WorldWideScience

Sample records for toxic burning pits

  1. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  2. Burning/Rubble Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, L.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits, located near each of the major operating areas at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), began collecting burnable waste in 1951. The waste was incinerated monthly. All Burning/Rubble Pits are currently closed except for Burning/Rubble Pit 131-1R, which has not been backfilled but is inactive. No soil cores from the Burning/Rubble Pits have been analyzed. There are four groundwater monitoring wells located around each of the pits, which have been sampled quarterly since 1984. The closure options considered for the Burning/Rubble Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the Burning/Rubble Pits indicates that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show the waste removal and closure option to be the most expensive for all of the pits. 38 refs., 35 figs., 47 tabs

  3. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire... health effects of service members' exposure to toxic airborne chemicals and fumes caused by open burn...

  4. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  5. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  6. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  7. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  8. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... chemicals and fumes caused by open burn pits. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  9. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review... services to Open Burn Pit Registry participants and improve VA's ability to understand the health effects... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Open Burn...

  10. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additional Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents

  11. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  12. Assessing Health Outcomes After Environmental Exposures Associated With Open Pit Burning in Deployed US Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Patricia; Hu, Zheng; Mallon, Col Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the long-term health impact of environmental exposures associated with open pit burning in deployed US service members. Two hundred individuals deployed to Balad, Iraq, and Bagram, Afghanistan, with known exposure to open pits, were matched to 200 non-deployed service members. Both cohorts were observed for adverse health outcomes after returning from deployment. Slight increased risks were observed for respiratory diseases in the Bagram cohort (adj RR: 1.259), and for cardiovascular disease in the Balad cohort (adj RR: 1.072), but the findings were not significant. The combined deployed cohort showed lower risks for adverse health outcomes, suggesting a healthy deployer effect. In conclusion, this study did not find significantly increased risks for selected health outcomes after burn pit exposure during deployment among two deployed cohorts compared with a non-deployed cohort.

  13. Prospective assessment of chronic multisymptom illness reporting possibly associated with open-air burn pit smoke exposure in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Teresa M; Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J; Hooper, Tomoko I; Gackstetter, Gary D; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Besa

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) and possible exposure to an open-air burn pit at three selected bases among those deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Chronic multisymptom illness (reporting at least one symptom in at least two of the following symptom constructs: general fatigue; mood and cognition problems; and musculoskeletal discomfort) was assessed, differentiating by potential burn pit exposure, among deployers who completed 2004 and 2007 Millennium Cohort questionnaires. More than 21,000 Cohort participants were deployed in support of the current operations, including more than 3000 participants with at least one deployment within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjusting for covariates, no elevated risk of CMI was observed among those exposed. There was no increase in CMI symptom reporting in those deployed to three selected bases with documented burn pits compared with other deployers.

  14. Birth outcomes among military personnel after exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; DeScisciolo, Connie; Sevick, Carter J; Bukowinski, Anna T; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To examine birth outcomes in military women and men with potential exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy. Electronic data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to examine the prevalence of birth defects and preterm birth among infants of active-duty women and men who were deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented open-air burn pit before or during pregnancy. In general, burn pit exposure at various times in relation to pregnancy and for differing durations was not consistently associated with an increase in birth defects or preterm birth in infants of active-duty military personnel. These analyses offer reassurance to service members that burn pit exposure is not consistently associated with these select adverse infant health outcomes.

  15. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

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  16. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the P-Area Burning Rubble Pit (131-P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP) is being issued by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), which functions as the lead agency for Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities, with concurrence by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this SB/PP is to describe the preferred remedial alternatives for the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (131-P) (PBRP) Operable Unit (OU) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process

  17. Epidemiological Studies of Health Outcomes among Troops Deployed to Burn Pit Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    0.98 0.93 1.02 0.94 0.90 0.98 Arifjan 6539 710 109 1.14 1.06 1.23 1.05 0.98 1.13 Buehring 1590 146 92 0.96 0.82 1.13 1.04 0.89 1.23 Taji 3539 321 91...exposure to a documented burn pit, for the following outcomes: (1) birth outcomes in infants born to military men and women exposed before and during...2004 and December 31, 2007, born to active-duty military men and women . For all other outcomes, data from consenting participants who completed

  18. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  19. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Luke L; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Evans, Louis H; Tsvetnenko, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH approximately 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and (c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  20. Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly A; Smith, Besa; Granado, Nisara S; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relationship between possible exposure to smoke from documented open-air burn pits and newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among Millennium Cohort participants who have deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Prospectively assessed self-reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among deployers who completed both 2004-2006 and 2007-2008 questionnaires. After exclusions, more than 18,000 participants were deployed, including more than 3000 participants deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjustment, proximity within 3 miles of a burn pit was not significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus in general; however, one location was associated with lupus, although few cases were at this site (n = 2). Results indicate deployers potentially exposed to documented burn pits in the combined three-camp analysis were not at an elevated risk of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Besa; Wong, Charlene A; Boyko, Edward J; Phillips, Christopher J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate respiratory illnesses and potential open-air burn pit exposure among Millennium Cohort participants who deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Using multivariable logistic regression, newly reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema, newly reported asthma, and self-reported respiratory symptoms and possible burn pit exposure within 2, 3, or 5 miles were examined among Army and Air Force deployers surveyed in 2004 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 (n = 22,844). Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with respiratory outcomes after statistical adjustment. Increased symptom reporting was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad; however, this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq.

  2. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  3. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G), Volume 1 Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site were usually shallow excavations approximately 3 to 4 meters in depth. Operations at the pits consisted of collecting waste on a continuous basis and burning on a monthly basis. The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631- 6G (BRP6G) was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal of paper, lumber, cans and empty galvanized steel drums. The unit may have received other materials such as plastics, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, or drummed solvents. The BRP6G was operated from 1951 until 1955. After disposal activities ceased, the area was covered with soil. Hazardous substances, if present, may have migrated into the surrounding soil and/or groundwater. Because of this possibility, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated the BRP6G as a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) subject to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process.

  4. Proposed Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) Clinical Practice Recommendations: National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony; Mirsaidi, Niely; Patel, Bhumika; Viens, Laura; Forsyth, Edward; Li, Jonathan; Dang, Sophia; Dukes, Brittany; Giraldo, Jheison; Kim, Preston; Burns, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    High rates of respiratory symptoms (14%) and new-onset asthma in previously healthy soldiers (6.6%) have been reported among military personnel post-deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The term Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) is used to describe the constellation of respiratory diseases related to hazards of war, such as exposure to burning trash in burn pits, improvised explosive devices, and sandstorms. Burnpits360.org is a nonprofit civilian website which voluntarily tracks medical symptoms among soldiers post-deployment to the Middle East. Subsequent to initiation of the Burnpits360.org website, the Department of Veterans Affairs started the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit registry. This paper: (a) analyzes the latest 38 patients in the Burnpits360.org registry, validated by DD214 Forms; (b) compares strengths and weaknesses of both registries as outlined at the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop; (c) further characterizes the spectrum of disease in IAW-LI; (d) describes the risk factors of affected populations; (e) summarizes current practices regarding management of the condition; and (f) defines future research objectives.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  8. Waste Management: DOD Has Generally Addressed Legislative Requirements on the Use of Burn Pits but Needs to Fully Assess Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    such as tires , treated wood, and batteries) in burn pits during contingency operations. GAO found that DOD’s report fully addressed four of the seven...regulations prohibiting the disposal of covered waste (including certain types of hazardous waste, medical waste, and items such as tires , treated...required contractors to segregate non-hazardous, hazardous, and recyclable materials; establish recycling systems; and maintain all solid waste operations

  9. Statement of basis/proposed plan for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G). Revision 1, Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G (BRP6G) located at SRS, in northwestern Barnwell County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process. Arsenic, beryllium, iron, and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers (OCDD) concentrations in the pit soil are at levels consistent with those found in the background. Therefore, the only contamination attributable to actions in BRP6G is PCB-1254. After the risk contributions of these chemicals are eliminated, the only remaining risk attributable to the pit soil is from PCB-1254 (about 2 x 10 -6 via ingestion of vegetables grown on-site). The maximum concentration of PCB-1254 detected in the pit was 0.115 mg/kg, approximately 10% of the residential action level for PCBs of 1 mg/kg. Based on the results of the remedial investigation and the BRA, it is proposed that No Action be performed for the BRP6G. Considering the low levels of residual contamination present principally below 1.2 meters (4 feet) within the pit and the associated risks (about 2 x 10 -6 ) within the lower level of EPA's target risk range, action is not warranted for this unit

  10. High-temperature rapid pyrometamorphism induced by a charcoal pit burning: The case of Ricetto, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Flavio; Larocca, Francesco; Improta, Salvatore

    Bulk chemistry and mineralogy of the peculiar rock of Ricetto (Carseolani Mts., Central Apennines, Italy) was studied to resolve its controversial origin: igneous dyke or anthropic product. This hybrid rock consists of a colorless, felsic component made up of glass plus quartz, and a brown, femic component made up of fans and spherulites of diopside, calcic plagioclase, wollastonite, and melilite. Textural relationships indicate very rapid cooling and immiscibility phenomena. The bulk chemistry of the rock is the same as that of the surrounding siliciclastic sandstone. The 14C analysis of a coal fragment from bottom of the body yields the conventional age of 227(+/-50) years. The Ricetto occurrence is an example of pyrometamorphism of a siliceous limestone induced by a charcoal pit burning. The small size of the heat source at Ricetto caused an intense but short-lived melting of the country rock. Prograde metamorphism caused a temperature increase up to 1,000-1,100 °C when melilite crystallization conditions were reached at appreciable P(CO2) and high f(O2). Melting occurred in a close system represented by the simplified equation: 3Cal+16.5Qtz+Ms+Bt-->Mel+Melt+2H2O+3CO2+0.5O2. Diopside+calcic plagioclase+wollastonite formed by melilite breakdown during rapid cooling, through the reaction: 6Mel+6Qtz+0.5O2-->3Di+2An+7Wo. Liquid immiscibility caused the separation between the felsic melt component and the femic melilite-bearing component. Immiscibility was characterized by different fractionation of alumina and alkalies between these two phases. Differences in bulk, glass, and mineral chemistry between the Ricetto and other melilite-bearing pyrometamorphic rocks can be attributed mainly to different protoliths.

  11. VOC identification and inter-comparison from laboratory biomass burning using PTR-MS and PIT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Warneke; J. M. Roberts; P. Veres; J. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; I. Burling; R. Yokelson; J. A. de Gouw

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fires of biomass commonly found in the southeast and southwest U.S. were investigated with PTR-MS and PIT-MS, which are capable of fast measurements of a large number of VOCs. Both instruments were calibrated with gas standards and mass dependent calibration curves are determined. The sensitivity of the PIT-MS linearly...

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit No.2 Waste Site. Attchment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO 2 ) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 10 15 g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 10 12 g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  15. Emissions of organic air toxics from open burning: a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, P M [United States Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory; Lutes, C C; Santoianni, D A [ARCADIS G and M, Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Emissions from open burning, on a mass pollutant per mass fuel (emission factor) basis, are greater than those from well-controlled combustion sources. Some types of open burning (e.g. biomass) are large sources on a global scale in comparison to other broad classes of sources (e.g. mobile and industrial sources). A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. The sources that were included in this paper are: Accidental Fires, Agricultural Burning of Crop Residue, Agricultural Plastic Film, Animal Carcasses, Automobile Shredder Fluff Fires, Camp Fires, Car-Boat-Train (the vehicle not cargo) Fires, Construction Debris Fires, Copper Wire Reclamation, Crude Oil and Oil Spill Fires, Electronics Waste, Fiberglass, Fireworks, Grain Silo Fires, Household Waste, Land Clearing Debris (biomass), Landfills/Dumps, Prescribed Burning and Savanna/Forest Fires, Structural Fires, Tire Fires, and Yard Waste Fires. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for many of the sources. Non-PAH semi-volatile organic compound (SVOC) data were available for several sources. Carbonyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were several known sources for which no emissions data were available at all. It is desirable that emissions from those sources be tested so that the relative degree of hazard they pose can be assessed. Several observations were made including: Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, particularly those where polymers were concerned. Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than anthropogenic sources on a mass

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 140 is located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS and is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; and 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 140. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002. Additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) was conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 140. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify COCs for each CAS. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 05-08-01 contains the COCs lead and the radioisotope thorium-234 in the surface soil at sample location A05. (2) CAS 05-23-01 did not have any COCs identified during the field investigation; however, based on historical knowledge of activities at this site, the interior of the Gravel Gertie is considered contaminated with uranium. (3) CAS 23-17-01 contains the COC total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics) at location J20 at a depth of 9 to 10 feet below ground surface. (4) No COCs were identified at CASs 05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05

  17. Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Anjana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenoming by south Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale is a significant health issue in Sri Lanka and in peninsular India. Bites by these snakes frequently lead to local envenoming, coagulopathy and acute renal failure even resulting in death. Recently the genus was revised and the existence of three species viz H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara were recognized. There is, however, a paucity of information on the toxicity of the venoms of these species. Hence, we compared the toxic effects of the three Hypnale venoms using BALB/c mice. Findings Intraperitoneal median lethal doses (LD50 for H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa venoms were 1.6, 6.0 and 9.5 μg protein/g respectively. Minimum haemorrhagic doses for venoms of H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa were 3.4, 11.0 and 16.6 μg protein/mouse respectively. The minimum necrotic doses for the same venoms were 15.0, 55.1 and 68.2 μg protein/mouse respectively. Severe congestion and petecheal haemorrhages were observed in lungs, kidneys, liver and the alimentary tract. Histopathogical examination of kidneys revealed proximal tubular cell injury and acute tubular necrosis with intact basement membrane indicating possible direct nephrotoxicity. Hypnale venoms caused pulmonary oedema, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, focal neuronal degeneration in brain and extramedullary haemopoiesis in spleen. H. hypnale venom caused all above histopathological alterations at lower doses compared to the other two. Conclusion Hypnale venoms cause similar pathological changes with marked differences in the severity of the toxic effects in vivo. Therefore, differences in the severity of the clinical manifestations could possibly be seen among bite victims of the three Hypnale species.

  18. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  19. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Staelens, Jeroen; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet

    2018-02-12

    The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM 10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM 10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout) and a rural background location (Houtem) in Flanders (Belgium). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP) of PM 10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM 10 toxicity were seen. PM 10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (-0.46 biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were associated with altered cellular responses and increased mutagenic activity. These findings may indicate a role of

  20. What We Have Learned From Our Inspections of Incinerators and Use of Burn Pits in Afghanistan: Final Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    including plastics, dining facility food, aerosol cans, electronic equipment, furniture, metal containers, tires , and batteries. During most of...a high priority. Consequently, many items that CENTCOM’s regulation now prohibits from open-air burn pits—such as plastics, tires , and batteries... recycling , the incinerators now operate at about 18 hours per day, which allows time for maintenance. SIGAR 15-33-AL: Final assessment

  1. Improving mortality outcomes of Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: A regional burns centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, M; Ward, J A; Frew, Q; Gerrish, H; Martin, N; Shaw, A; Barnes, D; Shelly, O; Philp, B; El-Muttardi, N; Dziewulski, P

    2018-05-01

    Stevens Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare, potentially fatal desquamative disorders characterised by large areas of partial thickness skin and mucosal loss. The degree of epidermal detachment that occurs has led to SJS/TEN being described as a burn-like condition. These patients benefit from judicious critical care, early debridement and meticulous wound care. This is best undertaken within a multidisciplinary setting led by clinicians experienced in the management of massive skin loss and its sequelae. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of SJS/TEN overlap & TEN patients managed by our regional burns service over a 12-year period. We present our treatment model for other burn centres treating SJS/TEN patients. A retrospective case review was performed for all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TEN or SJS/TEN overlap admitted to our paediatric and adult burns centre between June 2004 and December 2016. Patient demographics, percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), mucosal involvement, causation, severity of illness score (SCORTEN), length of stay and survival were appraised with appropriate statistical analysis performed using Graph Pad Prism 7.02 Software. During the study period, 42 patients (M26; F: 16) with TEN (n=32) and SJS/TEN overlap (n=10) were managed within our burns service. Mean %TBSA of cutaneous involvement was 57% (range 10-100%) and mean length of stay (LOS) was 27 days (range 1-144 days). We observed 4 deaths in our series compared to 16 predicted by SCORTEN giving a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 24%. Management in our burns service with an aggressive wound care protocol involving debridement of blistered epidermis and wound closure with synthetic and biological dressings seems to have produced benefits in mortality when compared to predicted outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosette Van Den Heuvel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout and a rural background location (Houtem in Flanders (Belgium. To characterize the toxic potential of PM10, airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP of PM10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM10 toxicity were seen. PM10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (−0.46 < rs < −0.35, p < 0.01 and IL-8 induction (−0.62 < rs < −0.67, p < 0.01 were associated with all markers for biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of the weathered crude oil used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE) and the resultant burn residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Li, K.; Fingas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity of the weathered crude oil Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend (ASMB) used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), and the resultant burn residue was evaluated using the newly developed Environment Canada water-accomodated fraction (WAF) method and exposure protocol. Rainbow trout, three-spine stickleback and gametes of sea urchins were exposed to saltwater WAF prepared from both weathered ASMB and burn residue. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry headspace analysis of 28 analytes showed low levels of volatile hydrocarbons after 96 hours of exposure (except for sea urchins, in which case the test was only 20 minutes in duration). All samples were found to be not toxic to all species tested. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Air Toxics Emissions from Open Burning of Crop Residues in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Permadi, D. A.; Hopke, P. K.; Smith, K. R.; Nguyet, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural crops production in Southeast Asia (SEA) increases annually to meet domestic consumption of growing population and also for export. Crop residue open burning (CROB) is commonly practiced by farmers to quickly dispose of huge amounts of the agricultural waste, such as rice straw, generated after each crop cycle. This CROB activity emits various toxic air pollutants as well as short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon particles. Our study focused on quantifying the 2015 annual emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), along with other conventional trace gases, particulate matter, and greenhouse gases from CROB in 10 major agricultural crop producing SEA countries. Crop production statistics and current field OB practices were gathered from our primary surveys and relevant secondary data sources. Emission factors for rice straw and maize residue burning were taken mainly from our measurements in Thailand while for other crops relevant published data were used. The best emission estimates of air toxics from CROB in SEA were 112 g-TEQ/yr of PCDD/PCDF, 33 t/yr of OCP, and 25 Gg/yr of total PAH of which the well-known carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was 0.3 Gg/yr. The CROB of rice production had the highest shares of emissions (33-95%) among considered 8 crop types. Indonesia was the top contributor to the total SEA emissions (30-45%) followed by Vietnam (16-26%), Thailand (6-22%) and Myanmar (5-18%). The spatial distributions of emissions, 0.1º x 0.1º, for each specie were prepared using MODIS land cover data. Temporally, higher emissions were observed in the harvesting months of the main rice crops. This emissions database can be used in regional air quality modeling studies to assess the impacts of CROB activity and to promote non-open burning alternatives.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  7. Controlled burn and immediate mobilization of potentially toxic elements in soil, from a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-03-01

    Conducting controlled burns in fire prone areas is an efficient and economic method for forest management, and provides relief from the incidence of high severity wild fires and the consequent damage to human property and ecosystems. However, similar to wild fires, controlled burns also affect many of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the forest soil and may facilitate remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) sequestered in vegetation and soil organic matter. The objective of the current study is to investigate the mobilization of PTEs, in Central Victorian forest soils in Australia after a controlled burn. Surface soil samples were collected two days before and after the controlled burn to determine the concentration of PTEs and to examine the physicochemical properties. Results show that As, Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations increased 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.1 and 1.9 times respectively in the post-burn environment, whereas the concentrations of Hg, Cr and Pb decreased to 0.7, 0.9 and 0.9 times respectively, highlighting considerable PTE mobility during and after a controlled burn. Whilst these results do not identify very strong correlations between physicochemical properties of soil and PTEs in the pre- and post-burn environments, PTEs themselves demonstrated very strong and significant correlations. The mobilization of As, Hg and other toxic elements raise potential health concerns as the number of controlled burns are projected to increase in response to climate change. Due to this increased level of PTE release and remobilization, the use of any kinds of controlled burn must be carefully considered before being used as a forest management strategy in mining-affected landscapes which include areas with high PTE concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon-A novel adsorbent to sequester potentially toxic divalent heavy metals from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawsari, Abdullah; Khan, Moonis Ali; Hameed, B H; Alqadami, Ayoub Abdullah; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Ahmed, A Yacine Badjah Hadj

    2017-01-01

    A substantive approach converting waste date pits to mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon (DPAC) and utilizing it in the removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) was reported. In general, rapid heavy metals adsorption kinetics for Co range: 25-100 mg/L was observed, accomplishing 77-97% adsorption within 15 min, finally, attaining equilibrium in 360 min. Linear and non-linear isotherm studies revealed Langmuir model applicability for Cd(II) and Pb(II) adsorption, while Freundlich model was fitted to Zn(II) and Cu(II) adsorption. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacities (qm) for Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) obtained by non-linear isotherm model at 298 K were 212.1, 133.5, 194.4, and 111 mg/g, respectively. Kinetics modeling parameters showed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model. The activation energy (Ea) magnitude revealed physical nature of adsorption. Maximum elution of Cu(II) (81.6%), Zn(II) (70.1%), Pb(II) (96%), and Cd(II) (78.2%) were observed with 0.1 M HCl. Thermogravimetric analysis of DPAC showed a total weight loss (in two-stages) of 28.3%. Infra-red spectral analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups over DPAC surface. The peaks at 820, 825, 845 and 885 cm-1 attributed to Zn-O, Pb-O, Cd-O, and Cu-O appeared on heavy metals saturated DPAC, confirmed their binding on DPAC during the adsorption.

  9. Occurrence, profiles, and toxic equivalents of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in E-waste open burning soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Chiya; Horii, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ballesteros, Florencio; Viet, Pham Hung; Itai, Takaaki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5.8 to 520 ng/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the mean of total Cl-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples in this study was higher than that of electronic shredder waste, that of bottom ash, and comparable to fly ash from waste incinerators in Korea and Japan. The mean of total Br-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples was generally three to four orders of magnitude higher than those in incinerator bottom ash and comparable to incinerator fly ash, although the number of Br-PAH congeners measured differed among studies. We also found that the Cl-PAH and Br-PAH profiles were similar among all e-waste open burning soil samples but differed from those in waste incinerator fly ash. The profiles and principal component analysis results suggested a unique mechanism of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH formation in EOBS. In addition, the Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs showed high toxicities equivalent to PCDD/Fs measured in same EOBS samples when calculated based on their relative potencies to benzo[a]pyrene. Along with chlorinated and brominated dioxins and PAHs, Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs are important environmental pollutants to investigate in EOBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  11. A review of fire accidents, flammability and toxicity of burning textiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, NJJ

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available OF GASES AND VAPOURS Surface !area (m2) 10,O 11,O 9,o 4.0 The main gases involved in asphyxiation are oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanid&."". The effect of reduced levels of oxygen in the air on the physiological behaviour..., death in minutes 12 SA WRISpecial Publication -September 1982 Hydrogen cyanide is produced from various nitrogen containing products during burning. It is a deadly poison and has in fact been used in the gas chamber in the USA. Its effect...

  12. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  13. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The toxicity and anesthetic effect of sodium hydroxybutyrate and ketamine at different periods of the combined radiation injuy , burn trauma and x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yuchenok, T.Yu.; Rasulev, B.K.; Moiseeva, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Mongreal mice have been used to study animal sensitivity under the conditions of combined radiation injury (CRI), separate burn and X-ray effect to sodium hydroxybutyrate and ketamine. It is shown that while administering these anes thetics the differences in the organism reaction depend on the stage of injury and form of exposure. The changes in anesthesia duration in the first days (1-st - 4-th) after radiation exposure are contrary to those at combined radiation-thermal injury and separate burn trauma. The anesthetic effect of ketamine increases under the conditions of combined radiation-thermal injury and is not changed at separate exposures; its toxicity, on the contrary, on the 30-th day after burn and irradiation is increased

  15. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  16. Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this problem if you are in a high security environment where this is disabled by a network policy. The Registry will work in JavaScript-enabled browsers such as: Google Chrome 17+ Mozilla Firefox 12+ Internet Explorer 10+ Safari 5+ Safari iOS 5+ Android 2.3+ If you are using a compatible ...

  17. Assessment and remediation of earthen pits in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, D.E.; Deibert, L.

    1999-01-01

    The proper decommissioning of abandoned earthen pits and the elimination of the associated environmental liabilities were discussed. An earthen pit is an excavated pit used by upstream oil and gas companies to contain/store/burn produced fluids and gases from either gas or oil producing operations. Produced fluids may include liquid hydrocarbons, process chemicals and water originating from oil wells, gas wells, and associated batteries and processing facilities. Improper operation and management at some pits has resulted in soil and/or groundwater contamination. In response to regulatory direction, petroleum operators in Alberta have begun the process of replacing earthen pits with alternative flaring and liquid storage facilities, and embarked on programs to assess, remediate and decommission earthen pits at their operations. This paper describes some of the challenges facing petroleum operators in this regard. It also outlines the regulatory framework within which decommissioning projects must be completed. 2 tabs

  18. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Hilou, Adama; Aworet-Samseny, Raïssa R R; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Datté, Jacques Y; M'Batchi, Bertrand

    2012-08-11

    Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  19. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae, medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Kiessoun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  20. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  1. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  2. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers

  3. Pits on Ascraeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    24 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows collapse pits and troughs on the lower northeast flank of the giant martian volcano, Ascraeus Mons. Layers of volcanic rock are evident in some of the pit and valley walls, and boulders the size of houses and trucks that were liberated from these walls by gravity can be seen on the floors of the depressions. Location near: 13.6oN, 102.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  4. Why do Pit-Hours outlive the Pit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study why a majority of trades still happen during the pit hours, i.e. when the trading pit is open, even after the pit ceased to be a liquid and informative venue. We investigate the case of 30-year U.S. Treasury futures using a ten-years-long intraday data set

  5. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  6. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  7. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al

  8. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  9. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  10. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.) [de

  11. White phosphorus pits focused feasibility study final July 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Martino, L.

    2007-08-21

    The White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP) Area of Concern (AOC) is a site of about 5.5 acres (2.2 ha) located in the J-Field Study Area, in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland (Figure 1.1). Considerable information about the WPP exists as a result of efforts to characterize the hazards associated with J-Field. Contamination in the J-Field Study Area was first detected during an environmental survey of the APG Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 (Nemeth et al. 1983) by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA; predecessor to the U.S. Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field (three of them at the WPP) (Nemeth 1989). Contamination was also detected in 1983 during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science (1984). The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved installing and sampling nine wells (four at the WPP) and collecting and analyzing surficial and deep composite soil samples (including samples from the WPP area). In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a post-wide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field. In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phase hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil-gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed (four at the WPP), a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today. The results of the USGS study were published by Hughes (1993).

  12. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  13. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN- CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: ... fluids and aggressive chemicals. Pitting corrosion ... the kitchen, food manufacturing and dispensing and.

  14. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  15. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Rivas, D.; Hallen, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion

  16. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Alfonso, L. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Rivas, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion.

  17. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  18. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  19. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS

  20. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  1. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  2. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  3. Study of the pitting effects during the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Yuhua; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Zhao, Weiyu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    The propellant ignition mechanism has become a central issue in the electrothermal chemical (ETC) launch technology, and the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interactions are critical in determining the ignition characteristics. In this work, both an open-air ablation test and an interrupted burning test are conducted for three different propellants. A fused silica window, which is transparent in all relevant wavelengths, is utilized to investigate the role of the plasma radiation. Surface pitting of the propellants after interaction with the plasma is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of pits on the plasma ignition is then studied and a possible formation mechanism of pits is proposed. The input heat flux and the surface temperature of the propellants are obtained by solving a pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction model. The results shed light on the pre-ignition plasma ignition mechanisms and will assist in the development of propellants for an ETC launcher. (paper)

  4. Post-pit optimization strategic alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, M.F.; van Heerden, D.

    2016-01-01

    Successful development of projects or life-of-mine strategies requires an understanding of the relative sensitivity of value drivers such as grade, tonnage, energy costs, direct operational costs, and recoveries. For example, the results could vary significantly depending on the grade strategy, given a specific orebody amenable to open pitting. Pit optimization is a very powerful tool widely used in the industry to determine the pit shell with the most attractive value potential. Based on the...

  5. Computer simulation of pitting potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycock, N.J.; Noh, J.S.; White, S.P.; Krouse, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    A deterministic model for the growth of single pits in stainless steel has been combined with a purely stochastic model of pit nucleation. Monte-Carlo simulations have been used to compare the predictions of this model with potentiodynamic experimental measurements of the pitting potential. The quantitative agreement between model and experiment is reasonable for both 304 and 316 stainless steel, and the effects of varying surface roughness, solution chloride concentration and potential sweep rate have been considered

  6. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Koushik

    2017-01-01

    I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B)1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) cavity. Such cavities are known to occur f...

  7. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  8. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  9. Accountability Quality Shuffler Measurements on Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Pits have generally been treated as accountable units that are intact if merely present and they are excluded from the more demanding nondestructive assay requirements. As pits begin to flow into disposition streams, there may be more incentive to measure the masses of their fissile components for accountability purposes. This Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) Lifecycle Project has explored some ways in which such measurements may be done successfully. The active neutron instrument called a shuffler has been used to measure a variety of actual pits, and a calculational technique has been developed to accurately predict such count rates. Passive multiplicity counting has previously been applied to pits for determining their plutonium contents. This combination of measurement and calculational techniques provide powerful and accurate tools for determining the fissile contents of pits with the quality needed for accountability purposes

  10. PIT 9 Project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Pit 9 is an inactive waste disposal pit located in the northeastern corner of the SDA at the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). It covers approximately 1 acre. The waste within Pit 9 is primarily transuranic waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant and additional wastes, both hazardous and low-level radioactive, from generators at the INEL

  11. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  12. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  13. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  14. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  15. Pitting corrosion on a copper canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Beverskog, B.

    1996-02-01

    It is demonstrated that normal pitting can occur during oxidizing conditions in the repository. It is also concluded that a new theory for pitting corrosion has to be developed, as the present theory is not in accordance with all practical and experimental observations. A special variant of pitting, based on the growth of sulfide whiskers, is suggested to occur during reducing conditions. However, such a mechanism needs to be demonstrated experimentally. A simple calculational model of canister corrosion was developed based on the results of this study. 69 refs, 3 figs

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  17. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.

    1998-10-01

    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  18. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  19. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  20. Project Development Specification for Valve Pit Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishes the performance, design development, and test requirements for the valve pit manifolds. The system engineering approach was used to develop this document in accordance with the guidelines laid out in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314

  1. The Great Bear Flare Pit Project : review of work to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridal, J.; Lean, D.; Findlay, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Published information regarding potential toxic agents associated with flare emissions and a study to determine the risk posed to Treaty 8 First Nations (T8FN) peoples and wildlife was reviewed as part of the Great Bear Flare Pit Project (GBFPP). The project is concerned with the study of water and soil contamination in the immediate vicinity of flare pits in the Del Rio, Doig basin, Blueberry River, and Halfway River regions of T8FN lands in Alberta. The GBFPP has established good baseline data on metal contamination, and other contaminants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the immediate vicinity of selected flare pits. Based on a critical assessment of reports published to date a series of prioritized recommendations for further research are made. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  3. Pitting corrosion of copper. Further model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    The work presented in this report is a continuation and expansion of a previous study. The aim of the work is to provide background information about pitting corrosion of copper for a safety analysis of copper canisters for final deposition of radioactive waste. A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is used to estimate the conditions required for stationary propagation of a localised anodic corrosion process. The model uses equilibrium data for copper and its corrosion products and parameters for the aqueous mass transport of dissolved species. In the present work we have, in the model, used a more extensive set of aqueous and solid compounds and equilibrium data from a different source. The potential dependence of pitting in waters with different compositions is studied in greater detail. More waters have been studied and single parameter variations in the composition of the water have been studied over wider ranges of concentration. The conclusions drawn in the previous study are not contradicted by the present results. However, the combined effect of potential and water composition on the possibility of pitting corrosion is more complex than was realised. In the previous study we found what seemed to be a continuous aggravation of a pitting situation by increasing potentials. The present results indicate that pitting corrosion can take place only over a certain potential range and that there is an upper potential limit for pitting as well as a lower. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model gives meaningful predictions of the minimum pitting potential also when relatively large errors in the input parameters are allowed for

  4. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA)

  5. Pitting corrosion as a mixed system: coupled deterministic-probabilistic simulation of pit growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Israr B. M.; Fonna, S.; Pidaparti, R.

    2018-05-01

    Stochastic behavior of pitting corrosion poses a unique challenge in its computational analysis. However, it also stems from electrochemical activity causing general corrosion. In this paper, a framework for corrosion pit growth simulation based on the coupling of the Cellular Automaton (CA) and Boundary Element Methods (BEM) is presented. The framework assumes that pitting corrosion is controlled by electrochemical activity inside the pit cavity. The BEM provides the prediction of electrochemical activity given the geometrical data and polarization curves, while the CA is used to simulate the evolution of pit shapes based on electrochemical activity provided by BEM. To demonstrate the methodology, a sample case of local corrosion cells formed in pitting corrosion with varied dimensions and polarization functions is considered. Results show certain shapes tend to grow in certain types of environments. Some pit shapes appear to pose a higher risk by being potentially significant stress raisers or potentially increasing the rate of corrosion under the surface. Furthermore, these pits are comparable to commonly observed pit shapes in general corrosion environments.

  6. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  7. W-12 valve pit decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-12-01

    Waste tank W-12 is a tank in the ORNL Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) system that collected waste from Building 3525. Because of a leaking flange in the discharge line from W-12 to the evaporator service tank (W-22) and continual inleakage into the tank from an unknown source, W-12 was removed from service to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement requirement. The initial response was to decontaminate the valve pit between tank W-12 and the evaporator service tank (W-22) to determine if personnel could enter the pit to attempt repair of the leaking flange. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination from the pit to the environment and to other waste systems was of concern during the decontamination. The drain in the pit goes to the process waste system; therefore, if high-level liquid waste were generated during decontamination activities, it would have to be removed from the pit by means other than the available liquid waste connection. Remote decontamination of W-12 was conducted using the General Mills manipulator bridge and telescoping trolley and REMOTEC RM-10 manipulator. The initial objective of repairing the leaking flange was not conducted because of the repair uncertainty and the unknown tank inleakage. Rather, new piping was installed to empty the W-12 tank that would bypass the valve pit and eliminate the need to repair the flange. The radiological surveys indicated that a substantial decontamination factor was achieved

  8. A probability distribution model of tooth pits for evaluating time-varying mesh stiffness of pitting gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Wang, Delong; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Huan; Lin, Jing

    2018-06-01

    Tooth damage often causes a reduction in gear mesh stiffness. Thus time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) can be treated as an indication of gear health conditions. This study is devoted to investigating the mesh stiffness variations of a pair of external spur gears with tooth pitting, and proposes a new model for describing tooth pitting based on probability distribution. In the model, considering the appearance and development process of tooth pitting, we model the pitting on the surface of spur gear teeth as a series of pits with a uniform distribution in the direction of tooth width and a normal distribution in the direction of tooth height, respectively. In addition, four pitting degrees, from no pitting to severe pitting, are modeled. Finally, influences of tooth pitting on TVMS are analyzed in details and the proposed model is validated by comparing with a finite element model. The comparison results show that the proposed model is effective for the TVMS evaluations of pitting gears.

  9. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  10. Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Joan K.; Weimar, Mark R.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Hernandez, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits

  11. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  12. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. ► NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. ► NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  13. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM cavity. Such cavities are known to occur following the resolution of sub-ILM bleed due to various cause including Valsalva retinopathy,2 Terson syndrome, and also in some retinitis3 cases.4 In fact, some of these cavities may simulate a neurosensory retinal detachment or central serous chorioretinopathy on cursory clinical examination.5 To confirm that the features of the current patient1 are indeed related to the optic disc pit, it is necessary for the authors to provide an OCT scan which shows a connection of the presented cavity with the optic disc pit. Also, clear OCT scans of the fovea, both at presentation and at final follow-up would help our understanding of the visual recovery of the patient. The interval between the presenting (28 June 2012 OCT and final OCT (30 Nov 2012 is 5 months and not 6 months as described in the manuscript. For an effective comparison, both the presenting and final OCT scans should have been taken using either horizontal or vertical orientation over the macula. Though the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy is possible, visual recovery in usually unlikely and in such cases an alternate diagnosis needs to be excluded.

  14. Pitting corrosion of zirconium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shayeb, H.A.; Abd El Wahab, F.M.; Abd Elk Meguid, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The open circuit potentials of the Zr electrode are followed as a function of time in various aqueous solutions till attainment of steady state values.The results are discussed on the basis of oxide film thickening and repair. Pitting corrosion of Zr was examined in chloride solutions using the potentiodynamic technique. The effect of some inorganic and organic additives was also investigated for inhibiting the pitting corrosion of Zr and the relative performance is presented and discussed. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...... for the future wireless network design, simulation and performance evaluation. The results show that, in order to comply with ultra-reliable communications (URC) availability requirements, larger shadowing margins will have to be considered in the network planning in open-pit mines, when compared to traditional...

  16. Burning nuclear wastes in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldner, H.W.; Howard, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made up of actinide burn-up in ICF reactor pellets; i.e. 14 Mev neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet fuel region burn-up is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burn-up requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burn-up of /sup 241/Am and /sup 243/Am are discussed in connection with a study of the sensitivity to cross section uncertainties. More accurate and complete cross sections are required for realistic quantitative calculations. 13 refs

  17. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  18. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure birth Markov process is used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. A closed-form solution of the system of Kolmogorov's forward equations is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The transition probability function is identified by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the empirical deterministic mean. In the second model, the distribution of maximum pit depths in a pitting experiment is successfully modeled after the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. An analytical solution of Kolmogorov's system of equations is also found for the transition probabilities from the first Markov state. Extreme value statistics is employed to find the distribution of maximum pit depths.

  19. Parturition pit: the bony imprint of vaginal birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Tatum A.; Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (p < 0.0001). Patients with more prominent pits (grades 2/3) had a greater number of vaginal births. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (p < 0.0001). No males had pits. Our study indicates that parturition pits are associated with prior vaginal birth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. (orig.)

  20. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  1. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation and Design. ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  3. Pit slope manual chapter 3. Mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, M.; Herget, G.

    1977-01-01

    Guidance is given on the procedures required to obtain adequate knowledge of the mechanical properties of the soils and rocks which constitute the walls of the pit. The reason why certain data is necessary is explained and the tests required to obtain these data are described.

  4. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland, ...

  5. Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

  6. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  7. COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  8. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... the transfer of water into and out of the pit, biological trans- formations, and pathogen die-off (Buckley et al., 2008). .... formations that consumed or generated it. However, the age distribution of the originally deposited unbiodegradable mate- rial depends only on the deposition history, as it undergoes no.

  9. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    The Pit Viper--a remote operations waste retrieval system--was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks--a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous 'long-pole' method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001

  10. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  11. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  12. Emergency department management of patients with thermal burns [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolles, Juliana; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Thermal burn injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to treatment of the burns, emergency clinicians must assess for inhalation injury, exposure to toxic gases, and related traumatic injuries. Priorities for emergency resuscitation include stabilization of airway and breathing, intravenous fluid administration, pain control, and local wound care. Special populations, including children and pregnant women, require additional treatment considerations. Referral to specialized burn care for select patients is necessary to improve long-term outcomes. This article reviews thermal burn classification and evidence-based treatment strategies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  13. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  14. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  15. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is considerable national interest in the use of commercial microbially derived products for controlling the rate of accumulation of the contents of pit latrines. Manufacturers claim that some of these products can reduce accumulation rates, prevent the pit from ever filling up, or even result in decreases in pit contents ...

  16. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    should include geo-physical characterization of soil and drainage of pit latrine sites so as ... Key words: Faecal, sludge accumulation rates, slum areas, lined pit latrines. .... Value and its unit Source .... overall quality of the models had to be assessed by validation on ..... Sanitation partnership series: Bringing pit emptying out.

  17. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  18. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  19. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.

    1993-01-01

    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  20. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for many of the sources. Data on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) that are not PAHs were available for several sources. Carbonyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were several sources for which no emissions data were available at all. Several observations were made including: 1) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, particularly those where polymers were concerned; 2) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis. Burning pools of crude oil and diesel fuel produced significant amounts of PAHs relative to other types of open burning. PAH emissions were highest when combustion of polymers was taking place; and 3) Based on very limited data, biomass open burning sources typically produced higher levels of carbonyls than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, probably due to oxygenated structures r

  1. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only

  2. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-01-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia's Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste

  3. Optic disc pit with sectorial retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  4. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP and optic disc pit (ODP are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  5. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ...

  7. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  8. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  9. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G. G.; Zdinak, A. P.; Ewanic, M. A.; Jessmore, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  10. Influence of Pitting Corrosion on Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue of Ship and Offshore Structures, Part II: Load - Pit - Crack Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper has been discussed influence of stresses on general corrosion rate and corrosion pit nucleation rate and growth , whose presence has been questioned by some authors but accepted by most of them. Influence of roughness of pit walls on fatigue life of a plate suffering pit corrosion and presence of the so called „ non-damaging” pits which never lead to initiation of fatigue crack, has been presented. Possibility of prediction of pit-to-crack transition moment by two different ways, i.e. considering a pit a stress concentrator or an equivalent crack, has been analyzed. Also, influence of statistical distribution of depth of corrosion pits as well as anticorrosion protection on fatigue and corrosion fatigue has been described.

  11. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  12. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  13. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  14. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    K A Kamala; S Sankethguddad; S G Sujith; Praveena Tantradi

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to different...

  15. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  16. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  17. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  18. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieri' a Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieri' a Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieri' a Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  20. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  1. Bingham Pump Outage Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Jewell, C.E.; Holmes, W.G.; Marine, I.W.

    1987-03-01

    Seven waste sites known as the Bingham Pump Outage Pits located in areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) received solid waste containing an estimated 4 Ci of low-level radioactivity in 1957-1958. These sites were subsequently backfilled and have been inactive since that time. Most of the radioactivity at the Bingham Pump Outage Pits has been eliminated by radioactive decay. A total of approximately 1 Ci of activity (primarily 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is estimated to remain at the seven sites. The closure options considered for the Bingham Pump Outage Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Evaluation indicates that the relative human health risks for all closure options are small. The greatest public risk would occur after the waste site was released to unrestricted public use (assumed to occur in Year 2085) via the groundwater pathway to a well. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive (89.6 million dollars). The cost of the no waste removal and the no action options is $800,000. 35 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs

  2. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  4. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Velázquez, J. C.; Hallen, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure ...

  5. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  6. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection. Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can ... burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin: Signs ... pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters. Healing ...

  7. Research process of nondestructive testing pitting corrosion in metal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion directly affects the usability and service life of metal material, so the effective nondestructive testing and evaluation on pitting corrosion is of great significance for fatigue life prediction because of data supporting. The features of pitting corrosion are elaborated, and the relation between the pitting corrosion parameters and fatigue performance is pointed out. Through introducing the fundamental principles of pitting corrosion including mainly magnetic flux leakage inspection, pulsed eddy current and guided waves, the research status of nondestructive testing technology for pitting corrosion is summarized, and the key steps of nondestructive testing technologies are compared and analyzed from the theoretical model, signal processing to industrial applications. Based on the analysis of the signal processing specificity of different nondestructive testing technologies in detecting pitting corrosion, the visualization combined with image processing and signal analysis are indicated as the critical problems of accurate extraction of pitting defect information and quantitative characterization for pitting corrosion. The study on non-contact nondestructive testing technologies is important for improving the detection precision and its application in industries.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  9. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  10. Flare pits wastes remediation by low temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, L. J. L.; Jamaluddin, A. K. M.; Mehta, R.; Moore, R. G.; Okazawa, N.; Ursenbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated soil in oilfield sites, flare pits in particular, is subject to strict environmental regulations. Most current remediation techniques such as biological or thermal treatment are not particularly effective in highly contaminated sites, or effective only at costs that are considered prohibitive. This contribution describes a cost-effective method for the treatment of contaminated soil in-situ. The proposed treatment involves low temperature oxidation which converts the hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil to inert coke. In laboratory studies contaminated soil was oxidized with air at temperatures between 150 degrees C and 170 degrees C for three weeks. After the three week treatment extractable hydrocarbon levels were reduced to less than 0.1 per cent. Bioassays also demonstrated that toxicity associated with hydrocarbons was eliminated. Salts and metals remaining in the soil after treatment were removed by leaching with water. Low temperature oxidation requires no special equipment; it can occur under conditions and with equipment that are readily available in an oilfield setting. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  11. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  12. Shiga Toxin Increases Formation of Clathrin-Coated Pits through Syk Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utskarpen, Audrun; Massol, Ramiro; van Deurs, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is a main entry mechanism for the glycolipid-binding Shiga toxin (Stx), although clathrin-independent pathways are also involved. Binding of Stx to its receptor Gb3 not only is essential for Stx retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum and toxicity but also...... activates signaling through the tyrosine kinase Syk. We previously described that Syk activity is important for Stx entry, but it remained unclear how this kinase modulates endocytosis of Stx. Here we characterized the effects of Stx and Syk on clathrin-coated pit formation. We found that acute treatment...

  13. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  15. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  17. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsin, H.; Stephanazzi, J.; Lambert, F.; Curet, P.M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2002-01-01

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  18. Analysis of two Pit-1 gene polymorphisms: Single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals. Pit-1 is a member of the POU domain containing proteins, a group of transcriptional regulators with a critical role in cell differentiation and proliferation. It was shown that this group of proteins control the ...

  19. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2010-01-01

    The bordered pit structure in tracheary elements of 105 Boraginaceae species is studied using scanning electron microscopy to examine the systematic distribution of vestured pits. Forty-three species out of 16 genera show a uniform presence of this feature throughout their secondary xylem. Most

  20. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  1. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  2. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  3. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  4. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  5. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C

    1996-11-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits on copper is described. The model is used to predict the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The criteria used for immunity against pitting is that the volume of the cuprous oxide formed at the site of the metal oxidation at the bottom of a corrosion pit must be smaller than the volume of the oxidised metal. Equal volumes would give a complete coverage of the metal in a pit by adherent cuprous oxide and propagation would not be possible. For potentials where copper is not immune to pitting an estimate of the maximum growth rate is given. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution at the bottom a corrosion pit. Precipitation of oxides as well as of basic salts of copper is considered. A total of 26 aqueous species are considered in waters with compositions ranging from those of tap waters to that of sea water. Calculations are made for the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. 38 refs, 60 figs, 17 tabs

  6. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  7. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  8. Stochastic models for predicting pitting corrosion damage of HLRW containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Stochastic models for predicting aqueous pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. These models could be used to predict the time required for the first pit to penetrate a container and the increase in the number of breaches at later times, both of which would be useful in the repository system performance analysis. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic models are described, and predictions of induction time, survival probability and pit depth distributions are presented. These results suggest that the pit nucleation probability decreases with exposure time and that pit growth may be a stochastic process. The advantages and disadvantages of the stochastic approach, methods for modeling the effects of environment, and plans for future work are discussed

  9. PITTING CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEEL AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Zatkalíková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting corrosion susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 304stainless steel is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine corrosion behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting corrosion, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of corrosion process.

  10. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  11. American Burn Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  12. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  13. Flare pit reclamation in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The legislative acts and policies administered by the Pollution Prevention program of the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, (MELP) were reviewed. MELP is responsible for protecting land, water, air and living resources. Past oil and gas activities have left behind high levels of hazardous materials spills on the land which can pose a risk to human health. Flare pits are also a potential source of soil and groundwater contamination, therefore proper management and remediation of these sites is critical to ensuring that adverse impacts do not occur due to contamination of the sites. MELP has created a Contaminated Sites Regulation (CSR) which presents a consistent approach to ensuring protection of human health, the environment and property. This paper explores key provisions of the CSR, the prescribed contaminated sites management process and compares the B.C. legislation with that of neighbouring Alberta. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Optic nerve head pit-associated maculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Sainz, Raisa Ivis; Hernández Baguer, Raisa; Gonzales Díaz, Rafael Ernesto; Hernández Martínez, Rocío; Galindo Reimond, Kenia

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was made to expand knowledge on the optic nerve head pit-related maculopathy, its physiopathology and main manifestations, clinical and angiographic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, and to describe some of the treatments recently used worldwide. The current therapeutic tendencies were taken into account. The fundamental sources of information were scientific articles from journals in PubMED and Cochrane databases as well as basic texts which dealt with this topic in the last five years through Google search engine. Despite the rare occurrence of the disease, its management may be difficult particularly in macular effect cases. This paper confirmed that most of the studies used small samples, were retrospective, non-comparative and non-randomized. However, some therapeutic modalities were found, which have been used for years and also descriptions of new techniques that require further research. There is no consensus on the ideal treatment protocol for this disease. (author)

  15. Radio Propagation in Open-pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an extensive measurement campaign performed at two large iron ore mining centers in Brazil at the 2.6 GHz band. Although several studies focusing on radio propagation in underground mines have been published, measurement data and careful analyses for open......-pit mines are still scarce. Our results aim at filling this gap in the literature. The research is motivated by the ongoing mine automation initiatives, where connectivity becomes critical. This paper presents the first set of results comprising measurements under a gamut of propagation conditions. A second...... paper detailing sub-GHz propagation is also in preparation. The results indicate that conventional wisdom is wrong, in other words, radio-frequency (RF) propagation in surface mines can be far more elaborate than plain free-space line-of-sight conditions. Additionally, the old mining adage “no two mines...

  16. Construction of the KUT test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, K.E.; Bush, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    Models are required to calibrate spectral logging systems to differentiate between U, Th, and K (''KUT''), in order to determine the grade of low-grade U deposits. The models were constructed by excavating three pits, emplacing three form tanks (11 ft long, 4 ft dia culvert) with 4-in. dia central holes, and pouring the following zones: 3-ft concrete lower barren zone, a 5-ft ore zone, and a final 3-ft upper barren zone. The U ore zone comprised 0.33 percent U 3 O 8 Climax ore, sand, cement, and water; the Th ore zone comprised monazite sands, plaster sand, cement, and water; and the K ore zone comprised feldspar, cement, and water. Form pipes were used to form the central holes. Analyses were made of samples taken from the zones

  17. Burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia van Echtelt

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie is alleen elektronisch verkrijgbaar (downloaden van deze site) Burn-out (ofwel: emotionele uitputting) komt relatief vaak voor: ongeveer één op de acht werknemers in Nederland heeft er last van. Het wordt dan ook gezien als een serieus maatschappelijk probleem dat beleidsmatig aandacht vergt. Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van twee specifieke analyses over burn-out. Ten eerste gaan we na wat het effect is van emotionele uitputting op de loopbaan van werknemers. Ten twee...

  18. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewska, Joanna; Buchanan, John A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: update

    OpenAIRE

    Cassol Spanemberg, Juliana; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; Jané Salas, Enric; López López, José, 1958-

    2014-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although ...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a...

  2. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  3. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases

  4. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

  5. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  6. Corrosion pit depth extreme value prediction from limited inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, D.; Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.; Bourdeau, L.; Guillou, D.

    2004-01-01

    Passive alloys like stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion in chlorides containing environments. The greater the depth of the localized corrosion phenomenon, the more dramatic the related damage that can lead to a structure weakening by fast perforation. In practical situations, because measurements are time consuming and expensive, the challenge is usually to predict the maximum pit depth that could be found in a large scale installation from the processing of a limited inspection data. As far as the parent distribution of pit depths is assumed to be of exponential type, the most successful method was found in the application of the statistical extreme-value analysis developed by Gumbel. This study aims to present a new and alternative methodology to the Gumbel approach with a view towards accurately estimating the maximum pit depth observed on a ferritic stainless steel AISI 409 subjected to an accelerated corrosion test (ECC1) used in automotive industry. This methodology consists in characterising and modelling both the morphology of pits and the statistical distribution of their depths from a limited inspection dataset. The heart of the data processing is based on the combination of two recent statistical methods that avoid making any choice about the type of the theoretical underlying parent distribution of pit depths: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD) is used to model the distribution of pit depths and the Bootstrap technique to determine a confidence interval on the maximum pit depth. (authors)

  7. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  8. Pitting by corrosion in aluminium and Al-6201 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, R.; Schrebler, R.; Layana, G.; Orellana, F.; Olguin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The susceptibility of pure aluminum 6201 alloy to pitting was investigated in sodium chloride solutions through determination of the corrosion, repassivation and pitting potentials. Potentiodynamic polarization including scratching techniques were employed being also determined the type and relative amount of corrosion damage to the metals. The morphology of the attach was determined using scanning electrons microscopy (SEM). The results showed a similar performance for aluminum 6201 alloy and aluminum. It was also observed that an increase in chloride concentration resulted in a decrease in the corrosion, pitting and repassivation potentials of both materials. (Author) 19 refs

  9. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  10. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  11. Assessment of Astrid reactor pit design options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verpoest, Thomas; Villedieu, Alexandre; Robin, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Answering the French Act of the 28. of June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) Project has the objectives to demonstrate the industrial feasibility based on identified domains (safety, operability, economy) of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor and to perform transmutation demonstrations. The pre-conceptual design, started in 2010, considers several reactor pit design options. One of the objectives is to define a reference configuration for the ASTRID project which is able to answer safety and design requirements. The components addressed in this article are: the safety vessel and the Decay Heat Removal system through the main vessel. The core catcher associated to the different configurations studied in this article is an internal core catcher (inside the main vessel). This article deals with the different locations of the DHR through the main vessel and the type of the safety vessel (supported versus suspended vessel). These options are studied in order to establish the advantages and drawbacks of the different configurations in terms of economy, safety, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISIR), operability, robustness, and project risk (authors)

  12. Optimization of coal recovery from open pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Wolff, S F; Baafi, E Y; Cervantes, J A; Coates, D F

    1979-02-01

    The design techniques of the Pit Slope Manual were successfully applied in a case study concerned with optimizing the design of coal mines. A steeply dipping multiple seam deposit, being mined by the truck-shovel combination, was selected for the study. The criterion for optimum slopes was based on the financial consequences of each design, i.e., the resultant benefits and costs. Three alternative designs were analyzed. The first had an average highwall slope angle of 28 degrees and a final height of 290 m. The second had a 35 degrees slope angle and a 305-m wall height. The third had a 45 degrees slope angle and a 320-m wall height. Trade-off between benefits and increased cost of slope instability inherent in steeper slope angles was analyzed for the entire mine life through computer simulation of actual mining operations. The cost models developed were (1) No Cost, (2) Clean-up, (3) Lost Coal, (4) Early Mining, (5) Mine Abandonment, (6) Increased Haulage, and (7) Haul Road Re-establishment. (8 refs.)

  13. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  14. Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned

  15. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  16. Studies in pitting corrosion on archaeological bronzes. Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresle, Aa.; Saers, J.; Arrhenius, B.

    1983-01-01

    Copper has been proposed as a canister material for use in the long-term storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors. The storage period has been set to at least 100 000 years, during which time the copper cylinders must remain intact so that the contained waste has no possibility of leaking out. In this work, the pitting factor in archaelogical copper objects have been determined. The absolute values of the pitting factor obtained are generally very low. In the case of the most thoroughly studied material the pitting factor is only slightly more than three units. Nor does the native copper, with a presumed burial period of about 8000 years, exhibit particularly high values. In summary, it can therefore be concluded that the present study does not provide support for the assumption of extremely high pitting factors in copper-base material that has been buried for periods of several millenia. (G.B.)

  17. Effect of microcrystallization on pitting corrosion of pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Guozhe; Wei Liyan; Zhang Tao; Shao Yawei; Wang Fuhui; Dong Chaofang; Li Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    A microcrystalline aluminium film with grain size of about 400 nm was prepared by magnetron sputtering technique. Its corrosion behaviour was investigated in NaCl containing acidic solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical noise (EN). The polarization results indicated that the corrosion potential of the sample shifted towards more positive direction, while its corrosion current density decreased compared with that of pure coarse-grain Al. The EN analysis based on stochastic model demonstrated that there existed two kinds of effect of microcrystallization on the pitting behaviour of pure aluminium: (1) the rate of pit initiation is accelerated, (2) the pit growth process was impeded. This leads to the enhancement of pitting resistance for the microcrystallized aluminium.

  18. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... pit emptying devices and poor faecal sludge disposal contributing to environmental pollution. ... from each depth using a manual sampling tool and emptied into a plastic container.

  19. Status of the pit disassembly and conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Warren T.; Christensen, Lowell T.

    2000-01-01

    A planned new facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), will be used to disassemble the nation's inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. Sized to handle 35 metric tons of plutonium from pits and other sources over its 10-year operating life, the PDCF will apply the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) technology. ARIES process technology has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and an integrated system is being demonstrated at LANL. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is the lead for technical design oversight of the PDCF. Technical data gained from the ARIES demonstrations is integral for the proper design of the PDCF

  20. 105-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit sludge volume calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, E.N. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of sludge contained in the 100-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit (SFBWP) was calculated from depth measurements of the sludge, pit dimension measurements and analysis of video tape recordings taken by an underwater camera. The term sludge as used in this report is any combination of sand, sediment, or corrosion products visible in the SFBWP area. This work was performed to determine baseline volume for use in determination of quantities of uranium and plutonium deposited in the pit from sandfilter backwashes. The SFBWP has three areas where sludge is deposited: (1) the main pit floor, (2) the transfer channel floor, and (3) the surfaces and structures in the SFBWP. The depths of sludge and the uniformity of deposition varies significantly between these three areas. As a result, each of the areas was evaluated separately. The total volume of sludge determined was 3.75 M 3 (132.2 ft 3 )

  1. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The deposit has undergone intense weathering, forming an oxidised gold deposit ... total of 82 optimal pit outlines were generated using the 3D Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm. ... are also widely accepted in the mining industry.

  2. Template measurement for plutonium pit based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changfan; Gong Jian; Liu Suping; Hu Guangchun; Xiang Yongchun

    2012-01-01

    Template measurement for plutonium pit extracts characteristic data from-ray spectrum and the neutron counts emitted by plutonium. The characteristic data of the suspicious object are compared with data of the declared plutonium pit to verify if they are of the same type. In this paper, neural networks are enhanced as the comparison algorithm for template measurement of plutonium pit. Two kinds of neural networks are created, i.e. the BP and LVQ neural networks. They are applied in different aspects for the template measurement and identification. BP neural network is used for classification for different types of plutonium pits, which is often used for management of nuclear materials. LVQ neural network is used for comparison of inspected objects to the declared one, which is usually applied in the field of nuclear disarmament and verification. (authors)

  3. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  4. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangfa; Jiang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  5. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Keith J. Bourne; John C. Hermanson; Samuel V. Glass; Adriana Costa; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force–displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a...

  6. [Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.

  7. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  8. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  9. Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion process and life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Younas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent corrosion failures of machines and structures, it is desirable to know in advance when the corrosion damage will take place, and appropriate measures are needed to mitigate the damage. The corrosion predictions are needed both at development as well as operational stage of machines and structures. There are several forms of corrosion process through which varying degrees of damage can occur. Under certain conditions these corrosion processes at alone and in other set of conditions, several of these processes may occur simultaneously. For a certain type of machine elements and structures, such as gears, bearing, tubes, pipelines, containers, storage tanks etc., are particularly prone to pitting corrosion which is an insidious form of corrosion. The corrosion predictions are usually based on experimental results obtained from test coupons and/or field experiences of similar machines or parts of a structure. Considerable scatter is observed in corrosion processes. The probabilities nature and kinetics of pitting process makes in necessary to use statistical method to forecast the residual life of machine of structures. The focus of this paper is to characterization pitting as a time-dependent random process, and using this characterization the prediction of life to reach a critical level of pitting damage can be made. Using several data sets from literature on pitting corrosion, the extreme value modeling of pitting corrosion process, the evolution of the extreme value distribution in time, and their relationship to the reliability of machines and structure are explained. (author)

  10. Deterministic chaos in the pitting phenomena of passivable alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerle, Stephane

    1998-01-01

    It was shown that electrochemical noise recorded in stable pitting conditions exhibits deterministic (even chaotic) features. The occurrence of deterministic behaviors depend on the material/solution severity. Thus, electrolyte composition ([Cl - ]/[NO 3 - ] ratio, pH), passive film thickness or alloy composition can change the deterministic features. Only one pit is sufficient to observe deterministic behaviors. The electrochemical noise signals are non-stationary, which is a hint of a change with time in the pit behavior (propagation speed or mean). Modifications of electrolyte composition reveals transitions between random and deterministic behaviors. Spontaneous transitions between deterministic behaviors of different features (bifurcation) are also evidenced. Such bifurcations enlighten various routes to chaos. The routes to chaos and the features of chaotic signals allow to suggest the modeling (continuous and discontinuous models are proposed) of the electrochemical mechanisms inside a pit, that describe quite well the experimental behaviors and the effect of the various parameters. The analysis of the chaotic behaviors of a pit leads to a better understanding of propagation mechanisms and give tools for pit monitoring. (author) [fr

  11. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  12. [Burns in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  13. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  14. Burns - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Burn Care - Русский (Russian) Bilingual ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  15. One Burn, One Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Giretzlehner M., Haller H. L., Faucher L. D., Pressman M. A., Salinas J., Jeng J. C., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...AUVA Linz, Austria Lee D. Faucher, MD University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Melissa A. Pressman , PhD Arizona Burn Center Phoenix

  16. Numerical Investigation on Stress Concentration of Tension Steel Bars with One or Two Corrosion Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion has been observed in steel bars of existing reinforced concrete (RC structures in different erosion environments and has been identified as a potential origin for fatigue crack nucleation. In the present study, under uniaxial tension loading, stress distribution in the steel bars with one or two semiellipsoidal corrosion pits has systematically been investigated by conducting a series of three-dimensional semiellipsoidal pitted models. Based on the finite element analyses, it is shown that stress concentration factor (SCF increases linearly with increasing pit aspect ratio (a/b and increases nonlinearly with increasing pit relative depth (a/R for single corrosion pit problem. For double corrosion pits problem, the SCF decreases nonlinearly with increasing angle of two transverse pits (θ. The interaction of two longitudinal pits can be ignored in the calculation of SCF even if the distance of two pits (d is very small.

  17. Limited mobility of dioxins near San Jacinto super fund site (waste pit) in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas due to strong sediment sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchouarn, Patrick; Seward, Shaya M; Cornelissen, Gerard; Arp, Hans Peter H; Yeager, Kevin M; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Santschi, Peter H

    2018-02-20

    Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments. Using a multi-tracer approach, this study confirmed our hypothesis that sludges from chlorinated pulps are a very likely source of dioxins/furans to this pit. However, this material also contained large quantities of additional hydrophobic organic contaminants (PAHs) and pyrogenic markers (soot-BC, levoglucosan), pointing to the co-occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and combustion byproducts. Comparison of dioxin/furan signatures in the waste pit with those from sediments of the HSC and a control site suggests that the remobilization of contaminated particles did not occur beyond the close vicinity of the pit itself. The dioxins/furans in sediments outside the waste pit within the HSC are rather from other diffuse inputs, entering the sedimentary environment through the air and water, and which are comprised of a mixture of industrial and municipal sources. Fingerprinting of waste pit dioxins indicates that their composition is typical of pulp and paper sources. Measured pore water concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than estimated values, calculated from a multiphase sorption model, indicating low mobility of dioxins within the waste pit. This is likely accomplished by co-occurring and strong sorbing pyrogenic and petrogenic residues in the waste pit, which tend to keep

  18. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  19. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  20. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  1. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  2. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E

    2011-10-01

    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  3. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  4. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  6. Modelling assessment of End Pit Lakes meromictic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The use of End Pit Lakes have been proposed as a remediation solution for oil sands reclamation and operational waters. This report modelled the main factors controlling the occurrence of stratification in Pit Lakes in order to establish design and management guidelines for the Cumulative Environmental Management Association's End Pit Lake Sub-group. The study focused on End Pit Lake size, depth, starting lake salinity concentrations, inflow rates and inflow salinity flux, and investigated their influence on density gradients. One-dimensional modelling and limited 2-D modelling simulations were conducted to examine meromictic potential for a large range of End Pit Lake configurations and conditions. Modelling results showed that fall is the governing season for determining meromixis. The expelling of salt from saline water upon ice formation and its effect on stratification potential and the effect of fresh water loading on stratification potential during spring melt events were not observed to be dominant factors governing meromictic potential for the scenarios examined in the study. Results suggested that shallow End Pit Lakes showed a high turn-over rate with seasonal heating and cooling cycles. Moderately deep End Pit Lakes demonstrated a meromictic potential that was inversely proportional to lake size and require higher starting salinities. With a 2 or 10 million m 3 /yr inflow rate and a 5 parts per thousand starting salinity, a 50 m deep End Pit Lake achieved meromixis at all 3 size ranges considered in the study. Results also showed that the rate of influent salinity decrease was the least important of the parameters influencing meromixis. It was observed that meromixis was a temporary condition in all of the End Pit Lake scenarios envisioned due to the lack of a constant, positive salt replenishment over the long term. It was concluded that further 3-D modelling is required to represent littoral areas as well as to account for extreme winter conditions. A

  7. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin

    2006-01-01

    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  9. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  10. Pitting of Incoloy 800 in presence of CuII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, G.L.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The pitting behaviour of Incoloy 800 in presence of Cu II ions, at 60 degrees C and 280 degrees C was studied by long term exposition of specimens in aqueous cupric chloride solutions. At 60 degrees C experiments were performed in aerated (7 ppm O 2 ) and deaerated solutions containing 500, 1000, 2000, 10000 and 20000 ppm CuCl 2 . At 280 degrees C experiments were performed in deaerated 20 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm CuCl 2 solutions. During each experiment the open circuit potential of the alloy was measured as a function of time. After corrosion test the specimens were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy for the presence of pits. In another set of experiments potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves were used to determine the pitting potential of Incoloy 800 in deaerated NaCl solutions at chloride concentrations and pH values corresponding to those possessed by solutions containing 20 ppm to 20000 ppm CuCl 2 . At 60 degrees C pitting was observed in those solutions where the CuCl 2 concentration is higher than 1000 ppm. At 280 degrees C pitting was found in the specimens exposed to those solutions where the CuCl 2 concentration was higher than 20 ppm. (author). 3 refs

  11. Herniation pits of the femur neck: incidence and radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Hye Yeon

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the incidence and radiologic findings of herniation pit of the femur neck in Korean. In 152 macerated femurs of 88 cadavers, and randomly selected 115 hips of 70 patients, the presence of herniation pit was determined by using fluoroscopy and radiography. It was then examined by CT for inspection of overlying surface and its opening was confirmed by inserting thin steal wire under the fluoroscopic guidance. Seventeen herniation pits in 15 macerated femurs of 13 cadavers were noted. (14.8%, 13/88). Two of 13 individuals showed bilaterality. All lesions were found only in males. Six herniation pit in 6 femurs of 6 patients (8.6%, 6/70) were also noted. All lesions were on anterosuperior aspect of femur neck. Plain radiographs of macerated femurs revealed well marginated and thin sclerosis in 15 lesions. Of all 23 lesions, CT showed cortical breakdown in 3, and overlying cortical thickening in 8. In 15 macerated femurs, roughed area of cortex was found in anterosuperior aspect of femur in all cases, and tiny openings(diameter less than 1 mm) related to cystic lesions were confirmed in 9 lesions. The incidence of herniation pits was 14.8% in 88 cadaver, and 8.6% in 70 patients. All were males

  12. Detailed investigation of current transients from metastable pitting events on stainless steel - the transition to stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, P.C.; Burstein, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Current transients which result from metastable pitting events (on Type 304 stainless steel in an acidic solution containing 1 M Cl - ) are presented. A criterion for the stable growth of open hemispherical pits is developed; the criterion states that the product of current density and pit depth must exceed a certain minimum value, to sustain rapid dissolution. Analysis of the transients from metastable pits shows that these pits fall short of this minimum, as do stable pits initially. The growth of these pits thus requires the presence of another barrier to diffusion, which is thought to be a remnant of the passive film; this forms a flawed cover over the pit mouth. When this cover ruptures under the influence of osmotic pressure, the pit repassivates. Pits growing at higher current densities approach the minimum requirement for stable growth more closely. A ''pitting potential'' results from the effect that metastable pits formed at more positive potentials grow at higher current densities, and are thus more likely to grow into stable pits. The effect of potential on the current density does not result from either activation control or ohmic control; rather, the pits grow under diffusion control. A change, with potential, of the type of pit site which can be activated, causes the potential dependence of the distribution of current densities in metastable pits. Although the distribution of current densities changes with potential, each metastable pit grows under diffusion control with a current density which is independent of the potential; this is confirmed by polarisation tests on growing metastable pits

  13. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  14. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  15. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  16. 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Facility is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. Dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components) are managed and produced on the Hanford Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site, the unit addressed in this closure plan. The 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A Permit Application (Revision 3) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application revision is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and three appendices. This 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of October 15, 1992

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  19. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  20. Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unland, W.; Holl, N.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m 3 /sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

  1. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  2. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  3. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  4. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  5. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  6. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  7. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  9. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation

  10. Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Cooper, Robert F; Dubis, Adam M; Patitucci, Teresa N; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L; Stepien, Kimberly E; Costakos, Deborah M; Connor, Thomas B; Wirostko, William J; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A; Brilliant, Murray H; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-05-20

    Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104

  12. DEFINICIÓN DE PIT FINAL CAPACITADO BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE

    OpenAIRE

    PEIRANO OPAZO, FERNANDO ANDRÉS

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo de tesis es desarrollar una metodología y una herramienta que permitan definir un pit final incorporando las restricciones de capacidad y las condiciones de incertidumbre asociadas al recurso geológico. El resultado metodológico consiste en un algoritmo de cálculo que incorpora heurísticas de definición de pit final como es la enunciada por Lerchs y Grossman (1964), en conjunto con heurísticas de secuenciamiento de bloques como son enunciadas por Gersh...

  13. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithala, Janardhan R.

    An investigation has been performed to determine the pitting resistance of stainless steels and stress corrosion cracking of super duplex stainless steels in water containing chloride ions from 25 - 170°C. The steels studied are 12% Cr, FV520B, FV566, 304L, Uranus65, 2205, Ferallium Alloy 255, and Zeron 100. All these commercial materials used in very significant industrial applications and suffer from pitting and stress corrosion failures. The design of a new experimental setup using an autoclave enabled potentiodynamic polarisation experiments and slow strain rate tests in dilute environments to be conducted at elevated temperatures. The corrosion potentials were controlled using a three electrode cell with computer controlled potentiostat.The experimental programme to determine pitting potentials was designed to simulate the service conditions experienced in most industrial plants and develop mathematical model equations to help a design engineer in material selection decision. Stress corrosion resistance of recently developed Zeron100 was evaluated in dilute environments to propose a mechanism in chloride solutions at high' temperatures useful for the nuclear and power generation industry. Results have shown the significance of the composition of alloying elements across a wide range of stainless steels and its influence on pitting. Nitrogen and molybdenum added to modern duplex stainless steels was found to be unstable at higher temperatures. The fractographic results obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has given insight in the initiation of pitting in modem duplex and super duplex stainless steels. A mathematical model has been proposed to predict pitting in stainless steels based on the effect of environmental factors (temperature, chloride concentration, and chemical composition). An attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of SCC in Zeron100 super duplex stainless steel.The proposed empirical models have shown good correlation

  14. Improving pitting corrosion resistance of aluminum by anodizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, P.; Khan, I.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Anodizing of aluminum was studied in sulphuric/citric/boric acid electrolyte system to improve pitting corrosion resistance. Maximum oxide film thickness was obtained using 5% sulphuric acid, 3% citric acid and 0.5% boric acid electrolyte composition. The corrosion resistance of aluminum sample was determined to find the effectiveness of oxide coating by potentiodynamic polarization test. The surface morphology of aluminum samples was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after corrosion test. It was found that the coated aluminum sample obtained by anodizing in sulphuric/citric/boric acid electrolyte system exhibited better pitting corrosion resistance with no significant difference in surface morphology. (author)

  15. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  16. Community integration after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Bruning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation of one or several oral soft tissues with the tongue being affected the most, and may be associated with some other symptoms outside the oral structures. The oral symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually within a time course, may be persistent throughout the day or get more intense as the day progresses in a complaint-free patient in the morning. The syndrome affects mostly women and those over 50 years old, and usually caused by multiple factors....

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage; Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi; Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the ...

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and alte...

  20. Microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziying; Han Dong; Jiang Yiming; Shi Chong; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The relationship between pitting corrosion resistance and annealing temperature for UNS S32304 was systemically studied. ► The specimens annealed at 1080 °C for 1 h, quenched in water exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance. ► The relationship between microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed UNS S32304 was discussed in detail. ► The pitting corrosion resistance is consistent with pitting resistance equivalent number of weaker phase for UNS S32304 alloy. - Abstract: The effect of annealing temperature in the range from 1000 to 1200 °C on the pitting corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 was investigated by the potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature techniques. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies were studied using a scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the nucleation of metastable pits transformed from austenite phase to ferrite phase with the increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the pitting corrosion resistance firstly increased and then decreased. The highest pitting corrosion resistance was obtained at 1080 °C with the highest critical pitting temperature value and pitting nucleation resistance. The results could be well explained by the microstructural evolution of ferrite and austenite phases induced by annealing treatment.

  1. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  2. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  3. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M

    2016-03-01

    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  4. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  5. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  6. Railroad Rails Containing Electrode-Induced Pitting from Pressure Electric Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-18

    This paper describes the forensic evaluations of three railroad rails containing electrode-induced pitting. These evaluations include: magnetic particle inspection to nondestructively detect cracks emanating from the pitting; fractography to study th...

  7. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  8. Preliminary quantification of a shape model for etch-pits formed during natural weathering of olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, M. Anna; Velbel, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Many etch-pits on olivine grains occur as a pair of cone-shaped pits sharing a base, which consequently appear as diamond-shaped etch-pits in cross-section. Quantitative image analysis of back-scattered electron images establishes empirical dimensions of olivine etch-pits in naturally weathered samples from Hawaii and North Carolina. Images of naturally etched olivine were acquired from polished thin-sections by scanning electron microscopy. An average cone-radius-to-height ratio (r:h) of 1.78 was determined for diamond-shaped cross-sections of etch-pits occurring in naturally weathered olivine grains, largely consistent with previous qualitative results. Olivine etch-pit shape as represented by r:h varies from slightly more than half the average value to slightly more than twice the average. Etch-pit shape does not appear to vary systematically with etch-pit size.

  9. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  10. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  11. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...

  12. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  13. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  14. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  15. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...

  16. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  17. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  19. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  20. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  1. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  2. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  3. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-07-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  4. Characterization of pavement distress from test pit observation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available the profiling exercise of an investigation into the causes of the premature failure of a pavement. The field investigation entailed a detailed inspection and recording of the profile exposed in test pits, with particular attention being paid to areas with cracks...

  5. THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHATE ON COPPER PITTING CORROSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhole leaks caused by extensive localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes is a problem for many homeowners. Pinhole water leaks may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. A large water system in Florida has been addressing a widespread pinhole leak proble...

  6. COPPER PITTING CORROSION AND PINHOLE LEAKS: A CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localized corrosion, or "pitting", of copper drinking water pipe continues is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack leads to pinhole leaks that can potentially lead to water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs for the homeowners, as well as th...

  7. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  8. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    additive products. Protocols were developed and tested on a range of different commercial products sold for their ability to control the rate of accumulation of pit latrine contents. The effect of commercial additives on mass loss from VIP sludge in. 300 g honey jars was compared to mass loss from similar units subjected to no ...

  9. Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.Z.; Howell, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact

  10. The kinetics of pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Taylor, K.J.; Sooi, Z.

    1988-02-01

    The development of an improved statistical method for analysing pit growth data to take account of the difference in area of laboratory specimens and full sized high level nuclear waste containers is described. Statistical analysis of data from pit growth experiments with large area (460 cm 2 ) plates of BS 4360 steel have indicated that the depth distributions correlate most closely with a limited distribution function. This correlation implies that previous statistical analyses to estimate the maximum pit depths in full size containers, which were made using unlimited distribution functions, will be pessimistic. An evaluation of the maximum feasible pitting period based on estimating the period during which the oxygen diffusion flux is sufficient to stabilise a passive film on carbon steel containers has indicated that this is of the order of 125 years rather than the full 1000 year container life. The estimate is sensitive to the value of the leakage current assumed to flow through the passive film, and therefore work is planned to measure this accurately in relevant granitic environments. (author)

  11. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    African Journal of Environmental Science and ... Department of Agricultural and Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, ... Key words: Pit latrine, faecal sludge management, developing countries, ..... PCA was the most innovative and novel aspect of the ..... A project report submitted to Loughborough University of.

  12. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  13. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site

  14. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Rationale and concept for a lunar pit reconnaissance probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    Speculation on near-term scientific reasons for the exploration of lunar pits is offered alongside comments on possible longer-term human exploitation. It is proposed that in order to determine whether or not one or more of the pits offer access the large subsurface voids e.g. a non-collapsed lava tube, a preliminary reconnaissance mission solely focused on obtaining lateral images (and/or LiDAR maps) is needed. Possible concept options for such a preliminary reconnaissance mission are discussed. It is suggested that one of the best possible strategies is to employ a micro-sized probe (∼0.3m) that would hop from a nearby main landing spacecraft to the selected pit. After the surface position of the main lander is determined accurately, the probe would perform a ballistic hop, or hover-traverse, a distance of ∼3 km over the lunar surface using existing propulsive and guidance technology capability. Once hovering above the pit, the probe or a separate tethered imaging unit would then be lowered into the pit to acquire the necessary subsurface void topology data. This data would then be transmitted back to Earth, directly, via the lander, or via a store-and-forward orbiting relay. Preliminary estimates indicate that a probe of ∼14 kg (dry mass) is viable using a conventional hydrazine monopropellant system with a propellant mass fraction of less than ∼0.2 (20%) including margins, suggesting a piggyback architecture would be feasible.

  16. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  17. Evaluation of water chemistry on the pitting susceptibility of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the reactor disassembly (cooling) basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Experience shows that fuels stored in water are subject to rapid pitting corrosion if the water quality is poor. Upgrade projects and actions, including those to improve water quality, were recently undertaken to upgrade the disassembly basins for extended storage. A technical strategy was developed for continued basin storage of aluminum-clad fuel assemblies. The strategy includes development and implementation of basin technical standards for water quality to minimize attack due to pitting corrosion over a desired storage period. In the absence of localized corrosion, only slow, general corrosion of the cladding would be expected. A laboratory corrosion program is being performed to provide the bases for technical standards by identifying the region of aggressive water qualities where existing oxide films would tend to break down and pits would initiate and remain active. Initial results from corrosion potential and cyclic polarization testing of aluminum alloys in various water chemistries have shown that low conductivity water (< 50 μS/cm) should not be aggressive to cause self-pitting corrosion. Initial results from tests of 8001 and 5052 aluminum and aluminium-10% uranium alloy indicate that a strong galvanic couple should not exist between the aluminum cladding materials and the aluminum-uranium fuel. Additional laboratory testing will include immersion testing to allow characterization of the growth rate of active pits to benchmark a kinetic model. This model will form the basis for a water quality technical standard and enable prediction of the life of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels in basin storage

  18. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  19. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  20. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  1. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  2. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J H; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  3. ON THE PROPAGATION OF OPEN AND COVERED PIT IN 316L STAINLESS STEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stéphane; Robin, Raphaël; Rouillard, Fabien; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The propagation of a single pit was investigated with a flow micro-device. • Both in depth and radial pit propagation were characterized. • The formation of a salt film in the pit was discussed. - Abstract: Pitting corrosion on stainless steel has been widely studied during the last decades, but since it is a stochastic process, it remains difficult to analyze experimentally such a phenomenon. In this work, reproducible single pits were performed on 316L steel by using an experimental setup based on the use of a glass microcapillary to locally supply chloride ions on the steel surface in order to characterize the pit propagation. This original approach allowed obtaining new results about pit propagation. Indeed, it was possible to control the presence of a metallic cap covering the pit by adjusting the experimental parameters (potential – chloride to sulfate ratio – temperature). The presence of this cover was shown to be an important issue concerning the propagation mechanism. It was also possible to study the evolution of both the pit depth and the pit diameter as a function of various parameters. Then, based on the simulation of the current densities at the pit bottom and at the pit aperture, a special attention has been paid for the investigation of the local propagation mechanism.

  4. Creating Nanoscale Pits on Solid Surfaces in Aqueous Environment with Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Friis, Esben P.

    2000-01-01

    of the pits can be controlled well in aqueous environments, and the operations are simple. Parameters affecting the pit formation and size have been systematically characterized to show that pit formation is dominated by bias voltage. A mechanism is proposed based on local surface reconstruction induced...

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the oral mucosa. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. This article provides an overview of the literature on this syndrome with special reference to the etiological factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management with reference to the most recent studies.

  6. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  7. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  8. Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2016-04-01

    Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  10. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D

    2002-12-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human

  11. Deep sole burns in several participants in a traditional festival of the firewalking ceremony in Kee-lung, Taiwan--clinical experiences and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Kang; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Feng, Chun-Che

    2012-11-01

    Firewalking is a common Taoist cleansing ceremony in Taiwan, but burns associated with the practice have rarely been reported. We analyzed the patients with plantar burns from one firewalking ceremony. In one firewalking ceremony, 12 Taoist disciples suffered from contact burns to the soles of their feet while walking over burning coals. Eight of them had at least second-degree burns over areas larger than 1% of their total body surface areas (TBSAs). The age, sex, medical history, date of injury, time taken to traverse the fire pit, depth and TBSA of the burns, treatment, length of stay, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Deep, disseminated second- to third-degree burns were noted and healing took as long as three weeks in some patients. Because disseminated hypertrophic scars form after burns, the soles involved regain much of their tensile strength while walking. The patients experienced only a few difficulties in their daily lives three months after injury. From our experience treating patients with deep disseminated second- to third-degree plantar burns caused by firewalking, we conclude that they should be treated conservatively, with secondary healing rather than a skin graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of primary pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shual, Li; Jiang, Ming; Duan, Delin

    2006-09-01

    The formation of pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda was observed and examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and epifluorence microscope. It is indicated that the pit connection was formed in late stage of conchocelis phase and the early stages of conchosporangial cell development, and disappeared in bispore stage. The pit connection contained a thin membrane layer at outer pit plug. Stained with 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI), transferring of DNA or RNA between adjacent cells were observed in late stage of conchocelis development, it was deduced that pit connection might serve as a channel for signal transduction and genetic substance transportation in conchocelis phase.

  13. Venomics of New World pit vipers: genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E; Fry, Bryan G; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H Lisle; Sovic, Michael G; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-01-16

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across Agkistrodon and a ground for

  14. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  15. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  16. Assault by burning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  17. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes : Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are

  18. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  19. A Bayesian approach to modeling and predicting pitting flaws in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Mao, D.; Pandey, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generators in nuclear power plants have experienced varying degrees of under-deposit pitting corrosion. A probabilistic model to accurately predict pitting damage is necessary for effective life-cycle management of steam generators. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model of pitting corrosion characterizing the inherent randomness of the pitting process and measurement uncertainties of the in-service inspection (ISI) data obtained from eddy current (EC) inspections. A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation-based Bayesian method, enhanced by a data augmentation technique, is developed for estimating the model parameters. The proposed model is able to predict the actual pit number, the actual pit depth as well as the maximum pit depth, which is the main interest of the pitting corrosion model. The study also reveals the significance of inspection uncertainties in the modeling of pitting flaws using the ISI data: Without considering the probability-of-detection issues and measurement errors, the leakage risk resulted from the pitting corrosion would be under-estimated, despite the fact that the actual pit depth would usually be over-estimated.

  20. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  1. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  2. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  3. Dependence of Crystallographic Orientation on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LiNa; Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Dong, JianXin; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.; Wang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the pitting corrosion behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 028 was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potentiodynamic polarization technique, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that there is anisotropy of pitting corrosion that strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of the surface plane. The distribution of pit density in a standard stereographic triangle indicates that the crystallographic planes close to {100} are more prone to pitting corrosion compared to planes {110} and {111}. The surface energy calculation of (001) and (111) shows that the plane with a high atomic packing density has a low surface energy with concomitant strong resistance to pitting corrosion. A correlation function between crystallographic orientation and pitting corrosion susceptibility suggests a method that not only predicts the pitting resistance of known textured materials, but also could help to improve corrosion resistance by controlling material texture.

  4. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  5. Development of pits and cones on ion bombarded copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.A.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Whitton, I.L.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of pits and cones on Ar ion bombarded copper has been studied. Carefully polished surfaces of large grained 99.999% pure copper crystals have been bombarded at normal incidence with 40 keV argon ions. The cone formation has been investigated for annealed and non-annealed crystals at room temperature and at 30 K and in the case of monocrystal and polycrystal samples. Although in the most other studies the presence of impurities is as a necessary condition for generation of cones and pits the obtained experimental results show that under certain conditions these features are formed on clean surfaces. It is shown that the dominant parameter in the production of cones on copper is the crystal orientation [ru

  6. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures

  7. Integrating Safeguards into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement which stipulates each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into material which could not be used for weapon purposes. Supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to dispose of excess nuclear materials, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed and constructed to disassemble the weapon ''pits'' and convert the nuclear material to an oxide form for fabrication into reactor fuel at the separate Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility. The PDCF design incorporates automation to the maximum extent possible to facilitate material safeguards, reduce worker dose, and improve processing efficiency. This includes provisions for automated guided vehicle movements for shipping containers, material transport via automated conveyor between processes, remote process control monitoring, and automated Nondestructive Assay product systems

  8. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kose

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

  9. Removal of the damaged fuel from Paks-2 pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cserhati, A.

    2007-01-01

    On 10 April 2003, during the outage period a chemical cleaning program for the fuel assemblies has been carried out at the unit 2, in a specially designed cleaning tank. The tank is located in a pit, near to the reactor. 30 fuel assemblies have been significantly damaged due to inadequate cooling. After the extensive preparation - lasting 3,5 years - the pickup and encapsulation of the damaged fuel has been preformed. All tasks have been carried out safely, during the planned 3 months without any substantial problems. This paper covers the events of this last implementation phase. The main topics are: initial conditions of the pit and the cleaning tank before the start of the recovery; tasks and responsibilities, organization, timing, control.; visual following for the fuel removal; technology features, steps made; short and long term tasks after the removal of the fuel; summary, achievements. (author)

  10. Image features of herniation pit of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Li Guangming; Wang Cunli; Wang Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging appearances of herniation pit of the femoral neck. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray, CT and MRI findings of 9 patients with herniation pit of the femoral neck. All nine patients were male with the age ranging from 21 to 73 years. They had pain in the hip from two months to two years duration. Results: The bilateral hips were affected in six patients, the right hips in the other 3 patients. Of the nine patients, X-ray plain films (2 cases), CT scanning(6 cases), and MR scanning (5 cases ) were performed. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm x 0.6 cm to 1.0 cm x 1.5 cm, located in the anterosuperior portion of the femoral neck (n=7) or anteroinferior portion (n=2). X-ray plain films showed an osteolytic lesion surrounded by a sclerotic rim. CT scanning showed the lesion just below the cortex of the femoral neck surrounded by a rim of sclerosis or associated with a small cortical break in two patients. MR scanning showed low signal intensity in five patients on T 1 WI and high signal intensity surrounded by a rim of low signal intensity (n=3) or low signal intensity (n=2) on T 2 WI, and high signal intensity on fat suppression MR image. A small joint effusion was observed in two cases on T 2 WI. Conclusion: The CT and MRI findings of herniation pit of the femoral neck are characteristic, it is useful in defining the diagnosis of the herniation pit of the femoral neck. (authors)

  11. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Wise, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  12. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  13. Pitting Corrosion Susceptibility of AISI 301 Stainless Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions - 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Tensile tests and microscopic examinations were performed on samples prepared from the steel after exposure in the various environments.

  14. Composição mineral e severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Catarina' Mineral composition and bitter pit severity in 'Catarina' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Catarina', colhidas na maturação comercial em pomar no município de São Joaquim-SC, foram separadas em quatro lotes de 14 frutos, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-5 lesões/fruto e alta (6-18 lesões/fruto. Foram determinadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa de cada fruto. Foram verificadas relação linear (P 'Catarina' apples were harvested at the commercial maturity in an orchard in São Joaquim-SC and segregated in four lots of 14 fruits with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit/fruit, low (1-2 pits/fruit, moderate (3-5 pits/fruit, and high (6-18 pits/fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K, and N in the skin and flesh tissues were performed on individual fruits of each severity level. The average number of pits/fruit (calculated for each lot of bitter pit severity showed a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the skin Ca content, and a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the ratios of Mg/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg+N/Ca in the skin. For the flesh, the increasing of bitter pit severity was accompanied by significant reduction of Ca and Mg contents. The multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis showed that the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin provided the best discrimination between the lots of fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity. Therefore, for 'Catarina' apples, increasing values of the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin are indicative of fruits with increasing bitter pit susceptibility.

  15. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  16. Micro pit formation by mercury-sphere collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The development of a MW-class spallation neutron source facility is being carried out under the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Project promoted by JAERI and KEK. A mercury target working as the spallation neutron source will be subjected to pressure waves generated by rapid thermal expansion of mercury due to a pulsed proton beam injection. The pressure wave will impose dynamic stress on the vessel and deform the vessel, which would cause cavitation in mercury. To evaluate the effect of mercury micro jets, driven by cavitation bubble collapse, on the micro-pit formation, analyses on mercury sphere collision were carried out: single bubble dynamics and collision behavior on interface between liquid and solid, which take the nonlinearity due to shock wave in mercury and the strain rate dependency of yield stress in solid metal into account. Analytical results give a good explanation to understand relationship between the micro-pit formation and material properties: the pit size could decrease with increasing the yield strength of materials. (author)

  17. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  18. Water quality in gravel pits in the Bratislava area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Rohacikova, A.; Zenisova, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The gravel pits around Bratislava have an esthetic, urban and recreational function. Open water table areas are in a direct contact with the air and acquire some characteristics of the surface water. The quality of open water table is much more susceptible to pollution than that of groundwater. Wet and dry deposition, water inflow from the surrounding surface, unmanageable sewerage effluents, solid and liquid wastes, but also the water birds contribute to the pollution. The Department of Hydrogeology has monitored the water quality in six gravel pits (Cunovo, Drazdiak, Strkovec, Pasienky, Zlate Piesky, Vajnory) since 1976 with an an interruption between 1988 - 1993. Two sampling per year have been made since 1994 and after 1998 the analyses have been supplemented by Na, K, Fe, Mn, by oxygen regime parameters, by trace elements (As, Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and by organic pollutants. As regards the oxygen regime, the water quality pits is very good. The anthropogenic influence is expressed mainly by the increased contents of sulfates and chlorides. Most problematic trace elements are the mercury and vanadium (Drazdiak, Zlate Piesky and Vajnory). (authors)

  19. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  20. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  1. Oil sands mine pit wall design and performance at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Danku, M; Purhar, G. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This study conducted slope stability analyses in order to compare pit performance at an oil sands mine with results from computerized simulations using conventionally known soil parameters. Ranges included fully-drained to fully-saturated piezometric conditions; full-peak strength conditions; fully-softened peak conditions; residual shear strength conditions; and undrained shear strength considerations. Pit wall designs were reviewed and a history of marine clay layers at the mine was presented. Assumed overburden fall-down limits were considered. Shovel overburden slope angles were calculated. An analysis of the review suggested that steeper pit walls provide less room for error and have a higher rate of failures. Incised pleistocene channels, joint and fracture areas as well as higher piezometric level areas also impacted on slope performance. Failed areas influenced ore volumes and led to productivity reductions below 50 per cent. It was concluded that the overburden portions of the oil sands mine ranged between 4H:1V to 5H:1V due to haul roads and the timing of top-bench pushbacks. Future plans for the mine must consider ore inventories, haul road requirements; running surface requirements; and ramping accesses. Future slopes at the oil sands mine will be buttressed with overburden and tailings storage areas, while longer-term slopes will be flattened. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Investigation of the pitting corrosion of low carbon steel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken because the prediction of the degradation rate of low carbon steel contains over long time frames is one of the crucial elements in the development of a source term model for low-level shallow land burial. The principal data base considered is that of the NBS corrosion measurements of ferrous materials buried in the ground for periods of up to 18 years. In this investigation, the maximum penetration in mils, hm, due to pitting corrosion was found to conform closely to the relation h m = kt n where it is the exposure time of the sample in years, κ is the pitting parameter in mil/(years) n , and n > O is a parameter related to the aeration property of the soil. The central objective of the present investigation is the determination of the dependence of the pitting parameters κ and n on the soil properties. The result of a detailed linear correlation analysis of κ on one hand, the pH value and the resistivity of the soil on the other hand revealed that κ is principally influenced by the pH value of the soil. The resistivity of the soil is found to play a minor role

  3. A preliminary pit slope stability study Kvanefjeld, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvig, P.

    1983-11-01

    On the basis of 1300 field measurements of joint planes, four individual structural regions have been outlined in the Kvanefjeld area. Potential failure planes and planes which are unlikely to be involved in slope failures are identified. Failures seem, not likely to occur on walls dipping SW or NE respectively, but may occur on walls dipping NM. The factors of safety for each region are calculated in order to determine the sensibility of the overall slope to different overall slope angles. The factors of safety does only exceed the required factor of safety of 1.5 in one of the structural regions. Changing the overall pit slope inclination from 55deg to 45deg improves the security, but even still not satisfactorily for two of the regions. At 45deg overall pit slope in parts of the pit implies additional 14.3 x 10 6 tonnes of non-mineralized material to be mined, thus resulting in a total mineralized- to non-mineralized material ratio about 1.0: 1.7. (author)

  4. Remediation of flare pit soils using supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, V.; Guigard, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the ability of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from two flare pit soils in Alberta. SFE is a technology for remediation of contaminated soils. In order to determine the optimal extraction conditions and to understand the effects of pressure, temperature, supercritical carbon dioxide flow rate, soil type, and extraction time on the extraction efficiency of SFE, extractions were performed on two flare pit soils at various pressures and temperatures. Chemicals in the study included diesel oil, SAE 10-30W motor oil, n-decane, hexadecane, tetratriacontane and pentacontane. The best extraction conditions were defined as conditions that result in a treated soil with a PHC concentration that meets the regulatory guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in the Canada-wide standard for PHC is soil. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the SFE process is solvent-density dependent for the conditions studied. The highest extraction efficiency for both soils was obtained at conditions of 24.1 MPa and 40 degrees C. An increase in pressure at a fixed temperature led to an increase in the extraction efficiency while an increase in temperature at a fixed pressure led to a decrease in the extraction efficiency. The treated soils were observed to be lighter in colour, drier, and grainier than the soil prior to extraction. It was concluded that SFE is an effective method for remediating flare pit soils. 63 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. A burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Converting unwanted biomass to fuel pellets four times denser than wood has local companies in Queensland, Australia excited. The well-tested 'old technology' of burning wood is going through a renaissance. There is a growing focus on producing high- density biomass pellets from feedstock that would otherwise be considered waste. Their uniform size reduces transport costs, the energy content varies, about 4-5MWh/tonne, compared to 2.8MWh/t for brown coal or 8.3MWh/t for black coal. The biomass estimates from sugarcane, other agricultural wastes and wood wastes suggest Australia has huge biomass resources, but whether or not Australia's political settings see the potential fulfilled is yet to be seen. Altus Renewables recently disclosed plans to build a biofuel pelletisation plant at Queensland's largest sawmill. Altus are very interested in the European market, the world's leading pellet consuming region, where according to the IEA, biomass represents 65% of the renewables. Cheap power provided by waste biomass could potentially power biomass converters, desalination plants, or even pump water inland to arid regions.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Woda, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Objective To review the clinical entity of primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS), its pathophysiological mechanisms, accurate new diagnostic methods and evidence-based treatment options, and to describe novel lines for future research regarding aetiology, pathophysiology, and new therapeutic strategies. Description Primary BMS is a chronic neuropathic intraoral pain condition that despite typical symptoms lacks clear clinical signs of neuropathic involvement. With advanced diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing of small somatosensory and taste afferents, neurophysiological recordings of the trigeminal system, and peripheral nerve blocks, most BMS patients can be classified into the peripheral or central type of neuropathic pain. These two types differ regarding pathophysiological mechanisms, efficacy of available treatments, and psychiatric comorbidity. The two types may overlap in individual patients. BMS is most frequent in postmenopausal women, with general population prevalence of around 1%. Treatment of BMS is difficult; best evidence exists for efficacy of topical and systemic clonazepam. Hormonal substitution, dopaminergic medications, and therapeutic non-invasive neuromodulation may provide efficient mechanism-based treatments for BMS in the future. Conclusion We present a novel comprehensive hypothesis of primary BMS, gathering the hormonal, neuropathic, and genetic factors presumably required in the genesis of the condition. This will aid in future research on pathophysiology and risk factors of BMS, and boost treatment trials taking into account individual mechanism profiles and subgroup-clusters.

  7. Lawn mower-related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C

    2000-01-01

    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.

  8. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... an area of stasis where sluggish circulation and release of inflammatory mediators will .... way to estimate medium to large burns in patients older than 10 .... on day 1 decreases stress hormone release, improves nitrogen ...

  9. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing when you handle chemicals. Store chemicals, including gasoline, out of the reach of children. To prevent ... mild burn? What is the treatment for smoke inhalation? Resources American Red Cross, Home Fire Safety Centers ...

  10. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  11. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...

  12. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  13. Cogema experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague north west pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (authors)

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan R Patil; R S Sathawane

    2008-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to anoth...

  15. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  17. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask (± 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180 o '', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed (± 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center. This is

  18. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; Psurfing was the next most significant, accounting for 20% of presentations. The most common body part injured was the head (64% of injuries). This retrospective review of mosh-pit-associated injury patterns demonstrates a high rate of injuries and presentations for medical aid at the evaluated events. General moshing was the most commonly associated activity and the head was the most common body part injured

  20. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  1. Influence of lubricant on the pitting capacity of gears. Comparison and discussion of main pitting test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Bernd-Robert; Oster, Peter; Tobie, Thomas; Hergesell, Maria [Forschungsstelle fuer Zahnraeder und Getriebebau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The lubricant in a gearbox should provide a separating lubricating film between the meshing teeth. Furthermore its main task is the evacuation of the developing heat. Hence the lubricant is also an important influence parameter on the pitting life time of gearsets. Due to the constantly rising demands for higher power transmission of gearsets, also higher demands are made against the performance of the lubricants. In order to quantify the capability and to choose the appropriate lubricant for each application, reliable testing methods are necessary. Therefor today different testing methods are available. Two of the main pitting testing methods are the Standard Pittingtest according to FVA 2/IV [2] and its advancement, the Practice Relevant Pittingtest according to FVA 371 [4]. For the Practice Relevant Pittingtest test gears with profile modification and lengthwise crowning are used, which are superfinished. For the introduction of the Practice Relevant Pittingtest into industrial application a round robin test was performed in co-operation with FVA and DGMK. This paper is discussing the today usual testing methods regarding the pitting load capacity of lubricants and their characteristics in comparison. Furthermore the results of the round robin test and further example results, including pictures of typical pittings, are presented. In addition it is demonstrated, how to deal with the results. On the basis of test experience, knowledge from research projects and other examples typical questions concerning the different testing methods are discussed. Thereby essential requirements for reliable and reproducible results are pointed out and possible limits for the application of the test methods are represented. (orig.)

  2. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  3. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. OH-initiated Aging of Biomass Burning Aerosol during FIREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions represent a major source of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere, and this source will likely become increasingly important in the future due to changes in the Earth's climate. Understanding the effects that increased fire emissions have on both air quality and climate requires understanding the composition of the particles emitted, since chemical and physical composition directly impact important particle properties such as absorptivity, toxicity, and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the composition of biomass burning particles in the atmosphere is dynamic, as the particles are subject to the condensation of low-volatility vapors and reaction with oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) during transport. Here we present a series of laboratory chamber experiments on the OH-initiated aging of biomass burning aerosol performed at the Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, MT as part of the Fire Influences on Regional and Global Environments Experiment (FIREX) campaign. We describe the evolution of biomass burning aerosol produced from a variety of fuels operating the chamber in both particle-only and gas + particle mode, focusing on changes to the organic composition. In particle-only mode, gas-phase biomass burning emissions are removed before oxidation to focus on heterogeneous oxidation, while gas + particle mode includes both heterogeneous oxidation and condensation of oxidized volatile organic compounds onto the particles (secondary organic aerosol formation). Variability in fuels and burning conditions lead to differences in aerosol loading and secondary aerosol production, but in all cases aging results in a significant and rapid increases in the carbon oxidation state of the particles.

  5. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  6. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hung; Taxen, Claes; Williams, Keith; Scully, John

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effects of water composition on pit propagation kinetics on Cu were separated from pit initiation and stabilization using the artificial pit method in a range of dilute HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- and Cl - -containing waters. → The effective polarization and Ohmic resistance of pits were lower in SO4 2- -containing solutions and greater in Cl - -containing solutions. → Relationship between the solution composition and the corrosion product identity and morphology were found. → These, in turn controlled the corrosion product Ohmic resistance and subsequently the pit growth rate. - Abstract: The pit propagation behavior of copper (UNS C11000) was investigated from an electrochemical perspective using the artificial pit method. Pit growth was studied systematically in a range of HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- and Cl - containing-waters at various concentrations. Pit propagation was mediated by the nature of the corrosion products formed both inside and over the pit mouth (i.e., cap). Certain water chemistry concentrations such as those high in sulfate were found to promote fast pitting that could be sustained over long times at a fixed applied potential but gradually stifled in all but the lowest concentration solutions. In contrast, Cl - containing waters without sulfate ions resulted in slower pit growth and eventual repassivation. These observations were interpreted through understanding of the identity, amount and porosity of corrosion products formed inside and over pits. These factors controlled their resistive nature as characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A finite element model (FEM) was developed which included copper oxidation kinetics, transport by migration and diffusion, Cu(I) and Cu(II) solid corrosion product formation and porosity governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and a saturation index, as well as pit current and depth of penetration. The findings of the modeling were in good agreement with artificial pit experiments

  7. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  8. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Samuel L; Bourne, Keith J; Hermanson, John C; Glass, Samuel V; Costa, Adriana; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2015-10-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force-displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a mesomechanical testing system. The system consists of a quartz microprobe attached to a microforce sensor that is positioned and advanced with a micromanipulator mounted on an inverted microscope. Membrane displacement is measured from digital image analysis. Unaspirated pits from earlywood of never-dried wood of Larix and Pinus and aspirated pits from earlywood of dried wood of Larix were tested to generate force-displacement curves up to the point of membrane failure. Two failure modes were observed: rupture or tearing of the pit membrane by the microprobe tip, and the stretching of the pit membrane until the torus was forced out of the pit chamber through the pit aperture without rupture, a condition we refer to as torus prolapse. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. A predictive approach to fitness-for-service assessment of pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekari, Elahe; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is a localized corrosion that often causes leak and failure of process components. The aim of this work is to present a new fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment methodology for process equipment to track and predict pitting corrosion. In this methodology, pit density is modeled using a non-homogenous Poisson process and induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. The non-homogenous Markov process is used to estimate maximum pit depth, considering that only the current state of the damage influences its future development. Subsequently, the distributions of the operating pressure and the estimated burst pressure of the defected component are integrated with Monte Carlo simulations and First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method to calculate the reliability index and probability of failure. This methodology provides a more realistic failure assessment and enables consideration of uncertainty associated with estimating pit characteristics. The practical application of the proposed model is demonstrated using a piping case study. - Highlights: • A new model to estimate maximum pit depth and pit density as two main pit characteristics. • Integrating maximum pit depth with failure analysis considering allowable pressure of defected component. • Time dependent failure analysis to determine the remaining life.

  10. Investigation of Stress Concentration and Casing Strength Degradation Caused by Corrosion Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole casing and tubing are subjected to corrosion in many cases because of the exposure to corrosive environment. A more serious problem is that pitting corrosion occurs in the casing inner surface. Meanwhile, downhole strings are subjected to various forms of mechanical loads, for example, internal pressure load, external collapse load, or both. These loads acting on the corrosion pits will cause stress concentration and degrade the casing strength. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the stress concentration degree reasonably. The SCF (stress concentration factor is usually used to characterize the degree of stress concentration induced by corrosion pits. This paper presented a comparison on the SCFs regarding the analytical method for a single pit and experimental method for double pits. The results show that the SCF of a single pit depends mainly on the depth of the corrosion pit; however, the SCF of the double pits strongly depends on the pits distance. A correction factor of 1.3 was recommended in the double pits SCF prediction model.

  11. Numerical simulation of the double pits stress concentration in a curved casing inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour or sweet oil fields development is common in recent years. Casing and tubing are usually subjected to pitting corrosion because of exposure to the strong corrosion species, such as CO2, H2S, and saline water. When the corrosion pits formed in the casing inner surface, localized stress concentration will occur and the casing strength will be degraded. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the degree of stress concentration factor accurately. This article performed a numerical simulation on double pits stress concentration factor in a curved inner surface using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results show that the stress concentration factor of double pits mainly depends on the ratio of two pits distance to the pit radius (L/R. It should not be only assessed by the absolute distance between the two pits. When the two pits are close and tangent, the maximum stress concentration factor will appear on the inner tangential edges. Stress concentration increased by double pits in a curved casing inner surface is more serious than that in a flat surface. A correction factor of 1.9 was recommended in the curved inner surface double pits stress concentration factor predict model.

  12. Least tern and piping plover nesting at sand pits in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Kirsch, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and lower Platte in 1990, and related features to abundance and presence of birds. We found 225 sand pits of which 78 were suitable and 187 were unsuitable for nesting. Along the central Platte, where sandbar habitat is severely degraded, birds nested at 81% of the suitable sand pits (N = 32) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (61-94%) nested on sand pits. Along the lower Platte, where both sandbar and sand pit habitat are plentiful, birds nested at 60% of the suitable sand pits (N = 35) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (60-86%) nested on sandbars. Numbers of terns and plovers were more weakly correlated with features of sand pits on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Least Terns and Piping Plovers seem to use more of the suitable sand pit habitat on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Sand pits probably have influenced the birds' distribution by providing alternative nesting habitat along rivers where suitable sandbars are rare or absent.

  13. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh Vijay; Rosmarin, David M

    2007-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an unpredictable, life-threatening drug reaction associated with a 30% mortality. Massive keratinocyte apoptosis is the hallmark of TEN. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes appear to be the main effector cells and there is experimental evidence for involvement of both the Fas-Fas ligand and perforin/granzyme pathways. Optimal treatment for these patients remains to be clarified. Discontinuation of the offending drug and prompt referral to a burn unit are generally agreed upon steps. Beyond that, however, considerable controversy exists. Evidence both pro and con exists for the use of IVIG, systemic corticosteroid, and other measures. There is also evidence suggesting that combination therapies may be of value. All the clinical data, however, is anecdotal or based on observational or retrospective studies. Definitive answers are not yet available. Given the rarity of TEN and the large number of patients required for a study to be statistically meaningful, placebo controlled trials are logistically difficult to accomplish. The absence of an animal model further hampers research into this condition. This article reviews recent data concerning clinical presentation, pathogenesis and treatment of TEN. At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have acquired a more comprehensive knowledge of our current understanding of the classification, clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of TEN.

  15. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  16. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti intermetallic compound was investigated as function of chloride concentration by using electrochemical method and scanning electron microscope in sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of type C276 alloy was also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the intermetallic compound decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti were lower than those of C276 alloy, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of C276 alloy was higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.

  18. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  19. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  20. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  1. Pitting morphologies of zirconium base alloys in aqueous and non aqueous chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, G.C.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pitting morphology of zirconium and Zr-Cr alloys in aqueous chloride and nonaqueous methanol + 0.4 per cent HCl solution was investigated and observed to follow different modes in these two environments. While in aqueous chloride solution pitting was transgranular and randomly oriented, in methanol-chloride solution pits were observed to initiate and propagate along the grain boundaries. In aqueous chloride solution very irregular and sponge like zirconium metal was formed inside the pit while in methanol-chloride solution the pits were crystallographic in nature. Optical microscopy has revealed that pits preferentially initiate and propagate along scratch line in aqueous chloride solution, but such was not the case in nonaqueous methanol-chloride solution. The nature and the mechanism operating in the catastropic failure of these materials are investigated. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  2. The role of inclusions in the pitting behaviour of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Hussain, S.W.; Ashraf, H.

    1999-01-01

    The pitting characteristics of maraging steel in artificial seawater have been investigated electrochemically using the cyclic polarization technique. Pits were found to be associated with the inclusions present in steel. The hysteresis loop observed indicates that maraging steel has poor resistance to pitting in air saturated seawater. On examination of corroded surfaces under SEM, it is noted that the pits are always associated with inclusions, which are generally the carbonitrides of TiMo presents in maraging steel in varying quantities depending on the melting practice. In order to confirm that the pitting behavior is associated with inclusions, samples from clean maraging steel, having very low inclusion level, were tested. Such samples showed much less tendency for pitting. (author)

  3. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines using Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J.C.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M.; Araujo, J.E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE); Valor, A. [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    A non-homogenous, linear growth (pure birth) Markov process, with discrete states in continuous time, has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The transition probability function for the pit depth is obtained from the analytical solution of the forward Kolmogorov equations for this process. The parameters of the transition probability function between depth states can be identified from the observed time evolution of the mean of the pit depth distribution. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution in soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov-chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion from the observed properties of the soil in contact with the pipeline. Real- life case studies, involving simulated and measured pit depth distributions are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed Markov chains model. (author)

  4. Numerical Simulation of Interactions between Corrosion Pits on Stainless Steel under Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitao; Han, En-Hou

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between corrosion pits on stainless steel under loading conditions are studied by using a cellular automata model coupled with finite element method at a mesoscopic scale. The cellular automata model focuses on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including anodic dissolution, passivation, diffusion of hydrogen ions and salt film hydrolysis. The Chopard block algorithm is used to improve the diffusion simulation efficiency. The finite element method is used to calculate the stress concentration on the pit surface during pit growth, and the effect of local stress and strain on anodic current is obtained by using the Gutman model, which is used as the boundary conditions of the cellular automata model. The transient current characteristics of the interactions between corrosion pits under different simulation factors including the breakdown of the passive film at the pit mouth and the diffusion of hydrogen ions are analyzed. The analysis of the pit stability product shows that the simulation results are close to the experimental conclusions.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Interactions between Corrosion Pits on Stainless Steel under Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haitao; Han, En-Hou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    The interactions between corrosion pits on stainless steel under loading conditions are studied by using a cellular automata model coupled with finite element method at a mesoscopic scale. The cellular automata model focuses on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including anodic dissolution, passivation, diffusion of hydrogen ions and salt film hydrolysis. The Chopard block algorithm is used to improve the diffusion simulation efficiency. The finite element method is used to calculate the stress concentration on the pit surface during pit growth, and the effect of local stress and strain on anodic current is obtained by using the Gutman model, which is used as the boundary conditions of the cellular automata model. The transient current characteristics of the interactions between corrosion pits under different simulation factors including the breakdown of the passive film at the pit mouth and the diffusion of hydrogen ions are analyzed. The analysis of the pit stability product shows that the simulation results are close to the experimental conclusions.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  8. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  9. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu

    1982-01-01

    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  10. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek

    2016-02-01

    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (Plocations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 7860 - Initial Research on the Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... epidemiologic research initiatives for VA and DoD to further study potential long-term health effects. IOM first... examined through a research-based physical examination component of a broader research program. As a first step, VA intends to develop research goals and objectives, structures, and establish essential study...

  12. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  13. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  14. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.

  15. In the pit: a Cape Breton coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, R.; Caplan, R. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    This is an account of the mining life of a coal miner in Nova Scotia from 1951 to 1969. The author was born in New Waterford and worked there, in Numbers 12 and 18 Colliery. Many of his experiences and observations from working at the coal face are described. These include accounts of hauling coal in the pit, driving a diesel, and the coming of mechanization. Mining community life is included as background material. A brief history of 12 Colliery (1908-1975) is included. 12 figs.

  16. Familial occurrence of lip pits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zaranadi M

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lip pits are among the rarest congenital deformities recorded. Initially reported in 1845, it’s familial occurrence has been reported just once. These developmental anomalies occur either as an isolated defect or in association with other developmental deformities including cleft lip, cleft palate or both. It may be located at the commisures of the lips or in the midline of the lower lip. It is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance.Our report of a family in which all of the three children (two girls and a boy and their father wre involved in concert with the latter statement.

  17. Electrochemical tests for pitting and crevice corrosion susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1983-01-01

    Passive metals are being considered as container materials for the disposal of nuclear waste by deep burial. Localized corrosion is a potential problem and electrochemical techniques have an important role in the assessment of the susceptibility of these container materials to crevice and pitting corrosion. This paper critically reviews both the theoretical background and the experimental details of the electrochemical test methods presently used in both industrial and scientific studies of localized corrosion in both halide and non-halide solutions and identifies those areas where theory and experimental behaviour are in agreement and those areas for which there is neither well established theory nor an experimental test method

  18. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.

  19. Itataia's deposit - Structural zoning of a pit until the level 480 meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.C.G.S.

    1986-01-01

    This work is part of Itataia Project-Geotechnics; in it are introduced several comments concerning the structural zoning of a pit in Itataias' phosphorous-uranipherous deposit, until the level 480 meters. The structural parameters (fractures, faults, foliations) obtained in surface and underground works were statistically treated. Stereographic projection was used to define eventual slipping into the pit. All the data were arranged in tables to make it easy the comparison with experimental pits. (author) [pt

  20. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  1. Criticality safety evaluation report for the 100 KE Basin sandfilter backwash pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis presents the technical basis for establishing a safe mass limit for continued operations of the KE Basin sandfilter backwash pit. The main analysis is based on a very conservative UO 2 -PuO 2 -H 2 O system using the measured isotopic concentrations of uranium and plutonium in the sludge. Appendix C contains analyses of the sandfilter backwash pit utilizing all verified materials presently in the pit, and gives new limits based on assumptions made

  2. The use of different techniques for determination of pitting corrosion potential of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskelinen, P.; Forsen, O.; Onnela, J.; Ylaesaari, S.; Haenninen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three different techniques for pitting corrosion potential measurement on austenitic stainless steel (Fe18Cr10Ni) were compared: conventional polarization method, a new Avesta electrochemical corrosion measurement cell and a scratch technique. Special attention was paid to the effects of crevice corrosion during pitting corrosion potential measurement and to their elimination. Development of a rapid test technique for reliable pitting corrosion potential determination was aimed at and resulted from comparison of the different techniques

  3. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  4. [Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

    2011-06-30

    The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given.

  5. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  6. Mid-wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging of Kilauea's Active Halema'uma'u Pit Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honniball, C. I.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mid-Wave InfraRed (MWIR) from 3 to 5 microns carries a wealth of information for both earth and planetary science applications. Molecules like methane and carbon dioxide exhibit prominent spectral features in the MWIR allowing us to detect their presences in the atmosphere after being released from volcanic vents, industrial gas leaks or biomass burning events. Energy released by wildfires at 4 μm is an important measurement for quantifying fire radiative power (FRP); an important climate variable that allows estimates of the amount of carbon liberated into the Earth's atmosphere during a burning event. FRP can also be used to estimate lava flow cooling rates and forecasting lava flow hazards. This spectral region also allows the derivation of temperatures from hot spots like the ones on Jupiter's moon Io, which provide important insights into the formation and evolution of Io. In the MWIR region there is limited signal available to measure for low temperature targets. This presents technical challenges on achieving high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR); therefore, acquiring adequate data in the MWIR is difficult without cryogenically cooling the instrument. Recent improvements to microbolometer technology and emerging interferometric techniques have allowed us to acquire good thermal infrared (TIR) data without the need for cooling. By coupling an uncooled microbolometer with a Sagnac interferometer we have demonstrated in the TIR that high SNR's can be obtained for hyperspectral imaging. To explore if this imaging technique holds in the MWIR, with funding from NASA, we have built, tested and compared two MWIR hyperspectral instruments, an uncooled microbolometer version and a liquid nitrogen cooled photon detector version with the same optical design. We demonstrate that using the aforementioned imaging technique we can achieve good SNR's for hyperspectral MWIR imaging using an uncooled instrument for targets 20°C above ambient. In late July 2017, we field

  7. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  8. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  9. TRANSITIONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE DURING PITTING CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, K.; ISAACS, H.S.; LEVY, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum, in a chloride containing solutions close to its pitting potential, shows vigorous fluctuations in current and potential. Measurements have been made of the freely corroding potential, and the currents between interconnected electrodes. It is shown that there is a transition in the behavior of the transients. The transition occurs when multiple active pits are present and electrochemical communication occurs between them. The major source of current and potential transients is the growth process in the active pits rather than meta-stable pitting at the passive surface

  10. Research on horizontal displacement monitoring method of deep foundation pit based on laser projecting sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Xie, Shulin; Zhang, Lixiao; Zhou, Guangyi; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    A certain level of horizontal displacement will occur during excavation or subsequent construction of deep foundation pit. If the support is improper and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is too large, it will cause collapse and even affect the buildings around the foundation pit, which will endanger people's life and property. Therefore, the horizontal displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit becomes more and more important. At present, the electronic total station is often used to monitor the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, but this monitoring method is expensive, prone to accidental errors, and can not be used for real-time monitoring. Therefore, a method of monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep foundation pit by using laser projection sensing technique is proposed in this paper. The horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is replaced by the displacement of the laser spot emitted by the laser, and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit can be obtained by identifying the displacement of the laser spot projected on the screen. A series of experiments show that the accuracy of this monitoring method meets the engineering requirements and greatly reduces the cost, which provides a new technology for the displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit.

  11. Effect of nitrite concentration on pit depth in carbon steel exposed to simulated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of pits in carbon steel exposed to dilute (0.055 M nitrate-bearing) alkaline salt solutions that simulate radioactive waste was investigated in coupon immersion tests. Most coupons were tested in the as-received condition, with the remainder having been heat treated to produce an oxide film. Nitrite, which is an established pitting inhibitor in these solutions, was present in concentrations from 0 to 0.031 M to 0.16 M; the last concentration is known to prevent pitting initiation in the test solution at the 50 degrees C test temperature. The depths of the deepest pits on coupons of particular exposure conditions were measure microscopically and were analyzed as simple, type 1 extreme value statistical distributions, to predict the deepest expected pit in a radioactive waste tank subject to the test conditions. While the growth rate of pits could not be established from these tests, the absolute value of the deepest pits predicted is of the order of 100 mils after 448 days of exposure. The data indicate that even nitrite concentrations insufficient to prevent pitting have a beneficial effect on limiting the growth of deepest pits

  12. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically-Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems

  13. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiho Im

    Full Text Available Sulcal pit analysis has been providing novel insights into brain function and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of sulcal pit extraction with respect to the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. Five subjects were scanned 4 times at 3 MRI centers and other 5 subjects were scanned 3 times at 2 MRI centers, including 1 test-retest session. Sulcal pits were extracted on the white matter surfaces reconstructed with both Montreal Neurological Institute and Freesurfer pipelines. We estimated similarity of the presence of sulcal pits having a maximum value of 1 and their spatial difference within the same subject. The tests showed high similarity of the sulcal pit presence and low spatial difference. The similarity was more than 0.90 and the spatial difference was less than 1.7 mm in most cases according to different scan sessions or scanners, and more than 0.85 and about 2.0 mm across surface extraction tools. The reliability of sulcal pit extraction was more affected by the image processing-related factors than the scan session or scanner factors. Moreover, the similarity of sulcal pit distribution appeared to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of the sulcal pits on the shallow and small folds. We suggest that our sulcal pit extraction from MRI is highly reliable and could be useful for clinical applications as an imaging biomarker.

  14. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kiho; Lee, Jong-Min; Jeon, Seun; Kim, Jong-Heon; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Sulcal pit analysis has been providing novel insights into brain function and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of sulcal pit extraction with respect to the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. Five subjects were scanned 4 times at 3 MRI centers and other 5 subjects were scanned 3 times at 2 MRI centers, including 1 test-retest session. Sulcal pits were extracted on the white matter surfaces reconstructed with both Montreal Neurological Institute and Freesurfer pipelines. We estimated similarity of the presence of sulcal pits having a maximum value of 1 and their spatial difference within the same subject. The tests showed high similarity of the sulcal pit presence and low spatial difference. The similarity was more than 0.90 and the spatial difference was less than 1.7 mm in most cases according to different scan sessions or scanners, and more than 0.85 and about 2.0 mm across surface extraction tools. The reliability of sulcal pit extraction was more affected by the image processing-related factors than the scan session or scanner factors. Moreover, the similarity of sulcal pit distribution appeared to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of the sulcal pits on the shallow and small folds. We suggest that our sulcal pit extraction from MRI is highly reliable and could be useful for clinical applications as an imaging biomarker.

  15. Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Bodewits, Dennis; Besse, Sébastien; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst Uwe; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F; Auger, Anne-Thérèse; Barucci, M Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Capanna, Claire; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gaskell, Robert; Giacomini, Lorenza; Groussin, Olivier; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie; Gutierrez-Marques, P; Gutiérrez, Pedro J; Güttler, Carsten; Hoekzema, Nick; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kovacs, Gabor; Kramm, Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M; Lazzarin, Monica; Lee, Vicky; Leyrat, Cédric; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Josè J; Lowry, Stephen; Magrin, Sara; Maquet, Lucie; Marchi, Simone; Marzari, Francesco; Massironi, Matteo; Michalik, Harald; Moissl, Richard; Mottola, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicolas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2015-07-02

    Pits have been observed on many cometary nuclei mapped by spacecraft. It has been argued that cometary pits are a signature of endogenic activity, rather than impact craters such as those on planetary and asteroid surfaces. Impact experiments and models cannot reproduce the shapes of most of the observed cometary pits, and the predicted collision rates imply that few of the pits are related to impacts. Alternative mechanisms like explosive activity have been suggested, but the driving process remains unknown. Here we report that pits on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are active, and probably created by a sinkhole process, possibly accompanied by outbursts. We argue that after formation, pits expand slowly in diameter, owing to sublimation-driven retreat of the walls. Therefore, pits characterize how eroded the surface is: a fresh cometary surface will have a ragged structure with many pits, while an evolved surface will look smoother. The size and spatial distribution of pits imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current nucleus surface.

  16. Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 in chloride and sulfate solutions at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Mingyu; Yu Geping

    1993-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was examined in chloride and sulfate solutions through usage of potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The effects of chloride and sulfate concentration were investigated in the range of 0.0001 to 0.1 M. Increasing chloride concentrations resulted in active shifts of the pit nucleation potential. Immunity to pitting corrosion was evident at a chloride level below 0.005 M. Increasing sulfate concentrations resulted in improved pitting resistance of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions. Detrimental effects associated with pitting were evident with low-level sulfate being added to dilute chloride media. The density of pits increased with increasing chloride concentrations or temperature between room temperature and 70 C. Systematic trends for the depth of pits were not evident. The observations of pitting corrosion in open immersion were consistent with those in polarization methods. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in nickel, chromium and iron with a small amount of titanium and silicon. The enrichment of chlorine or sulfur was still, however, not found. (orig.)

  17. TRANSITIONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE DURING PITTING CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI,K.; ISAACS,H.S.; LEVY,P.W.

    2001-09-02

    Aluminum, in a chloride containing solutions close to its pitting potential, shows vigorous fluctuations in current and potential. Measurements have been made of the freely corroding potential, and the currents between interconnected electrodes. It is shown that there is a transition in the behavior of the transients. The transition occurs when multiple active pits are present and electrochemical communication occurs between them. The major source of current and potential transients is the growth process in the active pits rather than meta-stable pitting at the passive surface.

  18. Investigation of the pitting of aluminum induced by chloride ions by holographic microphotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG LI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Holographic microphotography was used to investigate the dynamic processes of pitting during anodic dissolution of aluminum in a solution containing chloride ions. The induction and the follow-up propagation processes of the pitting were observed in real-time. A simple model of the propagating process of the pitting was deduced from the result of the holograms of the Al/electrolyte interface. The results prove that holographic microphotography is a useful tool to study the dynamic processes of pitting.

  19. A rare nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral doughnut shaped lip pits in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Balasubramani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lip pits are a rare congenital anomaly that presents on the upper or lower lip or the commissure of the lips. Lip pits are an autosomal dominant trait occurring almost always in association with cleft lip or palate. They most commonly occur in association with developmental disturbances such as Van der Woude's syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome, oro-facial-digital syndrome, Marres-Cremers syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Its occurrence in nonsyndromic individuals is extremely rare with only a handful of cases reported. The identification of lip pits with other associated anomalies is crucial for genetic counseling; we report a case of nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral lip pits.

  20. Pit morphology studies of iron and steel in alkaline chloride environment using EMPA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.E.; Sykes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of iron and steel in stimulated alkaline chloride solutions showed that Swedish iron has better reproducibility in terms of pitting potentials as compared to ordinary hot rolled mild steel. This study was undertaken to reason this pitting behavior on the basis of number and the nature of inclusions present in both the metals. Electron probe microanalysis technique (EPMA) was utilised to contemplate the origin of pits, the solution chemistry of the pits and finally the nature of the rust product. (author)

  1. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.

    2001-01-01

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  2. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  3. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also rep...

  5. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  6. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  8. Epidemiology of Burn Injury and Demography of Burn Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    epidemiologic surveillance, vide the nursing care required by an exten- microbiology support is required for diagno-v sively burned patient is one of the...MA. Pittsburgh bur study. 28. Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Prescott PR. Child abuse bynig an iandnci o, suspiciro JA Traumarg 1988 t Pittsburgh and Allegheny

  9. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  10. Treatment of pit water from uranium mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, A.; Lafforgue, P.; Lyaudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pit water from uranium mines is normally treated to eliminate the soluble radium and suspended solids. The radium is precipitated together with the barium sulphate. The latter results from the reaction of barium chloride with an excess of sulphate ions. The suspended solids are flocculated by aluminium salts (chloride, polychloride). If necessary, synthetic flocculants are also used. Certain grades of pit water contain, sometimes incidentally, a few milligrams of uranium per litre. These quantities always remain too low for any direct recovery (treatment by ion exchange resins). By applying certain measures, the preceding processes can also be used to eliminate uranium. The latter is carried away by aluminium hydroxide in a very narrow zone of pH (6 to 7,4) which corresponds to the minimum solubility of the hydroxide. Depending on the characteristic of the water (pH, salinity), use is made either of aluminium sulphate or of sodium aluminate, with an addition of a base in extreme cases. This article gives various examples of applications in the Haute-Vienne, Chardon in Vendee, the Commanderie mine in Vendee, at Cerilly in Allier and at Lodeve in Herault [fr

  11. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  12. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  13. ARIES pit disassembly-safeguards issues for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Cremers, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Historic changes are now occurring in U.S. nonproliferation and arms control policy. The quantity of nuclear weapons required to provide a deterrence has decreased (especially with the end of the Cold War). Further, various bilateral and multilateral treaties now require the removal of numerous nuclear weapons from the U.S. stockpile. Although the removal of such weapons appears straightforward, the final disposition of the surplus weapons-grade nuclear material must be carefully considered. Domestically, several plutonium disposition plans are now under consideration concerning long-term safety, materials accounting, environmental impact, accessibility, and long-term containment. The Automated Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory is one such disposition method for the disassembly of plutonium weapons components (pits). The ARIES system integrates and automates several features: disassembly of pits, consolidation of the plutonium material, on-line measurement of final products, waste streams, and long-term packaging. Clearly, in any plutonium disposition plan, the safeguards aspects of materials control and accounting and the security aspects must be carefully considered and evaluated

  14. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  15. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Astronaut observations of global biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed

  17. Reliability enhancement through optimal burn-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W.

    1984-06-01

    A numerical reliability and cost model is defined for production line burn-in tests of electronic components. The necessity of burn-in is governed by upper and lower bounds: burn-in is mandatory for operation-critical or nonreparable component; no burn-in is needed when failure effects are insignificant or easily repairable. The model considers electronic systems in terms of a series of components connected by a single black box. The infant mortality rate is described with a Weibull distribution. Performance reaches a steady state after burn-in, and the cost of burn-in is a linear function for each component. A minimum cost is calculated among the costs and total time of burn-in, shop repair, and field repair, with attention given to possible losses in future sales from inadequate burn-in testing.

  18. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...

  19. EPIDEMOLOGY OF BURNS IN ENUGU, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JIBURUM

    community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important ... CONCLUSION The incidence and mortality of burn injury has remained high in this .... they are a group at risk. ... epidemiology and the compliance factors in.

  20. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical procedures in acute burns can be broadly divided into four groups: ablative (tangential or fascial ... tissue oedema due to extravasation of plasma into the interstitium. Fluid replacement will worsen the oedema, ... include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic ...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  3. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.

    2015-01-01

    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  4. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  5. COGEMA experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague North-West pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. On account of the variety of radwaste kinds, retrieving and conditioning operations represented real challenge. One goal of these operations was to ensure that the work was performed in complete safety towards environment with optimum containment and with the best radiation protection for the personnel involved. COGEMA decided to split the work into two phases. The feedback from the first phase was very helpful to the second phase. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (author)

  6. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-05-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  7. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  8. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  9. Nucleation sites of Ge nanoislands grown on pit-patterned Si substrate prepared by electron-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Zh. V.; Zinovyev, V. A.; Rudin, S. A.; Novikov, P. L.; Rodyakina, E. E.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Regular pit-patterned Si(001) substrates were prepared by electron-beam lithography followed by plasma chemical etching. The geometry of the pits was controlled by varying the etching conditions and the electron-beam exposure duration. It was shown that the location of three-dimensional (3D) Ge nanoislands subsequently grown on the pit-patterned Si substrates depends on the shape of the pit bottom. In the case of pits having a sharp bottom, 3D Ge islands nucleate inside the pits. For pits with a wide flat bottom, the 3D Ge island nucleation takes place at the pit periphery. This effect is attributed to the strain relaxation depending not only on the initial pit shape, but also on its evolution during the Ge wetting layer deposition. It was shown by Monte Carlo simulations that in the case of a pit with a pointed bottom, the relaxation is most effective inside the pit, while for a pit with a wide bottom, the most relaxed area migrates during Ge deposition from the pit bottom to its edges, where 3D Ge islands nucleate.

  10. The treatment of extensively burned patents and β irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhongyi; Lu Xingan; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang

    1994-01-01

    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds β injured burns are discussed. The article also describes the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-12-01

    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  12. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  13. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  14. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  15. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  16. Stochastic approach to pitting-corrosion-extreme modelling in low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Rivas, D.; Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    A stochastic model previously developed by the authors using Markov chains has been improved in the light of new experimental evidence. The new model has been successfully applied to reproduce the time evolution of extreme pitting corrosion depths in low-carbon steel. The model is shown to provide a better physical understanding of the pitting process.

  17. Structural and functional studies on the pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Pit-1 is a pituitary specific transcription factor that plays a central role in the development and maintenance of a number of cell lineages in the anterior pituitary gland. In these cell lineages, Pit-1 is required for the selective expression of the growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and the

  18. Seedling and Sapling Dynamics of Treefall Pits in Puerto Rico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence R. Walker

    2000-01-01

    Seedling and sapling dynamics in a Puerto Rican rain forest were compared between forest understory and soil pits created by the uprooting of 27 trees during Hurricane Hugo. Soil N and P, organic matter, and soil moisture were lower and bulk densities were higher in the disturbed mineral soils of the pits than in undisturbed forest soils ten months after the hurricane...

  19. Rupelian (middle Oligocene) fish otoliths from the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, P.A.M.; Hinsbergh, van V.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A large, interesting otolith fauna from the Middle Oligocene was found in the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk by sifting large quantities of clay and by collecting large loose specimens in the clay pit. Thirty-five species and one subspecies were indentified; nine species are new, viz.

  20. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Chuprunov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  1. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  2. PIT-tagging method for small fishes: A case study using sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michelle Grace Pinto; Deurs, Mikael van; Butts, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to assess fish movement for use in fisheries management. Here, we investigated physiological and behavioral effects of tagging on sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) using PIT tags constituting 2.1 ± 0.9% of their body weight. Swimming stamina...

  3. Stochastic approach to pitting-corrosion-extreme modelling in low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Rivas, D.; Hallen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A stochastic model previously developed by the authors using Markov chains has been improved in the light of new experimental evidence. The new model has been successfully applied to reproduce the time evolution of extreme pitting corrosion depths in low-carbon steel. The model is shown to provide a better physical understanding of the pitting process.

  4. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Baas, P.; Gasson, P.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bordered pits play an important role in permitting water flow among adjacent tracheary elements in flowering plants. Variation in the bordered pit structure is suggested to be adaptive in optimally balancing the conflict between hydraulic efficiency (conductivity) and safety from air entry at the

  5. Potential Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Cask Drop in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation note documents the probabilistic calculation of a potential drop of a multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask or MCO cask and immersion pail at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject alignment of CLS equipment in the K West Basin south loadout pit

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Sulloway, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion

  7. Drill and Blast Performance Evaluation at the Obra Pit of Chirano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the causes of inefficient fragmentation and formation of toes in the Obra pit of Chirano Gold Mines Ltd and recommends best practices in order to produce optimum fragmentation to feed the crusher at a reduced cost and to provide good working pit floors. The methods employed included: drilling ...

  8. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the

  9. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  10. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  11. Ingestion of white spirit resulting in perineal skin burns: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoucke, Joke; Buylaert, Walter; Colpaert, Kirsten; De Paepe, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In the literature, possible systemic effects on health of inhalation or ingestion of white spirit are well described. Only a few case reports discuss the toxic skin effects that can occur following massive ingestion. Ingestion of large amounts of white spirit produces a watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of white spirit, resulting in perineal skin burns when there is prolonged contact. We describe a patient who developed partial thickness perineal skin burns after ingestion of white spirit and review the literature. The present data indicate that conservative therapy of the skin burns is recommended.

  12. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan C. Oprea; Dana Malschi; Liviu O. Muntean

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  13. Management of Pit 9 - highlights of accomplishments and lessons learned to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Pit 9 project is a U.S. Department of Energy prototype full scale demonstration to retrieve and treat buried mixed transuranic waste. The project is being managed by the DOE-Idaho Environmental Restoration Program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 and the state of Idaho, under the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Pit 9 is located in the northeast corner of the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Pit 9 project was conceived out of the need to determine capabilities to cost effectively retrieve and treat buried radioactive and radioactive mixed waste, and obtain characterization and contaminant migration data for buried waste at the INEL. Waste was disposed in Pit 9 from November 1967 to June 1969. Pit 9, at about 380 feet by 125 feet, represents approximately one acre of surface area of the 88 acre SDA. The pit contains approximately 350,000 ft 3 of soil beneath and between the buried waste and about 250,000 ft 3 of overburden soil. The average depth of the pit from soil surface to bedrock is approximately 17.5 feet. Approximately 110,000 ft 3 of transuranic (TRU) contaminated mixed wastes from Rocky Flats and approximately 40,000 ft 3 of low level and mixed wastes from the INEL were buried in Pit 9 during this period. Pit 9 is estimated to contain over 30,000 gallons of organics (over 30% of the total organic inventory in the SDA) and approximately 66 pounds of TRU radionuclides (between 3% and 4% of the total TRU inventory in the SDA). Pit 9 was selected as a demonstration site because it was one of the last disposal pits at the INEL to receive Rocky Flats waste, disposal records are better for Pit 9 than for disposal pits and trenches from earlier points in time, and the wastes in Pit 9 are representative of the wastes disposed in the SDA

  14. Pit initiation resistance of ferritic stainless steels in chloride environments from 800 to 2600C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Duquette, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The pitting resistance of high-purity ferritic stainless steels has been studied by potentiodynamic anodic polarization, mechanical film-rupture (scratch) testing, and microstructural examination. The purpose has been to determine the ability of the Fe-Cr-Mo alloys to resist pit initiation at temperatures up to 260 0 C in chloride environments. At temperatures exceeding about 200 0 C, Cr is shown to become much more effective than Mo to enhance alloy pitting resistance. In fact, at 260 0 C, 2% Mo does not noticeably affect the pitting resistance of 18% Cr or 28% Cr steels. Also, 5% Mo is more effective for the lower Cr than for the higher Cr alloy, unlike lower temperatures, at which the effect of the two elements is greater than additive. Preferential localized attack at microstructural features, e.g. inclusions, is not observed under any of the experimental conditions, rather the pit-initiation resistance is controlled solely by alloy composition

  15. Simulation of Fatigue Crack Initiation at Corrosion Pits With EDM Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Uniaxial fatigue tests were conducted to compare the fatigue life of laboratory produced corrosion pits, similar to those observed in the shuttle main landing gear wheel bolt-hole, and an electro-discharged-machined (EDM) flaw. EDM Jaws are used to simulate corrosion pits during shuttle wheel (dynamometer) testing. The aluminum alloy, (AA 7050) laboratory fatigue tests were conducted to simulate the local stress level contained in the wheel bolt-hole. Under this high local stress condition, the EDM notch produced a fatigue life similar to test specimens containing corrosion pits of similar size. Based on the laboratory fatigue test results, the EDM Jaw (semi-circular disc shaped) produces a local stress state similar to corrosion pits and can be used to simulate a corrosion pit during the shuttle wheel dynamometer tests.

  16. Non Destructive Testing Measurement for Monitoring Pitting Corrosion using Dcp Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlam, A.; Omar, A.A.; Habashy, M.; Waheed, A.F.; Shafy, M.

    2010-01-01

    A repeatable monitoring of pit from in accessible side of a welded side of a structure is one of the hurdles in field of NT. The present work uses the DC potential drop measuring system for evaluating the response of pits in the weld joins to be detected by DC potential drop measurements. Weld joint of type 304L stainless steel welded with 308L was tested. Selected pits in different zones of the weld joint were detected by optical microscopy. The PD test shows difference in potential between pitted and non-pitted weld joints ranging from 1.3 in BM to 1.7 in HAZ. The capability of present monitoring process can be extended to evaluate the reduction in thickness for the case of thick stainless steel structure

  17. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  18. Experimental and theoretic investigations of thermal behavior of a seasonal water pit heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Chatzidiakos, Angelos

    Seasonal heat storages are considered essential for district heating systems because they offer flexibility for the system to integrate different fluctuating renewable energy sources. Water pit thermal storages (PTES) have been successfully implemented in solar district heating plants in Denmark....... Thermal behavior of a 75,000 m3 water pit heat storage in Marstal solar heating plant was investigated experimentally and numerically. Temperatures at different levels of the water pit storage and temperatures at different depths of the ground around the storage were monitored and analyzed. A simulation...... model of the water pit storage is built to investigate development of temperatures in and around the storage. The calculated temperatures are compared to the monitored temperatures with an aim to validate the simulation model. Thermal stratification in the water pit heat storage and its interaction...

  19. Annealing to Mitigate Pitting in Electropolished Niobium Coupons and SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, L.D.; Hahn, E.; Hicks, D.; Romanenko, A.; Schuessler, R.; Thompson, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-08

    Ongoing studies at Fermilab investigate whether dislocations and other factors instigate pitting during cavity electropolishing (EP), despite careful processing controls and the inherent leveling mechanism of EP itself. Here, cold-worked niobium coupons, which exhibited increased tendencies for pitting in our past study, were annealed in a high vacuum furnace and subsequently processed by EP. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and special defect counting algorithms were used to assess the population of pits formed. Hardness measurements indicated that annealing for 2 hours at 800 C produced recovery, whereas annealing for 12 hours at 600 C did not, as is consistent with known changes for cavities annealed in a similar way. The 800 C anneal was effective in some cases but not others, and we discuss reasons why tendencies for pitting remain. We discuss implications for cavities and continued work to understand pitting.

  20. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)