations of the chemicals were also tested when available. When purity of test chemicals was known, all calculated concentrations were based on percent active ingredients. Stock solutions were prepared immediately before each test, with commercial grade acetone as the carrier solvent. Occasionally, ethanol or dimethyl-formamide was

  16. Seed germination test for toxicity evaluation of compost: Its roles, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Ming; Mo, Dan; Li, Guoxue; Zhang, Difang

    2018-01-01

    Compost is commonly used for the growth of plants and the remediation of environmental pollution. It is important to evaluate the quality of compost and seed germination test is a powerful tool to examine the toxicity of compost, which is the most important aspect of the quality. Now the test is widely adopted, but the main problem is that the test results vary with different methods and seed species, which limits the development and application of it. The standardization of methods and the modelization of seeds can contribute to solving the problem. Additionally, according to the probabilistic theory of seed germination, the error caused by the analysis and judgment methods of the test results can be reduced. Here, we reviewed the roles, problems and prospects of the seed germination test in the studies of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Meißner, Tobias; Weil, Mirco; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing. (paper)

  18. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  19. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. While Hyalella azteca methods exist for sediment tox...

  20. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  1. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  2. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    method(s) in Work package 8 (WP8) of the OMNIITOX project. The selection methods and the other CRS methods are described in detail, a set of evaluation criteria are developed and the methods are evaluated against these criteria. This report (Deliverable 11B (D11B)) gives the results from task 7.1d, 7.1e......This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... and 7.1f of WP 7 for selection methods. The other part of D11 (D11A) is reported in another report and deals with characterisation methods. A selection method is a method for prioritising chemical emissions to be included in an LCIA characterisation of toxic releases, i.e. calculating indicator scores...

  3. Toxicity of ionic liquids: Database and prediction via quantitative structure–activity relationship method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Zhao, Jihong; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhang, Suojiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) was established. • Relationship between structure and toxicity of IL has been analyzed qualitatively. • Two new QSAR models were developed for predicting toxicity of ILs to IPC-81. • Accuracy of proposed nonlinear SVM model is much higher than the linear MLR model. • The established models can be explored in designing novel green agents. - Abstract: A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) is established. The database includes over 4000 pieces of data. Based on the database, the relationship between IL's structure and its toxicity has been analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, Quantitative Structure–Activity relationships (QSAR) model is conducted to predict the toxicities (EC 50 values) of various ILs toward the Leukemia rat cell line IPC-81. Four parameters selected by the heuristic method (HM) are used to perform the studies of multiple linear regression (MLR) and support vector machine (SVM). The squared correlation coefficient (R 2 ) and the root mean square error (RMSE) of training sets by two QSAR models are 0.918 and 0.959, 0.258 and 0.179, respectively. The prediction R 2 and RMSE of QSAR test sets by MLR model are 0.892 and 0.329, by SVM model are 0.958 and 0.234, respectively. The nonlinear model developed by SVM algorithm is much outperformed MLR, which indicates that SVM model is more reliable in the prediction of toxicity of ILs. This study shows that increasing the relative number of O atoms of molecules leads to decrease in the toxicity of ILs

  4. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  5. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  6. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  7. Sirc-cvs cytotoxicity test: an alternative for predicting rodent acute systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Masato; Wakuri, Shinobu; Hirota, Morihiko; Tanaka, Noriho; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro crystal violet staining method using the rabbit cornea-derived cell line (SIRC-CVS) has been developed as an alternative to predict acute systemic toxicity in rodents. Seventy-nine chemicals, the in vitro cytotoxicity of which was already reported by the Multicenter Evaluation of In vitro Toxicity (MEIC) and ICCVAM/ECVAM, were selected as test compounds. The cells were incubated with the chemicals for 72 hrs and the IC(50) and IC(35) values (microg/mL) were obtained. The results were compared to the in vivo (rat or mouse) "most toxic" oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and intravenous LD(50) values (mg/kg) taken from the RTECS database for each of the chemicals by using Pearson's correlation statistics. The following parameters were calculated: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, positive predictability, and negative predictability. Good linear correlations (Pearson's coefficient; r>0.6) were observed between either the IC(50) or the IC(35) values and all the LD(50) values. Among them, a statistically significant high correlation (r=0.8102, p50) values and the oral LD(50) values. By using the cut-off concentrations of 2,000 mg/kg (LD(50)) and 4,225 microg/mL (IC(50)), no false negatives were observed, and the accuracy was 84.8%. From this, it is concluded that this method could be used to predict the acute systemic toxicity potential of chemicals in rodents.

  8. Can interpreting sediment toxicity tests a mega sites benefit from novel approaches to normalization to address batching of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment toxicity tests are a key tool used in Ecological Risk Assessments for contaminated sediment sites. Interpreting test results and defining toxicity is often a challenge. This is particularly true at mega sites where the testing regime is large, and by necessity performed ...

  9. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sauco

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd and salinity controls (SC: without canal water. CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses.

  10. Handling nonnormality and variance heterogeneity for quantitative sublethal toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christian; Van der Vliet, Leana

    2009-09-01

    The advantages of using regression-based techniques to derive endpoints from environmental toxicity data are clear, and slowly, this superior analytical technique is gaining acceptance. As use of regression-based analysis becomes more widespread, some of the associated nuances and potential problems come into sharper focus. Looking at data sets that cover a broad spectrum of standard test species, we noticed that some model fits to data failed to meet two key assumptions-variance homogeneity and normality-that are necessary for correct statistical analysis via regression-based techniques. Failure to meet these assumptions often is caused by reduced variance at the concentrations showing severe adverse effects. Although commonly used with linear regression analysis, transformation of the response variable only is not appropriate when fitting data using nonlinear regression techniques. Through analysis of sample data sets, including Lemna minor, Eisenia andrei (terrestrial earthworm), and algae, we show that both the so-called Box-Cox transformation and use of the Poisson distribution can help to correct variance heterogeneity and nonnormality and so allow nonlinear regression analysis to be implemented. Both the Box-Cox transformation and the Poisson distribution can be readily implemented into existing protocols for statistical analysis. By correcting for nonnormality and variance heterogeneity, these two statistical tools can be used to encourage the transition to regression-based analysis and the depreciation of less-desirable and less-flexible analytical techniques, such as linear interpolation.

  11. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous experimental..., except legal holidays. (1) OECD (1995). Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, OECD 421...

  12. Toxicity testing of four silver nanoparticle-coated dental castings in 3-D LO2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ying; Chu, Qiang; Shi, Xu-Er; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Yan-Zhen

    To address the controversial issue of the toxicity of dental alloys and silver nanoparticles in medical applications, an in vivo-like LO2 3-D model was constructed within polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber materials to mimic the microenvironment of liver tissue. The use of microscopy methods and the measurement of liver-specific functions optimized the model for best cell performances and also proved the superiority of the 3-D LO2 model when compared with the traditional monolayer model. Toxicity tests were conducted using the newly constructed model, finding that four dental castings coated with silver nanoparticles were toxic to human hepatocytes after cell viability assays. In general, the toxicity of both the castings and the coated silver nanoparticles aggravated as time increased, yet the nanoparticles attenuated the general toxicity by preventing metal ion release, especially at high concentrations.

  13. Protective effect of zinc over lead toxicity on testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Shaikh, S.P.; Tahir, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of lead and zinc on testes. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2003 to December 2005. Methodology: Sixty adult (90 days old) albino rats were obtained from animal house JPMC for the study and divided into 3 groups. Group A received injection normal saline 1 cc intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. Group B received lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily. Group C received zinc chloride in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight before half an hour of injection of lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily so that to provide pre-treatment. On the day of completion of treatment the animals were sacrificed testes removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. Testes were dehydrated in the ascending strength of alcohol, 5 mu m thick sections were cut and stained with PAS Iron Hematoxylin. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubule was 291.91+-1.18, 198.53 +- 1.67 and 288.77 +- 1.11 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased by 31.99% in group B (p < 0.001; CI 89.023 to 97.736) as compared group A and while group B comparing with group C, the diameter of seminiferous tubules was decreased by 31.25% (p-value = 0.076; CI -94.264 to -86.203). Mean thickness of germinal epithelium was 96.19 +- 1.01, 50.69 +- 1.20 and 94.94 +- 0.54 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Thickness of germinal epithelium decreased by 47.30 in group B (P < 0.001; CI 42.503 to 48.496) as compared to group A and while comparing group B with group C, the thickness of germinal epithelium was decreased by 46.61% (p=-44.25; CI -46.704 to -41.787). Conclusion: Zinc prevented toxic effects of lead on germinal epithelium in the albino rats. (author)

  14. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  15. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  16. Monitoring the effectiveness of remediation techniques using sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M.; Lee, K.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a controlled oil release experiment of weathered crude oil was presented. The released oil was applied to a tidal saltwater marsh at Conrod's Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. The study included 3 replicate blocks which included 2 unoiled treatments and 4 oiled treatments for each block. One unoiled site had no treatment, the second unoiled site had nutrient addition to examine the effect of nutrients. The oiled treatments included natural attenuation, nutrient addition, nutrient addition with plants, and nutrient addition with a garden aerator to introduce oxygen. A standard lab procedure was used to analyze the sediments to determine the effectiveness of the technique as well as the toxic effects on the survival of the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius. Test results indicated that the unoiled sites were non-toxic, with a slight decrease in survival in the treatment with nutrient addition. All the oiled sites were very toxic at first, but toxicity decreased gradually with time. Treatment with nutrient addition with a garden aerator proved to be the most complete and fastest detoxification method. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Comparison of methods for conducting marine and estuarine sediment porewater toxicity tests—extraction, storage, and handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to compare different porewater extraction techniques and to evaluate the effects of sediment and porewater storage conditions on the toxicity of pore water, using assays with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. If care is taken in the selection of materials, several different porewater extraction techniques (pressurized squeezing, centrifugation, vacuum) yield samples with similar toxicity. Where the primary contaminants of concern are highly hydrophobic organic compounds, centrifugation is the method of choice for minimizing the loss of contaminants during the extraction procedure. No difference was found in the toxicity of pore water obtained with the Teflon® and polyvinyl chloride pressurized extraction devices. Different types of filters in the squeeze extraction devices apparently adsorbed soluble contaminants to varying degrees. The amount of fine suspended particulate material remaining in the pore water after the initial extraction varied among the methods. For most of the sediments tested, freezing and thawing did not affect the toxicity of porewater samples obtained by the pressurized squeeze extraction method. Pore water obtained by other methods (centrifugation, vacuum) and frozen without additional removal of suspended particulates by centrifugation may exhibit increased toxicity compared with the unfrozen sample.The toxicity of pore water extracted from refrigerated (4°C) sediments exhibited substantial short-term (days, weeks) changes. Similarly, sediment pore water extracted over time from a simulated amphipod solid-phase toxicity test changed substantially in toxicity. For the sediments tested, the direction and magnitude of change in toxicity of pore water extracted from both refrigerated and solid-phase test sediments was unpredictable.

  18. Application of toxicity testing in the evaluation of reclamation options for oil sands fine tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.; Gulley, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. An overview is presented of toxicity testing at Syncrude and Suncor, the application of toxicity testing to fine tailings management, and the role in reclamation planning. The main acutely toxic component of the tailings is the polar organic acid fraction, specifically naphthanates. These naphthanates are readily degraded biologically by indigenous microbial populations. Toxicity testing is aimed at assessing the degree of both acute and chronic toxicity and the long term potential for the input of toxins into the environment from various proposed reclamation measures. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data

  1. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  2. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  3. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-11-01

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3008-3018. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  5. A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Windy A.; McBride, Sandra J.; Rice, Julie R.; Snyder, Daniel W.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council has outlined the need for non-mammalian toxicological models to test the potential health effects of a large number of chemicals while also reducing the use of traditional animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive alternative model because of its well-characterized and evolutionarily conserved biology, low cost, and ability to be used in high-throughput screening. A high-throughput method is described for quantifying the reproductive capacity of C. elegans exposed to chemicals for 48 h from the last larval stage (L4) to adulthood using a COPAS Biosort. Initially, the effects of exposure conditions that could influence reproduction were defined. Concentrations of DMSO vehicle ≤ 1% did not affect reproduction. Previous studies indicated that C. elegans may be influenced by exposure to low pH conditions. At pHs greater than 4.5, C. elegans reproduction was not affected; however below this pH there was a significant decrease in the number of offspring. Cadmium chloride was chosen as a model toxicant to verify that automated measurements were comparable to those of traditional observational studies. EC 50 values for cadmium for automated measurements (176-192 μM) were comparable to those previously reported for a 72-h exposure using manual counting (151 μM). The toxicity of seven test toxicants on C. elegans reproduction was highly correlative with rodent lethality suggesting that this assay may be useful in predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals in other organisms.

  6. The Adverse Outcome Pathway: A conceptual framework to support toxicity testing in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of regulatory toxicity testing is at a turning point. The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) envisioned a shift away from traditional toxicity testing and towards a focused effort to explore and understand pathways perturbed by biologically active substances or their ...

  7. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  8. Enhancing the applicability and predictability of the embryonic stem cell test for developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the full risk assessment of a chemical, developmental toxicity testing is one of the endpoints that require the highest percentage of experimental animals. With the high number of experimental animals, cost and time involved in in vivo developmental toxicity testing there is an urgent need

  9. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  10. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  11. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  12. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; Acute emulsion polymerization in Inhalation Toxicity in paper, textile, fiber, and Rats; Bacterial.../ Reproduction Development Toxicity. Note: CAS No. = Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number. Authority: 15 U...

  13. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  14. Comparison of Weibull and Probit Analysis in Toxicity Testing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Hunteria umbellata, Weibull model, Acute toxicity, Median lethal dose (LD50). Received: 7 November ... (PBPK) models [14,15], and (v) biologically-. Based Models: Moolgavkar-Venzon-Kundson. (MVK) model [16] and Ellwein and Cohen model [17]. ... Nigeria, Ibadan, where a sample with number. FHI107618 ...

  15. THE ROLE OF IONORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper assessess the issue of ion imbalance, provides summary of applicable data, presents several successful technical tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalances, and discusses regulatory/compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imb...

  16. Toxicity testing in the 21 century: defining new risk assessment approaches based on perturbation of intracellular toxicity pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21(st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a "toxicity pathways" (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals and (b the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU. EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair.

  17. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  19. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has......Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) for various applications and consumer products already available on the market. ENPs may exhibit unique and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts...... and the response axes. The actual exposure experienced by organisms may not be reflected by the ENPconcentration in medium, commonly applied as the exposure metric, and the responses of organisms may result from various toxic and non-toxic mechanisms occurring simultaneously. In this thesis, the challenges related...

  20. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Poštulková; Radovan Kopp

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHM...

  1. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Brunson, E.L.; Burton, G.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hoke, R.A.; Landrum, P.F.; Norberg-King, T. J.; Winger, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  2. Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

  3. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents progress to date under a three-year contract for developing ''Methods for Testing Transport Models.'' The work described includes (1) choice of best methods for producing ''code emulators'' for analysis of very large global energy confinement databases, (2) recent applications of stratified regressions for treating individual measurement errors as well as calibration/modeling errors randomly distributed across various tokamaks, (3) Bayesian methods for utilizing prior information due to previous empirical and/or theoretical analyses, (4) extension of code emulator methodology to profile data, (5) application of nonlinear least squares estimators to simulation of profile data, (6) development of more sophisticated statistical methods for handling profile data, (7) acquisition of a much larger experimental database, and (8) extensive exploratory simulation work on a large variety of discharges using recently improved models for transport theories and boundary conditions. From all of this work, it has been possible to define a complete methodology for testing new sets of reference transport models against much larger multi-institutional databases

  4. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used

  5. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    /antagonistic activity with the ecdysteroid-responsive Drosophila melanogaster BII cell line 6) to draft an OECD guideline proposal for testing of chemicals based on the experimental work performed within this study In preliminary investigations with A. tonsa were studied various parameters related to processes......New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...... of the present Ph.D. project were: 1) to develop a fully synthetic saltwater medium suitable for laboratory culturing of marine copepods including their feeding organism as well as for toxicity testing 2) to identify sensitive endpoints related to growth, development and reproduction of the pelagic calanoid...

  6. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  7. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  8. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  9. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda van Pomeren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles (NPs differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (ecotoxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  10. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  11. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  12. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  13. UNDERSTANDING AND ACCOUNTING FOR METHOD VARIABILITY IN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY APPLICATIONS UNDER THE NPDES PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and describes the regulatory background and context of WET testing. This chapter also describes the purpose of this document and outlines the issues addressed in each chapter.

  14. Studies on Hepa filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Jon, K.S.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare testing methods of the HEPA filter adopted in other countries with each other, and to design and construct a test duct system to establish testing methods. The American D.O.P. test method, the British NaCl test method and several other independently developed methods are compared. It is considered that the D.O.P. method is most suitable for in-plant and leak tests

  15. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  16. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  17. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  18. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  19. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appearance or physiology such as discoloration, excessive mucous production, hyperventilation, opaque eyes... delivery systems and test chambers should be cleaned before each test. They should be washed with detergent...

  20. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  1. Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Michael J.; Davies, Warren

    2004-01-01

    The effects of increased trophic complexity, through the addition of predatory notonectids (Anisops deanei), on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing were studied. Replicate microcosms were established using sediment from a dried temporary pond, and treated with one of four concentrations of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (0, 1, 10 or 50 μg/L), in the presence or absence of six A. deanei. The tanks were sampled regularly for nine weeks following the addition of the predators and the entire contents of each tank counted after 12 weeks. Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-parametric MANOVA showed that both Anisops and endosulfan at concentrations >10 μg/L significantly altered community structure. However, an interaction between the effects of Anisops and the effects of endosulfan was not detected. The addition of Anisops did not increase the variability of response and thus did not reduce the sensitivity of the test method

  2. A highly efficient nonchemical method for isolating live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) from soil during toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The success of soil toxicity tests using Caenorhabditis elegans may depend in large part on recovering the organisms from the soil. However, it can be difficult to learn the International Organization for Standardization/ASTM International recovery process that uses the colloidal silica flotation method. The present study determined that a soil-agar isolation method provides a highly efficient and less technically demanding alternative to the colloidal silica flotation method. Test soil containing C. elegans was arranged on an agar plate in a donut shape, a linear shape, or a C curve; and microbial food was placed outside the soil to encourage the nematodes to leave the soil. The effects of ventilation and the presence of food on nematode recovery were tested to determine the optimal conditions for recovery. A linear arrangement of soil on an agar plate that was sprinkled with microbial food produced nearly 83% and 90% recovery of live nematodes over a 3-h and a 24-h period, respectively, without subjecting the nematodes to chemical stress. The method was tested using copper (II) chloride dihydrate, and the resulting recovery rate was comparable to that obtained using colloidal silica flotation. The soil-agar isolation method portrayed in the present study enables live nematodes to be isolated with minimal additional physicochemical stress, making it a valuable option for use in subsequent sublethal tests where live nematodes are required. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    , and difficulties in controlling and/or describing the characteristics of the tested NPs. These issues may be related to the widespread approach of using freshly prepared stock solutions for ecotoxicity testing, as the introduction of NPs into aqueous media initiates time-dependent processes that possibly interfere...... of the test. Ultimately, the aim is better control of the AgNPs in the algal test system and improved prerequisites for describing their toxicity to alga. The underlying hypothesis is that a large part in the variability of AgNPs toxicity to algae can be explained by the kinetics of dissolution and speciation...... of Ag ions in the test media. To reduce the amount of time in which changes to NPs may occur during testing, the exposure period was minimized. A recently proposed short-term (2h) algal test was applied, using 14C incorporation during photosynthesis as toxic endpoint [1]. For citrate coated spherical Ag...

  4. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  5. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  6. CYTOTOXICITY AND MUTAGENESIS METHODS FOR EVALUATING TOXICITY REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was a feasibility study of the effectiveness of a mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and a mammalian cell mutagenesis assay for monitoring the toxicity and mutagenicity of influent and effluent wastewater at treatment plants. In the cytotoxicity assay, ambient samples...

  7. Novel ceramic processing method for substitution of toxic plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Teocoli, Francesca; Brodersen, K.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic screening of plasticisers for a polyvinyl butyral based binder system revealed that dibutyl maleate, dibutyl adipate and Pycal 94 are promising and less toxic alternatives to the very harmful but frequently used dibutyl phthalate. Pycal 94 seems especially promising as it unlike...

  8. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  9. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  10. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  11. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a... per volume of nutrient medium or test solution in a specified period of time. (5) Static system means... concentration may be pooled into one sample. An aliquot of the pooled sample may then be taken and the...

  12. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chambers shall be covered loosely to reduce the loss of test solution or dilution water due to evaporation... holding tanks, acclimation tanks, and water supply systems, but they should be aged prior to use. Rubber... prodding. Flow-through means a continuous or an intermittent passage of test solution or dilution water...

  13. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  14. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  15. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  16. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  17. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  18. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  19. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO 2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r 2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K ow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  20. Evaluation of natural toxicity on MICROTOX solid-phase test. The pelitic normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorati, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Ausili, A.

    1999-01-01

    In sediment toxicity testing Microtox solid-phase test (SPT) is one of the most used and standardised bioassay. Nevertheless, its real sensitivity and discriminatory power is still unclear, because of several interferences principally related to the matrix composition. Using reference sediments, characterised with chemical and physical analysis, it was possible to find a significant relationship between their natural toxicity and the pelitic fraction that allows to estimate the natural component of the acute toxicity in contaminated samples. This relationship arrows a more sensitive and valid interpretation than raw data and it is used to develop a sediment toxicity index (STI) based on radio to reference (RTR) concept, applicable to harbour contaminated samples [it

  1. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  2. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discharge limits. Methods: Daphnia magna bioassay in the absence of confounding factors was used to determine the maximum level of fluoride toxicity. Then, bioassay was repeated in the presence of the confounding factors (hardness, temperature and exposure time to determine their effects. Results: In the absence of intervening factors, fluoride LC50 levels determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure were 4.9, 46.5 and 38.7 mg/l, respectively.. Also, the influence of confounding factors on LC50 values was reported significant by Minitab software. Conclusion: Increasing the water hardness reduced fluoride toxicity, and increasing the water temperature and exposure time increased fluoride toxicity in aquatic environments. Therefore, while determining the wastewater discharge limit in terms of fluoride concentration, it is essential to take the effect of confounding factors on fluoride toxicity into account in order to prevent toxicity in the open water resources.

  3. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs - Toxicity Evaluation of Homeopathic Drugs Using Zebrafish Embryo Model -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu R Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio. Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED. For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and

  5. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon ® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:436-450. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Digital holographic microscopy for toxicity testing and cell culture quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn

    2018-02-01

    For the example of digital holographic microscopy (DHM), it is illustrated how label-free biophysical parameter sets can be extracted from quantitative phase images of adherent and suspended cells, and how the retrieved data can be applied for in-vitro toxicity testing and cell culture quality assessment. This includes results from the quantification of the reactions of cells to toxic substances as well as data from sophisticated monitoring of cell alterations that are related to changes of cell culture conditions.

  7. Design and Analysis of Chronic Aquatic Tests of Toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    surface waters. From that need evolved numerous standard toxicity tests. Aquatic toxicologists and biologists developed, refine,, and standard- ized many...experimental categorization summary sheets prepared by Dr. William van der Schalie, which is shown in Table I.I. 7 j-. " .’?, i...partial solution to this dilema can be obtained by studying the effects of the solvent alone. If the solvent by itself produces no toxic responses at

  8. Different Chromatographic Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Mefenamic Acid and Two of Its Toxic Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcoss, Martha M; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Ali, Nouruddin W; Elsaady, Mohammed T

    2017-08-01

    Two sensitive, accurate and precise chromatographic methods mentioned as TLC-densitometric method and RP-HPLC-DAD method, were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mefenamic acid (MEF) and its two toxic impurities, benzoic acid (BA) and 2,3-dimethylaniline (DMA). In the proposed TLC-densitometric method a developing system consisting of chloroform:acetone:acetic acid:ammonia solution(70:30:2:2, v/v/v/v) was used, TLC aluminum plates 60 F254 was used as a stationary phase and the separated bands were UV-scanned at 225 nm. While the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method depended on chromatographic separation on C18 column using 0.05 M KH2PO4 buffer: acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase at constant flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 225 nm. Linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 0.3-2, 0.3-2 and 0.3-1.8 μg/band (for TLC-densitometric method) and in the ranges of 7-50, 10-50 and 7-50 μg/mL (for HPLC-DAD method) for MEF, BA and DMA, respectively. Factors affecting the developed methods have been studied and optimized. Moreover ,the proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drug in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The methods showed no significance difference when compared with the reported method using F-test and Student's-t test. The low of detection and quantization limits of the proposed methods get them suitable for quality control and stability studies of MEF in pharmaceutical formulation. The developed methods have advantages of being more selective and sensitive than the published methods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Arsenic: A Review of the Element's Toxicity, Plant Interactions, and Potential Methods of Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2015-08-19

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element with a long history of toxicity. Sites of contamination are found worldwide as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The broad scope of arsenic toxicity to humans and its unique interaction with the environment have led to extensive research into its physicochemical properties and toxic behavior in biological systems. The purpose of this review is to compile the results of recent studies concerning the metalloid and consider the chemical and physical properties of arsenic in the broad context of human toxicity and phytoremediation. Areas of focus include arsenic's mechanisms of human toxicity, interaction with plant systems, potential methods of remediation, and protocols for the determination of metals in experimentation. This assessment of the literature indicates that controlling contamination of water sources and plants through effective remediation and management is essential to successfully addressing the problems of arsenic toxicity and contamination.

  10. NMSBA: Aken Technologies Final Report: Toxicity Testing of Liquidoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from ‘fish pens’ on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study.

  11. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Greig-Smith, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  12. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  13. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Testing methods. (a) All tests shall be constructed in... must be at least as stringent as the Federal standards. (c) States shall determine specific methods for...

  14. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  15. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number of...

  16. Toward toxicity testing of nanomaterials in the 21st century: a paradigm for moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David Y

    2012-01-01

    A challenge-facing hazard identification and safety evaluation of engineered nanomaterials being introduced to market is the diversity and complexity of the types of materials with varying physicochemical properties, many of which can affect their toxicity by different mechanisms. In general, in vitro test systems have limited usefulness for hazard identification of nanoparticles due to various issues. Meanwhile, conducting chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies in rodents for every new nanomaterial introduced into the commerce is impractical if not impossible. New toxicity testing systems which rely on predictive, high-throughput technologies may be the ultimate goal of evaluating the potential hazard of nanomaterials. However, at present, this approach alone is unlikely to succeed in evaluating the toxicity of the wide array of nanomaterials and requires validation from in vivo studies. This article proposes a paradigm for toxicity testing and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of reference materials for specific nanomaterial classes/subclasses using short-term in vivo animal studies in conjunction with high-throughput screenings and mechanism-based short-term in vitro assays. The hazard potential of a particular nanomaterial can be evaluated by conducting only in vitro high-throughput assays and mechanistic studies and comparing the data with those of the reference materials in the specific class/subclass-an approach in line with the vision for 'Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century' of chemicals. With well-designed experiments, testing nanomaterials of varying/selected physicochemical parameters may be able to identify the physicochemical parameters contributing to toxicity. The data so derived could be used for the development of computer model systems to predict the hazard potential of specific nanoparticles based on property-activity relationships. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  18. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  19. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  20. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E.D.; Bosgra, S.; Buist, H.E.; Lewin, G.; Linden, S.C. van der; Man, H.Y.; Piersma, A.H.; Rorije, E.; Schulpen, S.H.W.; Schwarz, M.; Uibel, F.; Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A. van; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Burg, B. van der

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false

  1. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  2. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  3. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  4. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Cen...

  6. Refinery water (intake and effluent) quality: Update of 1970s with 1990s toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Paine, M.D.; Moran, T.; Kierstead, T.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of two separate refinery intake waters and effluents was investigated: Petro-Canada (Oakville) and Novacor (Corunna Operations). This study comprised eight different test organized and 22 different toxicity end points, was built on and complemented pioneering 1970s work at the Petro-Canada refinery, and was designed to (a) determine any changes in effluent quality, (b) determine any previously unsuspected effluent toxicity, and (c) determine any potential for chronic toxicity in the effluent. Although Petro-Canada has steadily reduced contaminants in its effluent since the earlier study, toxicity has not changed and no new toxic effects were identified. Effect thresholds for the most sensitive animal species (Daphnia pulex) were 1 to 10% effluent in both studies. The Novacor effluent had lesser effects on biota than the Petro-Canada effluent. Intake waters demonstrated toxicity in some tests. Chronic effects on invertebrates and fish in receiving waters are predicted not to occur in the Novacor effluent is diluted 10- to 20-fold and the Petro-Canada effluent is diluted 50- to 100-fold

  7. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  8. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs: - Toxicity Evaluation of Homeopathic Drugs Using Zebrafish Embryo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty; Thakur, Mansee

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos ( Danio rerio ). Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used in this study. The embryonic zebrafish

  9. Development and application of a sediment toxicity test using the benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, T.; Greve, G.D.; Ter Laak, T.L.; Boivin, M.E.; Veuger, B.; Gortzak, G.; Dumfries, S.; Luecker, S.M.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Geest, H.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a whole sediment toxicity test using a benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus, as an alternative for the use of pelagic daphnids. A C. sphaericus laboratory culture was started and its performance under control conditions was optimised. The test was firstly validated by determining dose-response relationships for aqueous cadmium and copper and ammonia, showing a sensitivity of C. sphaericus (96 h LC 5 values of 594 μg Cd/L, 191 μg Cu/L and 46 mg ammonia/L at pH 8) similar to that of daphnids. Next, sediment was introduced into the test system and a series of contaminated sediments from polluted locations were tested. A significant negative correlation between survival and toxicant concentrations was observed. It is concluded that the test developed in the present study using the benthic cladoceran C. sphaericus is suitable for routine laboratory sediment toxicity testing. - A test was developed for assaying sediment toxicity using a commonly occurring small-bodied cladoceran

  10. Influences of the coating on silver nanoparticle toxicity in a chronic test with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakka, Y.; Mackevica, Aiga; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2015-01-01

    coated AgNP in a chronic Daphnia test. One type of AgNP was coated with citrate (cAgNP), the other AgNP were generally uncoated (pAgNP; p= pure), but sterically stabilized by an organic dispersant. Particles with a similar shape and diameter were chosen. The focus of the study was to relate observed......Sources for differences in silver nanoparticle toxicity at standardized conditions can be numerous. They range from particle properties and their actual concentrations to differences in uptake or depuration by the test organisms. In the present study we compared the toxicity of two differently...... differences in toxicity to characteristics of the AgNP, like size or surface potential, or to their corresponding behaviour during the test, like dissolution or uptake. The characteristics and the behaviour of the AgNP were investigated for changes in stability and especially the release of silver ions...

  11. Application of cytotoxicity test for toxic micropollutants. Saibo dokusei shiken ni yoru yugai kagaku busshitsu osen no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, H; Hamada, A [Showa University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Science; Ono, Y [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-01

    Considerations were given from a viewpoint of assessing toxicity to human bodies on methods of assessing water pollutants and organisms, and applicability of cytotoxity test using cultured cells to water quality assessment. Biological assessment systems used for water environment may use tests using multicellular organisms, cells, or organelles in cells. The organism assessment method is intended mainly for assessing ecological effects, and a suitable method must be selected upon extrapolating it to human bodies. A toxicity parameter used most frequently in a cytotoxity test is the cell revival rate, and life and death are determined from liberation of enzymes in cells, or with color rejection tests and incorporation tests. There are a number of test specimens of raw tap water and its chlorine treatment condensate that show no mutagenicity but cytotoxity. Efficiencies of removal by means of mild chlorine treatment, fast filtration, and activated carbon adsorption vary greatly with cytotoxity and mutagenicity. Introducing the cytotoxity test is expected of further contributing to improving safety in water quality. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  13. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  14. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Focus on MG Newsletter MG Quarterly Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events 2018 MG ...

  15. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  16. Toxicity of some formation fluids and methods of rehabilitation subsequent to their spillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D R

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects that formation fluids have on animal and plant life. Crude oil is a mixture--not only of hydrocarbons, but of suspended salts and of sulfur compounds. The toxicity of some of the hydrocarbons and some of the sulfur compounds is discussed, as is the toxicity of salt. Consideration is also given to the complexity of the hydrocarbon components and the influence of refining methods on toxicity. Some mechanisms by which an animal system may attempt to overcome injurious effects are outlined. Finally, methods of aiding recovery are suggested. 26 references.

  17. Testing of CFC replacement fluids for arc-induced toxic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Goerz, D.A.; Hawley-Fedder, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The authors have developed a unique test-stand for quantifying the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stress/breakdown environments. PFIB is an extremely toxic gas with a threshold limit value of 10 ppbv as set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They have tested several new fluids from various manufacturers for their potential to generate PFIB. Their goal is to determine breakdown characteristics and quantify toxic by-products of these replacement fluids to determine a safe, usable alternative for present CFC`s.

  18. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A methane...

  19. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods in...

  1. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  2. Method for critical current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, M.B.; Smathers, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting critical current testing software was developed with four important features not feasible with analog test equipment. First, quasi-steady-state sample current conditions are achieved by incrementing sample current, followed by holding some milliseconds until the transient voltage decays before voltage sampling. Then the self-field correction from a helically wound sample is computed and subtracted from each sampled field reading. A copper wire inductively wound shunt which is used for quench protection has a constant measured resistance from which the shunt leakage current is computed and subtracted from the sample current by measuring the shunt voltage after each sample current reading. Finally, the critical current is recomputed from a least squares curve fit to the power law: E=A*In when the correlation coefficient for the fit is high enough to ensure a better result than the raw datum. Comparison with NBS Standard Reference Material (NbTi) and current round robin Nb/sub 3/Sn testing is examined

  3. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  5. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity...... dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120 hpf was 310 μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72 mmol/kg fresh wt and La50...... for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals....

  8. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller

    2014-01-01

    to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved...... further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity...... exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates....

  9. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy...

  10. An efficient and reproducible method for improving growth of a soil alga (Chlorococcum infusionum) for toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated five methods of soil inoculation using the soil alga Chlorococcum infusionum to determine the most efficient and reproducible method for promoting the growth of soil algae for toxicity testing. The five techniques included application of C. infusionum in a circle on top of the soil, to a central spot on top of the soil, to a central spot in the subsoil, to one side on top of the soil, and application divided between a circle and a central spot on top of the soil. Of these, the first method generated the greatest amount of chlorophyll fluorescence and was the method with the best reproducibility. We evaluated the applicability of this method in an assessment of the toxicity of copper and nickel to C. infusionum in two representative standard soils. Copper (20-75 mg/kg for OECD soil and 20-60 mg/kg Lufa 2.2 soil) and nickel (400-500 mg/kg for OECD soil and 60-100 mg/kg Lufa 2.2 soil) reduced the chlorophyll fluorescence of C. infusionum when the inoculation was delivered in a circle on top of both soil types. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the suitability of different soil algal inoculation methods for terrestrial toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from...... nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental...... protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary...

  12. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  13. Effect of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether in Standard Tests for Mutagenicity and Environmental Toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosáhlíková, M.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Demnerová, K.; Pazlarová, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2006), s. 599-605 ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : toxicity * mtbe * ames test Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2006

  14. Mode of Action Frameworks in Toxicity Testing and Chemical Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, legislative mandates worldwide are requiring systematic consideration of much larger numbers of chemicals. This necessitates more efficient and effective toxicity testing, as a basis to be more predictive in a risk assessment context. This in turn requires much more emphasis early in the

  15. Tox21: Putting a Lens on the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the release of the NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, a Vision and Strategy" (NRC, 2007), two NIH institutes and EPA formed a collaboration (Tox21) to 1) identify mechanisms of chemically induced biological activity, 2) prioritize chemicals for mo...

  16. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  17. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicit...

  18. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940’s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that ...

  19. UV-visible degradation of boscalid- structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.; Jaber, F.; Lassalle, Y.; Kinani, A.; Souissi, Y.; Clavaguera, C.; Bourcier, S.; Bouchonnet, St.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. METHODS: Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. RESULTS: Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg1. CONCLUSIONS: With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound

  20. The extended statistical analysis of toxicity tests using standardised effect sizes (SESs): a comparison of nine published papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a "statistically significant" effect is real or a false positive (type I error) due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p = 0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs) a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A "bootstrap" test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated.

  1. The extended statistical analysis of toxicity tests using standardised effect sizes (SESs: a comparison of nine published papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F W Festing

    Full Text Available The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a "statistically significant" effect is real or a false positive (type I error due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p = 0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A "bootstrap" test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated.

  2. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... gold leaf, dyeing mixtures, antifreeze mixtures, extraction of resins and waxes, preservative for...: June 21, 2011. Maria J. Doa, Director, Chemical Control Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and...

  3. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier; Benstead, Rachel; Brettschneider, Denise; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Filipe Goncalves, Sandra; Green, John W; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Faber, Daniel; Laranjeiro, Filipe; Matthiessen, Peter; Norrgren, Leif; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reategui-Zirena, Evelyn; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Teigeler, Matthias; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Tobor Kaplon, Marysia; Weltje, Lennart; Lagadic, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary statistical analysis, the optimal test duration was established and the most sensitive and cost-effective reproduction toxicity endpoint was identified, to be used as the core endpoint. This validation process and the resulting optimized protocol were used to consolidate the OECD Test Guideline for the evaluation of reproductive effects of chemicals in L. stagnalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  5. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted for...

  6. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  7. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  8. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917)

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de; Silva, Nilson Rodrigues; Silva, Geverson Aelton Rezende da; Lopes, Mayara Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  9. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917).

    OpenAIRE

    GALDINO, T. V. da S.; PICANÇO, M. C.; MORAIS, E. G. F. de; SILVA, N. R.; SILVA, G. A. R da; LOPES, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  10. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section for...

  11. A portable cell-based impedance sensor for toxicity testing of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa M; Widder, Mark W; Brennan, Linda M; Schwager, Steven J; van der Schalie, William H; Fey, Julien; Salazar, Noe

    2009-08-07

    A major limitation to using mammalian cell-based biosensors for field testing of drinking water samples is the difficulty of maintaining cell viability and sterility without an on-site cell culture facility. This paper describes a portable automated bench-top mammalian cell-based toxicity sensor that incorporates enclosed fluidic biochips containing endothelial cells monitored by Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technology. Long-term maintenance of cells on the biochips is made possible by using a compact, self-contained disposable media delivery system. The toxicity sensor monitors changes in impedance of cell monolayers on the biochips after the introduction of water samples. The fluidic biochip includes an ECIS electronic layer and a polycarbonate channel layer, which together reduce initial impedance disturbances seen in commercially available open well ECIS chips caused by the mechanics of pipetting while maintaining the ability of the cells to respond to toxicants. A curve discrimination program was developed that compares impedance values over time between the control and treatment channels on the fluidic biochip and determines if they are significantly different. Toxicant responses of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells grown on fluidic biochips are similar to cells on commercially-available open well chips, and these cells can be maintained in the toxicity sensor device for at least nine days using an automated media delivery system. Longer-term cell storage is possible; bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells survive for up to four months on the fluidic biochips and remain responsive to a model toxicant. This is the first demonstration of a portable bench top system capable of both supporting cell health over extended periods of time and obtaining impedance measurements from endothelial cell monolayers after toxicant exposure.

  12. New Graphical Methods and Test Statistics for Testing Composite Normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Paolella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several graphical methods for testing univariate composite normality from an i.i.d. sample are presented. They are endowed with correct simultaneous error bounds and yield size-correct tests. As all are based on the empirical CDF, they are also consistent for all alternatives. For one test, called the modified stabilized probability test, or MSP, a highly simplified computational method is derived, which delivers the test statistic and also a highly accurate p-value approximation, essentially instantaneously. The MSP test is demonstrated to have higher power against asymmetric alternatives than the well-known and powerful Jarque-Bera test. A further size-correct test, based on combining two test statistics, is shown to have yet higher power. The methodology employed is fully general and can be applied to any i.i.d. univariate continuous distribution setting.

  13. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Tutorial for Analysing the Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Assessing Chemical Toxicology: The Case of Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norlen, H.; Worth, A.P.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented

  15. Methodology for developing new test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology for developing new test methods and forming solutions for the development of new test methods. The basis of the methodology for developing new test methods is the individual elements of the system and process approaches. They contribute to the development of an effective research strategy for the object, the study of interrelations, the synthesis of an adequate model of the test method. The effectiveness of the developed test method is determined by the correct choice of the set of concepts, their interrelations and mutual influence. This allows you to solve the tasks assigned to achieve the goal. The methodology is based on the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. The question of the choice of the method on the basis of which the model for the formation of solutions is based is considered. The methodology provides for recording a model for a new test method in the form of a finite set of objects. These objects are significant for the test method characteristics. Then a causal relationship is established between the objects. Further, the values of fitness indicators and the observability of the method and metrological tolerance for the indicator are established. The work is aimed at the overall goal of ensuring the quality of tests by improving the methodology for developing the test method.

  16. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing (S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCast. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize limi...

  17. Cathodic Delamination Accelerated Life Test Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramotowski, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    A method for conducting an accelerated life test of a polymer coated metallic sample includes placing the sample below the water surface in a test tank containing water and an oxygen containing gas...

  18. The ToxBank Data Warehouse: Supporting the Replacement of In Vivo Repeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen, Pekka; Benfenati, Emilio; Bower, David; Ceder, Rebecca; Crump, Michael; Cross, Kevin; Grafström, Roland C; Healy, Lyn; Helma, Christoph; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Maggioni, Silvia; Miller, Scott; Myatt, Glenn; Rautenberg, Michael; Stacey, Glyn; Willighagen, Egon; Wiseman, Jeff; Hardy, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the SEURAT-1 (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing-1) research cluster, comprised of seven EU FP7 Health projects co-financed by Cosmetics Europe, is to generate a proof-of-concept to show how the latest technologies, systems toxicology and toxicogenomics can be combined to deliver a test replacement for repeated dose systemic toxicity testing on animals. The SEURAT-1 strategy is to adopt a mode-of-action framework to describe repeated dose toxicity, combining in vitro and in silico methods to derive predictions of in vivo toxicity responses. ToxBank is the cross-cluster infrastructure project whose activities include the development of a data warehouse to provide a web-accessible shared repository of research data and protocols, a physical compounds repository, reference or "gold compounds" for use across the cluster (available via wiki.toxbank.net), and a reference resource for biomaterials. Core technologies used in the data warehouse include the ISA-Tab universal data exchange format, REpresentational State Transfer (REST) web services, the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OpenTox standards. We describe the design of the data warehouse based on cluster requirements, the implementation based on open standards, and finally the underlying concepts and initial results of a data analysis utilizing public data related to the gold compounds. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Thermal test requirements and their verification by different test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Wieser, G.; Probst, U.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the parameters influencing the thermal test conditions for type B-packages. Criteria for different test methods (by analytical as well as by experimental means) will be developed. A comparison of experimental results from fuel oil pool and LPG fire tests will be given. (J.P.N.)

  1. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  2. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongbin; Sun, Lixia; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun

    2018-02-01

    For a drug, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  3. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  4. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongbin; Sun, Lixia; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun

    2018-01-01

    During drug development, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  5. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  6. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Vinggaard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    of different qualities as food-contact materials and to Perform a preliminary evaluation of their suitability from a safety point of view, and, second, to evaluate the use of different in vitro toxicity tests for screening of paper and board. Paper produced from three different categories of recycled fibres (B...... of the paper products were extracted with either 99% ethanol or water. Potential migrants in the extracts were identified and semiquantified by GC-1R-MS or GC-HRMS. In parallel to the chemical analyses, a battery of four different in vitro toxicity tests with different endpoints were applied to the same...... was less cytotoxic than the extracts prepared from paper made from recycled fibres, and extracts prepared from C was the most cytotoxic. None of the extracts showed mutagenic activity No conclusion about the oestrogenic activity could be made, because all extracts were cytotoxic to the test organism (yeast...

  7. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaktarovic, L.; Nix, P.; Gulley, J.

    1995-01-01

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands

  8. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  9. Computational systems biology and dose-response modeling in relation to new directions in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E; Conolly, Rory B

    2010-02-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are identified and their wiring details elucidated using traditional and high-throughput techniques, there is a pressing need to understand their qualitative and quantitative behaviors in response to perturbation by both physiological signals and exogenous stressors. The complexity of these molecular networks makes the task of understanding cellular responses merely by human intuition challenging, if not impossible. This process can be aided by mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the networks and their dynamic behaviors. A number of theoretical frameworks were developed in the last century for understanding dynamical systems in science and engineering disciplines. These frameworks, which include metabolic control analysis, biochemical systems theory, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory, can greatly facilitate the process of organizing, analyzing, and understanding toxicity pathways. Such analysis will require a comprehensive examination of the dynamic properties of "network motifs"--the basic building blocks of molecular circuits. Network motifs like feedback and feedforward loops appear repeatedly in various molecular circuits across cell types and enable vital cellular functions like homeostasis, all-or-none response, memory, and biological rhythm. These functional motifs and associated qualitative and quantitative properties are the predominant source of nonlinearities observed in cellular dose response data. Complex response behaviors can arise from toxicity pathways built upon combinations of network motifs. While the field of computational cell

  10. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  11. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  12. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  13. History and sensitivity comparison of the Spirodela polyrhiza microbiotest and Lemna toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudo R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of toxicity tests with duckweeds shows that these assays with free-floating aquatic angiosperms are gaining increasing attention in ecotoxicological research and applications. Standard tests have been published by national and international organizations, mainly with the test species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba. Besides the former two test species the great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is to date also regularly used in duckweed testing. Under unfavorable environmental conditions, the latter species produces dormant stages (turions and this has triggered the attention of two research groups from Belgium and Greece to jointly develop a “stock culture independent” microbiotest with S. polyrhiza. A 72 h new test has been worked out which besides its independence of stock culturing and maintenance of live stocks is very simple and practical to perform, and much less demanding in space and time than the conventional duckweed tests. Extensive International Interlaboratory Comparisons on the S. polyrhiza microbiotest showed its robustness and reliability and triggered the decision to propose this new assay to the ISO for endorsement and publication as a standard toxicity test for duckweeds. Sensitivity comparison of the 72 h S. polyrhiza microbiotest with the 7d L. minor assay for 22 compounds belonging to different groups of chemicals revealed that based on growth as the effect criterion both duckweed assays have a similar sensitivity. Taking into account its multiple advantages and assets, the S. polyrhiza microbiotest is a reliable and attractive alternative to the conventional duckweed tests.

  14. Environmental labeling of car tires--toxicity to Daphnia magna can be used as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

    2005-02-01

    Car tires contain several water-soluble compounds that can leach into water and have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Due to tire wear, 10,000 tonnes of rubber particles end up along the Swedish roads every year. This leads to a diffuse input of emissions of several compounds. Emissions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern. PAHs are ingredients of the high aromatic oil (HA oil) that is used in the rubber as a softener and as a filler. The exclusion of HA oils from car tires has started, and an environmental labeling of tires could make HA oils obsolete. The toxicity to Daphnia magna from 12 randomly selected car tires was tested in this study. Rubber from the tread of the tires was grated into small pieces, to simulate material from tire wear, and the rubber was equilibrated with dilution water for 72 h before addition of test organisms. The 24-h EC50s of the rubber pieces ranged from 0.29 to 32 gl-1, and the 48-h EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 2.41 gl-1. Summer tires were more toxic than winter tires. After the 48-h exposure, the daphnids were exposed to UV-light for 2 h, to determine if the tires contained compounds that were phototoxic. After UV-activation the EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 0.38 gl-1. Four of the 12 tires had a very distinct photoactivation, with a toxicity increase of >10 times. This study has shown that the used method for toxicity testing with Daphnia magna according to ISO 6341 could be used as a basis for environmental labeling of car tires.

  15. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  16. Rapid toxicity assessment using an in vivo enzyme test for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, B D; Snell, T W

    1995-02-01

    A 1-hr in vivo enzyme inhibition assay based on esterase activity has good potential for marine toxicity assessment. A test was developed for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis based on the nonfluorescent substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA), which is metabolized by esterases to a fluorescent product. Enzyme inhibition, as determined by reduced fluorescence, can be scored visually or quantified using a fluorometer. Quantification of fluorescence permits the calculation of NOEC, LOEC, chronic value, and IC20. The 1-hr esterase inhibition test has sensitivity comparable to that of 24-hr rotifer acute tests for several compounds. The toxicity of six compounds was examined using the quantified assay. The resulting IC20s were within a factor of 3 of the 24-hour LC50s. IC20 values ranged from 0.017 mg/l for tributyltin to 3.1 mg/l for zinc, with an average coefficient of variation of 17.8%. Electrophoretic analysis of rotifer homogenates suggested that a single C esterase (acetylesterase) was responsible for FDA metabolism in B. plicatilis. Several other aquatic species are capable of metabolizing FDA, including Brachionus calyciflorus, Mysidopsis bahia, Menidia beryllina, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Artemia salina, and Ophryotrocha sp. The esterase inhibition test is an attractive tool for assessing aquatic toxicity because of its speed, simplicity, sensitivity, and applicability to a broad range of aquatic species.

  17. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or importer...

  18. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  19. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  20. Automated Test Methods for XML Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    8933 Com (661) 277 8933 email jon.morgan.2.ctr@us.af.mil Secretariat, Range Commanders Council ATTN: TEDT-WS-RCC 1510 Headquarters Avenue White...Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 88002-5110 Phone: DSN 258-1107 Com (575) 678-1107 Fax: DSN 258-7519 Com (575) 678-7519 email ...Method for Testing Syntax The test method is as follows. 1. Initialize the programming environment. 2. Write test application code to use the

  1. Method and apparatus for the treatment of radioactive or toxic waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstaetter, K; Glock, J; Jakusch, H

    1976-05-26

    A method is described which proposes to store radioactive or toxic waste water in a binder, e.g. bitumen, for disposal. First of all, the liquid contained in the waste water is evaporated so that the radioactive or toxic part remains in solid form. This solid, whose specific gravity must be higher than that of the binder, is put on the surface of the binder, e.g. bitumen. Due to gravity it is embedded by sedimentation and completely covered by the binder. An apparatus with two variants to carry out the process is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages as compared to conventional methods.

  2. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  3. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  4. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  5. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  6. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids, stage I: laboratory essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Jorge A.S.; Penna, Monica de O.; Portela, Daniele B.; Christino, Fernando P.; Silva, Joao L.B. da; Geraldo, Lucia M.L. [Petroleo do Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mota, Vanessa V.C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Cravo Junior, Walter [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the laboratory essays stage of the project for toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids. The hydrostatic-hibernation fluid composition most used by PETROBRAS in offshore operations is seawater added with sodium bis sulfite, fluorescein, alquildimetilbenzilamonium chloride, and tetrakis-hydroxymethyl-phosphonium sulfate (THPS). In order to reduce the toxicity of the fluid used in hydrostatic tests, the use of lesser concentrations of THPS was attempted with UV radiation application as a disinfection technique prior to the adding of the fluid's components. The compositions were evaluated in different conditions of temperature use of UV radiation or not and oxygen scavenger adding (presence and absence). The fluids were kept hibernating for 120 days. All the parameters tested after hibernation were compared to fresh from preparation samples (zero time samples). The fluid's characteristics were evaluated by microbiological control and toxicity as well as the THPS residual. Results showed that the UV treatment was more effective in the absence of oxygen scavenger. The temperature acts as a microbial growth control agent, as expected. To large scale operations, a water quality monitoring must be performed previously to any field operations, in order to determinate the best treatment to be used in each case. (author)

  8. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation.

  9. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  10. Multi-class Mode of Action Classification of Toxic Compounds Using Logic Based Kernel Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Huma; Muggleton, Stephen; Sternberg, Mike J E

    2010-09-17

    Toxicity prediction is essential for drug design and development of effective therapeutics. In this paper we present an in silico strategy, to identify the mode of action of toxic compounds, that is based on the use of a novel logic based kernel method. The technique uses support vector machines in conjunction with the kernels constructed from first order rules induced by an Inductive Logic Programming system. It constructs multi-class models by using a divide and conquer reduction strategy that splits multi-classes into binary groups and solves each individual problem recursively hence generating an underlying decision list structure. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach for chemoinformatics problems like predictive toxicology, we apply it to toxicity classification in aquatic systems. The method is used to identify and classify 442 compounds with respect to the mode of action. The experimental results show that the technique successfully classifies toxic compounds and can be useful in assessing environmental risks. Experimental comparison of the performance of the proposed multi-class scheme with the standard multi-class Inductive Logic Programming algorithm and multi-class Support Vector Machine yields statistically significant results and demonstrates the potential power and benefits of the approach in identifying compounds of various toxic mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Medlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3 and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  12. 76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... must be visible at all times in the building and returned upon departure. II. Test Data Submissions EPA... required by the applicable standards for the development of test data. 3. Describe the nature of the test.... See note. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells. Activated Sludge Die-away 0275.1. Copyrighted...

  13. Comparison of testing methods for particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four testing methods for particulate filters were compared by using the test rigs of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection: 1) Measurement of filter penetration P as a function of particle size d by using a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol and a scintillation particle counter; 2) Modified sodium flame test for measurement of total filter penetration P for various polydisperse NaC1 test aerosols; 3) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol labelled with short-lived radon daughter products; 4) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a special paraffin oil test aerosol (oil fog test used in FRG according DIN 24 184, test aerosol A). The investigations were carried out on sheets of glass fibre paper (five grades of paper). Detailed information about the four testing methods and the used particle size distributions is given. The different results of the various methods are the base for the discussion of the most important parameters which influence the filter penetration P. The course of the function P=f(d) shows the great influence of the particle size. As expected there was also found a great dependence both from the test aerosol as well as from the principle and the measuring range of the aerosol-measuring device. The differences between the results of the various test methods are greater the lower the penetration. The use of NaCl test aerosol with various particle size distributions gives great differences for the respective penetration values. On the basis of these results and the values given by Dorman conclusions are made about the investigation of particulate filters both for the determination of filter penetration P as well as for the leak test of installed filters

  14. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  15. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  16. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...

  17. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  18. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as...

  19. [Subchronic toxicity test of genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2010-07-01

    To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.

  20. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    suspensions changed in a way similar to what is known for dissolved Cu: first in ISO standard test conditions (pH 7.8), second with slight acidity (pH 6.5), third in the presence of citric acid, and fourth in the presence of humic acid. For all four exposure conditions, the toxicity of Cu employed...... in the three forms followed the same sequence, i.e., CuSO4 > monodispersed 6 nm CuO ≫ poly-dispersed CuO. The toxicity of all Cu forms decreased from pH 6.5, ≫ pH 7.8, > pH 7.8 + citric acid, to ≫ pH 7.8 + humic acid. This pattern is in agreement with concentrations of Cu2+ calculated using the equilibrium...

  1. Toxicity testing of chemical mixtures: some general aspects and need of international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H; Yang, R S

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed by the Working Group on Toxicity Testing of Chemical Mixtures included the following (1) the study designs and results from two real-life exposure scenarios as additional information to the various investigations reported at the conference; (2) the need to take into consideration low-level, long-term exposure (i.e. mimicking human exposure conditions) as well as the issue of limited resources in experimental toxicology studies; (3) the importance of exploring alternative and predictive toxicology methodologies to minimize animal use and to conserve resources; (4) the realization that interactive toxicity should include the consideration of physical and biological agents in addition to chemicals. Two specific studies reported at the conference were also discussed. A number of recommendations were made concerning the planning and implementation of toxicology studies on chemical mixtures.

  2. MODERN METHODS OF FOOD INTOLERANCE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Rosensteyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Аn analytical review of modern methods of food intolerance diagnostics based on interpretation of markers used in the various tests is рresented. It is shown that tests based on observation of the reaction of specific antibodies of the immune system to food antigens tested, are the most accurate, reliable and representative for the diagnosis of food intolerance.

  3. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    field and microcosms than they do under laboratory test conditions. In the case of tributyltin ( TBT ) exposures in San Diego Bay, he found that...TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in...Pacific TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in

  4. Toxicity Test on Malondialdehyde Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Irradiation Sterilization Rendang : In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kamalita Pertiwi; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    The safety of irradiated ethnic ready to eat food at high doses raises many questions, and recognized as one of great obstacles in the development of commercialization of food irradiation globally. People are still worried that food treated with irradiation would have induced radioactivity because free radical and its complex derivatives are formed in the irradiation process. Therefore, this study is needed to help understanding the effect of irradiated food on biological system in order to understand the possible effect to human body. The aimed of this research work was to secure the safety of irradiated food at high dose by conducting a toxicity assay using lymphocytes and erythrocytes human blood, and to determine antioxidant capacity of gamma - sterilized rendang at 45 kGy.The methods used were extraction and preparation of rending samples, culture medium preparation, lymphocytes isolation, the assays on lymphocytes proliferation, erythrocytes hemolysis,, antioxidant capacity, and malonaldehyde, respectively. The tested samples were irradiated at PATIR BATAN on 11 th November 2006 (sample A), on 14 th June 2007 (sample B), and “No Label” on 14 th June 2007 (sample C), respectively and non irradiated rending as control was also prepared. The results of proliferation assay showed that irradiated samples did neither inhibit nor induce proliferation significantly. Obviously, hemolysis rate of all samples showed increasing rate with increasing concentration or inversely correlated with dilution neither caused an increase in erythrocytes hemolysis rate nor inhibition in erythrocytes hemolysis significantly. Antioxidant capacity assay in irradiated samples showed higher value than in non-irradiated sample while irradiation treatment did not influence malonaldehyde content in rendang. (author)

  5. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  6. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  8. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  9. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  10. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  11. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...

  12. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  13. Investigation of a Brazilian tannery effluent by means of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo acute toxicity (FET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Otávio Pelegrino; De Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2017-01-01

    Tannery effluents consist of a complex chemical composition not only limited to primary pollutants, which also require biological detection as these compounds may produce adverse effects. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with Danio rerio is an alternative method in hazard and risk assessment for determination of chemical-mediated effects. The aim of this investigation was to use the FET test to detect compounds and consequent effects in Brazilian tannery effluents. Samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the effluent treatment plant at a tannery located in Restinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The toxicological effects were assessed using FET assay for a period of 144 hr using indices such as (1) coagulation of fertilized eggs, (2) lack of detachment of tail-bud from yolk sac, (3) absence of spontaneous movement, (4) yolk sack edema, (5) malformation of the tail, (6) scoliosis, and (7) deformation of swim bladder in the embryos. Data showed that effluent treatment plant exposure produced acute toxicity in D. rerio embryos as evidenced by coagulation of fertilized eggs in up to 5% of all diluted samples 24 hr post fertilization for inlet effluent samples compared to 100% coagulation for outlet samples. Results demonstrated that these effects may not be attributed to metals, but to other non-detected components, such as dyes, pigments, biocides, carriers, surfactants, or other organic compounds that might be present in these complex mixtures. The use of D. rerio embryos was found to be useful as an additional tool for ecotoxicity testing to assess the potential environmental acute toxicity influence of tannery effluents.

  14. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Photocatalytic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Intermediates identification and toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, O.T.; Chung, W.K.; Wong, K.H.; Chow, Alex T.; Wong, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrophobic pollutants and their low water solubility limits their degradation in aqueous solution. The presence of water-miscible solvent such as acetone can increase the water solubility of PAHs, however acetone will also affect the degradation of PAH. In this study the effects of acetone on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency and pathways of 5 selected PAHs, namely naphthalene (2 rings), acenaphthylene (3 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), anthracene (3 rings) and benzo[a]anthracene (4 rings) were investigated. The Microtox toxicity test was used to determine whether the PCO system can completely detoxify the parental PAHs and its intermediates. The addition of 16% acetone can greatly alter the degradation pathway of naphthalene and anthracene. Based on intermediates identified from degradation of the 5 PAHs, the location of parental PAHs attacked by reactive free radicals can be correlated with the localization energies of different positions of the compound. For toxicity analysis, irradiation by UV light was found to induce acute toxicity by generating intermediates/degradation products from PAHs and possibly acetone. Lastly, all PAHs (10 mg l -1 ) can be completely detoxified by titanium dioxide (100 mg l -1 ) within 24 h under UVA irradiation (3.9 mW cm -2 ).

  16. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. (University of Tampa, Florida (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  17. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel approach to providing effect-based endpoints in duckweed toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Chang-Gui; Tian, Fei; Martin, Francis L

    2017-02-01

    Traditional duckweed toxicity tests only measure plant growth inhibition as an endpoint, with limited effects-based data. The present study aimed to investigate whether Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could enhance the duckweed (Lemna minor L.) toxicity test. Four chemicals (Cu, Cd, atrazine, and acetochlor) and 4 metal-containing industrial wastewater samples were tested. After exposure of duckweed to the chemicals, standard toxicity endpoints (frond number and chlorophyll content) were determined; the fronds were also interrogated using FTIR spectroscopy under optimized test conditions. Biochemical alterations associated with each treatment were assessed and further analyzed by multivariate analysis. The results showed that comparable x% of effective concentration (ECx) values could be achieved based on FTIR spectroscopy in comparison with those based on traditional toxicity endpoints. Biochemical alterations associated with different doses of toxicant were mainly attributed to lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structural changes, which helped to explain toxic mechanisms. With the help of multivariate analysis, separation of clusters related to different exposure doses could be achieved. The present study is the first to show successful application of FTIR spectroscopy in standard duckweed toxicity tests with biochemical alterations as new endpoints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:346-353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Alcantara, Pino; Li, Linna; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P 68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored

  19. Nanomaterials in the Environment: Perspectives on in Vivo Terrestrial Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique C. P. Mendonça

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, engineered nanomaterials (NMs brought a revolutionary development in many sectors of human life including electronics, paints, textiles, food, agriculture, and health care. However, the exponential growth in the number of NMs applications resulted in uncertainties regarding their environmental impacts. Currently, the common approach for assessing the toxicity of NMs such as, carbon—(fullerenes, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, mineral—(gold and silver nanoparticles, cerium and zinc oxide, silicon and titanium dioxide, and organic-based NMs (dendrimers includes standard guidelines applied to all chemical compounds. Nevertheless, NMs differ from traditional materials as their physicochemical and surface properties influence the toxic rather than their composition alone. Considering such NMs specificities, adaptations in some methods are necessary to ensure that environmental and human health risks are accurately investigated. In this context, the focus of this mini-review is to summarize the current knowledge in nanotoxicology regarding relevant organisms and experimental assays for assessing the terrestrial toxicity of NMs.

  20. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  1. Acute oral toxicity test and phytochemistry of some West African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobajo, F O; Omorodion-Osagie, E; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Adegoke, O A; Adeleke, T I

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increased acceptance and utilization of medicinal plants worldwide, many are used indiscriminately without recourse to any safety test. Thus, the need for toxicity tests to determine the safe dose for oral consumption. LD50 and phytochemistry of four medicinal plants of West Africa were investigated. Thirty male and non pregnant female Swiss albino mice weighing 20grams each were used for this study. They were divided into the Control (C), Oldenlandia corymbosa L. aqueous leaf-extract treated (OCG), Parquetina nigrescens aqueous leaf extract treated (PNG), Hybanthus enneaspermus aqueous leaf extract treated (HEG), Ficus carica leaf extract treated (FCG) and Sesamum indicum aqueous seeds extract treated group (SIG). Each group except the control was further divided into four sub-groups of six mice each, and were administered orally, graded doses (SI; 1, 2, 4 and 8, PN; 2.5, 5, 10 and 20, OC; 5, 10, 20 and 40, FC; 1, 2, 4 and 8, HE; 4, 8, 16, 32) of the aqueous extract of each plant (g/kg body weight) after 12 hours fasting. The dry aqueous leaf extracts of HE, OC, PN, FC all have dark brown colour and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.2 while the seed extract of SI has a light brown color with pH of 7.0. Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanosides, saponin, and reducing sugar were present in all extracts, while cyanogenic glycoside was present only in HE. LD50 determination results obtained using Thompson and Finney methods were as follows; OC; 14.14 +/- 0.27 and 10.56 +/- 0.20, PN; 12.60 +/- 0.10 and 13.10 +/- 0.10, HE; 8.14 +/- 0.30 and 8.24 +/- 0.35, FC; 3.36 +/- 0.26 and 4.00 +/- 0.04, SI; 4.00 +/- 0.10 and 3.10 +/- 0.22 respectively (LD50 values are in g/kg body weight. The results of this study have provided an oral LD50 from where a safe dose can be chosen for further research into the merits of the consumption of these medicinal plants.

  2. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  3. Development of an accelerated leaching method for incineration bottom ash correlated to toxicity characteristic leaching protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengxuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ge, Liya; Ng, Sum Huan; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals and some metalloids are the most significant inorganic contaminants specified in toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) in determining the safety of landfills or further utilization. As a consequence, a great deal of efforts had been made on the development of miniaturized analytical devices, such as Microchip Electrophoresis (ME) and μTAS for on-site testing of heavy metals and metalloids to prevent spreading of those pollutants or decrease the reutilization period of waste materials such as incineration bottom ash. However, the bottleneck lied in the long and tedious conventional TCLP that requires 18 h of leaching. Without accelerating the TCLP process, the on-site testing of the waste material leachates was impossible. In this study, therefore, a new accelerated leaching method (ALM) combining ultrasonic assisted leaching with tumbling was developed to reduce the total leaching time from 18 h to 30 min. After leaching, the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids were determined with ICP-MS or ICP-optical emission spectroscopy. No statistical significance between ALM and TCLP was observed for most heavy metals (i.e., cobalt, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, and tin) and metalloids (i.e., arsenic and selenium). For the heavy metals with statistical significance, correlation factors derived between ALM and TCLP were 0.56, 0.20, 0.037, and 0.019 for barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead, respectively. Combined with appropriate analytical techniques (e.g., ME), the ALM can be applied to rapidly prepare the incineration bottom ash samples as well as other environmental samples for on-site determination of heavy metals and metalloids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D. [Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  5. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  6. Multipath interference test method for distributed amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takahiro; Aida, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    A method for testing distributed amplifiers is presented; the multipath interference (MPI) is detected as a beat spectrum between the multipath signal and the direct signal using a binary frequency shifted keying (FSK) test signal. The lightwave source is composed of a DFB-LD that is directly modulated by a pulse stream passing through an equalizer, and emits the FSK signal of the frequency deviation of about 430MHz at repetition rate of 80-100 kHz. The receiver consists of a photo-diode and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The base-band power spectrum peak appeared at the frequency of the FSK frequency deviation can be converted to amount of MPI using a calibration chart. The test method has improved the minimum detectable MPI as low as -70 dB, compared to that of -50 dB of the conventional test method. The detailed design and performance of the proposed method are discussed, including the MPI simulator for calibration procedure, computer simulations for evaluating the error caused by the FSK repetition rate and the fiber length under test and experiments on singlemode fibers and distributed Raman amplifier.

  7. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of ‘Adverse Outcome Pathways’ (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a

  8. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L

    2015-06-05

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is 'safe' or 'unsafe'. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of 'Adverse Outcome Pathways' (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a specific

  9. [Investigation of potential toxic factors for fleece-flower root: from perspective of processing methods evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He-Rong; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Song, Hai-Bo; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of reports on fleece-flower root-caused liver damages has drawn wide attention of both at home and abroad, however, there were rare literature on toxicology of fleece-flower root in ancient Chinese medicine. But why there are so many reports on toxicology of fleece-flower root now compared with the ancient literature? As a typical tonic medicine, the clinical utility of fleece-flower root was largely limited by its standardization and reliability of processing methods in ancient Chinese medicine. The ancient processing methods of fleece-flower root emphasized nine times of steaming and nine times of drying, while the modern processes have been simplified into one time of steaming. Whether the differences between ancient and modern processing methods are the potential cause of the increased events of fleece-flower root-caused liver damages. We will make deep analysis and provide new clues and perspectives for the research on its toxicity. This article, therefore, would discuss the affecting factors and key problems in toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root on the basis of sorting out the processing methods of fleece-flower root in ancient medical books and modern standards, in order to provide the reference for establishing specification for toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezso; Borcsa, Botond; Heydel, Barbara; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Ma, Yan; Widowitz, Ute; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) roots are only applied after processing. Nevertheless, several cases of poisoning by improperly processed aconite roots have been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable analytical method to assess the amount of toxic aconite alkaloids in commercial aconite roots, and to compare this method with the commonly used total alkaloid content determination by titration. The content of mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine in 16 commercial samples of processed aconite roots was determined by an HPLC method and the total alkaloid content by indirect titration. Five samples were selected for in vivo toxicological investigation. In most of the commercial samples, toxic alkaloids were not detectable, or only traces were found. In four samples, we could detect >0.04% toxic aconite alkaloids, the highest with a content of 0.16%. The results of HPLC analysis were compared with the results obtained by titration, and no correlation was found between the two methods. The in vivo results reassured the validity of the HPLC determination. Samples with mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine content below the HPLC detection limit still contained up to 0.2% alkaloids determined by titration. Since titration of alkaloids gives no information selectively on the aconitine-type alkaloid content and toxicity of aconite roots this method is not appropriate for safety assessment. The HPLC method developed by us provides a quick and reliable assessment of toxicity and should be considered as a purity test in pharmacopoeia monographs.

  11. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  12. A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, G.E.; Koren, H.; Aissa, M.

    1989-01-01

    Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O 3 in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O 3 mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O 3 . The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O 3 dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid markers. The feasibility of estimating O 3 dose to alveoli of animals and humans was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of 18 O-labeled O 3 in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. The feasibility of using lung lavage fluid protein measurements to quantify the O 3 toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased lung lavage protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm O 3 for 2 h with intermittent periods of heavy exercise. The validity of using the lavage protein marker to quantify the response in animals has already been established. The positive results obtained in both the 18 O 3 and the lavage protein studies reported here suggest that it should be possible to obtain a direct comparison of both alveolar dose and toxic effect of O 3 to alveoli of animals or humans

  13. Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margui, E.; Salvado, V.; Queralt, I.; Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Abandoned mining sites contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals. The form in which a metal exists strongly influences its mobility and, thus, the effects on the environment. Operational methods of speciation analysis, such as the use of sequential extraction procedures, are commonly applied. In this work, the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR (now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in mining wastes from old Pb-Zn mining areas located in the Val d'Aran (NE Spain) and Cartagena (SE Spain). Analyses of the extracts were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material, BCR-701. The results of the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilised forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, particularly in the sample from Cartagena. In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions. On the other hand, the applicability of lixiviation tests commonly used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from landfill disposal (US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and DIN 38414-S4) to mining wastes was also investigated and the obtained results compared with the information on metal mobility derivable from the application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure

  14. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  15. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  16. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  17. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and toxicity studies of bioglass by Sol-gel method for prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Wanderley S.; Veloso, Gabriela A.; Silva, Luciana; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most advanced methods for the treatment of prostate cancer in the initial stage is brachytherapy, which uses titanium seeds, incorporated with 125 I, which is radioactive, and which is implanted in the prosthetic volume. In recent studies, we investigated the possibility of applying the Sol-Gel (SG) method for the production of bioactive seeds, incorporated with radioactive Sm in silica glasses for the treatment of cancer. In this project three compositions of the glasses of the SiO 2 -CaO system were synthesized using the SG method. The chemical and physical composition of the seeds were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Atomic Absorption Analysis. A pilot study of in vivo and in vitro toxicity was conducted in rabbit and PC-3 lineage cells. The results showed that the ceramic matrices in the SiO 2 - CaO - Sm system present no toxicity in the in vivo model presenting no post-implant inflammatory process. None restriction of in vitro cell growth was found. In conclusion, there is no toxicity in seeds and the radiotoxicity will occur only in the period in which the seeds present activity coming from 153 Sm

  19. Supplementary test method for carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Pettersson, S.-O.

    1980-11-01

    A test method for carbon filters using freon to detect leakage is described. The filters are used in nuclear power plants and in air-raid shelters to separate radioactive iodine.Sampling and detection limits are described and a proposal for a complete equipment is made.(G.B.)

  20. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  1. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  2. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  3. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  4. Acute toxicity testing of some herbicides-, alkaloids-, and antibiotics-metabolizing soil bacteria in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Classen, H G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-01-01

    Seven strains of soil bacteria with the ability to metabolize herbicides, alkaloids or antibiotics were tested in rats for acute toxicity. 1. Upon oral administration of 9.0 x 10(8) to 6.6 x 10(10) cells daily during 7 d no adverse reactions were observed. 2. Exposure by air did not lead to specific pulmonary changes. 3. Intracutaneous injection of 7.5 x 10(6) to 1.4 x 10(8) cells did not lead to adverse skin reactions. 4. Intraperitoneal injections up to 10(8) cells per animal did not kill rats although bacteria entered blood. At higher concentrations some mortality occurred partly due to unspecific stress reactions. 5. Animal data and observations on 20 humans being exposed to these strains for 2 months up to 15 years support the view that the bacteria tested are essentially harmless for health.

  5. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  6. BAYESIAN DATA AUGMENTATION DOSE FINDING WITH CONTINUAL REASSESSMENT METHOD AND DELAYED TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suyu; Yin, Guosheng; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A major practical impediment when implementing adaptive dose-finding designs is that the toxicity outcome used by the decision rules may not be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment. To address this issue, we propose the data augmentation continual re-assessment method (DA-CRM) for dose finding. By naturally treating the unobserved toxicities as missing data, we show that such missing data are nonignorable in the sense that the missingness depends on the unobserved outcomes. The Bayesian data augmentation approach is used to sample both the missing data and model parameters from their posterior full conditional distributions. We evaluate the performance of the DA-CRM through extensive simulation studies, and also compare it with other existing methods. The results show that the proposed design satisfactorily resolves the issues related to late-onset toxicities and possesses desirable operating characteristics: treating patients more safely, and also selecting the maximum tolerated dose with a higher probability. The new DA-CRM is illustrated with two phase I cancer clinical trials. PMID:24707327

  7. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  8. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  9. The analysis of toxic connections content in water by spectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.; Artyushin, V. R.

    2017-08-01

    The current state of ecology means the strict observance of measures for the utilization of household and industrial wastes that is connected with very essential expenses of means and time. Thanks to spectroscopic devices usage the spectral methods allow to carry out the express quantitative and qualitative analysis in a workplace and field conditions. In a work the application of spectral methods by studying the degradation of toxic organic compounds after preliminary radiation of various sources is shown. Experimental data of optical density of water at various influences are given.

  10. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  11. The mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride analogues evaluated with an alternative test using slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Dierckens, K; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; van Goethem, F; Vanparys, P; Remon, J P

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride (BAC) analogues using slugs as the alternative test organism. The effect of different BAC analogues on the mucosal tissue of slugs was determined from the protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs were measured. The eye irritation potency of the molecules was evaluated with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay. The antimicrobial activity of the different BAC analogues was also assessed. All BAC analogues induced severe damage to the mucosal epithelium of the slugs, and the irritation increased with decreasing alkyl chain length: BAC-C16 or = BAC-C16 > BAC-C12. The BAC-C14 exhibited higher activity than the BAC-mix. The toxicity and activity of BAC analogues depend on the alkyl chain length. The use of BAC-C14 as a conservative agent in pharmaceutical preparations instead of the BAC-mix should be considered.

  12. An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dellinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages.

  13. Ensuring the Quality of Stem Cell-Derived In Vitro Models for Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Coecke, Sandra; Price, Anna-Bal; Healy, Lyn; Jennings, Paul; Wilmes, Anja; Pinset, Christian; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Louisse, Jochem; Haupt, Simone; Kidd, Darren; Robitski, Andrea; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Lemaitre, Gilles; Myatt, Glenn

    Quality control of cell cultures used in new in vitro toxicology assays is crucial to the provision of reliable, reproducible and accurate toxicity data on new drugs or constituents of new consumer products. This chapter explores the key scientific and ethical criteria that must be addressed at the earliest stages of developing toxicology assays based on human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines. It also identifies key considerations for such assays to be acceptable for regulatory, laboratory safety and commercial purposes. Also addressed is the development of hPSC-based assays for the tissue and cell types of greatest interest in drug toxicology. The chapter draws on a range of expert opinion within the European Commission/Cosmetics Europe-funded alternative testing cluster SEURAT-1 and consensus from international groups delivering this guidance such as the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative. Accordingly, the chapter summarizes the most up-date best practices in the use and quality control of human Pluripotent Stem Cell lines in the development of in vitro toxicity assays from leading experts in the field.

  14. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  15. Evaluation of the tissue toxicity of antiseptics by the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HETCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET) on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™), 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™), 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™) and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™). Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™), 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™) and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™). Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™) and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™), whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™), washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™) showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents with no or low

  16. Evaluation of the tissue toxicity of antiseptics by the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HETCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquardt C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™, 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™, 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™ and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™. Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™, 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™ and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™. Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™ and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™, whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™, washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™ showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents

  17. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin

  18. Thermal Testing Methods for Solar Dryers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Solar food drying is a complex heat and mass transfer phenomena which depend on a number of drying process-dependent parameters such as operating conditions and characteristics of the food product to be dried. The variation in these parameters significantly affects the overall performance...... of the dryer system. Since commercial growth and acceptance of any solar dryer system momentously depend on its performance guarantee, the development of a standard methodology for their thermal testing has become necessary. The standard testing method not only provides better performance management...... of the dryer system but allows the manufacturers to achieve competitive efficiency and good product quality by comparing the available designs. In this chapter, an extensive review of solar dryer performance evaluation has been carried out. Furthermore, the chapter describes the existing testing procedures...

  19. How to prepare water accommodated fractions from petroleum hydrocarbons for use in aquatic toxicity testing - the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Boileau, P.; Kyle, D.; Sergy, G.; Fingas, M.

    1996-01-01

    A method to prepare water accommodated fractions (WAFs) from petroleum products for use in toxicity testing, was introduced. In order to develop a repeatable protocol, a systematic study of a range of experimental variables was conducted. One semi-solid oil and six liquid oils were exposed to artificial seawater. Studies were also performed on three liquid oils exposed to freshwater. Low energy mixing and fluorinated Nalgene carboys was used to produce the WAFs. The mixing time depended on the oil type and loading rate. Individual loading rates were prepared for each concentration, because WAF composition is influenced by loading rate rather than serial dilution. An overview of the basic concepts of WAF preparation was described. A draft protocol for preparing WAFs from liquid and semi-solid oil was also described and results were summarized. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  20. Tests of rhodamine WT dye for toxicity to oysters and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.

    1973-01-01

    Because of the toxicity to oyster larvae and eggs of rhodamine B dye in concentrations greater than 1 mg/l in earlier tests, there was a concern that rhodamine WT, a similar tracer dye, would have a detrimental effect on marine life being developed under the aquaculture program of the Lummi Indian Tribe near Bellingham, Wash. Tests showed that 48-hour exposures at 24° C of 11,000 oyster eggs per liter and 6,000 12-day-old larvae per liter, in sea water with concentrations of rhodamine WT ranging from 1 μg/l to 10 mg/l, resulted in development of the eggs to normal straight-hinge larvae and no abnormalities in the larvae development. Tests made on the smolt of both silver salmon and Donaldson trout, with the fish held for 17.5 hours in a tankfull of sea water with a dye concentration of 10 mg/l at 22°C showed no mortalities or respiratory problems. With the concentration increased to 375 mg/l, and the time extended an additional 3.2 hours, still no mortalities or abnormalities were noted. The fish remained healthy in dye-free water when last checked a month after the test.

  1. Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty four lichen species belonging to six families were collected from mountainous region of Nepal. The methanol extracts of each species were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activitiesin vitro. It was found that extracts of twenty one lichen species were active againstB. subtilis and seven species were active againstS. aureus. Similarly, in DPPH assay, three speciesPeltigera sp.,Cladonia sp., andCanoparmelia sp. showed comparable activity with commercial standard, BHA. In ABTS+ assay, extracts ofParmoterma sp.,Ramalina sp.,Peltigera sp. andCladonia sp. showed stronger activity than ascorbic acid. The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts ofHeterodermia sp. andRamalina sp. showed comparable toxicity effect with commercial standard berberine chloride indicating a potent source of anticancer drugs.

  2. In vitro toxicity test of nano-sized magnesium oxide synthesized via solid-phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nano-sized magnesium oxide (MgO) has been a promising potential material for biomedical pharmaceuticals. In the present investigation, MgO nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ solid-phase transformation based on the previous work (nano-Mg(OH)2 prepared by precipitation technique) using magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The phase structure and morphology of the MgO nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. In vitro hemolysis tests are adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the synthesized nano-MgO. The results evident that nano-MgO with lower concentration is slightly hemolytic, and with concentration increasing nano-MgO exhibit dose-responsive hemolysis.

  3. Working in partnership to advance the 3Rs in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Anthony M.; Creton, Stuart; Chapman, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Toxicological assessment of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical chemicals is a regulatory requirement to ensure all compounds likely to be exposed to humans or the environment are safe. These studies rely on the use of large numbers of animals and involve a number of assumptions and extrapolations that remain controversial in assuring consumer safety. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) has taken a collaborative approach to identify opportunities for implementation of the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) to drive innovation and support animal welfare in toxicity testing. This review highlights the mechanisms by which the NC3Rs is working with the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and regulatory authorities to achieve these goals.

  4. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  5. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  6. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  7. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  8. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  9. Assessment of D-methionine protecting cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity by vestibular-evoked myogenic potential tests, ATPase activities and oxidative state in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wu-Chia; Chang, Chih-Ming; Liao, Li-Jen; Wang, Chi-Te; Young, Yi-Ho; Chang, Yih-Leong; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2015-01-01

    To date, inadequate study has been devoted to the toxic vestibular effects caused by cisplatin. In addition, no electrophysiological examination has been conducted to assess cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity. The purposes of this study are thus two-fold: 1) to determine whether cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and ocular VEMPs are practical electrophysiological methods of testing for cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity and 2) to examine if D-methionine (D-met) pre-injection would protect the otolith organs against cisplatin-induced changes in enzyme activities and/or oxidative status. Guinea pigs were intraperitoneally treated once daily with the following injections for seven consecutive days: sterile 0.9% saline control, cisplatin (5 mg/kg) only, D-met (300 mg/kg) only, or a combination of d-met (300 mg/kg) and cisplatin (5 mg/kg), respectively, with a 30 minute window in between. Each animal underwent the oVEMP and cVEMP tests before and after treatment. The changes in the biochemistry of the otolith organs, including membranous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and nitric oxide (NO) levels, were also evaluated. In the cisplatin-only treated guinea pigs, the mean amplitudes of the oVEMP tests were significantly (potolith dysfunction. D-Met attenuated the reduced ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress induced by cisplatin toxicity in the otolith organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi; Hadi asady; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Zahra zolghadr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discha...

  11. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200 degrees C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  12. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  13. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  14. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  15. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...

  16. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Mi Ko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP: 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995, 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for acute dermal toxicity, and 2 for irritation of mucous membrane. The following agents were tested: cosmetics and related substances (42.0%, chemicals used in industry (32.9%, plastics, rubber, and other polymers (15.9%, agrotoxics (4.0%, medicines (2.7%, and vaccines (2.5%. In the present description, emphasis was given to tests of dermal irritability and sensitization. This work was conducted entirely in animal facilities, according to our general belief that animal facilities at universities, while considering ethic principles and sanitary, genetic, nutritional, and pathophysiological controls, also require laboratories specialized in areas such as transgenics, cryopreservation, ambiental physiology, functional genomics, alternative models, and mainly activities and research on methods in toxicology, as focused in this study.Descrevemos os testes usados em ensaios biológicos de curta duração para estudo de toxicidade e inocuidade de cosméticos, fármacos e outras substâncias químicas, feitos no Biotério Central/Cedeme da Unifesp, de 1986 a 2000. Testamos 602 amostras nos seguintes ensaios: 385 de irritação cutânea, 90 de irritação ocular (até 1995, 31 de toxicidade sistêmica por injeção, 26 de toxicidade oral aguda, 15 de toxicidade por aplicação intracutânea, 15 de sensibilização da pele, 15 de toxicidade de soros e vacinas de uso humano, 14 de toxicidade por implantação intramuscular, 7 de pirogênio, 2 de toxicidade dérmica aguda e

  17. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  18. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Kimberly R.; Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  19. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    . Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates development of reproducible, standardized hazard testing methods such as those provided by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Currently, there is no comprehensive guidance on how to best address testing issues specific to MN...... particulate, fibrous, or colloidal properties. This paper summarizes the findings from an expert workshop convened to develop a guidance document that addresses the difficulties encountered when testing MNs using aquatic and sediment OECD test guidelines. Critical components were identified by workshop...... participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance...

  20. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  1. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  2. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H.A.; Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M. (Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  3. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P.M. [Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  4. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing. 2016 FRAME.

  5. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test, eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test, mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test, and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  9. Ultraviolet degradation of procymidone -structuralcharacterization by gas chromatography coupled with masss spectrometry and potential toxicity of photoproducts using in silico tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.; Jaber, F.; Souissi, Y.; Genty, Ch.; Bourcier, S.; Bouchonnet, S.; Clavaguera, C.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Procymidone is a dicarboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection but also for different crops. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of procymidone has been investigated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The potential toxicities of photoproducts were estimated by in silico tests. METHODS: Aqueous solutions of procymidone were irradiated for up to 90 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out on a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in electron ionization and methanol positive chemical ionization. Multistage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. Toxicities of byproducts were estimated using the QSAR T.E.S.T. program. RESULTS: Sixteen photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed mainly based on the interpretation of multistage CID experiments, but also on their relative retention times and kinetics data. These structures enabled photodegradation pathways to be suggested. Only three photoproducts remain present after 90 min of irradiation. Among them, 3,5-dichloroaniline presents a predicted rat LD50 toxicity about ten times greater than that of procymidone. CONCLUSIONS: 3,5-Dichloroaniline is the only photoproduct reported in previous articles. Eight by-products among the sixteen characterized might be as toxic, if not more, than procymidone itself considering the QSAR-predicted rat LD 50. (author)

  10. A method for measuring sulfide toxicity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, Leonid; Gross, Einav

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine catabolism by gut microbiota produces high levels of sulfide. Excessive sulfide can interfere with colon function, and therefore may be involved in the etiology and risk of relapse of ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how cells/animals regulate the detoxification of sulfide generated by bacterial cysteine catabolism in the gut. Here we describe a simple and cost-effective way to explore the mechanism of sulfide toxicity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ). •A rapid cost-effective method to quantify and study sulfide tolerance in C. elegans and other free-living nematodes.•A cost effective method to measure the concentration of sulfide in the inverted plate assay.

  11. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity

  12. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  13. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  14. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  15. Evaluating the graphene oxide dispersions for Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Zaira; Franqui, Lidiane; Silva, Cristiane A.; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: zairaclemente@hotmail.com [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Campinhas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test has wide utilization in nano ecotoxicology. However, some difficulties have been found related to the aggregation and precipitation of nanomaterials in exposure medium and the contrasting results among studies due to differences in the material characteristics. Furthermore, abiotic factors as the presence of organic matter can influence the test evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the effect of the humic acid presence in the stability of two types of graphene oxide dispersion in an exposure medium used in FET test. Stock-suspensions (1.0 mg mL{sup -1}) of GO (sigma Aldrich, flakes) or base-washed GO (bwGO) and humic acid (HA sodium salt, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared in ultrapure water (UW). They were sonicated before preparing the GO or bwGO test suspensions at 100.0 μg mL{sup -1} in UW and reconstituted water (RW, pH 8±0.2, 425±129 μS/cm), with HA (20.0 μg mL{sup -1})or not. The samples were incubated during 96h at 26 deg C. The GO and bwGO and its dispersions were characterized through the following techniques: spectrophotometry, centrifugation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), thermogravimetry (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results showed that materials aggregated and precipitated quickly in RW, but in the presence of HA the stability was similar to that found in UW. The aggregation and precipitation of bwGO was more intense than that of GO. The bwGO showed a great particle sizes heterogeneity than GO, in any condition tested. The different behavior can be related to the less presence of oxygenated groups in bwGO regards to GO. These results showed that surface characteristic of GO and the presence of HA influence the GO behavior in exposure medium and support the use of HA as a natural dispersant to graphene oxide in FET test. (author)

  16. Self-test Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1996-01-01

    The Self-Test Monte Carlo (STMC) method resolves the main problems in using algebraic pseudo-random numbers for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations: that they can interfere with MC algorithms and lead to erroneous results, and that such an error often cannot be detected without known exact solution. STMC is based on good randomness of about 10 10 bits available from physical noise or transcendental numbers like π = 3.14---. Various bit modifiers are available to get more bits for applications that demands more than 10 10 random bits such as lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These modifiers are designed so that a) each of them gives a bit sequence comparable in randomness as the original if used separately from each other, and b) their mutual interference when used jointly in a single MC calculation is adjustable. Intermediate data of the MC calculation itself are used to quantitatively test and adjust the mutual interference of the modifiers in respect of the MC algorithm. STMC is free of systematic error and gives reliable statistical error. Also it can be easily implemented on vector and parallel supercomputers. (author)

  17. Exploring the Q-marker of "sweat soaking method" processed radix Wikstroemia indica: Based on the "effect-toxicity-chemicals" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo; Chen, Yun-Long; Li, Wei; Li, Lai-Lai; Wu, Zeng-Guang; Wu, Zi-Jun; Hai, Yue; Zhang, Si-Chao; Zheng, Chuan-Qi; Liu, Chang-Xiao; He, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Radix Wikstroemia indica (RWI), named "Liao Ge Wang" in Chinese, is a kind of toxic Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) commonly used in Miao nationality of South China. "Sweat soaking method" processed RWI could effectively decrease its toxicity and preserve therapeutic effect. However, the underlying mechanism of processing is still not clear, and the Q-markers database for processed RWI has not been established. Our study is to investigate and establish the quality evaluation system and potential Q-markers based on "effect-toxicity-chemicals" relationship of RWI for quality/safety assessment of "sweat soaking method" processing. The variation of RWI in efficacy and toxicity before and after processing was investigated by pharmacological and toxicological studies. Cytotoxicity test was used to screen the cytotoxicity of components in RWI. The material basis in ethanol extract of raw and processed RWI was studied by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. And the potential Q-markers were analyzed and predicted according to "effect-toxicity-chemical" relationship. RWI was processed by "sweat soaking method", which could preserve efficacy and reduce toxicity. Raw RWI and processed RWI did not show significant difference on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect, however, the injury of liver and kidney by processed RWI was much weaker than that by raw RWI. The 20 compounds were identified from the ethanol extract of raw product and processed product of RWI using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, including daphnoretin, emodin, triumbelletin, dibutyl phthalate, Methyl Paraben, YH-10 + OH and matairesinol, arctigenin, kaempferol and physcion. Furthermore, 3 diterpenoids (YH-10, YH-12 and YH-15) were proved to possess the high toxicity and decreased by 48%, 44% and 65%, respectively, which could be regarded as the potential Q-markers for quality/safety assessment of "sweat soaking method" processed RWI. A Q-marker database of processed RWI by "sweat soaking method" was established according to the results

  18. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theunissen, P.T.; Robinson, J.F.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  19. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theunissen, P.T., E-mail: Peter.Theunissen@rivm.nl [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Robinson, J.F. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pennings, J.L.A. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Herwijnen, M.H. van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kleinjans, J.C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Piersma, A.H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  20. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat. A missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A. [Lab. for Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Jakl, T. [Chemicals Policy Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays. Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting the main trophic levels (algae, Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely between microflora and earthworms. Protozoa are an ideal missing link as they were shown to be the most prominent faunal contributors to nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems and as they represent the lacking first level consumers as well as the highly diverse microfauna. As protozoa inhabit the soil pore water, they can serve as direct indicators for the solved and thus bioavailable portion of xenobiotics. In order to widen the spectrum of available toxicity tests for a meaningful effect assessment for the soil compartment, a test with the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Protozoa), introduced by Pratt et al. (1997), was improved. Methods. The novel improvements comprise a substantially refined inoculation and counting procedure, as well as the adaptation to yeast as a nutritional source. The test was designed to be rapid and easy to perform, in order to have both a higher degree of standardisation and reproducibility, as well as to be in compliance with international test guidelines. Results and Discussion. Five test substances, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, acetone, atrazine, and metolachlor, were used in single-compound, static, short-term exposure (24 h, 48 h) tests to examine the effect on the population growth of C. inflata. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.17 to 0.26 mg/l for Cd, 34 to 63 mg/l for Cr, >3000 mg/l for acetone, 91-112 mg/l for atrazine and 83-119 mg/l for metolachlor. The equilibrium partitioning approach was used to extrapolate the results to total soil exposure and thus enable a sensitivity comparison to

  1. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  2. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  3. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  4. Toxicity testing of restorative dental materials using brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (plarvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (pshrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  5. Development of an in vitro test system for assessment of male, reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Khaled; Anderson, Diana; Brinkworth, Martin

    2014-02-10

    There is a need for improved reproductive toxicology assays that do not require large numbers of animals but are sensitive and informative. Therefore, Staput velocity-sedimentation separation followed by culture of specific mouse testicular cells was used as such a system. The specificity of separation was assessed using immunocytochemistry to identify spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia. The efficacy of the system to detect toxicity was then evaluated by analysing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the terminal uridine-deoxynucleotide end-labelling (TUNEL) assay to show the rate of apoptosis induced among the different types of germ cells. We found that 2 h of treatment at both 1 and 10 μM induced increases of over ∼10-fold in the percentage of apoptotic cells (p≤0.001), confirming that testicular germ cells are prone to apoptosis at very low concentrations of H2O2. It was also demonstrated for the first time for this compound that spermatogonia are significantly more susceptible than spermatocytes, which are more affected than spermatids. This reflects the proportion of actively dividing cells in these cell types, suggesting a mechanism for the differential sensitivity. The approach should thus form the basis of a useful test system for reproductive and genetic toxicology in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of methods used to calculate normal background concentrations of potentially toxic elements for urban soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Katherine A., E-mail: k.rothwell@ncl.ac.uk; Cooke, Martin P., E-mail: martin.cooke@ncl.ac.uk

    2015-11-01

    To meet the requirements of regulation and to provide realistic remedial targets there is a need for the background concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils to be considered when assessing contaminated land. In England, normal background concentrations (NBCs) have been published for several priority contaminants for a number of spatial domains however updated regulatory guidance places the responsibility on Local Authorities to set NBCs for their jurisdiction. Due to the unique geochemical nature of urban areas, Local Authorities need to define NBC values specific to their area, which the national data is unable to provide. This study aims to calculate NBC levels for Gateshead, an urban Metropolitan Borough in the North East of England, using freely available data. The ‘median + 2MAD’, boxplot upper whisker and English NBC (according to the method adopted by the British Geological Survey) methods were compared for test PTEs lead, arsenic and cadmium. Due to the lack of systematically collected data for Gateshead in the national soil chemistry database, the use of site investigation (SI) data collected during the planning process was investigated. 12,087 SI soil chemistry data points were incorporated into a database and 27 comparison samples were taken from undisturbed locations across Gateshead. The SI data gave high resolution coverage of the area and Mann–Whitney tests confirmed statistical similarity for the undisturbed comparison samples and the SI data. SI data was successfully used to calculate NBCs for Gateshead and the median + 2MAD method was selected as most appropriate by the Local Authority according to the precautionary principle as it consistently provided the most conservative NBC values. The use of this data set provides a freely available, high resolution source of data that can be used for a range of environmental applications. - Highlights: • The use of site investigation data is proposed for land contamination studies

  7. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  8. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroust, K.; Pavlová, M.; Prokop, Z.; Mendel, Jan; Božková, K.; Kubát, Z.; Zajíčková, V.; Damborský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2007), s. 152-159 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : toxicity * wing spot test * QSAR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  9. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test for the screening of waste water quality and for testing the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo test, a test proposed for routine waste water control, was compared with the acute fish toxicity test, in the determination of six types of waste water and ten different chemicals. The waste water was sampled from the following industrial processes: paper and cardboard production, hide tanning, metal galvanisation, carcass treatment and utilisation, and sewage treatment. The chemicals tested were: dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulphoxide, cadmium chloride, cyclohexane, hydroquinone, mercuric chloride, nickel chloride, nonylphenol, resmethrin and sodium nitrite. For many of the test substances, the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test results showed high correlations. However, there were certain environmentally-relevant substances for which the results of the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test differed significantly, up to 10,000-fold (Hg(2+) > 150-fold difference; NO(2)(-) > 300-fold; Cd(2+) > 200-fold; resmethrin > 10,000-fold). For the investigated waste water samples and chemicals, the survival rate of the zebrafish embryos showed high variations between different egg samples, within the range of the EC50 concentration. Subsequently, 5-6 parallel assays were deemed to be the appropriate number necessary for the precise evaluation of the toxicity of the test substances. Also, it was found that the sensitivities of different ontogenetic stages to chemical exposure differed greatly. During the first 12 hours after fertilisation (4-cell stage to the 5-somite stage), the embryos reacted most sensitively to test substance exposure, whereas the later ontogenetic stages showed only slight or no response, indicating that the test is most sensitive during the first 24 hours post-fertilisation.

  10. Perspective on a Modified Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Testing Strategy for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Rodney A; Halpern, Wendy G; Rao, Gautham K

    2016-05-01

    The intent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) is to generate and enhance T-cell responses against tumors. The tumor microenvironment establishes several inhibitory pathways that lead to suppression of the local immune response, which is permissive for tumor growth. The efficacy of different CITs, alone and in combination, stems from reinvigorating the tumor immune response via several mechanisms, including costimulatory agonists, checkpoint inhibitors, and vaccines. However, immune responses to other antigens (self and foreign) may also be enhanced, resulting in potentially undesired effects. In outbred mammalian pregnancies, the fetus expresses paternally derived alloantigens that are recognized as foreign by the maternal immune system. If unchecked or enhanced, maternal immunity to these alloantigens represents a developmental and reproductive risk and thus is a general liability for cancer immunotherapeutic molecules. We propose a tiered approach to confirm this mechanistic reproductive liability for CIT molecules. A rodent allopregnancy model is based on breeding 2 different strains of mice so that paternally derived alloantigens are expressed by the fetus. When tested with a cross-reactive biotherapeutic, small molecule drug, or surrogate molecule, this model should reveal on-target reproductive liabilities if the pathway is involved in maintaining pregnancy. Alternatively, allopregnancy models with genetically modified mice can be interrogated for exquisitely specific biotherapeutics with restricted species reactivity. The allopregnancy model represents a relatively straightforward approach to confirm an expected on-target reproductive risk for CIT molecules. For biotherapeutics, it could potentially replace more complex developmental and reproductive toxicity testing in nonhuman primates when a pregnancy hazard is confirmed or expected. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A reduced transcriptome approach to assess environmental toxicants using zebrafish embryo tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the pilot testing of a new bioassay platform that monitors expression of 1600 genes in zebrafish embryos exposed to either single chemicals or complex water samples. The method provides a more cost effective, high throughput means to broadly evaluate the pot...

  12. Maintenance of adult primate liver in organ culture: Potential use in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; O'Brien, K.A.; Allen, L.; DeLuca, J.; Norman, B.; Keenan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Adult Rhesus monkey liver slices were incubated using a dynamic organ culture method to determine hepatocyte viability, drug biotransformation potential and the in vitro response to the hepatotoxicant, allyl alcohol (AA). After 1, 2, 4, or 8 hr, slices were removed from culture and analyzed for incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into acid-precipitable material, and medium alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was determined. Separate slices were taken for histological evaluation and for evaluation of microsomal 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin-O-deethylase (EFCOD) activity. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into slices was linear over the period of incubation and was specifically inhibited by cycloheximide (10 uM) at all time points. In the absence of AA, enzyme leakage was minimal over 8 hr. Marked ALT leakage occurred with 1 mM AA. Control slices had an initial fall to 55% of in vivo EFCOD activity that stabilized at 40-50% control slices indicated that there was minimal cellular degeneration and that, in PAS-stained sections, glycogen accumulation occurred over the incubation period. This system allows for maintenance and viability of adult primate liver slices in culture for at least 8 hr and may be useful for in vitro toxicity and biotransformation studies

  13. Data gaps in toxicity testing of chemicals allowed in food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Thomas G; Alger, Heather M; Leonard, Jack E; Maffini, Maricel V

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, chemical additives cannot be used in food without an affirmative determination that their use is safe by FDA or additive manufacturer. Feeding toxicology studies designed to estimate the amount of a chemical additive that can be eaten safely provide the most relevant information. We analyze how many chemical additives allowed in human food have feeding toxicology studies in three toxicological information sources including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) database. Less than 38% of FDA-regulated additives have a published feeding study. For chemicals directly added to food, 21.6% have feeding studies necessary to estimate a safe level of exposure and 6.7% have reproductive or developmental toxicity data in FDA's database. A program is needed to fill these significant knowledge gaps by using in vitro and in silico methods complemented with targeted in vivo studies to ensure public health is protected. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S., E-mail: aloysio@ioc.fiocruz.b [Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Promocao da Saude Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900 (Brazil); Soares, Maria Carolina S., E-mail: mcarolsoares@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria, E-mail: valeria@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O., E-mail: sazevedo@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET{sub 50}) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approx0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET{sub 50}vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  15. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Soares, Maria Carolina S.; Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET 50 ) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between ∼0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET 50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  16. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Soares, Maria Carolina S; de Magalhães, Valéria Freitas; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2010-06-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET50) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approximately 0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    ways of deriving a mass balance and quantitative/qualitative information on the uptake and distribution of NM in cells.As NM have a high surface-to-volume ratio and possess specific physical-chemical properties, which make them prone to interfere with various compounds and certain types of toxicity tests, potential interferences and appropriate controls are introduced. Furthermore, different types of dose metrics, which is still a strongly debated issue in nanotoxicology, are highlighted. We also consider laboratory safety regarding NM handling and disposal.

  19. Method to prepare essentially organic waste liquids containing radioactive or toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Drobnik, S.H.; Hild, W.; Kroebel, R.; Meyer, A.; Naumann, G.

    1976-01-01

    Waste solutions occuring in nuclear technology containing radioactive or toxic materials can be solidified by mixing with a polymerisable mixture with subsequent polymerization. An improvement of this method, especially for liquids in which the radioactive components are present as organic compounds is achieved by adding a mixture of at least one monomeric vinyl compound, at least one polyvinyl compound and appropriate catalysts and by polymerizing at temperatures between 15 and 150 0 C. Should the waste liquid contain mineral acid, this is first neutralized by the addition of CaO or MgO. In processing oils or soaps, the addition of swelling agent for polystyrol resins is advantageous. 16 examples illustrate the invention. (UWI) [de

  20. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  1. The chick embryo test as used in the study of the toxicity of certain dithiocarbamates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, D.O.E.; Logten, M.J. van

    1968-01-01

    The toxicities of six dithiocarbamates: bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulfide (thiram), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (ferbam), bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (triaram), sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDEDC), and sodium ethylene

  2. Differences between co-cultures and monocultures in testing the toxicity of particulate matter derived from log wood and pellet combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Mikko S.; Rönkkö, Teemu J.; Orasche, Jürgen; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Kortelainen, Miika; Tissari, Jarkko; Zimmermann, Ralf; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Jalava, Pasi I.

    2018-01-01

    Background In vitro studies with monocultures of human alveolar cells shed deeper knowledge on the cellular mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) causes toxicity, but cannot account for mitigating or aggravating effects of cell-cell interactions on PM toxicity. Methods We assessed inflammation, oxidative stress as well as cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by PM from the combustion of different types of wood logs and softwood pellets in three cell culture setups: two monocultures of either human macrophage-like cells or human alveolar epithelial cells, and a co-culture of these two cell lines. The adverse effects of the PM samples were compared between these setups. Results We detected clear differences in the endpoints between the mono- and co-cultures. Inflammatory responses were more diverse in the macrophage monoculture and the co-culture compared to the epithelial cells where only an increase of IL-8 was detected. The production of reactive oxygen species was the highest in epithelial cells and macrophages seemed to have protective effects against oxidative stress from the PM samples. With no metabolically active cells at the highest doses, the cytotoxic effects of the PM samples from the wood log combustion were far more pronounced in the macrophages and the co-culture than in the epithelial cells. All samples caused DNA damage in macrophages, whereas only beech and spruce log combustion samples caused DNA damage in epithelial cells. The organic content of the samples was mainly associated with cytotoxicity and DNA damage, while the metal content of the samples correlated with the induction of inflammatory responses. Conclusions All of the tested PM samples induce adverse effects and the chemical composition of the samples determines which pathway of toxicity is induced. In vitro testing of the toxicity of combustion-derived PM in monocultures of one cell line, however, is inadequate to account for all the possible pathways of toxicity. PMID

  3. Comparison of the common spatial interpolation methods used to analyze potentially toxic elements surrounding mining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qian; Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2018-04-15

    The appropriate spatial interpolation methods must be selected to analyze the spatial distributions of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs), which is a precondition for evaluating PTE pollution. The accuracy and effect of different spatial interpolation methods, which include inverse distance weighting interpolation (IDW) (power = 1, 2, 3), radial basis function interpolation (RBF) (basis function: thin-plate spline (TPS), spline with tension (ST), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadric (MQ) and inverse multiquadric (IMQ)) and ordinary kriging interpolation (OK) (semivariogram model: spherical, exponential, gaussian and linear), were compared using 166 unevenly distributed soil PTE samples (As, Pb, Cu and Zn) in the Suxian District, Chenzhou City, Hunan Province as the study subject. The reasons for the accuracy differences of the interpolation methods and the uncertainties of the interpolation results are discussed, then several suggestions for improving the interpolation accuracy are proposed, and the direction of pollution control is determined. The results of this study are as follows: (i) RBF-ST and OK (exponential) are the optimal interpolation methods for As and Cu, and the optimal interpolation method for Pb and Zn is RBF-IMQ. (ii) The interpolation uncertainty is positively correlated with the PTE concentration, and higher uncertainties are primarily distributed around mines, which is related to the strong spatial variability of PTE concentrations caused by human interference. (iii) The interpolation accuracy can be improved by increasing the sample size around the mines, introducing auxiliary variables in the case of incomplete sampling and adopting the partition prediction method. (iv) It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of As and Pb pollution, particularly in the central and northern areas. The results of this study can provide an effective reference for the optimization of interpolation methods and parameters for

  4. Different Spectrophotometric and Chromatographic Methods for Determination of Mepivacaine and Its Toxic Impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fared, Nehal F; Elagawany, Mohamed; Abdelmomen, Esraa H

    2017-09-01

    Stability-indicating spectrophotometric, TLC-densitometric, and ultra-performance LC (UPLC) methods were developed for the determination of mepivacaine HCl (MEP) in the presence of its toxic impurity, 2,6-dimethylanaline (DMA). Different spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of MEP and DMA. In a dual-wavelength method combined with direct spectrophotometric measurement, the absorbance difference between 221.4 and 240 nm was used for MEP measurements, whereas the absorbance at 283 nm was used for measuring DMA in the binary mixture. In the second-derivative method, amplitudes at 272.2 and 232.6 nm were recorded and used for the determination of MEP and DMA, respectively. The developed TLC-densitometric method depended on chromatographic separation using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates as a stationary phase and methanol-water-acetic acid (9 + 1 + 0.1, v/v/v) as a developing system, with UV scanning at 230 nm. The developed UPLC method depended on separation using a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size) as a stationary phase and acetonitrile-water (40 + 60, v/v; pH 4 with phosphoric acid) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, with UV detection at 215 nm. The chromatographic run time was approximately 1 min. The proposed methods were validated with respect to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines regarding precision, accuracy, ruggedness, robustness, and specificity.

  5. Toxicity of granular activated carbon treated coal gasification water as determined by the Microtox test and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Y; Adams, J C; McTernan, W F

    1986-01-01

    The Microtox assay and various parameters (growth, ATP concentration and electrochemical detection) of Escherichia coli were used to assess the toxicity of various levels of granular activated carbon treated coal gasification process water. The generation time of E. coli was statistically significantly slower at the level of 50 percent treatment than any other level of treatment. No differences were seen for ATP concentration per cell or in the electrochemical detection methods for any level treatment. There was a very high correlation between total organic carbon removal by GAC treatment and reduction in toxicity as measured by the Microtox system. However, even the treated water which had 91 percent of the TOC removed was still highly toxic.

  6. Study of the relative toxicity of anions, with Polycelis nigra as test animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1942-01-01

    A brief review is given of existing knowledge regarding the physiological effects of anions, and literature dealing with their relative toxicity. The degree of toxicity of twenty-seven anions to Polycelis nigra (Mueller) has been assessed, by determining in each case the molar concentration the animal survives for 48 hr. at 15-18/sup 0/C. On this basis their order of increasing toxicity is as follows; commas separate ions of similar degree of toxicity: Cltoxic than cations. Even the most toxic anion (OH) is far less toxic than ionic copper, silver, or gold. The respiration rate of Polycelis is heavily depressed by cyanide, but the survival time is three days or longer, as long as the respiration rate is not less than about 16% of the normal value. With further depression the survival time shortens rapidly, and at 9% normal is under 4 hr. The normal respiration rate of Polycelis nigra is 0.165 cc O/sub 2//g./hr. This is not very much less than that of the trout. Polycelis is considerably the more resistant to cyanide. This is probably connected with its capability of surviving very many hours in water containing a very reduced supply of oxygen. 34 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  7. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  8. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  9. Training needs for toxicity testing in the 21st century: a survey-informed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gabbert, Silke; Worth, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Current training needs on the use of alternative methods in predictive toxicology, including new approaches based on mode-of-action (MoA) and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concepts, are expected to evolve rapidly. In order to gain insight into stakeholder preferences for training, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) conducted a single-question survey with twelve experts in regulatory agencies, industry, national research organisations, NGOs and consultancies. Stakeholder responses were evaluated by means of theory-based qualitative data analysis. Overall, a set of training topics were identified that relate both to general background information and to guidance for applying alternative testing methods. In particular, for the use of in silico methods, stakeholders emphasised the need for training on data integration and evaluation, in order to increase confidence in applying these methods for regulatory purposes. Although the survey does not claim to offer an exhaustive overview of the training requirements, its findings support the conclusion that the development of well-targeted and tailor-made training opportunities that inform about the usefulness of alternative methods, in particular those that offer practical experience in the application of in silico methods, deserves more attention. This should be complemented by transparent information and guidance on the interpretation of the results generated by these methods and software tools. 2012 FRAME.

  10. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  11. Repeated Intramuscular-dose Toxicity Test of Water-soluble Carthami Flos (WCF Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-min Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Water-soluble carthami flos (WCF is a new mixture of Carthami flos (CF pharmacopuncture. We conducted a 4-week toxicity test of repeated intramuscular injections of WCF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Forty male and 40 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 male and 10 female SD rats: The control group received 0.5 mL/animal/day of normal saline whereas the three experimental groups received WCF at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal/day, respectively. For 4 weeks, the solutions were injected into the femoral muscle of the rats alternating from side to side. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were observed; opthalmological examinations and urinalyses were performed. On day 29, blood samples were taken for hematological and clinical chemistry analyses. Then, necropsy was conducted in all animals to observe weights and external and histopathological changes in the bodily organs. All data were tested using a statistical analysis system (SAS. Results: No deaths were observed. Temporary irregular respiration was observed in male rats of the experimental group for the first 10 days. Body weights, food consumptions, opthalmological examinations, urinalyses, clinical chemistry analyses, organ weights and necropsy produced no findings with toxicological meaning. In the hematological analysis, delay of prothrombin time (PT was observed in male rats of the 0.25- and the 0.5-mL/animal/day groups. In the histopathological test, a dose-dependent inflammatory cell infiltration into the fascia and panniculitis in perimuscular tissues was observed in all animals of the experimental groups. However, those symptoms were limited to local injection points. No toxicological meanings, except localized changes, were noted. Conclusion: WCF solution has no significant toxicological meaning, but does produce localized symptoms. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of WCF in male and female rats is expected for doses over 0.5 mL/animal/day.

  12. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  13. Food safety aspect : Toxicity test of gold fish pepes sterilized by gamma irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kallista Rachmavika Putri; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical preservation technique for foods using ionizing energy without impairing the products either natural characteristics or nutritive contents. Formation of free radicals and radiolytic products in irradiated foods may produce toxic substances, mutagen or carcinogenic that can affect the consumer health. Toxicity test as a part of food safety assays on gold fish (Cyprinus carpio ) pepes in a package and irradiated at the dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition was conducted through lymphocyte proliferation because lymphocyte cell is responsible for specific immune response and sensitive to unbalance condition between oxidant and anti oxidant in human body. Malonaldehyde content in the irradiated fish was also measured bearing in mind that malonaldehyde content could be used as indicator in the presence of free radicals and as oxidative damage indicator within the matrix of biological material. Dilution steps was done in all samples both in control and irradiated. Irradiation was conducted at three different times i.e., sample irradiated on 11 November 2006 (A), 14 June 2007(B), 5 April 2008 (C) and in 2008 (code: “no label”) (D), respectively. Proliferation of lymphocyte cell was assayed based on Stimulation Index value (SI), and free radical content of all samples was calculated based on malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml). The measurement of SI in sample without dilution showed that the highest value was found in sample B (1.356), but the lowest value was obtained in control (1.161); at one time dilution the highest value was obtained in sample D (1.344), the lowest was found in sample B (1.084) compared to control (1.259). At twice time dilution, the highest value was found in control (1.293), but the lowest was in sample D (0.984). The results of malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml) showed that sample without dilution has the highest quantity was found in sample A (0.1182 pmol/ml), but the lowest was in sample C (0.1178 pmol/ml) for

  14. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhong Son

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats. Methods:All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Scolopendrid pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 1.0 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results:No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. No significant changes in the weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry were noted between the control group and the experimental group. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion:The above findings suggest Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe to use for treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  15. Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hygienic quality by determining the presence of predominant pathogenic microbial contaminants (contagious or environmental and indiscriminate heavy metals contained in unpasteurized milk samples collected from cattle specie of cow. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected in October, 2014 from different regions of District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and cultured on the selective media plates according to the manufacturer instructions to observe pathogenic microbial flora and confirm it with relevant biochemical tests to specify bacterial specie. Results: Milk samples analyzed on MacConkey and nutrient agar media were found contaminated mostly with coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly, result of the heavy metals analysis performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame photometry showed that raw milk contains heavy metals residues of lead and cadmium contents at higher levels while copper, zinc and chromium were observed lower than permissible limits whereas manganese within specified recommended values. Conclusions: Microbial contamination of milk and toxic metals is mainly accredited to the scrupulous unhygienic measures during processing of milk exhibiting a wide array of hazardous impacts on human health.

  16. Generation of toxic degradation products by sonication of Pluronic® dispersants: implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruhung; Hughes, Tyler; Beck, Simon; Vakil, Samee; Li, Synyoung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K

    2013-11-01

    Poloxamers (known by the trade name Pluronic®) are triblock copolymer surfactants that contain two polyethylene glycol blocks and one polypropylene glycol block of various sizes. Poloxamers are widely used as nanoparticle dispersants for nanotoxicity studies wherein nanoparticles are sonicated with a dispersant to prepare suspensions. It is known that poloxamers can be degraded during sonication and that reactive oxygen species contribute to the degradation process. However, the possibility that poloxamer degradation products are toxic to mammalian cells has not been well studied. We report here that aqueous solutions of poloxamer 188 (Pluronic® F-68) and poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F-127) sonicated in the presence or absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can became highly toxic to cultured cells. Moreover, toxicity correlated with the sonolytic degradation of the polymers. These findings suggest that caution should be used in interpreting the results of nanotoxicity studies where the potential sonolytic degradation of dispersants was not controlled.

  17. Genetic tests for predicting the toxicity and efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievicova, B; Carter, A; Kristova, V

    2007-01-01

    The standard anticancer therapy based "on one size fits all" modality has been determined to be ineffective or to be the cause of adverse drug reactions in many oncologic patients. Most pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies so far have been focused on toxicity of anticancer drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, thioguanine, irinotecan, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Variation in genes are known to influence not only toxicity, but also efficacy of chemotherapeutics such as platinum analogues, 5-FU and irinotecan. The majority of current pharmacogenetic studies focus on single enzyme deficiencies as predictors of drug effects; however effects of most anticancer drugs are determined by the interplay of several gene products. These effects are polygenic in nature. This review briefly describes genetic variations that may impact efficacy and toxicity of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.

  18. UV-visible degradation of boscalid--structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Kinani, Aziz; Rifai, Ahmad; Souissi, Yasmine; Clavaguera, Carine; Bourcier, Sophie; Jaber, Farouk; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2014-05-30

    Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MS(n) ) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg(-1). With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound, all photoproducts may

  19. Application of mercurometric analysis methods to radioactive (and/or toxic) samples: Pycnometry and porosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.

    1991-01-01

    The analytical tools and methods used in the laboratory of High and Medium Activity of the Nuclear Research Centre in Mol to determine the density and the open porosity of radioactive (and/or toxic) samples are described. The density is determined by a vacuum pycnometer with plunger displacement. This home-made apparatus has been automated up to a high degree so that operation is easily performed in the remote handling conditions of a hot cell environment. The amount of mercury displaced by the sample is measured. The accuracy is better than 0.2 %. The porosimeter is a commercial apparatus which was modified to improve the hot cell compatibility and to provide fast processing of the data. The open porosity and its pore size distribution are determined from the measurement of the amount of mercury intruded into the sample under increasing pressure. The paper describes both instruments and the working methods. Also included are some examples of measurement results. (author). 5 figs

  20. Biocompatibility study of two diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications by in vitro toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain); Mariani, Valentina [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Cohen, Dror [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Madi, Lea [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Thevenot, Julie; Oliveira, Hugo [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Coradeghini, Rosella [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Garanger, Elisabeth [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Rossi, François [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Oron, Miriam [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Lecommandoux, Sébastien [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Ponti, Jessica [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Heredia, Pedro, E-mail: heredia@gaiker.es [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Drugs used for chemotherapy normally carry out adverse, undesired effects. Nanotechnology brings about new horizons to tackle cancer disease with a different strategy. One of the most promising approaches is the use of nanocarriers to transport active drugs. These nanocarriers need to have special properties to avoid immune responses and toxicity, and it is critical to study these effects. Nanocarriers may have different nature, but polypeptide-based copolymers have attracted considerable attention for their biocompatibility, controlled and slow biodegradability as well as low toxicity. Little has been done regarding specific nanocarriers toxicity. In this study, we performed a thorough toxicological study of two different block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs); poly(trimethylene carbonate)-block–poly(l-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b–PGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block–poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-b–PBLG) with sizes between 113 and 131 nm. Low blood–serum–protein interaction was observed. Moreover, general toxicity assays and other endpoints (apoptosis or necrosis) showed good biocompatibility for both NPs. Reactive oxygen species increased in only two cell lines (HepG2 and TK6) in the presence of PTMC-b–PGA. Cytokine production study showed cytokine induction only in one cell line (A549). We also performed the same assays on human skin organ culture before and after UVB light treatment, with a moderate toxicity after treatment independent of NPs presence or absence. Interleukin 1 induction was also observed due to the combined effect of PEG-b–PBLG and UVB light irradiation. Future in vivo studies for biocompatibility and toxicity will provide more valuable information, but, so far, the findings presented here suggest the possibility of using these two NPs as nanocarriers for nanomedical applications, always taking into account the application procedure and the way in which they are implemented.

  1. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  2. Disturbances to metal partitioning during toxicity testing of iron(II)-rich estuarine pore waters and whole sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Batley, Graeme E

    2003-02-01

    Metal partitioning is altered when suboxic estuarine sediments containing Fe(II)-rich pore waters are disturbed during collection, preparation, and toxicity testing. Experiments with model Fe(II)-rich pore waters demonstrated the rates at which adsorptive losses of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn occur upon exposure to air. Experiments with Zn-contaminated estuarine sediments demonstrated large and often unpredictable changes to metal partitioning during sediment storage, removal of organisms, and homogenization before testing. Small modifications to conditions, such as aeration of overlying waters, caused large changes to the metal partitioning. Disturbances caused by sediment collection required many weeks for reestablishment of equilibrium. Bioturbation by benthic organisms led to oxidation of pore-water Fe(II) and lower Zn fluxes because of the formation of Fe hydroxide precipitates that adsorb pore-water Zn. For five weeks after the addition of organisms to sediments, Zn fluxes increased slowly as the organisms established themselves in the sediments, indicating that the establishment of equilibrium was not rapid. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamic nature of suboxic, Fe(II)-rich estuarine sediments, how organisms perturb their environment, and the importance of understanding chemistry in toxicity testing with whole sediments or pore water. Recommendations are provided for the handling of sediments for toxicity testing.

  3. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...... stable exposure concentrations of triclosan (log Kow 4.8) in a 6-week multigeneration test with the benthic copepod Nitocra spinipes. The tests were performed in 10 mL vials casted with 1000 mg of silicone (DC 1-2577). Based on a previous pilot study, three triclosan concentrations were selected...... and tested (15 μg L-1; 30 μg L-1; 60 μg L-1) as well as a control (no triclosan). At test beginning, each vial contained 12 individuals consisting of 3 individuals from four different life stages. The test includes feeding with phytoplankton three times a week, which can lead to declining freely dissolved...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Determination of Hydrogen Halide and Halogen Emissions from Stationary Sources—Isokinetic Method,” to determine... shall be 60 minutes and the minimum sample volume 0.85 dry standard cubic meters (30 dry standard cubic...(mg/dscm) is concentration in milligrams per dry standard cubic meter as calculated by the procedure...

  6. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  7. Inv