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Sample records for toxic 48-h ec

  1. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  2. Effect of pH on the toxicity and bioconcentration of sulfadiazine on Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial sulfonamide sulfadiazine has in the last decades been detected in environmental water bodies, both surface and ground water. Since pH in the environment may vary considerably, this study examined the toxicity of the amphoter sulfadiazine towards Daphnia magna at pH levels of 6.......0, 7.5 and 8.5, thus taking the impact of speciation into consideration, contrary to earlier eco-toxicity studies conducted at standard conditions. Toxicity tests were performed using the standard ISO 6341 test procedure modified to accommodate the three pH levels and the toxicity was expressed as EC50....... After 48h the EC50 was determined to be 27.2, 188 and 310mgL−1 at pH 6.0, 7.5 and 8.5, respectively, thus demonstrating a significant effect of pH on the toxicity of sulfadiazine. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (dry weight) was determined to be 50 and 36 at pH 6.0 and 8.5, respectively...

  3. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  4. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  5. Acute toxicity of heavy metals to acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria: EC100 and EC50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, V P; Chen, B Y; Chaudhary, N; Tabak, H H; Haines, J R; Govind, R

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage from abandoned mines and acid mine pit lakes is an important environmental concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of acid mine drainage, knowledge of acute metal toxicity levels for SRB is essential for the proper functioning of the treatment system for acid mine drainage. Quantification of heavy metal toxicity to mixed cultures of SRB is complicated by the confounding effects of metal hydroxide and sulfide precipitation, biosorption, and complexation with the constituents of the reaction matrix. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that measurements of dissolved metal concentrations could be used to determine the toxicity parameters for mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The effective concentration, 100% (EC100), the lowest initial dissolved metal concentrations at which no sulfate reduction is observed, and the effective concentration, 50% (EC50), the initial dissolved metal concentrations resulting in a 50% decrease in sulfate reduction, for copper and zinc were determined in the present study by means of nondestructive, rapid physical and chemical analytical techniques. The reaction medium used in the experiments was designed specifically (in terms of pH and chemical composition) to provide the nutrients necessary for the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB and to preclude chemical precipitation of the metals under investigation. The toxicity-mitigating effects of biosorption of dissolved metals were also quantified. Anaerobic Hungate tubes were set up (at least in triplicate) and monitored for sulfate-reduction activity. The onset of SRB activity was detected by the blackening of the reaction mixture because of formation of insoluble ferrous sulfide. The EC100 values were found to be 12 mg/L for copper and 20 mg/L for zinc. The dissolved metal concentration measurements were effective as the indicators of the effect of the

  6. Toxicity evaluation of the effluent of the ammonium diuranate process proceeding from the Uranium Reconversion Cycle (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osti, Silvio Cesar de

    2001-01-01

    This project was developed with the objective to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of the ammonium diuranate proceeding from the process used to obtain uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), substance which is necessary to produce fuel used by the IEA-R1-IPEN reactor. Five acute toxicity tests were done with Daphnia similis in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,39% and 0,57% of the effluent were determined, and other five with Danio rerio in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,06% and 0,07% of the effluent were determined. Three chronic toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum were done, having found NOEC values for concentrations below 0,12% of the effluents. To determine the ion fluoride toxicity in the Daphnia similis, five acute toxicity tests were done in which values of EC(I)50;48h, between 263.90 mgL -1 and 292.82 mgL -1 were found. The acute toxicity tests done with D. similis demonstrated that the effluent toxicity persisted during its storage period. The acute toxicity test with D.rerio and chronic ones with S. capricornutum using the effluents after the ionic-replace treatment, which objective is to recover uranium for reuse, demonstrated the effluent toxicity persistency. (author)

  7. Zinc toxicity on antioxidative response in (Zea mays L. at two different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Zn is the second most abundant transition metal after iron (Fe. Excess Zn can have negative effects on plants. The effect of Zn at two different pH on lipid peroxidation (MDA, membrane permeability (EC, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2,non-protein thiols (NPT and the activities of major antioxidant enzymes Zea mays were investigated under controlled growth conditions. Zn-excess conditions increased the EC, MDA, H2O2 content and non-protein thiols and also activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased. Also zinc toxicity was higher in 4.5 pH than 7.5 pH.

  8. Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Nordensvan, Ildikó; Dave, Göran

    2012-06-01

    The large global production of plastics and their presence everywhere in the society and the environment create a need for assessing chemical hazards and risks associated with plastic products. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of five plastics types and to identify the class of compounds that is causing the toxicity. Selected plastic types were those with the largest global annual production, that is, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or those composed of hazardous monomers (e.g., PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [ABS], and epoxy). Altogether 26 plastic products were leached in deionized water (3 days at 50°C), and the water phases were tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Initial Toxicity Identification Evaluations (C18 filtration and EDTA addition) were performed on six leachates. For eleven leachates (42%) 48-h EC50s (i.e the concentration that causes effect in 50 percent of the test organisms) were below the highest test concentration, 250 g plastic/L. All leachates from plasticized PVC (5/5) and epoxy (5/5) products were toxic (48-h EC50s ranging from 2 to 235 g plastic/L). None of the leachates from polypropylene (5/5), ABS (5/5), and rigid PVC (1/1) products showed toxicity, but one of the five tested HDPE leachates was toxic (48-h EC50 17-24 g plastic/L). Toxicity Identification Evaluations indicated that mainly hydrophobic organics were causing the toxicity and that metals were the main cause for one leachate (metal release was also confirmed by chemical analysis). Toxic chemicals leached even during the short-term leaching in water, mainly from plasticized PVC and epoxy products.

  9. Environmental labeling of car tires--toxicity to Daphnia magna can be used as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

    2005-02-01

    Car tires contain several water-soluble compounds that can leach into water and have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Due to tire wear, 10,000 tonnes of rubber particles end up along the Swedish roads every year. This leads to a diffuse input of emissions of several compounds. Emissions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern. PAHs are ingredients of the high aromatic oil (HA oil) that is used in the rubber as a softener and as a filler. The exclusion of HA oils from car tires has started, and an environmental labeling of tires could make HA oils obsolete. The toxicity to Daphnia magna from 12 randomly selected car tires was tested in this study. Rubber from the tread of the tires was grated into small pieces, to simulate material from tire wear, and the rubber was equilibrated with dilution water for 72 h before addition of test organisms. The 24-h EC50s of the rubber pieces ranged from 0.29 to 32 gl-1, and the 48-h EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 2.41 gl-1. Summer tires were more toxic than winter tires. After the 48-h exposure, the daphnids were exposed to UV-light for 2 h, to determine if the tires contained compounds that were phototoxic. After UV-activation the EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 0.38 gl-1. Four of the 12 tires had a very distinct photoactivation, with a toxicity increase of >10 times. This study has shown that the used method for toxicity testing with Daphnia magna according to ISO 6341 could be used as a basis for environmental labeling of car tires.

  10. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of selected water quality characteristics on the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Lizotte, R E

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) water quality characteristics on lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin aqueous toxicity to Hyalella azteca using natural water from 12 ponds and lakes in Mississippi, USA with varying water quality characteristics. H. azteca 48-h immobilization EC50 values ranged from 1.4 to 15.7 ng/L and 0.6 to 13.4 ng/L for lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, respectively. For both pyrethroids, EC50 values linearly increased as turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon and chlorophyll a concentrations increased.

  12. Toxicity of organic compounds to marine invertebrate embryos and larvae: a comparison between the sea urchin embryogenesis bioassay and alternative test species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Beiras, Ricardo; Mariño-Balsa, José Carlos; Fernández, Nuria

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of the insecticides lindane and chlorpyrifos, the herbicide diuron, the organometallic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT), and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the early life stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea), Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea), Maja squinado and Palaemon serratus (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in laboratory acute toxicity tests. The assays studied embryogenesis success from fertilized egg to normal larvae in P. lividus (48 h incubation at 20 degrees C) and C. intestinalis (24 h incubation at 20 degrees C), and larval mortality at 24 and 48 h in M. squinado and P. serratus. For P. lividus, the median effective concentrations (EC50) reducing percentages of normal larvae by 50% were: 350 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 5500 microg l(-1) for diuron, 4277 microg l(-1) for SDS, and 0.309 microg l(-1) for TBT. For C. intestinalis, the EC50 values affecting embryogenesis success were 5666 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 24,397 microg (l-1) for diuron, 4412 microg l(-1) for lindane, 5145 microg I(-1) for SDS, and 7.1 microg l(-1) for TBT. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) for M. squinado larval survival were 0.84 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.79 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.23 microg(l(-1) (24 h) and 2.18 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 687 microg l(-1) (48 h) for SDS. For P. serratus the LC50 values obtained were 0.35 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.22 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 3011 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 3044 microg l(-1) (48 h) for diuron, 5.20 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 5.59 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 22.30 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 17.52 microg l(-1) (48 h) for TBT. Decapod larvae, as expected, were markedly more sensitive to the insecticides than sea urchins and ascidians, and SDS was the least toxic compound tested for these organisms. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of TBT for sea urchin and ascidian embryos, chlorpyrifos and

  13. Toxicity of lead and cadmium to tropical marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Dal; Panutrakul, Suwanna; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Toxicity of Pb and Cd to three tropical, marine phytoplankton species isolated from the Andaman Sea off Phuket Thailand were determined. The phytoplankton species included one diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans, one green alga, Chlorella sp., and one chrysophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta. The test method...... white fluorescent light of a 10 to 12 klux intensity, and a 48 h test duration. Concentrations resulting in 50 percent reduced growth rate (EC50) were for C. calcitrans, Chlorella sp. and D. tertiolecta, respectively: Cd in artificial seawater: 3.28, 0.74, and 25.6 mg /L, and in natural seawater: 3.......02, 0.32, and 34.6 mg /L . EC50 values for Pb in artificial seawater were 1.4, 0.12, and 5.25 mg/L d and in natural seawater 0.18, 0.4 and 6.77 mg/L. Pb was consistently more toxic to the algae than Cd, and Chlorella sp was generally most sensitive followed by C. calcitrans while D. teriolecta...

  14. Treatment and toxicity reduction of textile dyeing wastewater using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Lae; Cho, Jong-Bok; Park, Yong-Jin; Cho, Il-Hyoung

    2016-07-02

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) process to treat textile dyeing raw wastewater to evaluate treatment performance. The effects of some key factors, such as current density, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and removal of conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color were investigated. The operating variables were current density of 0-300 A m(-2), HRT of 0-30 min, and a coagulant (anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM)) dosage of 0-30 mg L(-1). Daphnia magna was used to test acute toxicity in raw and treated wastewater. Under the operating conditions without added coagulant, maxima of 51%, 88%, 84%, and 99% of conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were removed, respectively, with a HRT of 30 min. The coagulant enhanced removal of all wastewater parameters. Removal maxima of 59%, 92%, 94%, and 98% for conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were observed, respectively, with an optimal dosage of 30 mg L(-1) and a shortened HRT of 20 min. The 48 h-LC50 D. magna test showed that the raw wastewater was highly toxic. However, the EC-EF process decreased toxicity of the treated samples significantly, and >70% toxicity reduction was achieved by the EC-EF process with the addition of 15-30 mg L(-1) coagulant, HRT of 20 min, and current density of 150-300 A m(-2). The pilot scale test (0.3 m(3 )h(-1)) shows that the EC-EF process with added coagulant effectively treated textile dyeing wastewater.

  15. The effect of pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Folsomia candida in amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lofts, Stephen; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-10-01

    The effect of soil pH on the toxicity of 30 nm ZnO to Folsomia candida was assessed in Dorset field soils with pHCaCl2 adjusted to 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39. To unravel the contribution of particle size and dissolved Zn, 200 nm ZnO and ZnCl2 were tested. Zinc sorption increased with increasing pH, and Freundlich kf values ranged from 98.9 (L/kg)(1/n) to 333 (L/kg)(1/n) for 30 nm ZnO and from 64.3 (L/kg)(1/n) to 187 (L/kg)(1/n) for ZnCl2. No effect of particle size was found on sorption, and little difference was found in toxicity between 30 nm and 200 nm ZnO. The effect on reproduction decreased with increasing pH for all Zn forms, with 28-d median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 553 mg Zn/kg, 1481 mg Zn/kg, and 3233 mg Zn/kg for 30 nm ZnO and 331 mg Zn/kg, 732 mg Zn/kg, and 1174 mg Zn/kg for ZnCl2 at pH 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39, respectively. The EC50s based on porewater Zn concentrations increased with increasing pH for 30 nm ZnO from 4.77 mg Zn/L to 18.5 mg Zn/L, while for ZnCl2 no consistent pH-related trend in EC50s was found (21.0-63.3 mg Zn/L). Porewater calcium levels were 10 times higher in ZnCl2 -spiked soils than in ZnO-spiked soils. The authors' results suggest that the decreased toxicity of ZnCl2 compared with 30 nm ZnO based on porewater concentrations was because of a protective effect of calcium and not a particle effect. © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Effect of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Rupp, Svenja; Lofts, Stephen; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) and pH may influence nanoparticle fate and effects in soil. This study investigated the influence of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO-NP and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida in four natural soils, having between 2.37% and 14.7% OM and [Formula: see text] levels between 5.0 and 6.8. Porewater Zn concentrations were much lower in ZnO-NP than in ZnCl2 spiked soils, resulting in higher Freundlich sorption constants for ZnO-NP. For ZnCl2 the porewater Zn concentrations were significantly higher in less organic soils, while for ZnO-NP the highest soluble Zn level (23mgZn/l) was measured in the most organic soil, which had the lowest pH. Free Zn(2+) ion concentrations were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP and were greatly dependent on pH (pHpw) and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. The 28-d EC50 values for the effect of ZnCl2 on the reproduction of F. candida increased with increasing OM content from 356 to 1592mgZn/kg d.w. For ZnO-NP no correlation between EC50 values and OM content was found and EC50 values ranged from 1695 in the most organic soil to 4446mgZn/kg d.w. in the higher pH soil. When based on porewater and free Zn(2+) concentrations, EC50 values were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP, and consistently decreased with increasing pHpw. This study shows that ZnO-NP toxicity is dependent on soil properties, but is mainly driven by soil pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  18. [Toxic effects of nano-TiO2 on Gymnodinium breve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Min; Zhao, Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Tian, Zhi-Jia; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the toxicity and mechanism of nano-TiO2 on algae, the inhibition effect, enzyme activity, oxygen free radicals of nano-TiO2 on the growth of G. breve were investigated. The results showed that G. breve was inhibited by nano-TiO2, and the 72 h-EC50 was 9.7 mg x L(-1). With the increasing concentration of nano-titanium dioxide, the activities of SOD decrease significantly (P TiO2 suspension while that was 1.1 U x mL(-1) in control after 48 h. Through the study of 20 mg x L(-1) nano-titanium dioxide on G. breve at different times, the activities of SOD and CAT, the content of MDA are consistent, which the highest values is achieved at the exposure time of 12 hours and the lowest value is found at the exposure time of 48 hours. The content of hydroxyl radical increased significantly at the exposure time of 48 hours. The activity of SOD was 0.14 U x (10(7) cell x min)(-1) in G. breve at 12 h which was ten times higher than that at 48 h.

  19. socio-ec(h)o: Ambient Intelligence and Gameplay

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The socio-ec(h)o project aims to research a generalized ambient intelligent software platform and design models for responsive environments based on the concept of ambient intelligent "ecologies" and group gameplay. The benefits of the research include a software-architecture, ambient intelligence inference engine, and interaction design models for gameplay and responsive environments. The paper will discuss the results of our prototypes for games in responsive environments. These prototypes ...

  20. Toxicity of three strobilurins (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Chai, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Chengju

    2017-01-01

    Strobilurins constitute a new class of fungicides that is the most widely used in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the aquatic toxicity of 3 common strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) to Daphnia magna. The neonate acute immobilization test showed that the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 443.3 µg/L, 20.9 µg/L, and 23.0 µg/L, respectively. In addition, the 3 strobilurins significantly induced activity of the important detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in D. magna, and there was a significant positive relationship between GST activity and immobility of D. magna after acute exposure. The 3 strobilurins showed higher toxicity to D. magna embryos, and the 48-h EC50 were 157.3 µg/L, 3.9 µg/L, and 1.7 µg/L for kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin, respectively. The 21-d chronic test revealed that the strobilurins could also significantly affect the reproduction, development, and growth of D. magna at sublethal concentrations. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin for reproduction were 20 µg/L, 0.15 µg/L, and 0.2 µg/L, respectively, which were close to environmental concentrations. The findings indicate that strobilurin fungicides are very toxic to D. magna and they are sufficient to cause harm to D. magna at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:182-189. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Toxicity of a binary mixture on Daphnia magna: biological effects of uranium and selenium isolated and in mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, F.

    2008-10-01

    Among the multiple substances that affect freshwater ecosystems, uranium and selenium are two pollutants found worldwide in the environment, alone and in mixture. The aim of this thesis work was to investigate the effect of uranium and selenium mixture on daphnia (Daphnia magna). Studying effects of a mixture requires the assessment of the effect of single substances. Thus, the first experiments were performed on single substance. Acute toxicity data were obtained: EC 50 48h = 0, 39±0, 04 mg.L -1 for uranium and EC 50 48h 1, 86±0, 85 mg.L -1 for selenium. Chronic effects were also studied. Data on fecundity showed an EC 10 reproduction of 14±7 μg. L -1 for uranium and of 215±25 μg. L -1 for selenium. Uranium-selenium mixture toxicity experiments were performed and revealed an antagonistic effect. This study further demonstrates the importance of taking into consideration different elements in binary mixture studies such as the choice of reference models (concentration addition or independent action), statistical method, time exposure and endpoints. Using integrated parameters like energy budget was shown to be an interesting way to better understand interactions. An approach including calculation of chemical speciation in the medium and bioaccumulation measurements in the organism permits assumptions to be made on the nature of possible interactions between mixture components (toxico-dynamic et toxico-kinetic interactions). (author)

  2. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure. © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, superdispersant-25 and corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Alan; Galloway, Tamara S; Canty, Martin; Smith, Emma L; Nilsson, Johanna; Rowland, Steven J

    2005-05-01

    The acute toxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 reported in the literature is highly variable. No peer-reviewed data exist for Superdispersant-25 (SD-25). This study compares the toxicity of the two dispersants to a range of marine species representing different phyla occupying a wide range of niches: The marine sediment-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), the symbiotic snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskål), and the seagrass Zostera marina (L.). Organisms were exposed to static dispersant concentrations for 48-h and median lethal concentration (LC50), median effect concentration (EC50), and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC) values obtained. The sublethal effects of 48-h exposures and the ability of species to recover for up to 72 h after exposure were quantified relative to the 48-h endpoints. Results indicated that the anemone lethality test was the most sensitive with LOECs of 20 ppm followed by mussel feeding rate, seagrass photosynthetic index and amphipod lethality, with mussel lethality being the least sensitive with LOECs of 250 ppm for both dispersants. The results were consistent with current theory that dispersants act physically and irreversibly on the respiratory organs and reversibly, depending on exposure time, on the nervous system. Superdispersant-25 was found overall to be less toxic than Corexit 9527 and its sublethal effects more likely to be reversible following short-term exposure.

  4. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-01-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50 15min = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50 48h = 91,25 mg L -1 ) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50 48h = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was assessed with the

  5. 620 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS, pH AND EC IN EFFLUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    evaluated metals were Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ag. The pH, EC, TDS, DO ... heavy metals, but the high heavy metal concentrations in the soil could seriously ... Key words: Heavy metals, AAS, contamination, floriculture and effluents.

  6. A miniature integrated multimodal sensor for measuring pH, EC and temperature for precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Taichi; Murata, Hiroaki; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si(3)N(4) membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  7. Influence of pH and media composition on suspension stability of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and immobilization of Daphnia magna under guideline testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic toxicity testing of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) the process of agglomeration is very important as it may alter bioavailability and toxicity. In the present study, we aimed to identify test conditions that are favorable for maintaining stable ENP suspensions. We evaluated the influence of key environmental parameters: pH (2-12) and ionic strength using M7, Soft EPA (S EPA) medium, and Very Soft EPA (VS EPA) medium; and observed the influence of these parameters on zeta potential, zeta average, and acute immobilization of Daphnia magna for three different ENPs. Despite being sterically stabilized, test suspensions of silver (Ag) ENPs formed large agglomerates in both VS EPA and M7 media; and toxicity was found to be higher in VS EPA medium due to increased dissolution. Low-agglomerate suspensions for zinc oxide (ZnO) could be obtained at pH 7 in VS EPA medium, but the increase in dissolution caused higher toxicity than in M7 medium. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) ENPs had a point of zero charge in the range of pH 7-8. At pH 7 in VS EPA, agglomerates with smaller hydrodynamic diameters (~200nm) were present compared to the high ionic strength M7 medium where hydrodynamic diameters reached micrometer range. The stable suspensions of TiO2 ENPs caused immobilization of D. magna, 48-h EC50 value of 13.7mgL(-1) (95% CI, 2.4mg-79.1mgL(-1)); whereas no toxicity was seen in the unstable, highly agglomerated M7 medium suspensions, 48-h EC50 >100mgL(-1). The current study provides a preliminary approach for methodology in testing and assessing stability and toxicity of ENPs in aquatic toxicity tests of regulatory relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Göran; Aspegren, Pia

    2010-10-01

    The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between 182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Miniature Integrated Multimodal Sensor for Measuring pH, EC and Temperature for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Murata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si3N4 membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  10. Overview of the ITER EC H and CD system and its capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, T., E-mail: toshimichi.omori@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Henderson, M.A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albajar, F. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Alberti, S. [CRPP-Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Baruah, U. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bigelow, T.S. [US ITER Project Office, ORNL, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beckett, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bertizzolo, R. [CRPP-Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Bruschi, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Caughman, J.B. [US ITER Project Office, ORNL, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chavan, R. [CRPP-Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Collazos, A. [CRPP-Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cox, D.; Darbos, C. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baar, M.R. de [Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Denisov, G. [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Farina, D. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Gandini, F. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The Electron Cyclotron (EC) system for the ITER tokamak is designed to inject {>=}20 MW RF power into the plasma for Heating and Current Drive (H and CD) applications. The EC system consists of up to 26 gyrotrons (between 1 and 2 MW each), the associated power supplies, 24 transmission lines and 5 launchers. The EC system has a diverse range of applications including central heating and current drive, current profile tailoring and control of plasma magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities such as the sawtooth and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). This diverse range of applications requires the launchers to be capable of depositing the EC power across nearly the entire plasma cross section. This is achieved by two types of antennas: an equatorial port launcher (capable of injecting up to 20 MW from the plasma axis to mid-radius) and four upper port launchers providing access from inside of mid radius to near the plasma edge. The equatorial launcher design is optimized for central heating, current drive and profile tailoring, while the upper launcher should provide a very focused and peaked current density profile to control the plasma instabilities. The overall EC system has been modified during the past 3 years taking into account the issues identified in the ITER design review from 2007 and 2008 as well as integrating new technologies. This paper will review the principal objectives of the EC system, modifications made during the past 2 years and how the design is compliant with the principal objectives.

  11. Overview of the ITER EC H and CD system and its capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, T.; Henderson, M.A.; Albajar, F.; Alberti, S.; Baruah, U.; Bigelow, T.S.; Beckett, B.; Bertizzolo, R.; Bonicelli, T.; Bruschi, A.; Caughman, J.B.; Chavan, R.; Cirant, S.; Collazos, A.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Baar, M.R. de; Denisov, G.; Farina, D.; Gandini, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Electron Cyclotron (EC) system for the ITER tokamak is designed to inject ≥20 MW RF power into the plasma for Heating and Current Drive (H and CD) applications. The EC system consists of up to 26 gyrotrons (between 1 and 2 MW each), the associated power supplies, 24 transmission lines and 5 launchers. The EC system has a diverse range of applications including central heating and current drive, current profile tailoring and control of plasma magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities such as the sawtooth and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). This diverse range of applications requires the launchers to be capable of depositing the EC power across nearly the entire plasma cross section. This is achieved by two types of antennas: an equatorial port launcher (capable of injecting up to 20 MW from the plasma axis to mid-radius) and four upper port launchers providing access from inside of mid radius to near the plasma edge. The equatorial launcher design is optimized for central heating, current drive and profile tailoring, while the upper launcher should provide a very focused and peaked current density profile to control the plasma instabilities. The overall EC system has been modified during the past 3 years taking into account the issues identified in the ITER design review from 2007 and 2008 as well as integrating new technologies. This paper will review the principal objectives of the EC system, modifications made during the past 2 years and how the design is compliant with the principal objectives.

  12. Toxicity of platinum, palladium and rhodium to Daphnia magna in single and binary metal exposure experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Sonja; Wolff, Carolina; Sures, Bernd

    2017-05-01

    Mainly due to automobile traffic, but also due to other sources, the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are introduced into aquatic biotopes where they accumulate in sediments of lakes and rivers. However, the toxicity of these noble metals to aquatic organisms is not well understood and especially toxicity studies under standardized condition are lacking. Thus, the toxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh to Daphnia magna was tested in single metal exposure experiments according to OECD guideline 202. Immobility and lethality was recorded after 24 h and 48 h of exposure and EC 50 and LC 50 , respectively, were determined. As the nominal exposure concentration of Pd differed significantly from the quantified concentration, the control of the real exposure concentration by chemical analysis is mandatory, especially for Pd. The toxicity decreased in the order Pd > Pt ≫ Rh with e.g. LC 50 (48 h) values of 14 μg/L for Pd, 157 μg/L for Pt and 56,800 μg/L for Rh. The exposure period had a clear effect on the toxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh. For Pt and Rh the endpoint immobility was more sensitive than the endpoint lethality whereas Pd toxicity was similar for both endpoints. The Hill slopes, which are a measure for the steepness of the concentration-response curves, showed no significant discrepancies between the different metals. The binary metal exposure to Pt and Pd revealed a more-than-additive, i.e. a synergistic toxicity using the toxic unit approach. The present study is a start to understand the toxicity of interacting PGE. The modes of action behind the synergistic effect are unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of binary chemical munition destruction products: methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphinic acid, 2-diisopropylaminoethanol, DF neutralent, and QL neutralent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca E; Hafez, Ahmed M; Kremsky, Jonathan N; Bizzigotti, George O

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity and environmental impact of neutralents produced from the hydrolysis of binary chemical agent precursor chemicals DF (methylphosphonic difluoride) and QL (2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl ethyl methylphosphonite). Following a literature review of the neutralent mixtures and constituents, basic toxicity tests were conducted to fill data gaps, including acute oral and dermal median lethal dose assays, the Ames mutagenicity test, and ecotoxicity tests. For methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a major constituent of DF neutralent, the acute oral LD(50) in the Sprague-Dawley rat was measured at 1888 mg/kg, and the Ames test using typical tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli was negative. The 48-h LC(50) values for pH-adjusted DF neutralent with Daphnia magna and Cyprinodon variegatus were > 2500 mg/L and 1593 mg/L, respectively. The acute oral LD(50) values in the rat for QL neutralent constituents methylphosphinic acid (MP) and 2-diisopropylaminoethanol (KB) were both determined to be 940 mg/kg, and the Ames test was negative for both. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant ecotoxicity tests for MP and KB gave 48-h D. magna EC(50) values of 6.8 mg/L and 83 mg/L, respectively. GLP-compliant 96-h C. variegatus assays on MP and KB gave LC(50) values of 73 and 252 mg/L, respectively, and NOEC values of 22 and 108 mg/L. QL neutralent LD(50) values for acute oral and dermal toxicity tests were both > 5000 mg/kg, and the 48-h LD(50) values for D. magna and C. variegatus were 249 and 2500 mg/L, respectively. Using these data, the overall toxicity of the neutralents was assessed.

  14. Progress on the ITER H&CD EC upper launcher steering-mirror control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazos, A.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Dolizy, F.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Landis, J.-D.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher (H&CD EC UL) uses a pneumomechanical steering-mirror assembly (SMA) to steer the RF beams for their deposition in the appropriate location in the plasma to control magnetohydrodynamic activity (neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and sawtooth

  15. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  17. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  18. Developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Artemia salina cysts and larvae: Uptake, accumulation, excretion and toxic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song; Luo, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Chen, Wei-Chao; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-10-01

    Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC 50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively. Instar II showed the greatest sensitivity to O-MWCNTs, and followed by instar III, instar I, decapsulated cysts and capsulated cysts. Effects on hatchability, mortality and swimming were accounted for O-MWCNTs rather than metal catalyst impurities. Body length was decreased with the concentrations increased from 0 to 600 mg/L. O-MWCNTs attached onto the cysts, gill and body surface, resulting in irreversible damages. Reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities were increased following exposure, indicating that the effects were related to oxidative stress. O-MWCNTs were ingested and distributed in phagocyte, lipid vesicle and intestine. Most of the accumulated O-MWCNTs were excreted by A. salina at 72 h, but some still remained in the organism. Data of uptake kinetics showed that O-MWCNTs contents in A. salina were gradually increased from 1 to 48 h and followed by rapidly decreased from 48 to 72 h with a range from 5.5 to 28.1 mg/g. These results so far indicate that O-MWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic organisms when released into the marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two investigations concerning the release of tritium. I. Tritium leakage from 3H(Sc) EC-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Wesslen, E.

    1977-01-01

    Recently the manufacturers of EC-detectors for gas chromatographs introduced a new type of 3 H EC-detector where the tritium is bound to scandium instead of to titanium and has an activity up to 1 Ci. It is expected that the scandium-based detector will take a great part of the Swedish EC-detector market. The Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection is anxious to make sure that the introduction of the new detector, which will be used at higher temperature, will not give rise to any increased risk of tritium intake to the personnel handling the chromatographs. The leakage of tritium from commercially available 3 H(Sc) EC-detectors containing 1 Ci of tritium was measured as a function of the detector temperature. Tritium appears both in the form of tritium gas dissolved in the scandium and in the form of tritide. The gas evaporates rather easily with increasing temperature while the dissociation of the tritide is a slower process. The evaporation of tritium due to the dissociation of the tritide was found to be negligible, less than 0.2 μCi/h at temperatures less than 100 0 C, but rises rapidly with temperature. The study also showed that even when the detector is stored at room temperature, a re-distribution of the tritium occures, from the tritide to the dissolved tritium gas, which then easily evaporates even at moderately elevated temperatures

  20. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  1. Copper toxicity to different field-collected cladoceran species: intra-and inter-species sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Bart T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2005-01-01

    The acute copper sensitivity of 44 European freshwater cladocerans, from four families (Daphniidae, Bosminidae, Macrothricidae, Chydoridae) and 13 genera (Daphnia, Ctenodaphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Simocephalus, Scapholeberis, Bosmina, Acantholeberis, Alona, Acroperus, Chydorus, Eurycercus, Disparalona and Pleuroxus) were assayed. The 48-h EC 50 s of field-collected organisms tested in reconstituted standard laboratory water ranged from 5.3 to 70.6 μg Cu L -1 . Only among Ctenodaphnia were significant intra-species differences observed. Significant inter-species differences were noted among Alonina and Daphnia. Between all genera tested, a maximum of a 12-fold difference in copper sensitivity was noted. Most animals were more sensitive than a laboratory D. magna clone. A weak non-significant increasing trend was noted between mean cladoceran 48-h EC 50 and ambient copper concentration of the different aquatic systems, suggesting acclimation/adaptation in the field. A positive relationship was also observed between the 48-h EC 50 of the field-collected cladoceran species (without the Chydoridae family) and the size of the organisms. - Zooplankton living in natural waters are more sensitive to copper than laboratory animals

  2. A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Windy A.; McBride, Sandra J.; Rice, Julie R.; Snyder, Daniel W.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council has outlined the need for non-mammalian toxicological models to test the potential health effects of a large number of chemicals while also reducing the use of traditional animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive alternative model because of its well-characterized and evolutionarily conserved biology, low cost, and ability to be used in high-throughput screening. A high-throughput method is described for quantifying the reproductive capacity of C. elegans exposed to chemicals for 48 h from the last larval stage (L4) to adulthood using a COPAS Biosort. Initially, the effects of exposure conditions that could influence reproduction were defined. Concentrations of DMSO vehicle ≤ 1% did not affect reproduction. Previous studies indicated that C. elegans may be influenced by exposure to low pH conditions. At pHs greater than 4.5, C. elegans reproduction was not affected; however below this pH there was a significant decrease in the number of offspring. Cadmium chloride was chosen as a model toxicant to verify that automated measurements were comparable to those of traditional observational studies. EC 50 values for cadmium for automated measurements (176-192 μM) were comparable to those previously reported for a 72-h exposure using manual counting (151 μM). The toxicity of seven test toxicants on C. elegans reproduction was highly correlative with rodent lethality suggesting that this assay may be useful in predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals in other organisms.

  3. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.

  5. Lethal and sublethal endpoints observed for Artemia exposed to two reference toxicants and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Loredana; Canepa, Sara; Piazza, Veronica; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Swimming speed alteration and mortality assays with the marine crustacean Artemia franciscana were carried out. EC50 and LC50 values after 24-48h exposures were calculated for two reference toxicants, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound, Diethylene Glycol (DEG). Different end-points have been evaluated, in order to point out their sensitivity levels. The swimming speed alteration (SSA) was compared to mortality values and also to the hatching rate inhibition (literature data). SSA resulted to be more sensitive than the mortality and with a sensitivity comparable to (or even higher than) the hatching rate endpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Copper toxicity to different field-collected cladoceran species: intra-and inter-species sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossuyt, Bart T.A. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: bart.bossuyt@ugent.be; Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    The acute copper sensitivity of 44 European freshwater cladocerans, from four families (Daphniidae, Bosminidae, Macrothricidae, Chydoridae) and 13 genera (Daphnia, Ctenodaphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Simocephalus, Scapholeberis, Bosmina, Acantholeberis, Alona, Acroperus, Chydorus, Eurycercus, Disparalona and Pleuroxus) were assayed. The 48-h EC{sub 50}s of field-collected organisms tested in reconstituted standard laboratory water ranged from 5.3 to 70.6 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1}. Only among Ctenodaphnia were significant intra-species differences observed. Significant inter-species differences were noted among Alonina and Daphnia. Between all genera tested, a maximum of a 12-fold difference in copper sensitivity was noted. Most animals were more sensitive than a laboratory D. magna clone. A weak non-significant increasing trend was noted between mean cladoceran 48-h EC{sub 50} and ambient copper concentration of the different aquatic systems, suggesting acclimation/adaptation in the field. A positive relationship was also observed between the 48-h EC{sub 50} of the field-collected cladoceran species (without the Chydoridae family) and the size of the organisms. - Zooplankton living in natural waters are more sensitive to copper than laboratory animals.

  7. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  8. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to aquatic organisms and its synergistic action with potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Izumi C; Arias-Barreiro, Carlos R; Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Ogo, Atsushi; Kawano, Tomonori; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Aoyama, Isao

    2015-02-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and nano ZnO particles were both similar to that of ZnSO4 (72 h EC50 approximately 0.04 mg Zn/l). Thus, in this low concentration range the toxicity was attributed solely to solubilized Zn2+ ions. Bulk TiO2 (EC50=35.9 mg Ti/l) and bulk CuO (EC50=11.55 mg Cu/l) were less toxic than their nano formulations (EC50=5.83 mg Ti/l and 0.71 mg Cu/l). NOEC (no-observed-effect-concentrations) that may be used for risk assessment purposes for bulk and nano ZnO did not differ (approximately 0.02 mg Zn/l). NOEC for nano CuO was 0.42 mg Cu/l and for bulk CuO 8.03 mg Cu/l. For nano TiO2 the NOEC was 0.98 mg Ti/l and for bulk TiO2 10.1 mg Ti/l. Nano TiO2 formed characteristic aggregates entrapping algal cells that may contribute to the toxic effect of nano TiO2 to algae. At 72 h EC50 values of nano CuO and CuO, 25% of copper from nano CuO was bioavailable and only 0.18% of copper from bulk CuO. Thus, according to recombinant bacterial and yeast Cu-sensors, copper from nano CuO was 141-fold more bioavailable than from bulk CuO. Also, toxic effects of Cu oxides to algae were due to bioavailable copper ions. To our knowledge, this is one of the first systematic studies on effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on algal growth and the first describing toxic effects of nano CuO towards algae.

  10. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  11. Toxicities of triclosan, phenol, and copper sulfate in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumegen, Rosalind A; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The effect of toxicants on the BOD degradation rate constant was used to quantitatively establish the toxicity of triclosan, phenol, and copper (II) against activated sludge microorganisms. Toxicities were tested over the following ranges of concentrations: 0-450 mg/L for phenol, 0-2 mg/L for triclosan, and 0-35 mg/L for copper sulfate (pentahydrate). According to the EC(50) values, triclosan was the most toxic compound tested (EC(50) = 1.82 +/- 0.1 mg/L), copper (II) had intermediate toxicity (EC(50) = 18.3 +/- 0.37 mg/L), and phenol was the least toxic (EC(50) = 270 +/- 0.26 mg/L). The presence of 0.2% DMSO had no toxic effect on the activated sludge. The toxicity evaluation method used was simple, reproducible, and directly relevant to activated sludge wastewater treatment processes.

  12. Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm William; Seery, Cliff Ross

    2017-06-01

    Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Additionally, measurements on healthy laboratory-reared E. pallida provide baseline data demonstrating the normal effective quantum yield (EQY) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETR m ) for Symbiodinium spp. in the absence of herbicide stress. Concentration-dependant reductions in the EQY and ETR m occurred during diuron and atrazine exposures; a mean 48-h EC50 (effective concentration; 50%) of 8μg/L of diuron was estimated, however atrazine elicited a much lower toxicity. Twelve-day exposures to 10-200μg/L diuron showed that the greatest EQY effect occurred during the first 48h, with little subsequent change. However, longer exposures to the lowest diuron treatment (1μg/L) showed the lowest EQYs after 96h followed by recovery to control levels within 12d. Furthermore, asexual reproduction was inhibited during 12-d exposures to diuron, and 12-d EC50 values of 100 and 132μg/L were estimated to inhibit successful reproduction of pedal lacerates and juveniles by 50% respectively. This study provides much needed data contributions to species sensitivity curves for development of diuron and atrazine water quality guidelines in tropical marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of nutrient medium composition on uranium toxicity and choice of the most sensitive growth related endpoint in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Saenen, Eline; Van Hoeck, Arne; Smolders, Valérie; Blust, Ronny; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U) toxicity is known to be highly dependent on U speciation and bioavailability. To assess the impact of uranium on plants, a growth inhibition test was set up in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. First growth media with different compositions were tested in order to find a medium fit for testing U toxicity in L. minor. Following arguments were used for medium selection: the ability to sustain L. minor growth, a high solubility of U in the medium and a high percentage of the more toxic U-species namely UO2(2+). Based on these selection criteria a with a low phosphate concentration of 0.5 mg L(-1) and supplemented with 5 mM MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) to ensure pH stability was chosen. This medium also showed highest U toxicity compared to the other tested media. Subsequently a full dose response curve for U was established by exposing L. minor plants to U concentrations ranging from 0.05 μM up to 150 μM for 7 days. Uranium was shown to adversely affect growth of L. minor in a dose dependent manner with EC10, EC30 and EC50 values ranging between 1.6 and 4.8 μM, 7.7-16.4 μM and 19.4-37.2 μM U, respectively, depending on the growth endpoint. Four different growth related endpoints were tested: frond area, frond number, fresh weight and dry weight. Although differences in relative growth rates and associated ECx-values calculated on different endpoints are small (maximal twofold difference), frond area is recommended to be used to measure U-induced growth effects as it is a sensitive growth endpoint and easy to measure in vivo allowing for measurements over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Organic Load, pH, and EC Variations of Raw Wastewater and Weather Condition on the Efficiency of Yazd Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mozaheb

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of organic load, pH, and EC variations of raw wastewater as well as the effect of weather condition on organic removal in Yazd wastewater Stabilization Ponds (2007. During the course of this study, composite samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the anaerobic pond and the final effluent to measure such quality parameters as BOD5, COD, TSS, EC, and pH.  BOD5, COD, TSS, and Fecal coliform removal efficiencies in the final effluent were found to be 64.9%, 44.9 %, 62.6 %, and 99.96%, respectively. No intestinal nematode egg was observed. Comparison of BOD5 and COD concentrations in the filtered and non-filtered samples showed that 52% of the BOD5 and 57% of the COD in the final effluent, respectively, were due to the presence of algal mass and organic suspended solids in the non-filtered samples. The results showed that variations in organic load, pH, EC as well as seasonal weather variations had no effects on organic removal and that the removal of BOD5 was almost constant. Effluent EC was higher than influent EC. This phenomenon can be related to the evaporation rate in wastewater stabilization ponds. The survey of algae in the final effluent showed that the major species of algae were Phytoconis, Chlorella, and Anabaena.

  15. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Russell Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic properties. The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX was used to determine the following measures of developmental toxicity of the allyl isothiocyanate: (a 96-h LC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b 96-h EC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c teratogenic malformation index (TI, equal to 96-h LC50/96-h EC50. The quantitative results and the photographs of embryos before and after exposure suggest that allyl isothiocyanate seems to exhibit moderate teratogenic properties. The results also indicate differences in the toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate toward exposed embryos observed in the present study compared to reported adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate in fish, rodents, and humans. The significance of the results for food safety and possible approaches to protect against adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate are discussed.

  16. Relationship between misonidazole toxicity and core temperature in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomer, C.J.; Johnson, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole at doses greater than 0.5 mg/g was found to produce a transient hypothermic response in C3H mice. An increase in the acute toxicity of this drug was demonstrated when the animal core temperature was maintained at a normal 35 to 37 0 C by placing the mice in a warmed environment immediately following injection of the drug. The LD/sub 50/3 days/ dose of misonidazole was determined to be 1.48 mg/g for mice allowed to become hypothermic following injection but 0.77 mg/g for mice maintained at a normal core temperature following injection

  17. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-05

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72 h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22 mg L(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9 PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter on acute copper toxicity to the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents data from original research for use in the development of a marine biotic ligand model and, ultimately, copper criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses. Ten 48-h static acute (unfed) copper toxicity tests using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) were performed to assess the effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter (measured as dissolved organic carbon; DOC) on median lethal dissolved copper concentrations (LC50). Reconstituted and natural saltwater samples were tested at seven salinities (6, 11, 13, 15, 20, 24, and 29 g/L), over a pH range of 6.8-8.6 and a range of dissolved organic carbon of <0.5-4.1 mg C/L. Water chemistry analyses (alkalinity, calcium, chloride, DOC, hardness, magnesium, potassium, sodium, salinity, and temperature) are presented for input parameters to the biotic ligand model. In stepwise multiple regression analysis of experimental results where salinity, pH, and DOC concentrations varied, copper toxicity was significantly related only to the dissolved organic matter content (pH and salinity not statistically retained; alpha=0.05). The relationship of the 48-h dissolved copper LC50 values and dissolved organic carbon concentrations was LC50 (microg Cu/L)=27.1xDOC (mg C/L)1.25; r2=0.94.

  19. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  20. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  1. Cytotoxicity of dental composite (co)monomers and the amalgam component Hg{sup 2+} in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Simon, Sabine; Esters, Magalie; Seiss, Mario [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kehe, Kai [Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Regensburg, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Regensburg (Germany); Hickel, Reinhard [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Unpolymerized resin (co)monomers or mercury (Hg) can be released from restorative dental materials (e.g. composites and amalgam). They can diffuse into the tooth pulp or the gingiva. They can also reach the gingiva and organs by the circulating blood after the uptake from swallowed saliva. The cytotoxicity of dental composite components hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisglycidylmethacrylate (Bis-GMA) as well as the amalgam component Hg{sup 2+} (as HgCl{sub 2}) and methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) was investigated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) at two time intervals. To test the cytotoxicity of substances, the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used. The test substances were added in various concentrations and cells were incubated for 24 or 48 h. The EC{sub 50} values were obtained as half-maximum-effect concentrations from fitted curves. Following EC{sub 50} values were found [BrdU: mean (mmol/l); SEM in parentheses; n=12]: (24 h/48 h) HEMA 8.860 (0.440)/6.600(0.630), TEGDMA 1.810(0.130)/1.220(0.130), UDMA 0.120(0.010)/0.140(0.010), BisGMA 0.060(0.004)/0.040(0.002), HgCl{sub 2} 0.015(0.001)/0.050(0.006), and MeHgCl 0.004(0.001)/0.005(0.001). Following EC{sub 50} values were found [LDH: mean (mmol/l); SEM in parentheses; n=12]: (24 h/48 h) HEMA 9.490(0.300)/7.890(1.230), TEGDMA 2.300(0.470)/1.950(0.310), UDMA 0.200(0.007)/0.100(0.007), BisGMA 0.070(0.005)/0.100(0.002), and MeHgCl 0.014(0.006)/0.010(0.003). In both assays, the following range of increased toxicity was found for composite components (24 and 48 h): HEMA < TEGDMA < UDMA < BisGMA. In both assays, MeHgCl was the most toxic substance. In the BrdU assay, Hg{sup 2+} was about fourfold less toxic than MeHgCl but Hg{sup 2+} was about fourfold more toxic than BisGMA. In the BrdU test, a significantly (P<0.05) decreased toxicity was observed for Hg{sup 2+} at 48 h, compared to the 24 h

  2. Toxicity of azodrin on the morphology and acetylcholinesterase activity of the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.V.; Kavitha, P.

    2004-01-01

    The acute toxicity of azodrin (monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide) was determined on a soil organism, Eisenia foetida. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were derived from a 48-h paper contact test and from artificial soil tests. The LC 50 of azodrin in the paper contact test was 0.46±0.1 μg cm -2 (23±6 mg L -1 ) and those in the 7- and 14-day artificial soil tests were 171±21 and 132±20 mg kg -1 , respectively. The neurotoxic potentiality of azodrin was assessed by using a marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The progressive signs of morphological destruction are correlated with percentage inhibition of AChE in the in vivo experiments. The kinetics of AChE activity in the presence and absence of azodrin indicated that the toxicant is competitive in nature. This study demonstrated that azodrin causes concentration-dependent changes in the morphology and AChE activity of the earthworm E. foetida

  3. Toxicity of three selected pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lazhar Mhadhbi

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... The present study aimed to evaluate acute toxicity tests for three selected ... Median lethal concentrations of the selected pesticides during a 48 h and 96 h exposure for .... Dunnett's post-hoc test, using the SPSS application, version 19.0. ..... to define the primary mode of toxic action for diverse industrial.

  4. Kinetic study on ligand exchange reaction between EC and 99mTc-GH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunying; Luo Shineng; Fang Ping; Huang Heyun; Xie Minhao; Meng Hong

    1995-01-01

    The ligand exchange reaction between EC and 99m Tc-GH and its influence factors such as concentrations of EC and pH were described. The concentration of EC has no influence on the exchange reaction rate constant, while pH is the most important influence factor. The rate constants of ligand exchange reaction at different pH values were determined. The results showed that in order to make the labelling yield of 99m Tc-EC higher than 90%, pH of the reaction must be higher than 8

  5. Lead toxicity thresholds in 17 Chinese soils based on substrate-induced nitrification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Huang, Yizong; Hu, Ying; Jin, Shulan; Bao, Qiongli; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Meng; Xie, Huiting

    2016-06-01

    The influence of soil properties on toxicity threshold values for Pb toward soil microbial processes is poorly recognized. The impact of leaching on the Pb threshold has not been assessed systematically. Lead toxicity was screened in 17 Chinese soils using a substrate-induced nitrification (SIN) assay under both leached and unleached conditions. The effective concentration of added Pb causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 185 to >2515mg/kg soil for leached soil and 130 to >2490mg/kg soil for unleached soil. These results represented >13- and >19-fold variations among leached and unleached soils, respectively. Leaching significantly reduced Pb toxicity for 70% of both alkaline and acidic soils tested, with an average leaching factor of 3.0. Soil pH and CEC were the two most useful predictors of Pb toxicity in soils, explaining over 90% of variance in the unleached EC50 value. The relationships established in the present study predicted Pb toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. These relationships between Pb toxicity and soil properties could be used to establish site-specific guidance on Pb toxicity thresholds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  7. Effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of spinach rhizosphere in hydroponic culture

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parsazadeh; N. Najafi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrate to ammonium ratio and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of rhizosphere during spinach growth period in perlite culture, under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. A split factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted with three factors including nutrient solution’s pH in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8), nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75...

  8. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  9. Fluoride bioaccumulation and toxic effects on the survival and behavior of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Sierra, Arantxa; Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the toxic effects of fluoride (F(-)) on the survival and behavior of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Body fluoride contents (bioaccumulation) of test crayfish were also examined. No significant differences between male and female crayfish regarding mortality, escape (tail-flip) response, and fluoride bioaccumulation were detected. For mortality, 48-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144-, 168-, and 192-h median lethal concentrations (LC50) were estimated to be 93.0, 55.3, 42.7, 36.5, 32.9, 30.6, and 28.9 mg F(-)/l, respectively. For the escape response, 48-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144-, 168- and 192-h median effective concentrations (EC50) were estimated to be 18.4, 11.1, 8.6, 7.4, 6.7, 6.2 and 5.9 mg F(-)/l, respectively. Average food consumption in test crayfish tended to decrease with increasing water fluoride concentration with a 192-h lowest-observed effect concentration of 10.7 mg F(-)/l. These results indicate that the escape response was the most sensitive end point to fluoride toxicity followed by food consumption and mortality. Fluoride bioaccumulation in test crayfish increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and exposure time. The exoskeleton accumulated more fluoride than muscle. A comparison of the obtained results with previous data for other freshwater invertebrates shows that white-clawed crayfish are relatively tolerant to fluoride toxicity. We conclude that fluoride pollution in freshwater ecosystems should not be viewed as an important risk factor contributing to the catastrophic decrease of A. pallipes in many European countries. Our results indicate that fluoride bioaccumulation in A. pallipes might be used as a bioindicator of fluoride pollution in freshwater ecosystems where it is present.

  10. Ketone EC50 values in the Microtox test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H F; Hee, S S

    1995-03-01

    The Microtox EC50 values for the following ketones are reported in the following homologous series: straight chain methyl ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-hepatonone, 2-octanone, 2-decanone, and 2-tridecanone); methyl ketones substituted at one alpha carbon (3-methyl-2-butanone; 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone); methyl substituted at two alpha carbons (2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-pentanone); phenyl groups replacing methyl in acetone (acetophenone; benzophenone); methyl groups substituted at the alpha carbons of cyclohexanone; and 2,3- 2,4-, and 2,5-hexanediones, most for the first time. While there were linear relationships between log EC50 and MW for the straight chain methyl ketones, and for methyl substitution at the alpha carbon for methyl ketones, there were no other linear relationships. As molecular weight increased, the EC50 values of soluble ketones decreased; as distance between two carbonyl groups decreased so too did EC50 values. Thus, for the ketones the geometry around the carbonyl group is an important determinant of toxicity as well as MW, water solubility, and octanol/water coefficient.

  11. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should......: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9 mg...

  12. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  13. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  14. Oxidation of iodide and iodine on birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sébastien; von Gunten, Urs; Sahli, Elisabeth; Nicolau, Rudy; Gallard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of iodide by synthetic birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) was studied in perchlorate media in the pH range 4-8. Iodine (I(2)) was detected as an oxidation product that was subsequently further oxidized to iodate (IO(3)(-)). The third order rate constants, second order on iodide and first order on manganese oxide, determined by extraction of iodine in benzene decreased with increasing pH (6.3-7.5) from 1790 to 3.1M(-2) s(-1). Both iodine and iodate were found to adsorb significantly on birnessite with an adsorption capacity of 12.7 microM/g for iodate at pH 5.7. The rate of iodine oxidation by birnessite decreased with increasing ionic strength, which resulted in a lower rate of iodate formation. The production of iodine in iodide-containing waters in contact with manganese oxides may result in the formation of undesired iodinated organic compounds (taste and odor, toxicity) in natural and technical systems. The probability of the formation of such compounds is highest in the pH range 5-7.5. For pH iodine is quickly oxidized to iodate, a non-toxic and stable sink for iodine. At pH >7.5, iodide is not oxidized to a significant extent.

  15. 48 CFR 1552.235-78 - Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997). 1552.235-78 Section 1552.235-78 Federal...

  16. The ITER EC H and CD Upper Launcher: Maintenance concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronden, D.M.S.; Baar, M. de; Chavan, R.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Grossetti, G.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Koning, J.F.; Landis, J.-D.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We explain how an overall maintenance strategy defines individual maintenance tasks. ► Concepts are presented for replacement strategies of the in-vessel optical components. ► Vertical placement of the Upper Launcher in the Hot Cell may simplify maintenance. -- Abstract: Maintenance of the ITER EC H and CD Upper Launcher (UL) shall be performed through the use of Remote Handling (RH) in the ITER Hot Cell Facility (HCF). The UL design will have to be fully compliant with ITER RH maintenance requirements and the set of RH tooling and services available in the HCF. This paper describes the development of an overall maintenance strategy for the UL, starting from a listing of all conceivable maintenance operations, including hands-on tasks. Components for which design concepts are discussed in this paper are the Blanket Shield Module (BSM), the steering mirror (M4), the mid optics (M1, M2) and the waveguide (WG) feed-through plate. Aspects related to RH documentation, overall maintenance strategy and design concepts for optimizing the maintainability of the UL are presented

  17. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; A.M.V.M. Soares [University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal). Department of Biology

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor{reg_sign}, based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH-dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed.

  18. Influence of soil properties and soil leaching on the toxicity of ionic silver to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kate A; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Merrington, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Silver (Ag) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties; as a result, it is being used increasingly in a wide range of consumer products. With these uses, the likelihood that Ag may enter the environment has increased, predominately via land application of biosolids or irrigation with treated wastewater effluent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of Ag to 2 plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare L. CV Triumph) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in a range of soils under both leached and unleached conditions. The concentrations that resulted in a 50% reduction of plant growth (EC50) were found to vary up to 20-fold across the soils, indicating a large influence of soil type on Ag toxicity. Overall, barley root elongation was found to be the least sensitive to added Ag, with EC50 values ranging from 51 mg/kg to 1030 mg/kg, whereas the tomato plant height showed higher sensitivity with EC50 values ranging from 46 mg/kg to 486 mg/kg. The effect of leaching was more evident in the barley toxicity results, where higher concentrations of Ag were required to induce toxicity. Variations in soil organic carbon and pH were found to be primarily responsible for mitigating Ag toxicity; therefore, these properties may be used in future risk assessments for Ag to predict toxicity in a wide range of soil types. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. The toxicity evaluation of prepared Lantana camara nano extract against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Nurfajri, Dea Audia; Hermawan, Wawan; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology plays an important role in providing opportunities and possibilities for the development of a plant extracts, particularly applied for agriculture using the organic nanoparticles extract as bioinsecticide. This paper reports the extraction of L. camaraas an insecticidal compound applied to control the S. litura larvae which is the main pest for agricultural commodities in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to evaluate the toxicity performance of nano extract to S. litura larvae. The extract was prepared by maceration and evaporation and followed by particles stabilization. The received suspension was characterized using a Particles Size Analyzer (PSA). The performance evaluation was conducted using dye feed method by observing at 24 h and 48 h. The toxicity performance of L. camara nano extract on S. litura larvae was evaluated based on the lethal concentration which was obtained at 50% of 3rd instar larvae S. litura (LC50) and the toxicity level. The larval mortality data was analyzed by probit analysis to obtain LC50 values. The results showed that the LC50 value of L. camara nano extract after 24 h was 16,347 ppm and after 48 h the LC50 value was 3,548 ppm. The smaller LC50 values indicate a stronger toxicity level, in contrast the best toxicity was LC50 after 48 h with the concentration of 3,548 ppm. Referring to toxicity category standard with LC50 pesticide value, the range 0.5-5 g/L is considered as medium toxic category. Toxicity level of L. camara nano extract to S. litura 3,548 ppm or 3,548 mg/L is considered as medium toxic category.

  20. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  1. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  2. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  3. Acute Toxicity and the Effects of Copper Sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O on the Behavior of the Black Fish (Capoeta Fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of toxicity tests regarding toxic responses of different fish species could be more effectively used in predictive toxicology and risk assessment. In this study lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h values of copper sulphate; an important toxic industrial pollutant, on Capoeta fusca were determined. Behavioral changes at different concentrations of CuSO4 were determined for the C.fusca. Methods: The sample fishes were collected from Qanat in Birjand and were transported to the laboratory in polythene bags. The exposure time of fish to CuSO4 was 96 hours. Mortalities were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of exposure, and the dead fish were removed regularly from the test aquariums. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH and Total hardness of aquaria were monitored daily. Results: The LC50 values for CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, were 43.62, 12.6, 7.66, and 6.85 mg/L, respectively. The median LC50 value of CuSO4 for C.fusca was found to be 6.928 mg/L by EPA method and estimated to be 6.787 mg/L with SPSS statistical software. Conclusion: The mortality decreased with time, and most of the deaths occurred during the first 24 h. In addition, behavioural changes increased with increased concentration. This metal is an important constituent in industrial effluents discharged into freshwaters. The results obtained in this study clearly revealed the fact that it is necessary to control the use of a heavy metal such as copper.

  4. Evaluation of nano-specific toxicity of zinc oxide, copper oxide, and silver nanoparticles through toxic ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weicheng; Liu, Xiawei; Bao, Shaopan; Xiao, Bangding; Fang, Tao, E-mail: fangt@ihb.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology (China)

    2016-12-15

    For safety and environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials (NMs) and to provide essential toxicity data, nano-specific toxicities, or excess toxicities, of ZnO, CuO, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 20, and 30 nm, respectively) to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in short-term (6 h) and long-term (48 h) bioassays were quantified based on a toxic ratio. ZnO NPs exhibited no nano-specific toxicities, reflecting similar toxicities as ZnO bulk particles (BPs) (as well as zinc salt). However, CuO and Ag NPs yielded distinctly nano-specific toxicities when compared with their BPs. According to their nano-specific toxicities, the capability of these NPs in eliciting hazardous effects on humans and the environment was as follows: CuO > Ag > ZnO NPs. Moreover, long-term bioassays were more sensitive to nano-specific toxicity than short-term bioassays. Overall, nano-specific toxicity is a meaningful measurement to evaluate the environmental risk of NPs. The log T{sub e}{sup particle} value is a useful parameter for quantifying NP nano-specific toxicity and enabling comparisons of international toxicological data. Furthermore, this value could be used to determine the environmental risk of NPs.

  5. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Hiba Ben; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Floc’h, Emilie; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine; Sakka Hlaili, Asma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment are a hazardous chemical legacy. ► Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene are toxic to phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth in culture. ► Acute (photosynthesis) and chronic (population growth) effects have different thresholds. ► Toxicity depends on both the species selected as a model and the compound considered. ► Further study of the size/sensitivity relationship is required to draw more general conclusions. - Abstract: The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L −1 . The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 μg L −1 , respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 μg L −1 for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 μg L −1 for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when there is a lack of ecotoxicological data on hazardous chemicals, especially in marine microorganisms.

  8. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  9. Acute toxicity of tobacco ( Nicotiana tobaccum ) leaf dust on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted using dry tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaves aqueous extract to determine the acute toxicity and sub lethal effects on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus using static renewable bioassay method. The extract was found to be toxic with a 48-h LC50 value of 109.6 mg/l.

  10. A global inventory of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions (ANCAT/EC 2). A revised inventory (1996) by the ECAC/ANCAT and EC working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R M [Great Minister House, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transfert London

    1998-12-31

    Results of the ANCAT/EC 2 inventory produced by the European ANCAT/EC emissions inventory group is reported. The base year inventory has been completed and is currently being written up for report publication. The ANCAT/EC 2 inventory in the base year, 1991/92, has accounted for a total fuel burn of 132.5 Tg/yr and a NO{sub x} mass of 1.82 Tg/yr. The civil subsonic fleet average emissions index is EI NO{sub x} 13.9. The inventory has accounted for 80% of the IEA refined jet fuel total for 1992. The forecast 2015 inventory accounts for 289.4 Tg/yr fuel and 3.48 Tg/yr NO{sub x}, increases of 118% and 91% respectively. Both datasets will be reported fully in the next few months. (author) 5 refs.

  11. A global inventory of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions (ANCAT/EC 2). A revised inventory (1996) by the ECAC/ANCAT and EC working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.M. [Great Minister House, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transfert London

    1997-12-31

    Results of the ANCAT/EC 2 inventory produced by the European ANCAT/EC emissions inventory group is reported. The base year inventory has been completed and is currently being written up for report publication. The ANCAT/EC 2 inventory in the base year, 1991/92, has accounted for a total fuel burn of 132.5 Tg/yr and a NO{sub x} mass of 1.82 Tg/yr. The civil subsonic fleet average emissions index is EI NO{sub x} 13.9. The inventory has accounted for 80% of the IEA refined jet fuel total for 1992. The forecast 2015 inventory accounts for 289.4 Tg/yr fuel and 3.48 Tg/yr NO{sub x}, increases of 118% and 91% respectively. Both datasets will be reported fully in the next few months. (author) 5 refs.

  12. Toxicity of Diazinon 60 EC for Cyprinus carpio and Poecilia reticulata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.; Žlábek, V.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2007), s. 267-276 ISSN 0967-6120. [New Challenges in Pond Aquaculture. České Budějovice, 26.04.2005-28.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acute toxicity * chemical insecticide * Daphnia magna * embryonic toxicity test * larval toxicity test * organophosphate * pond fishery Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  13. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera.

  14. How to accurately assay the algal toxicity of pesticides with low water solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianyi; Chen Jianmeng

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for assaying and calculating the toxicity of water-insoluble pesticides to green algae has been put forward in this work. First, a solvent is selected for use in bioassays; there should be a detailed screening to identify a solvent with inherently low toxicity to the test organism. Second, the EC 50 is determined for selected pesticides by measuring the toxicity of various concentrations of each of the selected pesticides in a fixed concentration of selected solvent. Third, concentrations of the selected solvent are varied and the EC 50 of each pesticide tested is assayed at a fixed concentration. Fourth, several suitable groups of solvent concentrations are selected and the corresponding EC 50 values of tested pesticides are considered to establish the linear regression equation. Letting the solvent concentration be zero, one calculates the corresponding EC 50 value, which corresponds to the inherent toxicity of the tested pesticide. - A new method is described for assaying the toxicity of water insoluble pesticides

  15. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC 50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC 50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC 50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC 50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC 50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series

  16. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Berntssen, Marc H.G.; Hylland, Ketil; Eriksen, Dag Ø.; Holen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether 226 Ra, a radionuclide present in produced water from oil platforms in the North Sea and other offshore drilling areas, could affect vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Blastula-stage embryonic cells (EC) from fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod were isolated and exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of 226 Ra and transcription of selected genes quantified. The results showed a weak, but significant up-regulation of GPx3 and HSP70 transcripts after 48 h of exposure to 2.11 Bq/L. In EC exposed to three 226 Ra concentrations (2.11, 23 and 117 Bq/L) for 12 h, metallothionein, HSP90AA, thioredoxin and caspase 8 were significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to 117 Bq/L, whereas thioredoxin was also significantly up-regulated in EC exposed to 23 Bq/L. When EC were exposed to the same 226 Ra concentrations for 48 h, only heme oxygenase was significantly up-regulated in the 23 Bq/L exposure group. The results suggest that environmentally relevant activities of 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish ECs. Exposure of Atlantic cod EC to Cd, selected as a model toxicant, supported the ability of EC around blastula stage to respond to toxicants by altered transcription. Due to dilution, environmentally relevant concentrations of radionuclides present in produced water would be expected to pose a minor threat to early life stages of fish. - Highlights: ► 226 Ra affects the transcription of genes in Atlantic cod embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra not expected to pose a major threat to early life stages of marine fish.

  17. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013021,SRX013...13022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  18. Changes in EC , pH and in the concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in the drainage solution of a crop of roses on substrates with drainage recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rose cultivation system has been changing from soil to substrate on the Plateau of Bogota. The objective of this study was the monitoring of the EC, pH, and the levels of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in a drainage solution in a crop of roses with substrates based on burnt rice husk and coconut fiber. The Charlotte rose variety grafted onto ‘Natal Briar’ was planted in a greenhouse located in one of the SENA facilities in Mosquera (Colombia; with a density of 6.5 plants/ m². For this experiment, a split plot design was used arranged in randomized blocks with a three-level recirculating system (0, 50 and 100% on the substrates 100% burnt rice husk; 65% burnt rice husk plus 35% coconut fiber; and 35% burnt rice husk plus 65% coconut fiber, repeated three times. The EC decreased from 2.7 to 1.3 mS cm-1 within weeks 2 and 5 which demonstrated an increase of mineral consumption by the plants. The pH levels dropped from 7.46 to 6.27 within weeks 3 to 8 and then increased to 7.39 within weeks 8 to 12. Nitrate concentrations showed a decreasing trend in recirculation treatments within weeks 2 to 12. A lower ammonium concentration was observed at week 4 in treatments with and without recirculation during the vegetative stage. The levels of sodium and chloride increased in treatments with a recirculation system, without signs of toxicity

  19. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Report on Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien; Tummers, Philippe; Makar, Amin; Eijkeren, Marc van; Delrue, Louke; Denys, Hannelore; Lambert, Bieke; Beerens, Anne-Sophie; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Lambein, Kathleen; Fonteyne, Valérie; De Meerleer, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report on toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for cervical (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four CC and 41 EC patients were treated with postoperative IMAT. If indicated, para-aortic lymph node irradiation (preventive or when affected, PALN) and/or concomitant cisplatin (40 mg/m², weekly) was administered. The prescribed dose for IMAT was 45 Gy (CC, 25 fractions) and 46 Gy (EC, 23 fractions), followed by a brachytherapeutic boost if possible. Radiation-related toxicity was assessed prospectively. The effect of concomitant cisplatin and PALN irradiation was evaluated. Results: Regarding acute toxicity (n = 65), Grade 3 and 2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in zero and 63% of patients (79% CC, 54% EC), respectively. Grade 3 and 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was observed in 1% and 18% of patients, respectively. Grade 2 (21%) and 3 (12%) hematologic toxicity (n = 41) occurred only in CC patients. Seventeen percent of CC patients and 2% of EC patients experienced Grade 2 fatigue and skin toxicity, respectively. Adding cisplatin led to an increase in Grade >2 nausea (57% vs. 9%; p = 0.01), Grade 2 nocturia (24% vs. 4%; p = 0.03), Grade ≥2 hematologic toxicity (38% vs. nil, p = 0.003), Grade ≥2 leukopenia (33% vs. nil, p = 0.009), and a strong trend toward more fatigue (14% vs. 2%; p = 0.05). Para-aortic lymph node irradiation led to an increase of Grade 2 nocturia (31% vs. 4%, p = 0.008) and a strong trend toward more Grade >2 nausea (44% vs. 18%; p = 0.052). Regarding late toxicity (n = 45), no Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, genitourinary toxicity, and fatigue occurred in 4%, 9%, and 1% of patients. Neither concomitant cisplatin nor PALN irradiation increased late toxicity rates. Conclusions: Postoperative IMAT for EC or CC is associated with low acute and late toxicity. Concomitant chemotherapy and PALN irradiation influences acute but

  20. In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toxicity of nanocarriers comprised of cationic polymer and lipid components often used in gene and drug delivery, formulated as cationic micelles and liposomes. Rats were injected intravenously with 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg and sacrificed after 24 or 48 h, or 24 h after the las...

  1. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyana Rachel Palo Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH, control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1. EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g. miR-133 and miR-375, as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g. miR-3745 and miR-3761. Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  2. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-05-01

    Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC 50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9mg/L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased in the same order as the toxicity decrease. This indicates that even though ClO 2 has the highest environmental hazard potential, it may still be suitable as an alternative disinfectant due to its rapid degradation in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013053,SRX0...16156 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  4. Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Li, Yongxin; Han, Zhuang; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.

  5. Role of pH on the acute toxicity of sulfite in water. [Carassius auratus; Leistes reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sulfite to fish decreases with increasing pH value, because the HSO/sub 3//sup -/ ion is more toxic than the SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion. An effective sulfite concentration S/sub eff/ which is proportional to the toxicity on fish is expressed by the following equation: S/sub eff/ = (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) + f(SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/), where f is a coefficient which expresses the change of toxicity of sulfite depending on the pH of the water, and varies for each species of fish. For goldfish, owing to the very small toxic contribution of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion (f = 0.07), the pH dependence of the toxicity of sulfite on pH was so strong that sulfite seemed almost non-toxic in basic solution. However, f for guppy is somewhat larger (f = 0.20) so that the toxicity of sulfite weakly depends on the pH value of water.

  6. Toxicity identification evaluations of produced-water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Costa, H.J.; Brown, J.S.; Ward, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on 14 produced-water (PW) samples of various salinities from inland and offshore oil- and gas-production facilities operated by different companies in Wyoming, Texas, California, and Louisiana (USA) to evaluate the efficacy of TIE procedures in determining potential toxicants in PW effluents. The research involved acute (24- and 48-h) freshwater and marine toxicity tests on whole PW and PW fractions generated by standard US Environmental Protection Agency and PW-specific fractionation schemes. Factors influencing PW TIEs were investigated, such as the effect of salinity in selecting fractionation manipulations, the effect of toxicity test replication (i.e., reproducibility) in distinguishing changes in toxicities between whole PW and its fractions, and the suitability of different test species in PW TIEs. The results obtained and lessons learned from conducting these PW TIEs are presented in this article. Components, or fractions, contributing to toxicity differed for each PW with no specific fraction being consistently toxic. For most PW samples, toxicity attributed to any one fraction represented only part of the toxicity of the whole sample. However, no more than two fraction types were identified as potential toxicants in any sample. Potential toxicants identified during this study, besides salinity, included acidic and basic organic compound class fractions, particulates removed by filtration at pH 11, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, material removed by pH change, and volatile compounds

  7. The ITER EC H&CD upper launcher: Design, analysis and testing of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gessner, R.; Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Ronden, D.; Spaeh, P.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2013-01-01

    The final design of the structural system for the ITER EC H&CD upper launcher is in progress. Many design features of the preliminary design are under revision with the aim to achieve the built-to-print-status. This paper deals with design and analysis of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield

  8. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 Histone Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013093,SRX013021,S...RX013027,SRX013026,SRX013028,SRX013102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  9. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  10. Nuclear power plant performance in the EC in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    According to the report presented by the Statistical Office of the Ec, nuclear electricity generation in the nine EC countries has been increased in 1978 by 11% to a net value of 115 TWh as compared to the year before. Installed capacity went up by 18.6% to a net value of 24. 000 MWe at the end of the year. The mean availability period has been close to the hitherto best value of 6000 h/a. The share of nuclear energy in total electricity generation in the EC rose by 0.5% to 10.5%. (orig.) [de

  11. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of aluminum to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) in water‐only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Chris D.; Brunson, Eric L.; Cleveland, Danielle; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Stubblefield, William A.; Cardwell, Allison S.

    2018-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is reviewing the protectiveness of the national ambient water quality criteria (WQC) for aluminum (Al) and compiling a toxicity data set to update the WQC. Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, but little is known about their sensitivity to Al. The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute 96‐h and chronic 28‐d toxicity of Al to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and a commonly tested amphipod (Hyalella azteca) at a pH of 6 and water hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCO3. The acute 50% effect concentration (EC50) for survival of both species was >6200 μg total Al/L. The EC50 was greater than all acute values in the USEPA acute Al data set for freshwater species at a pH range of 5.0 to based on dry weight was 163 μg total Al/L for the mussel and 409 μg total Al/L for the amphipod. Addition of the EC20s to the USEPA chronic Al data set for pH 5.0 to of the chronic data from the present study and recalculation of the chronic criterion would likely lower the proposed chronic criterion. 

  13. Surface interactions affect the toxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles toward Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kungang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-08-20

    To better understand the potential impacts of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the ecosystem, we investigated the acute toxicity of seven different types of engineered metal oxide NPs against Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan, using the 48 h LC(50) (lethal concentration, 50%) test. Our results showed that the 48 h LC(50) values of these NPs to Paramecium ranged from 0.81 (Fe(2)O(3) NPs) to 9269 mg/L (Al(2)O(3) NPs); their toxicity to Paramecium increased as follows: Al(2)O(3) Paramecium; this implies that metal oxide NPs with strong association with the cell surface might induce more severe cytotoxicity in unicellular organisms.

  14. Preparation of Atomically Flat Si(111)-H Surfaces in Aqueous Ammonium Fluoride Solutions Investigated by Using Electrochemical, In Situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Eun; Oh, Mi Kyung; Min, Nam Ki; Paek, Se Hwan; Hong, Suk In; Lee, Chi-Woo J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical, in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM), and attenuated total reflectance-FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic methods were employed to investigate the preparation of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface in ammonium fluoride solutions. Electrochemical properties of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface were characterized by anodic oxidation and cathodic hydrogen evolution with the open circuit potential (OCP) of ca. .0.4 V in concentrated ammonium fluoride solutions. As soon as the natural oxide-covered Si(111) electrode was immersed in fluoride solutions, OCP quickly shifted to near .1 V, which was more negative than the flat band potential of silicon surface, indicating that the surface silicon oxide had to be dissolved into the solution. OCP changed to become less negative as the oxide layer was being removed from the silicon surface. In situ EC-STM data showed that the surface was changed from the initial oxide covered silicon to atomically rough hydrogen-terminated surface and then to atomically flat hydrogen terminated surface as the OCP moved toward less negative potentials. The atomically flat Si(111)-H structure was confirmed by in situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR data. The dependence of atomically flat Si(111)-H terrace on mis-cut angle was investigated by STM, and the results agreed with those anticipated by calculation. Further, the stability of Si(111)-H was checked by STM in ambient laboratory conditions

  15. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in toxicity of anionic and cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers in zebrafish embryos and cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewein, Lambert [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Project Group Translational Medicine and Pharmacology, Frankfurt & Aachen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Schmelter, Frank; Di Fiore, Stefano [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Molecular Biology Division, Aachen (Germany); Hollert, Henner [Institute of Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Fischer, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Project Group Translational Medicine and Pharmacology, Frankfurt & Aachen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Molecular Biology Division, Aachen (Germany); Fenske, Martina, E-mail: martina.fenske@ime.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Project Group Translational Medicine and Pharmacology, Frankfurt & Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Dendrimers are an emerging class of polymeric nanoparticles with beneficial biomedical applications like early diagnostics, in vitro gene transfection or controlled drug delivery. However, the potential toxic impact of exposure on human health or the environment is often inadequately defined. Thus, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generations G3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers G3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 were tested in zebrafish embryos for 96 h and human cancer cell lines for 24 h, to assess and compare developmental in vivo toxicity with cytotoxicity. The zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers increased over time, with EC50 values ranging from 0.16 to just below 1.7 μM at 24 and 48 hpf. The predominant effects were mortality, plus reduced heartbeat and blood circulation for PPI dendrimers. Apoptosis in the embryos increased in line with the general toxicity concentration-dependently. Hatch and dechorionation of the embryos increased the toxicity, suggesting a protective role of the chorion. Lower generation dendrimers were more toxic in the embryos whereas the toxicity in the HepG2 and DU145 cell lines increased with increasing generation of cationic PAMAMs and PPI dendrimers. HepG2 were less sensitive than DU145 cells, with IC50 values ≥ 402 μM (PAMAMs) and ≤ 240 μM (PPIs) for HepG2 and ≤ 13.24 μM (PAMAMs) and ≤ 12.84 μM (PPIs) for DU145. Neither in fish embryos nor cells toxicity thresholds were determinable for anionic PAMAM G3.5 and G4.5. The study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity underestimated the in-vivo toxicity of the dendrimers in the fish embryos. - Highlights: • Zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers increased over time. • Zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic dendrimers did not increase with generation. • Cationic dendrimers induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • Toxicity of cationic dendrimers was lower in HepG2 and DU145 than zebrafish embryos.

  17. Differences in toxicity of anionic and cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers in zebrafish embryos and cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodewein, Lambert; Schmelter, Frank; Di Fiore, Stefano; Hollert, Henner; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Dendrimers are an emerging class of polymeric nanoparticles with beneficial biomedical applications like early diagnostics, in vitro gene transfection or controlled drug delivery. However, the potential toxic impact of exposure on human health or the environment is often inadequately defined. Thus, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generations G3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers G3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 were tested in zebrafish embryos for 96 h and human cancer cell lines for 24 h, to assess and compare developmental in vivo toxicity with cytotoxicity. The zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers increased over time, with EC50 values ranging from 0.16 to just below 1.7 μM at 24 and 48 hpf. The predominant effects were mortality, plus reduced heartbeat and blood circulation for PPI dendrimers. Apoptosis in the embryos increased in line with the general toxicity concentration-dependently. Hatch and dechorionation of the embryos increased the toxicity, suggesting a protective role of the chorion. Lower generation dendrimers were more toxic in the embryos whereas the toxicity in the HepG2 and DU145 cell lines increased with increasing generation of cationic PAMAMs and PPI dendrimers. HepG2 were less sensitive than DU145 cells, with IC50 values ≥ 402 μM (PAMAMs) and ≤ 240 μM (PPIs) for HepG2 and ≤ 13.24 μM (PAMAMs) and ≤ 12.84 μM (PPIs) for DU145. Neither in fish embryos nor cells toxicity thresholds were determinable for anionic PAMAM G3.5 and G4.5. The study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity underestimated the in-vivo toxicity of the dendrimers in the fish embryos. - Highlights: • Zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers increased over time. • Zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic dendrimers did not increase with generation. • Cationic dendrimers induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • Toxicity of cationic dendrimers was lower in HepG2 and DU145 than zebrafish embryos.

  18. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Hiba Ben [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia); Leboulanger, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.leboulanger@ird.fr [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Le Floc' h, Emilie [UMS MEDIMEER, CNRS-Universite Montpellier II, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers F-34200 Sete (France); Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine; Sakka Hlaili, Asma [Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment are a hazardous chemical legacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene are toxic to phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth in culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acute (photosynthesis) and chronic (population growth) effects have different thresholds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity depends on both the species selected as a model and the compound considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further study of the size/sensitivity relationship is required to draw more general conclusions. - Abstract: The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L{sup -1}. The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when

  19. Toxicity of three selected pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to evaluate acute toxicity tests for three selected herbicides: Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron using turbot flatfish. Larvae were more sensitive than turbot embryos to all pesticides. Median lethal concentrations of the selected pesticides during a 48 h and 96 h exposure for turbot embryos and larvae ...

  20. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  1. Toxicity research of boron-nitrogen modifiers of wooden surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyachenkova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron-nitrogen compounds (BNC have been successfully used to create bio- and fire-protective compositions for wood. Within the framework of this study, our aim was to assess the toxicity of the boron-nitrogen compounds by bioluminescent method with the use of environmental control device "Biotox-10M" and highly sensitive biosensor "Ecolum". We also defined toxicological parameters EC20 and EC50 and concluded, that all the wood preservation compounds are highly toxic, whereby, it is advisable to use them for external protection of wooden structures. As a result of BNC toxicity assessment, it is necessary to consider that any effective bio- and fireprotectives, will be highly toxic. Our researches stated, that BNC protective compositions are highly toxic and, therefore, it is possible to conclude their applicability for external wood processing.

  2. The representation of tropical upper tropospheric water in EC Earth V2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M.S. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Goeteburg (Sweden); Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Eriksson, P.; Murtagh, D.P. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Goeteburg (Sweden); Eliasson, S. [Luleaa University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Kiruna (Sweden); Jones, C.G. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Forbes, R.M. [ECMWF, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Tropical upper tropospheric humidity, clouds, and ice water content, as well as outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), are evaluated in the climate model EC Earth with the aid of satellite retrievals. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Microwave Limb Sounder together provide good coverage of relative humidity. EC Earth's relative humidity is in fair agreement with these observations. CloudSat and CALIPSO data are combined to provide cloud fractions estimates throughout the altitude region considered (500-100 hPa). EC Earth is found to overestimate the degree of cloud cover above 200 hPa and underestimate it below. Precipitating and non-precipitating EC Earth ice definitions are combined to form a complete ice water content. EC Earth's ice water content is below the uncertainty range of CloudSat above 250 hPa, but can be twice as high as CloudSat's estimate in the melting layer. CERES data show that the model underestimates the impact of clouds on OLR, on average with about 9 W m{sup -2}. Regionally, EC Earth's outgoing longwave radiation can be {proportional_to}20 W m{sup -2} higher than the observation. A comparison to ERA-Interim provides further perspectives on the model's performance. Limitations of the satellite observations are emphasised and their uncertainties are, throughout, considered in the analysis. Evaluating multiple model variables in parallel is a more ambitious approach than is customary. (orig.)

  3. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  5. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2017-01-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5"t"h in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of aluminum to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) in water‐only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Chris D.; Brunson, Eric L.; Cleveland, Danielle; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Stubblefield, William A.; Cardwell, Allison S.

    2018-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is reviewing the protectiveness of the national ambient water quality criteria (WQC) for aluminum (Al) and compiling a toxicity data set to update the WQC. Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, but little is known about their sensitivity to Al. The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute 96‐h and chronic 28‐d toxicity of Al to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and a commonly tested amphipod (Hyalella azteca) at a pH of 6 and water hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCO3. The acute 50% effect concentration (EC50) for survival of both species was >6200 μg total Al/L. The EC50 was greater than all acute values in the USEPA acute Al data set for freshwater species at a pH range of 5.0 to <6.5 and hardness normalized to 100 mg/L, indicating that the mussel and amphipod were insensitive to Al in acute exposures. The chronic 20% effect concentration (EC20) based on dry weight was 163 μg total Al/L for the mussel and 409 μg total Al/L for the amphipod. Addition of the EC20s to the USEPA chronic Al data set for pH 5.0 to <6.5 would rank the mussel (L. siliquoidea) as the fourth most sensitive species and the amphipod (H. azteca) as the fifth most sensitive species, indicating the 2 species were sensitive to Al in chronic exposures. The USEPA‐proposed acute and chronic WQC for Al would adequately protect the mussel and amphipod tested; however, inclusion of the chronic data from the present study and recalculation of the chronic criterion would likely lower the proposed chronic criterion. 

  7. The effect of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Fungicides are considered to be effective crop protection chemicals in modern agriculture. However, they can also exert toxic effects on non-target organisms, including soil-dwelling microbes. Therefore, the environmental fate of fungicides has to be closely monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on microbial diversity, enzyme activity and resistance, and plant growth. Samples of sandy loam with pH KCl 7.0 were collected for laboratory analyses on experimental days 30, 60 and 90. Falcon 460 EC was applied to soil in the following doses: control (soil without the fungicide), dose recommended by the manufacturer, 30-fold higher than the recommended dose, 150-fold higher than the recommended dose and 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. The observed differences in the values of the colony development index and the eco-physiological index indicate that the mixture of spiroxamine, tebuconazole and triadimenol modified the biological diversity of the analyzed groups of soil microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and fungi of the genera Penicillium and Rhizopus were isolated from fungicide-contaminated soil. The tested fungicide inhibited the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The greatest changes were induced by the highest fungicide dose 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. Dehydrogenases were most resistant to soil contamination. The Phytotoxkit test revealed that the analyzed fungicide inhibits seed germination capacity and root elongation. The results of this study indicate that excessive doses of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide 30-fold higher than the recommended dose to 300-fold higher than the recommended dose) can induce changes in the biological activity of soil. The analyzed microbiological and biochemical parameters are reliable indicators of the fungicide's toxic effects on soil quality.

  8. Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Russell; Rayburn, James R; Cline, George R; Sauterer, Roger; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-06

    The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used: (a) 96 h LC50, the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b) 96 h EC50, the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c) teratogenic index (96 h LC50/96 h EC50), an estimate of teratogenic risk. Calculations of toxic units (TU) were used to assess possible antagonism, synergism, or response addition of several mixtures. The evaluated compounds demonstrated counterintuitive effects. Furan had lower than expected toxicity in Xenopus embryos and, unlike acrylamide, does not seem to be teratogenic. However, the short duration of the tests may not show the full effects of furan if it is truly primarily genotoxic and carcinogenic. L-Cysteine showed unexpected properties in the delay of hatching of the embryos. The results from the interaction studies between combination of two or three components (acrylamide plus L-cysteine; furan plus L-cysteine; acrylamide plus furan; acrylamide plus furan and L-cysteine) show that furan and acrylamide seem to have less than response addition at 1:1 toxic unit ratio in lethality. Acrylamide and L-cysteine show severe antagonism even at low 19 acrylamide/1 L-cysteine TU ratios. Data from the mixture of acrylamide, furan, and L-cysteine show a slight antagonism, less than would have been expected from binary mixture exposures. Bioalkylation mechanisms and their prevention are discussed. There is a need to study the toxicological properties of mixtures of acrylamide and furan concurrently formed in heat-processed food.

  9. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  10. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Skobe, Ziedonis; Tannous, Bakhos A; Bartlett, John D

    2010-05-28

    It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-)). Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-). Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage); however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage). Low pH can facilitate entry of F(-) into cells. Here, we asked if F(-) was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function. Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(-) at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(-) required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(-) dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(-) treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(-) in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pHdental fluorosis.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-3 (BP-3 and Benzophenone-4 (BP-4 in Ultraviolet (UV-Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chemicals (UV filters are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3 and benzophenone-4 (BP-4 on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 × 10−3 and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem.

  12. EC-fans and fan control systems; EC-ventilatoren en ventilatorregelsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, D.

    2011-07-15

    Saving of energy can be achieved by the design and application of energy efficient components such as EC-fans (EC stands for Electronically Commutated technology), which are used in different types of cooling-refrigeration and air conditioning systems. In this article attention is paid to two products of Ziehl-Abigg: the Icontrol and the Fcontrol frequency converters. [Dutch] Het beperken van het energiegebruik en het verminderen van de uitstoot van het broeikasgas CO2 is voor de sector een belangrijke opgave. Door het ontwerpen en toepassen van energie-efficiente componenten zoals EC-ventilatoren (EC staat voor Electronically Commutated technologie) in allerlei koel-, vries- en luchtbehandelingsinstallaties kan veel bespaard worden in het energiegebruik. In dit artikel wordt aandacht besteed aan 2 producten van Ziehl-Abigg: de Icontrol en de Fcontrol frequentie omvormers.

  13. Manganese toxicity in pasture legumes. II. Effects of pH and molybdenum levels in the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, N V; Andrew, C S; Wilson, G L

    1971-06-01

    The effects of pH and Mo levels in the growing media on Mn toxicity were investigated for white clover and five tropical pasture legume species. In solution culture, high Mo supply did not influence Mn toxicity. However, in two species, it caused Mo toxicity. High solution pH intensified Mn toxicity in white clover, probably by way of uptake. The effects of Ca and P on Mn toxicity reported in a previous paper, were not greatly influenced by solution pH. In the soil, Mo application greatly increased dry matter yield of white clover grown on soils high in exchangeable Mn. This effect was more easily attributed to an influence on N metabolism of the legume plant than on Mn toxicity. Measured soil pH was found to have little influence on the level of exchangeable Mn in the soil. However the larger pH changes in small soil pockets, resulting from non-uniform incorporation of chemicals in the soil, might have a more important effect on this fraction of soil Mn. 31 references, 7 tables.

  14. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: EM disruption analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, A.; Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Scherer, T.A.; Schreck, S.; Späh, P.; Strauß, D.; Saibene, G.; Cavinato, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the new grant started in November 2011 between Fusion for Energy (F4E) and the ECHUL-CA consortium, the development process of the Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) upper launcher (UL) in ITER has moved a step toward the final design phase. Based on the 2009 preliminary design review version, the new configuration of the UL now features a thicker single-wall mainframe (up to 90 mm), a recessed first wall panel (100 mm, to reduce the impact of halo currents) and a new arrangement of the internal shield blocks. The main design drivers for the structural components are still the electromagnetic (EM) loads, which need to be reassessed for the new configuration of the UL. In this paper the results of a new EM 20° sector model of ITER, specialized for the UL, are shown. Six different disruption scenarios are considered in this work: upward linear (36 ms) and exponential (36 ms) vertical displacement events (VDE), upward linear (36 ms) and exponential (16 ms) major disruptions (MD), category II upward slow and slow–fast VDEs. Comparing the analyses’ results allowed to define a set of structural loads to be used as a reference for the forthcoming structural calculations

  15. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J.; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Schmidt, Travis S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters.

  16. Organic micropollutants (OMPs) in natural waters: Oxidation by UV/H2O2 treatment and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Oscar; Vidal, Cristiane; Baeza, Carolina; Jardim, Wilson F; Rossner, Alfred; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-07-01

    out after UV/H2O2 treatments of the OMPs mixture studied. At the lower UV doses tested (300 mJ cm(-2)) a higher toxicity was observed, suggesting the formation of toxic intermediates in the course of the reaction. As expected, at higher UV doses the toxicity declined. Considering the treatment of the mixture of ATZ, CBZ, DCL and TCS with a UV dose of 1200 mJ cm(-2) and 10 mg L(-1) of H2O2 the acute toxicity results exhibits values for Daphnia magna immobilization equal to 20 and 42% evaluated after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joanne; Monteiro, Marta S; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the toxicities of four pesticides (the herbicides atrazine, terbuthylazine, metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos) previously detected in the Alqueva reservoir/dam (south of Portugal) were evaluated individually and in binary combinations of the herbicides and the insecticide using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity to midges in all the 48 h toxicity bioassays performed. The swimming behaviour of the larvae was impaired, with EC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.17 μg/L. However, neither s-triazine (atrazine and terbuthylazine) herbicides nor metolachlor alone at concentrations up to 200 μg/L caused significant toxicity to C. riparius. When combined with both s-triazine herbicides, chlorpyrifos toxicity was enhanced by approximately 2-fold when tested in a binary mixture experimental setup, at the 50% effective concentration levels. To evaluate how chlorpyrifos toxicity was being increased, the cholinesterases (ChE) were characterized biochemically using different substrates and selective inhibitors. The results obtained suggested that the main enzyme present in this species is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and therefore it was assayed upon C. riparius exposures to all pesticides individually and as binary mixtures. Although atrazine and terbuthylazine are not effective inhibitors of AChE, the potentiation of chlorpyrifos toxicity by the two s-triazine herbicides was associated with a potentiation in the inhibition of AChE in midges; both s-triazine herbicides at 200 μg/L increased the inhibition of the AChE activity by 7 and 8-fold, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between swimming behaviour disturbances of larvae and the inhibition of the AChE activity. In contrast, metolachlor did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Therefore, the herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine can act as synergists in the presence of chlorpyrifos, increasing

  18. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH i ) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH i to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC 50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue TM . The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD 50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH i , so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH i that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  19. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  20. Preparation of H3PW12O40/MCM-48 and its photocatalytic degradation of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yan-zhou; Gan, Qiang; Feng, Chang-gen

    2014-08-01

    A composite catalyst H3PW12O40/MCM-48 was prepared by loading photocatalyst phosphotungstic acid H3PW12O40 (HPW) to molecular sieve MCM-48 by impregnation method, and its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, nitrogen adsorption analysis and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. Photocatalytic degradation activities of HPW/MCM-48 against pesticides imidacloprid and paraquat were evaluated under UV radiation (365 nm). The results show that HPW/MCM-48 maintains the mesoprous molecular sieve structure of MCM-48 and the Keggin structure of HPW, while the BET surface area is 793.35 m2 x g(-1), pore volume is 1.46 cm3 x g(-1), average pore diameter is 2.76 nm, suggesting loading HPW on MCM-48 is a considerable way to improve its surface area. After 14 h UV irradiation (365 nm), 57.38% imidacloprid and 63.79% paraquat were degraded by 20 mg HPW/MCM-48 catalyst, while HPW and blank group degraded the two pesticides at the degradation rate of about 25% and 5%, respectively. Implying loading on MCM-48 could greaterly improve the degradation activity of HPW. The reslut of degradation kinetics show that, the degradation process of HPW/MCM-48 fits first order kinetics equation. The rate constant Ka of HPW/MCM-48 toward imidacloprid and paraquat are 0.089 h and 0.117 h, with the half-life t(1/2) of 7.8 h and 5.9 h, respectively.

  1. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  2. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  3. Investigating the Agent of Temperature into Acute Toxicity (LC50 96h of Edifenphos in Rutilus Frisii Kutum (Kamensky, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edifenphos, a kind of organophosphate toxins, is used as agricultural fungicides in rice fields. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on lethal concentration of exposure to edifenphos on Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static condition and based on instructions of OECD within 10 d under controlled water physicochemical factors. Dissolved oxygen was fixed on 7-7.5 ppm, pH: 7 to 7.5 and hardness: 200 ppm. Fish were acclimatized in 70*40*30 cm aquarium for 10 d before the test. Treated aquariums with concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of edifenphos with one control group (no toxic concentration, were performed. In order to test the effect of temperature on acute toxicity, three ranges of 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC were treated and LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out in Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Tehran in 2016. Results: LC50 value in 25 ºC was lower than 20 and 15 ºC. LC50 96h edifenphos for Caspian kutum in 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC was 3.70, 3.61 and 3.26, respectively. Conclusion: Higher temperature increase toxicity rate of edifenphos and the toxin had a positive temperature coefficient on Caspian kutum.

  4. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S; Schmidt, Travis S

    2018-04-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative toxicity of two azadirachtin-based neem pesticides to Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktepe, Ipek; Plhak, Leslie C

    2002-01-01

    Azadirachtin (AZA)-based pesticides (Neemix and Bioneem) demonstrated toxicity in 48-h nonrenewal toxicity assays using Daphnia pulex at levels that were comparable with several organophosphate pesticides. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the two neem pesticides were found to be 0.028 and 0.033 microl/ml, respectively. The LC50 value for nonformulated (95% pure) AZA was determined to be 0.382 microg AZA/ml. Neemix and Bioneem were exposed to air and northern sky daylight in a light box at 24 and 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, and 9 d. Standard 48-h acute toxicity tests were used to determine the effect of aging in these dry environmental conditions. Neemix and Bioneem were also fractionated into volatile and nonvolatile fractions, and the toxicity of each was tested. Compared with Neemix, Bioneem remained toxic longer when exposed to light and air at 37 degrees C, indicating that this pesticide may be less prone to environmental degradation. When fractionated, the nonvolatile fractions for both pesticides exhibited significantly lower LC50 values than the full formulations. These results suggest that, depending on the application rate and environmental fate, AZA-based pesticides may have direct adverse effects on aquatic organisms and that the toxicity and stability of formulated pesticides depend on factors other than only the AZA concentration.

  6. Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Muhammad Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Toxic elements are present in polluted water from mines, industrial outlets, storm water etc. Wetland plants take up toxic elements and increase the pH of the medium. In this thesis was investigated how the shoots of submerged plants and roots of emergent plants affected the pH of the surrounding water in the presence of free toxic ions. The aim was to clarify the mechanisms by which these plants change the surrounding water pH in the presence of toxic ions. The influence of Elodea canadensis...

  7. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  8. Influence of pH, light cycle, and temperature on ecotoxicity of four sulfonylurea herbicides towards Lemna gibba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Cedergreen, Nina; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    test conditions on the toxicity of four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs). The toxicity of the four SUs towards Lemna gibba was investigated at three pH levels (6, 7.5 and 9), at two temperatures (15 and 24 °C) and two light regimes (continuous and 12:12 h light:dark cycle) The EC50 increased twofold...... conditions e.g. specific temperature, pH, light intensity etc. However, environmental conditions under which the organisms live are rarely identical to the standard conditions. Thus, the ecotoxicity of compounds found in standard test is not only a function of the compounds inherent physico...... to tenfold for the four SUs when pH was increased from 6 to 9. Decreasing the temperature from 24 to 15 °C or introducing a dark:light cycle did not cause any trends in changes in toxicity. The results show that test conditions can have an effect on the toxicity and this should be considered when...

  9. Effects of pH on the toxicity and uptake of [14C]lindane in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of the insecticide, lindane, was measured in the midge, Chironomus riparius, at pH 4, 6, and 8 with the finding that lindane is significantly more toxic at pH 6 than at pH 4 and 8. The higher toxicity of lindane at pH 6 is a product of two factors. First the penetration of the compound into the midge is lower at pH 4 than at pH 6 and 8. Second, a greater percentage of total radioactivity is contributed by parent compound at pH 6

  10. Combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid to the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Hui; He, Fengmei; Li, Xuesheng; Tan, Huihua; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2018-05-29

    Insecticides with different modes of action may act in combination, in ways such as drifting, spray equipment residual, or utilizing concurrently in mulberry orchards or nearby agricultural fields. Silkworms may suffer from a diverse impact on the survival. In this study, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid and their combinations to the second instar of silkworms (Bombyx mori (L.)(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)) were evaluated after 48 and 72 h treatment by the leaf-dipping method and the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation. After 48 h treatment, results indicated that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid lambda-cyhalothrin, and that (2) synergism was predominated in most combinations excepted for the lambda-cyhalothrin + imidacloprid combination which displayed an additive effect at f a value 0.5. Then, after 72 h treatment, results exhibited that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid lambda-cyhalothrin < chlorantraniliprole, and that (2) only the chlorantraniliprole + imidacloprid mixture yielded antagonism at f a value 0.5; the other combinations performed an additive effect at least. Consequently, combined toxicity of mixtures may pose a worse effect on silkworm than single toxicity of insecticides. Therefore, we suggest that insecticide mixtures should be added into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  11. Chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Kemble, Nile E.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chronic toxicity of Ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. A 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS; 0.94–38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (TOC; 0.42–10%). Chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia sp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, and Lampsilis siliquoidea) in 2 spiked sediments. Nickel toxicity thresholds estimated from species-sensitivity distributions were 97 µg/g and 752 µg/g (total recoverable Ni; dry wt basis) for sediments with low and high concentrations of AVS and TOC, respectively. Sensitive species were tested with 6 additional sediments. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for Hyalella and Gammarus, but not Hexagenia, were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks based on Ni in porewater and in simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) normalized to AVS and TOC. For Hexagenia, sediment EC20s increased at less than an equimolar basis with increased AVS, and toxicity occurred in several sediments with Ni concentrations in SEM less than AVS. The authors hypothesize that circulation of oxygenated water by Hexagenia led to oxidation of AVS in burrows, creating microenvironments with high Ni exposure. Despite these unexpected results, a strong relationship between Hexagenia EC20s and AVS could provide a basis for conservative site-specific sediment quality guidelines for Ni.

  12. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Sharma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-. Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-. Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage; however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage. Low pH can facilitate entry of F(- into cells. Here, we asked if F(- was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function.Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(- at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(- required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(- dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(- treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(- in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pH<6.0 as compared to secretory stage ameloblasts (pH approximately 7.2. Intriguingly, F(--treated rats demonstrated a striking decrease in transcripts expressed during the maturation stage of enamel development (Klk4 and Amtn. In contrast, the expression of secretory stage genes, AmelX, Ambn, Enam and Mmp20, was unaffected.The low pH environment of maturation stage ameloblasts facilitates the uptake of F(-, causing increased cell stress that compromises ameloblast function, resulting in dental fluorosis.

  13. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7 mg kg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5 mg kg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hadialhejazi, Golshid; Smolders, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2-3200 mg V kg(-1)) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity was measured with 2 microbial and 3 plant assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) thresholds of the microbial assays ranged from 28 mg added V kg(-1) to 690 mg added V kg(-1), and the EC50s in the plant assays ranged from 18 mg added V kg(-1) to 510 mg added V kg(-1). The lower thresholds were in the concentration range of the background vanadium in the untreated control soils (15-58 mg V kg(-1)). The vanadium toxicity to plants decreased with a stronger soil vanadium sorption strength. The EC50 values for plants expressed on a soil solution basis ranged from 0.8 mg V L(-1) to 15 mg V L(-1) and were less variable among soils than corresponding values based on total vanadium in soil. It is concluded that sorption decreases the toxicity of added vanadate and that soil solution vanadium is a more robust measure to determine critical vanadium concentrations across soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  16. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  17. Phenol toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna paucicostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Sook [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Green Environmental Research, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Phenol is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a widely used reference toxicant for many bioassays. However, little information is available regarding the toxic effects of phenol on aquatic macrophytes. Seventy-two hour bioassays, with different end-points, were carried out to assess phenol toxicity in Lemna paucicostata. A concentration-dependent decline in frond multiplication and colony disintegration was observed, with 11.38 and 22.76 {mu}M phenol resulting in browning of fronds and colony disintegration, respectively. Growth of fronds, as measured by changes in surface area, was significantly inhibited with EC{sub 50} value of 2.70 {mu}M. When pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence imaging (i-PAM) was employed, the maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) significantly declined with increasing phenol concentrations with resultant EC{sub 50} of 1.91 {mu}M and coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for the EC{sub 50} values of less than 4.7%. A gradual increase in fluorescence emissions from chlorophylls a and b and pheophytin up to a concentration of 2.85 {mu}M was found but declined markedly at higher concentrations. The significant correlation between the F{sub v}/F{sub m} and surface growth rate data implies that the former is an appropriate biomarker of whole plant toxicity. Using imaging Chl a fluorescence on L. paucicostata provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxic risks posed by phenol to aquatic ecosystems and has practical applications for municipal and industrial waste water management.

  18. Phenol toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna paucicostata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Sook; Brown, Murray T.; Han, Taejun

    2012-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a widely used reference toxicant for many bioassays. However, little information is available regarding the toxic effects of phenol on aquatic macrophytes. Seventy-two hour bioassays, with different end-points, were carried out to assess phenol toxicity in Lemna paucicostata. A concentration-dependent decline in frond multiplication and colony disintegration was observed, with 11.38 and 22.76 μM phenol resulting in browning of fronds and colony disintegration, respectively. Growth of fronds, as measured by changes in surface area, was significantly inhibited with EC 50 value of 2.70 μM. When pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence imaging (i-PAM) was employed, the maximum quantum yield of PS II (F v /F m ) significantly declined with increasing phenol concentrations with resultant EC 50 of 1.91 μM and coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for the EC 50 values of less than 4.7%. A gradual increase in fluorescence emissions from chlorophylls a and b and pheophytin up to a concentration of 2.85 μM was found but declined markedly at higher concentrations. The significant correlation between the F v /F m and surface growth rate data implies that the former is an appropriate biomarker of whole plant toxicity. Using imaging Chl a fluorescence on L. paucicostata provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxic risks posed by phenol to aquatic ecosystems and has practical applications for municipal and industrial waste water management.

  19. Application of a New Established System for Toxic Doses in Children With 4-Hydroxycoumarin Rodenticide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ye

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxic dose of rodenticides in children is extremely difficult to be determined because of the uncertain exposure history. We established and validated a method to identify the toxic dose in children of 4-hydroxycoumarin (TDCH. Items were selected by Delphi method and weighted by analytic hierarchy process. Toxic doses were classified into three categories: high dose (>24 points, medium (15-24 and low (<15. Sixty-five children with 4-hydroxycoumarin rodenticide intoxication were included in the study. There were 29(44.6%, 8(12.3%, 28(43.1% cases in high, medium, and low dose respectively. Patients in high-dose were more likely to have intentionally attempted suicide (5/29, 17.2% or had no definite history of ingestion (17/29, 58.6%, arrived at the hospital later than 24 h (26/29, 90%, been misdiagnosed initially (25/29, 86.2%, not treated by gastric lavage (27/29, 93.1%, and developed severe hemorrhage. While most patients in low-dose were younger than 6 years (26/28, 92.9%, all have experienced accidental exposure, arrived at the hospital, and received gastric lavage within 24 h, obtained a definite diagnosis, and be asymptomatic. Of 38 patients arrived at hospital within 48 h, patients a score48h ≥ 15 had higher incidence of coagulopathy (6/8, 75.0% than patients with a score48h < 15 (3/30, 10.0%. Of all patients, 37 in the high and medium dose with a score ≥ 15 has higher incidence (35/37, 94.6% of prolonged administration with vitamin K1 (≥1 month than other 28 patients with a score < 15 (0/28, 0%. The TDCH system could not only be used in evaluating toxic doses and predicting coagulopathy in the early stage, but also helps to guide appropriate treatment. Patients with a score48h ≥ 15 were in the high bleeding risk category. And patients with a scores ≥ 15 required treatment with vitamin K1 for more than a month.

  20. Functional Metagenomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Interactions with Spinach Indigenous Microorganisms during Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle Q.; Xue, Kai; Brandl, Maria T.; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The increase in foodborne outbreaks worldwide attributed to fresh fruit and vegetables suggests that produce may serve as an ecological niche for enteric pathogens. Here we examined the interaction of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157) with spinach leaf indigenous microorganisms during co-colonization and establishment of a mixed biofilm on a stainless steel surface. Stainless steel surface was selected to mimic the surface of produce-processing equipment, where retention of foodborne pathogens such as EcO157 could serve as a potential source for transmission. We observed a positive effect of spinach-associated microbes on the initial attachment of EcO157, but an antagonistic effect on the EcO157 population at the later stage of biofilm formation. Metagenomic analyses of the biofilm community with the GeoChip revealed an extremely diverse community (gene richness, 23409; Shannon-Weiner index H, 9.55). Presence of EcO157 in the mixed biofilm resulted in a significant decrease in the community α-diversity (t test, Pbiofilm at 48 h (ANOVA, Pbiofilm is likely associated with its metabolic potential in utilizing spinach nutrients: the generation time of EcO157 in spinach lysates at 28°C is ∼ 38 min, which is comparable to that in rich broth. The significant decrease in the abundance of many genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in the EcO157-inoculated biofilms (t test, Pbiofilm species. PMID:22957052

  1. Permeation of Telone EC through protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

    2005-09-30

    Telone is a potent fumigant that is based on the chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbon, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP). It is often applied without dilution and so poses severe inhalation and air pollution threats. Urinary metabolites of 1,3-DCP have been detected after Telone skin exposure, so that preventing dermal exposure is also important. The objective of the study was to assess if nitrile and multi-layer ("laminated") gloves provide adequate protection against Telone EC formulation. To accomplish this, disposable (Safeskin) and chemically resistant (Sol-Vex) nitrile and laminated (Barrier mark and Silver Shield) glove materials were challenged by Telone EC with hexane liquid collection in an ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. Analyses of cis- and trans-1,3-DCP in the collection fluid at specified times were performed on a moderately polar capillary column by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Telone EC caused microholes in both nitrile materials, though the chemically protective material was degraded slower than the disposable nitrile. The laminated gloves offered limited protection. Silver Shield protected best because 1.5-2.3 mg 1,3-DCP permeated by 8 h relative to 2.5-7.6 mg for Barrier, implying about 2.5 times more protection for 8 h. Even for Silver Shield, the extent of protection was inadequate as illustrated by a risk assessment of the skin exposure situation. The normalized breakthrough times for both types of laminated gloves varied between 27 and 60 min. It is recommended that Viton gloves still be worn for protection.

  2. In-Tank Peroxide Oxidation Process for the Decomposition of Tetraphenylborate in Tank 48H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, LAMBERT

    2005-01-01

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. The TPB was added during an in-tank precipitation process to removed soluble cesium, but excessive benzene generation curtailed this treatment method. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to routine Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains approximately 240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with approximately 19,000 kg (42,000 lb) of potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). Out of Tank processing of the Tank 48H has some distinct advantages as aggressive processing conditions (e.g., high temperature, low pH) are required for fast destruction of the tetraphenylborate. Also, a new facility can be designed with the optimum materials of construction and other design features to allow the safe processing of the Tank 48H waste. However, it is very expensive to build a new facility. As a result, an in-tank process primarily using existing equipment and facilities is desirable. Development of an in-tank process would be economically attractive. Based on success with Fentons Chemistry (i.e., hydrogen peroxide with an iron or copper catalyst to produce hydroxyl radicals, strong oxidation agents), testing was initiated to develop a higher pH oxidation process that could be completed in-tank

  3. The effect of a 48 h fast on the thermoregulatory responses to graded cooling in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I A; Bennett, T; Sainsbury, R

    1984-10-01

    The thermoregulatory responses to graded cooling were measured in 11 healthy male subjects after a 12 h fast and after a 48 h fast. The cooling stimulus was produced by changing the temperature of the skin of the trunk and legs with a water-perfused suit. Five levels of skin temperature from 35.5 to 24 degrees C were applied on each occasion. After a 12 h fast, core temperature was maintained during cooling. This maintenance of core temperature was associated with an increase in metabolic rate and a reduction in blood flow to the hand and to the forearm. After 48 h of fasting, the subjects could not maintain core temperature during cooling, and a decrease of 0.36 +/- 0.05 degrees C occurred as the suit temperature was reduced from 35.9 to 24 degrees C. Metabolic rate was slightly higher after the 48 h fast than after the 12 h fast, but similar increases in metabolic rate were observed during cooling. Vasoconstriction in the hand was initially less after a 48 h fast than after a 12 h fast, but at the lowest suit temperature, hand blood flow was similar, and low, on both occasions. After 48 h of fasting, forearm blood flow was elevated at all suit temperatures, being approximately twice the level recorded after the 12 h fast. Venous plasma noradrenaline levels did not change during cooling after the 12 h fast, whilst after 48 h of fasting a significant increase in noradrenaline level was observed at the lowest suit temperature. The results of this study provide further evidence that fasting induces an impairment of autonomic reflex mechanisms, but it is not clear whether this is due to a suppression of sympathetic nervous activity.

  4. Acute toxicity and antispasmodic activities of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Ismail; Shoaib, Mohammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ali, Waqar

    2014-03-01

    Since Achillea wilhelmsii is used as antispasmodic in traditional medicine, we conducted our current work to investigate its rationale on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity studies of crude methanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii (Aw. CMeOH) is also performed. Effect of Aw. CMeOH and its fractions were tested on isolated sections of rabbits' jejunum at test concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10mg/ml. The test extracts, in similar concentrations, were also tested on KCl-induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed for those fractions which relaxed KCl induced contractions in the absence and presence of the test samples to investigate its possible mode of action through calcium channels. Aw. CMeOH tested positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, sterols, phenols, carbohydrates and proteins. LD(50) for acute toxicity studies is 2707±12.6 mg/kg. Mean EC(50) values for Aw. CMeOH on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.41±0.18 (2.56-3.8, n=6) and 0.68±0.05 (0.6-0.85, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Respective EC(50) values for n-hexane fraction on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.06±0.08 (2.8-3.3, n=6) and 1.68±0.8 (1.4-1.9, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Corresponding EC(50) (mg/ml) values for chloroformic, ethylacetate and aqueous fractions of Achillea wilhelmsii on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations are 4.8±0.2 (4.41-5.63, n=6), 5.07±0.15 (4.7-5.58, n=6) and 5.2±0.13 (4.91-5.64, n=4), respectively. Constructing calcium chloride curves, in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml of Aw. CMeOH, mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) is-1.98±0.03 (-1.89-2.05, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)])-2.41±0.02 (-2.32-2.44, n=6). Mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) for 0.3 mg/ml n-hexane fraction is-1.76±0.05 (-1.70 -1.93, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value-2.18±0.07 (-2.0-2.46, n=6). While in the presence of chloroformic fraction (3 mg/ml), mean EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value

  5. Rapid procedure to calibrate EC-10 and EC-20 capacitance sensors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid calibration procedure for EC-10 and EC-20 sensors is introduced to promote the commercial use of these sensors for hydroponic irrigation management in coir. The method is comprised of taking one sensor reading, by a sensor installed under hydroponic crop production conditions, and one gravimetric sample, ...

  6. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Genes RbAp48 and Histone H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The human nuclear protein RbAp48 is a member of the tryptophan/aspartate (WD repeat family, which binds to the retinoblastoma (Rb protein. It also corresponds to the smallest subunit of the chromatin assembly factor and is able to bind to the helix 1 of histone H4, taking it to the DNA in replication. A cDNA homologous to the human gene RbAp48 was isolated from a Schistosoma mansoni adult worm library and named SmRbAp48. The full length sequence of SmRbAp48 cDNA is 1036 bp long, encoding a protein of 308 amino acids. The transcript of SmRbAp48 was detected in egg, cercariae and schistosomulum stages. The protein shows 84% similarity with the human RbAp48, possessing four WD repeats on its C-terminus. A hypothetical tridimensional structure for the SmRbAp48 C-terminal domain was constructed by computational molecular modeling using the b-subunit of the G protein as a model. To further verify a possible interaction between SmRbAp48 and S. mansoni histone H4, the histone H4 gene was amplified from adult worm genomic DNA using degenerated primers. The gene fragment of SmH4 is 294 bp long, encoding a protein of 98 amino acids which is 100% identical to histone H4 from Drosophila melanogaster.

  7. Single- and mixture toxicity of three organic UV-filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, and avobenzone on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Beom; Jang, Jiyi; Kim, Sanghun; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-03-01

    In freshwater environments, aquatic organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of various chemical substances. In this study, we tested the toxicity of three organic UV-filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, and avobenzone) to Daphnia magna in order to evaluate the combined toxicity of these substances when in they occur in a mixture. The values of effective concentrations (ECx) for each UV-filter were calculated by concentration-response curves; concentration-combinations of three different UV-filters in a mixture were determined by the fraction of components based on EC 25 values predicted by concentration addition (CA) model. The interaction between the UV-filters were also assessed by model deviation ratio (MDR) using observed and predicted toxicity values obtained from mixture-exposure tests and CA model. The results from this study indicated that observed ECx mix (e.g., EC 10mix , EC 25mix , or EC 50mix ) values obtained from mixture-exposure tests were higher than predicted ECx mix (e.g., EC 10mix , EC 25mix , or EC 50mix ) values calculated by CA model. MDR values were also less than a factor of 1.0 in a mixtures of three different UV-filters. Based on these results, we suggest for the first time a reduction of toxic effects in the mixtures of three UV-filters, caused by antagonistic action of the components. Our findings from this study will provide important information for hazard or risk assessment of organic UV-filters, when they existed together in the aquatic environment. To better understand the mixture toxicity and the interaction of components in a mixture, further studies for various combinations of mixture components are also required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1α induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: SCHAUDHURI@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: lhennings@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Brown, Aliza T., E-mail: brownalizat@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Shun-Hwa [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1α) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1α induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1α induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and cytosolic and secretory PLA{sub 2} activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E{sub 2} expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE{sub 2} expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA{sub 2}. -- Highlights: ► Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction. ► Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ► Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ► Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A{sub 2} activity and prostaglandin E{sub 2} levels.

  9. Determination of primary combustion source organic carbon-to-elemental carbon (OC / EC ratio using ambient OC and EC measurements: secondary OC-EC correlation minimization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Elemental carbon (EC has been widely used as a tracer to track the portion of co-emitted primary organic carbon (OC and, by extension, to estimate secondary OC (SOC from ambient observations of EC and OC. Key to this EC tracer method is to determine an appropriate OC / EC ratio that represents primary combustion emission sources (i.e., (OC / ECpri at the observation site. The conventional approaches include regressing OC against EC within a fixed percentile of the lowest (OC / EC ratio data (usually 5–20 % or relying on a subset of sampling days with low photochemical activity and dominated by local emissions. The drawback of these approaches is rooted in its empirical nature, i.e., a lack of clear quantitative criteria in the selection of data subsets for the (OC / ECpri determination. We examine here a method that derives (OC / ECpri through calculating a hypothetical set of (OC / ECpri and SOC followed by seeking the minimum of the coefficient of correlation (R2 between SOC and EC. The hypothetical (OC / ECpri that generates the minimum R2(SOC,EC then represents the actual (OC / ECpri ratio if variations of EC and SOC are independent and (OC / ECpri is relatively constant in the study period. This Minimum R Squared (MRS method has a clear quantitative criterion for the (OC / ECpri calculation. This work uses numerically simulated data to evaluate the accuracy of SOC estimation by the MRS method and to compare with two commonly used methods: minimum OC / EC (OC / ECmin and OC / EC percentile (OC / EC10 %. Log-normally distributed EC and OC concentrations with known proportion of SOC are numerically produced through a pseudorandom number generator. Three scenarios are considered, including a single primary source, two independent primary sources, and two correlated primary sources. The MRS method consistently yields the most accurate SOC estimation. Unbiased SOC estimation by OC

  10. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Gok, Oguzhan [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Acute toxicities in (a) influent wastewater (EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1}) and (b) effluent wastewater in aerobic activated sludge reactor at SRT = 25 days (EC{sub 6} = 5.30 ng ml{sup -1}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over 90% of the total PAHs was removed at Rhamnolipid and sludge retention time of 15 mg l{sup -1} and 25 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 93% of the COD originating from the inert organics was removed in the aerobic reactor. 96-97% of the Rhamnolipid was biodegraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EC50 value was reduced from EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1} to C{sub 6} = 5.30 ng ml{sup -1} with Daphnia magna. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. - Abstract: A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l{sup -1} aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (COD{sub inert}) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD{sub imp}). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96-98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2-1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1-1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2-1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO{sub 3}{sup -1}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}) and increasing of temperature up to 45 Degree-Sign C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC{sub 50} value) was reduced from EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1} to the PAH

  11. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gok, Oguzhan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Acute toxicities in (a) influent wastewater (EC 50 = 45.02 ng ml −1 ) and (b) effluent wastewater in aerobic activated sludge reactor at SRT = 25 days (EC 6 = 5.30 ng ml −1 ). Highlights: ► Over 90% of the total PAHs was removed at Rhamnolipid and sludge retention time of 15 mg l −1 and 25 days. ► 93% of the COD originating from the inert organics was removed in the aerobic reactor. 96–97% of the Rhamnolipid was biodegraded. ► The EC50 value was reduced from EC 50 = 45.02 ng ml −1 to C 6 = 5.30 ng ml −1 with Daphnia magna. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. - Abstract: A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l −1 aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (COD inert ) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD imp ). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96–98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2–1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1–1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2–1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO 3 −1 , SO 4 −2 ) and increasing of temperature up to 45 °C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC 50 value) was reduced from EC 50 = 45.02 ng ml −1 to the PAH concentration affecting only 6% of the live Daphnia magna (EC 6 = 5.30 ng ml −1 ) at the end of the aerobic treatment at a SRT of 25 days. Toxicity

  12. Functional toxicity and tolerance patterns of bioavailable Pd(II), Pt(II), and Rh(III) on suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells assayed in tandem by a respirometric biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health, Rome (Italy); Dragone, Roberto [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Institute for Complex Systems, Rome (Italy); Massimi, Cristiana [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health and WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Veterinary Public Health, Rome (Italy); University ' La Sapienza' , Department of Chemistry, Rome (Italy); Campanella, Luigi [University ' La Sapienza' , Department of Chemistry, Rome (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    Toxicological implications of exposure to bioavailable platinum group metals, here Pd, Pt, and Rh, are still to be clarified. This study obtained by a biosensor-based method preliminary information on potential effects on cellular metabolism as well as on possible tolerance mechanisms. Aerobic respiration was taken as the toxicological end point to perform tandem tests, namely functional toxicity test and tolerance test. Cells were suspended in the absence of essential constituents for growth. The dose-response curves obtained by exposure (2 h) to the metals (nanogram per gram range) suggested the same mechanisms of action, with Rh showing the greatest curve steepness and the lowest EC{sub 50} value. Conservative (95% lower confidence interval) EC{sub 10} values were 187, 85 and 51 ng g{sup -1} for Pt, Pd, and Rh respectively. Tolerance patterns were tested during the same runs. The full tolerance obtained after 12 h of exposure to each metal suggested mitochondrial inhibition of aerobic respiration as a target effect. The hazard rating of the metals in the tolerance test changed in the Rh EC{sub 50} range, where Rh showed the lowest toxicity. The observed tolerance might suggest a protective mechanism such as metallothionein induction at concentrations around the EC{sub 50} values. The performance of the bioassay was satisfactory, in terms of the limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, roboustness, sensibility, and stability; the method's critical uncertainty sources were identified for improvements. (orig.)

  13. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warne, Michael St.J.; Heemsbergen, Diane; McLaughlin, Mike; Bell, Mike; Broos, Kris; Whatmuff, Mark; Barry, Glenn; Nash, David; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  14. Sample Results From Tank 48H Samples HTF-48-14-158, -159, -169, and -170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 48H in support of determining the cause for the unusually high dose rates at the sampling points for this tank. A set of two samples was taken from the quiescent tank, and two additional samples were taken after the contents of the tank were mixed. The results of the analyses of all the samples show that the contents of the tank have changed very little since the analysis of the previous sample in 2012. The solids are almost exclusively composed of tetraphenylborate (TPB) salts, and there is no indication of acceleration in the TPB decomposition. The filtrate composition shows a moderate increase in salt concentration and density, which is attributable to the addition of NaOH for the purposes of corrosion control. An older modeling simulation of the TPB degradation was updated, and the supernate results from a 2012 sample were run in the model. This result was compared to the results from the 2014 recent sample results reported in this document. The model indicates there is no change in the TPB degradation from 2012 to 2014. SRNL measured the buoyancy of the TPB solids in Tank 48H simulant solutions. It was determined that a solution of density 1.279 g/mL (~6.5M sodium) was capable of indefinitely suspending the TPB solids evenly throughout the solution. A solution of density 1.296 g/mL (~7M sodium) caused a significant fraction of the solids to float on the solution surface. As the experiments could not include the effect of additional buoyancy elements such as benzene or hydrogen generation, the buoyancy measurements provide an upper bound estimate of the density in Tank 48H required to float the solids.

  15. Acute Toxicity of an Organophosphate Insecticide Chlorpyrifos to an Anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.

  16. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  17. Ecdysone Induction of MsrA Protects Against Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guri; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Binninger, David M.; Weissbach, Herbert

    2007-03-09

    The methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB reduce Met(O) to Met in epimer-specific fashion. In Drosophila, the major ecdysone induced protein is MsrA, which is regulated by the EcR-USP complex. We tested Kc cells for induction of MsrA, MsrB, EcR. and CAT by ecdysone and found that MsrA and the EcR were induced by ecdysone, but MsrB and CAT were not. When we tested for resistance to 20 mM H2O2 toxicity, viability of Kc cells was reduced threefold. After pretreatment with 0.2 μM ecdysone for 48 h, then exposed to H2O2, viability of Kc cells increased to 77% of controls. The EcR-deficient L57-3-11 knockout line was not responsive to ecdysone, and H2O2 resistance of both control and ecdysone-treated L57-3-11 cells was similar to that of the ecdysone-untreated Kc cells. These results show that hormonal regulation of MsrA is implicated in conferring protection against oxidative stress in the Drosophila model.

  18. Wood ash residue causes a mixture of growth promotion and toxicity in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Lucas S; O'Donoghue, Marian T; Heffernan, Liam B; van Pelt, Frank N A M; O'Halloran, John; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2018-06-01

    The use of wood as a sustainable biofuel results in the generation of residual wood ash. The ash contains high amounts of plant macronutrients such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium as well as several micronutrients. To explore the potential use of wood ash as a fertiliser, the growth enhancing properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) wood ash were contrasted with the potential toxic action, using common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) as a model test species. The growth of L. minor exposed to wood bottom and fly ash solids and corresponding leachates was assessed in ultra-oligotrophic and eutrophic media. Ash solids and leachates were also tested as neutralized preparations. Suspended ash solids promoted L. minor growth up to concentrations of 2.5-5g/L. Leachates promoted growth up to 10g ash equivalents per litre, but for bottom ash only. Beneficial effects of wood ash were most pronounced on ultra-oligotrophic medium. However, on such nutrient-deficient medium severe inhibition of L. minor biomass and frond growth was observed at relatively low concentrations of fly ash (EC 50 =14g/L). On standard, eutrophic medium, higher concentrations of fly ash (EC 50 =21g/L), or neutralized fly ash (EC 50 =37g/L) were required to impede growth. Bottom ash, or neutralized bottom ash retarded growth at concentrations of 51g/L and 74g/L (EC 50 ), respectively, in eutrophic medium. It appears that phytotoxicity is due to the elemental composition of the ash, its alkaline character, and possible interactions between these two properties. Growth promotion was due to the substantial content of plant nutrients. This study underlines the importance of the receiving environment (nutrient status and pH) in determining the balance between toxicity and growth promotion, and shows that the margin between growth promoting and toxicity inducing concentrations can be enlarged through ash neutralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL..., Architect-Engineer Contract. EC01MY91.035 EC01MY91.036 ...

  20. Influence of microplastics on the toxicity of the pharmaceuticals procainamide and doxycycline on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Joana C; Lavorante, Beatriz R B O; B S M Montenegro, Maria da Conceição; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics and pharmaceuticals are considered ubiquitous and emergent pollutants of high concern but the knowledge on their effects on primary producers is still limited, especially those caused by mixtures. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate if the presence of microplastics (1-5 μm diameter) influences the toxicity of the pharmaceuticals procainamide and doxycycline to the marine microalga Tetraselmis chuii. Bioassays (96 h) to investigate the toxicity of those substances individually and in mixtures (i.e. microplastics-procainamide mixtures and microplastics-doxycycline mixtures) were carried out. Effect criteria were the average specific growth rate (growth rate) and chlorophyll a concentration (chlorophyll). EC 10 , EC 20 and EC 50 were determined. Microplastics alone had no significant effects on growth rate up to 41.5 mg/l, whereas chlorophyll was significantly reduced at 0.9 and 2.1 mg/l of microplastics, but not at higher concentrations. The 96 h EC 50 (growth rate and chlorophyll, respectively) determined for the other bioassays were: 104 and 143 mg/l for procainamide alone; 125 and 31 mg/l for procainamide in the presence of microplastics; 22 and 14 mg/l for doxycycline alone; 11 and 7 mg/l for doxycycline in the presence of microplastics. Significant differences (p microplastics were found for procainamide (chlorophyll), and doxycycline (both parameters). Thus, both pharmaceuticals were toxic to T. chuii in the low ppm range, and microplastics-pharmaceutical mixtures were more toxic than the pharmaceuticals alone. Very high decreases of doxycycline concentrations in test media were found, indicating degradation of the antibiotic. Thus, although the biological results are expressed in relation to doxycycline concentration, the effects were likely caused by a mixture of the parental compound and its degradation products. The concentrations of microplastics and pharmaceuticals tested (low ppm range) are higher

  1. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, Simon K., E-mail: simon.dinehart@okstate.ed [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haukos, David A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2125, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC{sub 50}; 48-h LC{sub 1}) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 1}) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, Simon K.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A.; Haukos, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC 50 ; 48-h LC 1 ) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC 50 and LC 1 ) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  5. LiPF{sub 6}. Synthesis and stability in EC/DMC and PC/DMC mixtures; LiPF{sub 6}. Synthese et stabilite dans les melanges EC/DMC et PC/DMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naejus, R.; Coudert, R.; Lemordant, D. [Laboratoire P.I.M.I.R. EA, Sciences et Techniques, 37 - Tours (France); Willmann, P. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium hexa-fluoro-phosphate LiPF{sub 6} is recommended for the replacement of the toxic LiAsF{sub 6} and the explosive perchlorates (like LiClO{sub 4}) in rechargeable lithium electrochemical generators. The aim of this work is to develop a new method of synthesis of this salt and to check its stability with respect to carbonated solvents: ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl-carbonate (DMC) in already optimized EC/DMC and PC/DMC binary mixtures. Two methods using HPF{sub 6} are proposed: the first one uses the direct neutralization of this commercial acid by LiOH in aqueous, alcoholic or acetonitrile environment, while in the second one LiPF{sub 6} is obtained from pyridinium hexa-fluoro-phosphate synthesized from HPF{sub 6} using a new and simple protocol. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  6. LiPF{sub 6}. Synthesis and stability in EC/DMC and PC/DMC mixtures; LiPF{sub 6}. Synthese et stabilite dans les melanges EC/DMC et PC/DMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naejus, R; Coudert, R; Lemordant, D [Laboratoire P.I.M.I.R. EA, Sciences et Techniques, 37 - Tours (France); Willmann, P [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    Lithium hexa-fluoro-phosphate LiPF{sub 6} is recommended for the replacement of the toxic LiAsF{sub 6} and the explosive perchlorates (like LiClO{sub 4}) in rechargeable lithium electrochemical generators. The aim of this work is to develop a new method of synthesis of this salt and to check its stability with respect to carbonated solvents: ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl-carbonate (DMC) in already optimized EC/DMC and PC/DMC binary mixtures. Two methods using HPF{sub 6} are proposed: the first one uses the direct neutralization of this commercial acid by LiOH in aqueous, alcoholic or acetonitrile environment, while in the second one LiPF{sub 6} is obtained from pyridinium hexa-fluoro-phosphate synthesized from HPF{sub 6} using a new and simple protocol. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  7. Fast algal eco-toxicity assessment: Influence of light intensity and exposure time on Chlorella vulgaris inhibition by atrazine and DCMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuel, Alexandre; Guieysse, Benoit; Alcántara, Cynthia; Béchet, Quentin

    2017-06-01

    In order to develop a rapid assay suitable for algal eco-toxicity assessments under conditions representative of natural ecosystems, this study evaluated the short-term (Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to these herbicides under 'standard' low light intensity (as prescribed by OECD201 guideline), the 20min-EC 50 values recorded via oxygen productivity (atrazine: 1.32±0.07μM; DCMU: 0.31±0.005μM) were similar the 96-h EC 50 recorded via algal growth (atrazine: 0.56μM; DCMU: 0.41μM), and within the range of values reported in the literature. 20min-EC50 values increased by factors of 3.0 and 2.1 for atrazine and DCMU, respectively, when light intensity increased from 60 to 1400μmolm -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR. Further investigation showed that exposure time significantly also impacted the sensitivity of C. vulgaris under high light intensity (>840μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR) as the EC 50 for atrazine and DCMU decreased by up to 6.2 and 2.1 folds, respectively, after 50min of exposure at a light irradiance of 1400μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR. This decrease was particularly marked at high light intensities and low algae concentrations and is explained by the herbicide disruption of the electron transfer chain triggering photo-inhibition at high light intensities. Eco-toxicity assessments aiming to understand the potential impact of toxic compounds on natural ecosystems should therefore be performed over sufficient exposure times (>20min for C. vulgaris) and under light intensities relevant to these ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Normal human serum (HS) prevents oxidant-induced lysis of cultured endothelial cells (ECs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, K.S.; Harlan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Most studies demonstrating oxidant lysis of cultured ECs are performed in serum-free media or media containing low concentrations of bovine serum. The authors found that HS protects human and bovine ECs from lysis caused by reagent H 2 O 2 or glucose/glucose oxidase (GO)-generated H 2 O 2 . EC injury was assessed by 51 Cr release, cell detachment, or trypan blue dye exclusion. Protective HS activity was dose-dependent with concentrations greater than or equal to 25% preventing lethal injury. Cytotoxicity at 24 hrs, induced by 20 mU/ml GO, was 90.1 +/- 5.2% without HS vs 1.7 +/- 4.6% with 25% HS present (20 exp). Similar protection was observed with heparinized plasma. Of note, comparable concentrations of bovine serum were devoid of protective activity. Addition of fatty acid-free albumin to the media was also without protective effect. Preliminary characterization showed HS activity was stable to 60 0 C for 30 min, non-dialyzable at 25,000 MW cutoff, and retained in delipidated serum. The HS protection was not merely due to scavenging of exogenous H 2 O 2 as A23187-induced EC lysis was also prevented by HS. Protective activity was not reproduced by purified cerruloplasmin or transferrin. In conclusion, unidentified factor(s) present in HS protect cultured ECs from oxidant-induced lysis. Since endothelium is normally exposed to 100% plasma, the authors suggest that in vitro studies of oxidant-mediated injury be performed in the presence of HS. Factor(s) in HS may play an important role in modulating oxidant-induced vascular injury in vivo

  9. Identification of a phytotoxic photo-transformation product of diclofenac using effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schulze@ufz.d [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Weiss, Sara [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Department of Chemical Risk Assessment, Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Schymanski, Emma; Ohe, Peter Carsten von der [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The pharmaceutical diclofenac (DCF) is released in considerably high amounts to the aquatic environment. Photo-transformation of DCF was reported as the main degradation pathway in surface waters and was found to produce metabolites with enhanced toxicity to the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus. We identified and subsequently confirmed 2-[2-(chlorophenyl)amino]benzaldehyde (CPAB) as a transformation product with enhanced toxicity using effect-directed analysis. The EC{sub 50} of CPAB (4.8 mg/L) was a factor of 10 lower than that for DCF (48.1 mg/L), due to the higher hydrophobicity of CPAB (log K{sub ow} = 3.62) compared with DCF (log D{sub ow} = 2.04) at pH 7.0. - Effect-directed analysis of irradiated diclofenac results in the identification of one photo-transformation product responsible for the enhanced toxicity to Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

  10. Is the Factor-of-2 Rule Broadly Applicable for Evaluating the Prediction Accuracy of Metal-Toxicity Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joseph S; Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F

    2018-01-01

    In aquatic toxicology, a toxicity-prediction model is generally deemed acceptable if its predicted median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) or median effect concentrations (EC50 values) are within a factor of 2 of their paired, observed LC50 or EC50 values. However, that rule of thumb is based on results from only two studies: multiple LC50 values for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to Cu in one type of exposure water, and multiple EC50 values for Daphnia magna exposed to Zn in another type of exposure water. We tested whether the factor-of-2 rule of thumb also is supported in a different dataset in which D. magna were exposed separately to Cd, Cu, Ni, or Zn. Overall, the factor-of-2 rule of thumb appeared to be a good guide to evaluating the acceptability of a toxicity model's underprediction or overprediction of observed LC50 or EC50 values in these acute toxicity tests.

  11. Toxicity of copper nanoparticles and CuCl2 salt to Enchytraeus albidus worms: Survival, reproduction and avoidance responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Mónica João Barros; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2012-01-01

    Environmental effects of copper nanoparticles are little studied in terrestrial ecosystems. In the present article, the toxicity of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) on the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus is compared to the toxicity of a copper-salt (CuCl 2 ). The effect parameters studied were survival, reproductive output and avoidance behaviour. The results show that Cu-NP were more toxic to E. albidus than the same concentrations of the CuCl 2 -salt. The physic-chemical analysis of the particles indicated that only a small fraction was released as ions. Hence, the results indicated a nanoparticle-specific effect – lower reproductive output and higher avoidance. This was observed as 2–8 fold (significant) lower ECx values for Cu-NP (EC 50-reprod = 95 mg Cu/kg; EC 50-avoid = 241 mg Cu/kg) exposed organisms compared to CuCl 2 (EC 50-reprod = 251 mg Cu/kg; EC 50-avoid = 475 mg Cu/kg) exposed organisms. These results corroborate with a nanoparticle-specific effect. - Highlights: ► Enchytraeus albidus were exposed to Cu-salt and Cu nanoparticles (80 nm) in soil. ► Survival, reproduction and avoidance behaviour were assessed. ► Particles characterization indicated very small ion release. ► Cu nanoparticles toxicity was higher than Cu-salt for reproduction and avoidance. - Toxicity of Cu chloride salt and Cu nanoparticles to Enchytraeus albidus indicated higher toxicity of Cu-NP.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  13. Cytotoxicity evaluation of gold nanoparticles on microalga Dunaliella salina in microplate test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, Daniil; Prilepskii, Artur; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles are intensively studied in biomedicine. Assessment of their biocompatibility is highly important. Currently there is lack of evidence, concerning nanotoxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles < 5 nm. Existing data are rather contradictory. The aim of that study was to evaluate the toxicity of 2 nm colloidal gold, using microalga Dunaliella salina. Cellular barriers of that microalga are very similar to animal cells so it might be considered as a valuable model for nanotoxicity testing. Chlorophyll content as a test-function was used. Spectrophotometric method for chlorophyll determination in vivo in suspensions of D.salina cultures was applied. Calculated EC50 48h value of ionic gold was 25.8 +/- 0.3 mg Au/L. EC50 value of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoclusters was 32.2 +/-1.1 mg Au/L. It was not possible to calculate EC50 for 15 nm citrate gold nanoparticles, as they were non-toxic at all concentrations tested. These results are confirmed by fluorescent -microscopic monitoring of the same probes. It was shown that 10-fold growth of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles (from 2.3 +/- 0.9 nm to 21.1 +/- 7.5 nm) led to 7-fold decrease of their toxicity.

  14. A novel marine algal toxicity bioassay based on sporulation inhibition in the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Taejun; Choi, Gye-Woon

    2005-01-01

    A 5-day aquatic toxicity test based on sporulation inhibition of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman has been developed. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, salinity and temperature were 60-200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 , 25-35%o and 15-20 deg C, respectively. Tests were conducted by exposing U. pertusa thallus disks to a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), metals (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ ) and elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations. The EC 50 values for SDS was 5.35 mg L -1 . When four heavy metals were assayed, the NOECs were highest for lead (0.625 mg L -1 ) and lowest for copper (0.031 mg L -1 ). The EC 50 values showed the following toxicity rankings: Cu 2+ (0.061 mg L -1 ) > Cd 2+ (0.326 mg L -1 ) > Zn 2+ (0.738 mg L -1 ) > Pb 2+ (0.877 mg L -1 ). The bioassay indicated also that the sporulation endpoint could be a sensitive indicator of toxicity effects of elutriates of sludge as reflected from the NOEC values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration employed (6.25%). Sporulation was significantly inhibitied in all elutriates with the greatest and least effects observed in elutriates of sludge from industrial waste (EC 50 6.78%) and filtration bed (EC 50 15.0%), respectively. The results of the Spearman rank correlation analysis for EC 50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge presented a significant correlation between toxicity and four heavy metals (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ). Introduction of the concept of toxicity unit (TU) showed that these metals were the main cause of toxicity in elutriates of at least four out of nine sludge samples. Members of the order Ulvales show a wide geographic distribution and have similar reproductive characteristics, thus making it possible to apply the present test method to other algae of this taxa, elsewhere. This novel method will be a useful tool for assessing the aquatic toxicity of a wide range of toxicants, once the

  15. Comparative toxicity of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Tyler D; Kinley, Ciera M; Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Rodgers, John H

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) is a granular algaecide containing H2O2 as an active ingredient to control growth of noxious algae. Measurements of sensitivities of target and non-target species to hydrogen peroxide are necessary for water resource managers to make informed decisions and minimize risks for non-target species when treating noxious algae. The objective of this study was to measure and compare responses among a target noxious alga (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa) and non-target organisms including a eukaryotic alga (chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to exposures of hydrogen peroxide as SCP. Hydrogen peroxide exposures were confirmed using the I3(-) method. SCP margins of safety for these organisms were compared with published toxicity data to provide context for other commonly used algaecides and herbicides (e.g. copper formulations, endothall, and diquat dibromide). Algal responses (cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations) and animal mortality were measured after 96h aqueous exposures to SCP in laboratory-formulated water to estimate EC50 and LC50 values, as well as potency slopes. Despite a shorter test duration, M. aeruginosa was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide as SCP (96h EC50:0.9-1.0mgL(-)(1) H2O2) than the eukaryotic alga P. subcapitata (7-d EC50:5.2-9.2mgL(-1) H2O2), indicating potential for selective control of prokaryotic algae. For the three non-target animals evaluated, measured 96-h LC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 19.7mgL(-1) H2O2. C. dubia was the most sensitive species, and the least sensitive species was P. promelas, which is not likely to be affected by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide as SCP that would be used to control noxious algae (e.g. M. aeruginosa). Based on information from peer-reviewed literature, other algaecides could be similarly selective for cyanobacteria. Of the

  16. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, F v/F m (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII), ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light), FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1) The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20) and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97). (2) After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the F v/F m of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3) Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable. PMID:26101784

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of copper to the euryhaline rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2011-02-01

    This article presents data from original research, intended for the use in the development of copper (Cu) criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses in the United States. Two 48-h static-acute toxicity tests-one with and one without added food-and a 96-h static multigeneration life-cycle test (P1-F2 generations) were performed concurrently using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) to develop a Cu acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for this species. Tests were performed at 15 g/L salinity, at 25°C, and the exposure concentrations of dissolved Cu were verified. Supplemental chemical analyses were performed and reported for the development of a Cu-saltwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Supplemental analyses included alkalinity, calcium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), hardness, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and temperature. The acute toxicity test measurement end points were the dissolved Cu median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values based on rotifer survival. The chronic measurement end points were the dissolved Cu no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC), EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ based on the intrinsic rate of rotifer population increase (r). The 48-h LC₅₀(Fed), 48-h LC₅₀(Unfed), 96-h NOEC, 96-h LOEC, EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ were 20.8, 13.4, 6.1, 10.3, 11.7, 10.9, and 8.8 μg Cu/L, respectively. The ACRs were calculated as ratios of each 48-h LC₅₀ value [fed and unfed) and each of the 96-h chronic values (ChV; geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC)], EC₁₀, EC₂₀, and EC₂₅. The ACRs ranged from 1.15 to 2.63.

  18. In Vivo Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions in Zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Bilberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water chemistry on characterised polyvinyl pyrrolidone- (PVP- coated silver nanoparticles (81 nm was investigated. NaCl solution series of 100–800 mg L−1 lead to initial and temporal increase in nanoparticles size, but agglomeration was limited. pH variation (5–8 had only minor influence on the hydrodynamic particle size. Acute toxicity of nanosivler to zebrafish (Danio rerio was investigated in a 48-hour static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3. The nanosilver and silver ion 48-hour median lethal concentration (LC50 values were 84 μg L−1 and 25 μg L−1, respectively. To investigate exposure-related stress, the fish behaviour was observed visually after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 27, 30, and 48 hours of both nanosilver and ionic silver treatments. These observations revealed increased rate of operculum movement and surface respiration after nanosilver exposure, suggesting respiratory toxicity. The present study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles are lethal to zebrafish.

  19. Functional metagenomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 interactions with spinach indigenous microorganisms during biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Q Carter

    Full Text Available The increase in foodborne outbreaks worldwide attributed to fresh fruit and vegetables suggests that produce may serve as an ecological niche for enteric pathogens. Here we examined the interaction of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157 with spinach leaf indigenous microorganisms during co-colonization and establishment of a mixed biofilm on a stainless steel surface. Stainless steel surface was selected to mimic the surface of produce-processing equipment, where retention of foodborne pathogens such as EcO157 could serve as a potential source for transmission. We observed a positive effect of spinach-associated microbes on the initial attachment of EcO157, but an antagonistic effect on the EcO157 population at the later stage of biofilm formation. Metagenomic analyses of the biofilm community with the GeoChip revealed an extremely diverse community (gene richness, 23409; Shannon-Weiner index H, 9.55. Presence of EcO157 in the mixed biofilm resulted in a significant decrease in the community α-diversity (t test, P<0.05, indicating a putative competition between the pathogen and indigenous spinach microbes. The decrease in the β-diversity of the EcO157-inoculated biofilm at 48 h (ANOVA, P<0.05 suggested a convergent shift in functional composition in response to EcO157 invasion. The success of EcO157 in the mixed biofilm is likely associated with its metabolic potential in utilizing spinach nutrients: the generation time of EcO157 in spinach lysates at 28°C is ~ 38 min, which is comparable to that in rich broth. The significant decrease in the abundance of many genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in the EcO157-inoculated biofilms (t test, P<0.05 further support our conclusion that competition for essential macronutrients is likely the primary interaction between the EcO157 and indigenous spinach-biofilm species.

  20. Synergistic effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with outer membrane permeabilizing treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananou, S; Gálvez, A; Martínez-Bueno, M; Maqueda, M; Valdivia, E

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of outer membrane (OM) permeabilizing agents on the antimicrobial activity of enterocin AS-48 against Escherichia coli O157:H7 CECT 4783 strain in buffer and apple juice. We determined the influence of pH, EDTA, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and heat on E. coli O157:H7 CECT 4783 sensitivity to enterocin AS-48 in buffer and in apple juice. Enterocin AS-48 was not active against intact cells of E. coli O157:H7 CECT 4783 at neutral pH. However, cells sublethally injured by OM permeabilizing agents (EDTA, STPP, pH 5, pH 8.6 and heat) became sensitive to AS-48, decreasing the amount of bacteriocin required for inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 CECT 4783. The results presented indicate that enterocin AS-48 could potentially be applied with a considerably wider range of protective agents, such as OM permeabilizing agents, with increased efficacy in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7. Results from this study support the potential use of enterocin AS-48 to control E. coli O157:H7 in combination with other hurdles.

  1. ROS dependent copper toxicity in Hydra-biochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Rajendran, Ramasamy Babu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

  3. Global concentration additivity and prediction of mixture toxicities, taking nitrobenzene derivatives as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Shu-Shen; Qu, Rui; Liu, Hai-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The toxicity of a mixture depends not only on the mixture concentration level but also on the mixture ratio. For a multiple-component mixture (MCM) system with a definite chemical composition, the mixture toxicity can be predicted only if the global concentration additivity (GCA) is validated. The so-called GCA means that the toxicity of any mixture in the MCM system is the concentration additive, regardless of what its mixture ratio and concentration level. However, many mixture toxicity reports have usually employed one mixture ratio (such as the EC 50 ratio), the equivalent effect concentration ratio (EECR) design, to specify several mixtures. EECR mixtures cannot simulate the concentration diversity and mixture ratio diversity of mixtures in the real environment, and it is impossible to validate the GCA. Therefore, in this paper, the uniform design ray (UD-Ray) was used to select nine mixture ratios (rays) in the mixture system of five nitrobenzene derivatives (NBDs). The representative UD-Ray mixtures can effectively and rationally describe the diversity in the NBD mixture system. The toxicities of the mixtures to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis (MTA). For each UD-Ray mixture, the concentration addition (CA) model was used to validate whether the mixture toxicity is additive. All of the UD-Ray mixtures of five NBDs are global concentration additive. Afterwards, the CA is employed to predict the toxicities of the external mixtures from three EECR mixture rays with the NOEC, EC 30 , and EC 70 ratios. The predictive toxicities are in good agreement with the experimental toxicities, which testifies to the predictability of the mixture toxicity of the NBDs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Toxicity assessment of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella protothecoides following exposure to Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Bang; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuangfei; Cui, Xinhong; Bi, Huasong; Guo, Meijin; Wang, Weiliang

    2013-07-01

    The short- and long-term toxic effects of Pb(II) exposure on Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) were not well understood. The lab study was performed to observe the Pb(II) exposure induced changes. Results of the observations show: (1) higher level of Pb(II) (50 or 80mgL(-1)) could significantly inhibit the growth and chlorophyll a synthesis of both algae in almost all the treatments and dose-response relationships could be clearly observed, (2) the range of EC50 values (24-120h, 67.73-172.45mgL(-1)) indicated that Pb(II) had a relatively limited short-term toxicity to the two algae, while long-term tests (7-28d, 50.41-63.91mgL(-1)) displayed higher toxicity and (3) SOD and CAT activities of both algae after exposed to medium level of Pb(II) were significantly promoted, and their response might be more susceptible in short-term exposure. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(II) toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of ECS to a hybrid automobile; `ECS` no hybrid jidosha eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Okamura, T.

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes a simulation for a case when an energy capacitor system (ECS) is mounted in a hybrid electric vehicle in place of secondary batteries. The ECS is electric power storage equipment consisted of capacitors and electronic circuits, and capable of quick charge and discharge at high efficiency. Its energy density per unit weight is about the same as lead-acid batteries, but its output density is greater than any type of batteries. Being free of deterioration due to charge and discharge, its cycle life is almost limitless. In order to suppress heat generation, a switching converter is used to control the output to about 300W. However, internal resistance of an ECS is smaller than in an equivalent secondary battery, and internal loss and heat generation stay as low as 1/5 to 1/10. Discussions have been given on cases of using the ECS in small passenger cars, small buses/trucks, and large buses. Since the ECS can use the stored power to about 94% of the capacity, and its cycle life is sufficiently long, it can operate with charge capacity as small as 1/4 of a lead-acid battery. The weight can also be reduced largely. Regenerative power storage efficiency is high, fuel consumption can be improved, heat generation is less, and no forced cooling is required. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  7. The Role of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Responses to Aluminum Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a key factor limiting plant growth and crop production on acid soils. Increasing the plant Al-detoxification capacity and/or breeding Al-resistant cultivars are a cost-effective strategy to support crop growth on acidic soils. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase plays a central role in all plant physiological processes. Changes in the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase through regulating the expression and phosphorylation of this enzyme are also involved in many plant responses to Al toxicity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase mediated H+ influx may be associated with the maintenance of cytosolic pH and the plasma membrane gradients as well as Al-induced citrate efflux mediated by a H+-ATPase-coupled MATE co-transport system. In particular, modulating the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase through application of its activators (e.g., magnesium or IAA or using transgenics has effectively enhanced plant resistance to Al stress in several species. In this review, we critically assess the available knowledge on the role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in plant responses to Al stress, incorporating physiological and molecular aspects.

  8. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  9. A phytotoxicity test using transpiration of willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Zambrano, Kim Cecilia; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    is expressed as % decrease after 48 and 72 h or longer compared to the initial transpiration, divided by the transpiration of control plants. More toxicity parameters are growth and water use efficiency of the plants. The sensitivity of the test was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol. EC50 values between 5......A short-term acute toxicity assay for willow trees growing in contaminated solution or in polluted soil was developed and tested. The test apparatus consists of an Erlenmeyer flask with a prerooted tree cutting growing in it. Growth and reduction of transpiration are used to determine toxicity....... Transpiration is closely related to photosynthesis and growth, but is easier and faster to measure and can be measured without disturbance of the test system. Plants are grown for 24 h in uncontaminated nutrient solution before the toxicant is added to determine the initial transpiration. The loss of weight...

  10. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  11. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Luke L; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Evans, Louis H; Tsvetnenko, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH approximately 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and (c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  12. QSAR development and bioavailability determination: the toxicity of chloroanilines to the soil dwelling springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Daniel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are an established tool in environmental risk assessment and a valuable alternative to the exhaustive use of test animals under REACH. In this study a QSAR was developed for the toxicity of a series of six chloroanilines to the soil-dwelling collembolan Folsomia candida in standardized natural LUFA2.2 soil. Toxicity endpoints incorporated in the QSAR were the concentrations causing 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) reduction in reproduction of F. candida. Toxicity was based on concentrations in interstitial water estimated from nominal concentrations in the soil and published soil-water partition coefficients. Estimated effect concentrations were negatively correlated with the lipophilicity of the compounds. Interstitial water concentrations for both the EC10 and EC50 for four compounds were determined by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Measured and estimated concentrations were comparable only for tetra- and pentachloroaniline. With decreasing chlorination the disparity between modelled and actual concentrations increased. Optimisation of the QSAR therefore could not be accomplished, showing the necessity to move from total soil to (bio)available concentration measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel marine algal toxicity bioassay based on sporulation inhibition in the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Choi, Gye-Woon [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-10

    A 5-day aquatic toxicity test based on sporulation inhibition of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman has been developed. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, salinity and temperature were 60-200 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 25-35%o and 15-20 deg C, respectively. Tests were conducted by exposing U. pertusa thallus disks to a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), metals (Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}) and elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations. The EC{sub 50} values for SDS was 5.35 mg L{sup -1}. When four heavy metals were assayed, the NOECs were highest for lead (0.625 mg L{sup -1}) and lowest for copper (0.031 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} values showed the following toxicity rankings: Cu{sup 2+} (0.061 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd{sup 2+} (0.326 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn{sup 2+} (0.738 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb{sup 2+} (0.877 mg L{sup -1}). The bioassay indicated also that the sporulation endpoint could be a sensitive indicator of toxicity effects of elutriates of sludge as reflected from the NOEC values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration employed (6.25%). Sporulation was significantly inhibitied in all elutriates with the greatest and least effects observed in elutriates of sludge from industrial waste (EC{sub 50} 6.78%) and filtration bed (EC{sub 50} 15.0%), respectively. The results of the Spearman rank correlation analysis for EC{sub 50} data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge presented a significant correlation between toxicity and four heavy metals (Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}). Introduction of the concept of toxicity unit (TU) showed that these metals were the main cause of toxicity in elutriates of at least four out of nine sludge samples. Members of the order Ulvales show a wide geographic distribution and have similar reproductive characteristics, thus making it possible to apply the present test method to other algae of this taxa, elsewhere

  14. Yields Components and 48-H Rumen Dry Matter Degradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato varieties (TIS-87/0087, TIS-8164 and TIS-2532.OP.1.13). Fodder yields and leaf-to-stem ratio decreased (P < 0.05), while harvest index and 48-h rumen DM degradation increased with maturity from 12 to 20 weeks after ...

  15. Influence of Speciation of Thorium on Toxic Effects to Green Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thorium (Th is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201, Th(NO34 was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH4 due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC50 of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH4 precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.

  16. Modulation of biosynthesis and regulatory action of 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (S-EC) in cultured cells by progesterone (PG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, S.R.; Gupta, A.K.; Sexton, R.C.; Parish, E.J.; Rudney, H.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of IEC-6 cells with PG caused a strong inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis at the level of desmosterol reductase. In addition, two new products were observed in PG-treated cells. The first compound was designated as cholesta-5,7,24-trien-3β-ol based on its HPLC chromatographic properties. The second compound was identified as S-EC based on (1) a comparison of its chromatographic properties with those of authentic EC and (2) by its conversion to 25-hydroxycholesterol (HC) upon reduction with LiAlH 4 . In spite of cellular accumulation of S-EC in the presence of PG, the activity of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) which is known to be sensitive to oxysterols, was elevated rather than suppressed. On the other hand, when PG-treated cells were refed fresh medium without PG, HMGR activity was suppressed. Exogenous S-EC was a potent suppressor of HMGR in untreated IEC-6 cells. Suppression of HMGR by S-EC but not by HC could be prevented by progesterone. Exogenous [ 3 H]S-EC was not metabolized by IEC-6 cells. These results support the hypothesis that S-EC plays a normal regulatory role in sterol biosynthesis and indicate that enhanced S-EC synthesis observed in the presence of PG may be due to interference with this regulatory action

  17. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Glutathione and its dependent enzymes' modulatory responses to toxic metals and metalloids in fish--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, K; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Ahmad, I

    2013-04-01

    Toxic metals and metalloid are being rapidly added from multiple pathways to aquatic ecosystem and causing severe threats to inhabiting fauna including fish. Being common in all the type of aquatic ecosystems such as freshwater, marine and brackish water fish are the first to get prone to toxic metals and metalloids. In addition to a number of physiological/biochemical alterations, toxic metals and metalloids cause enhanced generation of varied reactive oxygen species (ROS) ultimately leading to a situation called oxidative stress. However, as an important component of antioxidant defence system in fish, the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) directly or indirectly regulates the scavenging of ROS and their reaction products. Additionally, several other GSH-associated enzymes such as GSH reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), GSH peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9), and GSH sulfotransferase (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), EC 2.5.1.18) cumulatively protect fish against ROS and their reaction products accrued anomalies under toxic metals and metalloids stress conditions. The current review highlights recent research findings on the modulation of GSH, its redox couple (reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione), and other GSH-related enzymes (GR, glutathione peroxidase, GST) involved in the detoxification of harmful ROS and their reaction products in toxic metals and metalloids-exposed fish.

  19. Acute toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids towards the Baltic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latała, Adam; Nędzi, Marcin; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2009-09-01

    The presence of high-energy carbon-fluorine bonds in perfluoro compounds lends them great stability and causes them to be environmentally persistent. Relatively little is known about the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to ecotoxicological markers such as aquatic plants and animals. This study tested the toxicity of these compounds to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris, the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the blue-green alga Geitlerinema amphibium, which are species representative of the algal flora of the Baltic Sea. The EC(50) values obtained range from 0.28 mM to 12.84 mM. A distinct relationship between hydrophobicity and toxicity is demonstrated. For every extra perfluoromethylene group in the alkyl chain, the toxicity increases twofold. LogEC(50) values are very well correlated linearly with both the number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain and the partition coefficients. The results also indicate that there are clear differences between the responses of particular taxonomic groups of algae: blue-green algae and diatoms are far more sensitive to PFCAs than green algae, probably because of differences in cell wall structure.

  20. Ionoregulatory disruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Richards, J.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism for acute toxicity of lead (Pb) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 of 1.0 mg dissolved Pb l -1 (0.8-1.4, 95% C.I.) determined in dechlorinated Hamilton city tap water (from Lake Ontario, hardness=140 mg l -1 CaCO 3 ). Tissue Pb accumulation associated with death was highest in the gill, followed by kidney and liver. Significant ionoregulatory impacts were observed in adult rainbow trout (200-300 g) fitted with indwelling dorsal aortic catheters and exposed to 1.1±0.04 mg dissolved Pb l -1 . Decreased plasma [Ca 2+ ], [Na + ] and [Cl - ] occurred after 48 h of exposure through to 120 h, with increases in plasma [Mg 2+ ], ammonia, and cortisol. No marked changes in PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, glucose, or hematological parameters were evident. Branchial Na + /K + ATPase activity in juvenile trout exposed to concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 was inhibited by approximately 40% after 48 h of Pb exposure. Calcium ion flux measurements using 45 Ca as a radiotracer showed 65% inhibition of Ca 2+ influx after 0, 12, 24 or 48 h exposure to the 96 h LC50 concentration of Pb. There was also significant inhibition (40-50%) of both Na + and Cl - uptake, measured with 22 Na and 36 Cl simultaneously. We conclude that the mechanism of acute toxicity for Pb in rainbow trout occurs by ionoregulatory disruption rather than respiratory or acid/base distress at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 in moderately hard water

  1. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0 g/L) for 48 h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96 h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods.

  2. Automated evaluation of pharmaceutically active ionic liquids’ (eco)toxicity through the inhibition of human carboxylesterase and Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Susana P.F.; Justina, Vanessa D.; Bica, Katharina; Vasiloiu, Maria; Pinto, Paula C.A.G.; Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IL-APIs toxicity on humans and aquatic environment was evaluated by inhibition assays. • The inhibition assays were implemented through automated screening bioassays. • Automation of bioassays enabled a rigorous control of the reaction conditions. • EC 50 obtained provide vital information on IL-APIs safety and potential use as drugs. -- Abstract: The toxicity of 16 pharmaceutical active ionic liquids (IL-APIs) was evaluated by automated approaches based on sequential injection analysis (SIA). The implemented bioassays were centered on the inhibition of human carboxylesterase 2 and Vibrio fischeri, in the presence of the tested compounds. The inhibitory effects were quantified by calculating the inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of inhibition (EC 50 ). The EC 50 values demonstrated that the cetylpyridinium group was one of the most toxic cations and that the imidazolium group was the less toxic. The obtained results provide important information about the safety of the studied IL-APIs and their possible use as pharmaceutical drugs. The developed automated SIA methodologies are robust screening bioassays, and can be used as a generic tools to identify the (eco)toxicity of the structural elements of ILs, contributing to a sustainable development of drugs

  3. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  4. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Hemiptera (Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae. These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet, carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl, pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp. ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co. and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co. ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co. and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co. ranked very low for IPM

  5. A spectroscopic survey of EC4, an extended cluster in Andromeda's halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. L. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Irwin, M.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N. F.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Huxor, A.; Lewis, G. F.; Mackey, A. D.; McConnachie, A. W.; Tanvir, N.

    2009-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of candidate red giant branch stars in the extended star cluster, EC4, discovered in the halo of M31 from our Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam survey, overlapping the tidal streams, Streams`Cp' and `Cr'. These observations used the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope to obtain spectra around the CaII triplet region with ~1.3 Å resolution. Six stars lying on the red giant branch within two core radii of the centre of EC4 are found to have an average vr = -287.9+1.9-2.4kms-1 and σv,corr = 2.7+4.2-2.7kms-1, taking instrumental errors into account. The resulting mass-to-light ratio for EC4 is M/L = 6.7+15-6.7Msolar/Lsolar, a value that is consistent with a globular cluster within the 1σ errors we derive. From the summed spectra of our member stars, we find EC4 to be metal-poor, with [Fe/H] = -1.6 +/- 0.15. We discuss several formation and evolution scenarios which could account for our kinematic and metallicity constraints on EC4, and conclude that EC4 is most comparable with an extended globular cluster. We also compare the kinematics and metallicity of EC4 with Streams `Cp' and`Cr', and find that EC4 bears a striking resemblance to Stream`Cp' in terms of velocity, and that the two structures are identical in terms of both their spectroscopic and photometric metallicities. From this, we conclude that EC4 is likely related to Stream`Cp'. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. E-mail: mlmc2@ast.cam.ac.uk

  6. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H 2 O 2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO 2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H 2 O 2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H 2 O 2 mediate SO 2 -caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO 2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L -1 , which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H 2 O 2 , and Ca 2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO 2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO 2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca 2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca 2+ channel inhibitor LaCl 3 also markedly blocked SO 2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO 2 -induced elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO 2 -induced H 2 O 2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO 2 -induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H 2 O 2 are produced and accumulated in SO 2 -treated guard cells, which further activate Ca 2+ signaling to mediate SO 2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H 2 O 2 contribute to SO 2 toxicity via Ca 2+ signaling.

  7. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christina C; Henderson, Thomas D; Stanker, Larry H; He, Xiaohua; Cheng, Luisa W

    2017-10-13

    Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT) assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin's toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin's ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain), we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin's ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain). Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  8. Evaluation of bacterial surfactant toxicity towards petroleum degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Leão, Bruna A; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-02-01

    The acute toxicity of bacterial surfactants LBBMA111A, LBBMA155, LBBMA168, LBBMA191 and LBBMA201 and the synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri was evaluated by measuring the reduction of light emission (EC(20)) by this microorganism when exposed to different surfactant concentrations. Moreover, the toxic effects of different concentrations of biological and synthetic surfactants on the growth of pure cultures of isolates Acinetobacter baumannii LBBMA04, Acinetobacter junni LBBMA36, Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA101B and Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMAES11 were evaluated in mineral medium supplemented with glucose. The EC(20) values obtained confirmed that the biosurfactants have a significantly lower toxicity to V. fischeri than the SDS. After 30 min of exposure, bacterial luminescence was almost completely inhibited by SDS at a concentration of 4710 mg L(-1). Growth reduction of pure bacterial cultures caused by the addition of biosurfactants to the growth medium was lower than that caused by SDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tributyltin synergizes with 20-hydroxyecdysone to produce endocrine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying H; Kwon, Gwijun; Li, Hong; Leblanc, Gerald A

    2011-09-01

    One of the great challenges facing modern toxicology is in predicting the hazard associated with chemical mixtures. The development of effective means of predicting the toxicity of chemical mixtures requires an understanding of how chemicals interact to produce nonadditive outcomes (e.g., synergy). We hypothesized that tributyltin would elicit toxicity in daphnids (Daphnia magna) by exaggerating physiological responses to 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling via synergistic activation of the retinoid X receptor (RXR):ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) complex. Using reporter gene assays, we demonstrated that RXR, alone, is activated by a variety of ligands including tributyltin, whereas RXR:EcR heterodimers were not activated by tributyltin. However, tributyltin, in combination with the daphnid EcR ligand 20-hydroxyecdysone, caused concentration-dependent, synergistic activation of the RXR:EcR reporter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that tributyltin did not enhance the activity of 20-hydroxyecdysone by increasing binding of the receptor complex to a DR-4 DNA-binding site. Exposure of daphnids to elevated concentrations of 20-hydroxyecdysone caused premature and incomplete ecdysis resulting in death. Tributyltin exaggerated this effect of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone. Further, exposure of daphnids to tributyltin enhanced the inductive effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone on expression of the 20-hydroxyecdysone-inducible gene HR3. Continuous, prolonged exposure of maternal daphnids to concentrations of tributyltin resulted in mortality concurrent with molting. Taken together, these results demonstrate that xenobiotics, such as tributyltin, can interact with RXR to influence gene expression regulated by the heterodimeric partner to RXR. The result of such interactions can be toxicity due to inappropriate or exaggerated hormonal signaling. The application of the in vitro/in vivo approach used in this study is discussed in relation to modeling of nonadditive interactions

  10. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S

    2008-01-01

    . In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris......The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...... activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (e...

  11. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  12. Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Paoli, Luca; Vichi, Marco; Bačkor, Martin; Bačkorová, Miriam; Loppi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical.

  13. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  14. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes by transmembrane pH gradient to reduce toxicity toward H9c2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alyane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of doxorubicin (DOX is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Entrapped DOX in liposome has been shown to reduce cardiotoxicity. Results showed that about 92% of the total drug was encapsulated in liposome. The release experiments showed a weak DOX leakage in both culture medium and in PBS, more than 98% and 90% of the encapsulated DOX respectively was still retained in liposomes after 24 h of incubation. When the release experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer pH5.3, the leakage of DOX from liposomes reached 37% after 24 h of incubation. Evaluation of cellular uptake of the liposomal DOX indicated the possible endocytosis of liposomes because the majority of visible fluorescence of DOX was mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas the nuclear compartment showed a weak intensity. When using unloaded fluorescent-liposomes, the fluorescence was absent in nuclei suggests that liposomes cannot cross the nuclear membrane. MTT assay and measurement of LDH release suggest that necrosis is the form of cellular death predominates in H9c2 cells exposed to high doses of DOX, while for weak doses apoptosis could be the predominate form. Entrapped DOX reduced significantly DOX toxicity after 3 and 6 h of incubation, but after 20 h entrapped DOX is more toxic than free one.

  15. Soil pH effects on the comparative toxicity of dissolved zinc, non-nano and nano ZnO to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura R; Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lofts, Stephen; Lahive, Elma; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Cedergreen, Nina; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2014-08-01

    To determine how soil properties influence nanoparticle (NP) fate, bioavailability and toxicity, this study compared the toxicity of nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), non-nano ZnO and ionic ZnCl2 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil at three pH levels. NP characterisation indicated that reaction with the soil media greatly controls ZnO properties. Three main conclusions were drawn. First that Zn toxicity, especially for reproduction, was influenced by pH for all Zn forms. This can be linked to the influence of pH on Zn dissolution. Secondly, that ZnO fate, toxicity and bioaccumulation were similar (including relationships with pH) for both ZnO forms, indicating the absence of NP-specific effects. Finally, earthworm Zn concentrations were higher in worms exposed to ZnO compared to ZnCl2, despite the greater toxicity of the ionic form. This observation suggests the importance of considering the relationship between uptake and toxicity in nanotoxicology studies.

  16. Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ina; Bachmann, Jean; Kühnen, Ute; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Maletzki, Dirk; Schlüter, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the growth inhibition effect of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on four photoautotrophic aquatic species: the freshwater microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae, the monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, and the dicotyledonous macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Both antibiotics, which act by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, demonstrated high toxicity to A. flos-aquae and L. minor and moderate to slight toxicity to D. subspicatus and M. spicatum. The cyanobacterium was the most sensitive species with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 173 and 10.2 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Lemna minor proved to be similarly sensitive, with EC50 values of 107 and 62.5 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. While enrofloxacin was more toxic to green algae, ciprofloxacin was more toxic to cyanobacteria. Calculated EC50s for D. subspicatus were 5,568 µg/L and >8,042 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. These data, as well as effect data from the literature, were compared with predicted and reported environmental concentrations. For two of the four species, a risk was identified at ciprofloxacin concentrations found in surface waters, sewage treatment plant influents and effluents, as well as in hospital effluents. For ciprofloxacin the results of the present study indicate a risk even at the predicted environmental concentration. In contrast, for enrofloxacin no risk was identified at predicted and measured concentrations. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Structural-based differences in ecotoxicity of benzoquinoline isomers to the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Wijnands, P.; Govers, H.A.J.; Admiraal, W.; Voogt, P. de [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of four benzoquinoline isomers on the filtration rate of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were analyzed, to study the effect of minor differences in chemical structure on adverse biological effects. Filtration rates were measured after 48 h of exposure to different concentrations of acridine, phenanthridine, benzo[f]quinoline, and benzo[h]quinoline in the water. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for filtration rate of the four isomers differed significantly. Effects increased in the order benzo[f], -[h], -[b], and -[c]quinoline, and the difference between the most toxic isomer and the least toxic isomer amounted to a factor of 30. Attempts were made to relate these differences in toxicity to the structure of the isomers. Size- or topology-related molecular descriptors provided insufficient resolution to distinguish between the benzoquinoline isomers, and none of the electronic descriptors separately provided a significant correlation with the observed effects. In an alternative approach, molecular shape, accessibility, and minimum agent-macromolecule distance were used to represent repulsive and attractive forces between the benzoquinoline isomers and biological membranes. This approach could tentatively explain the observed effects and is supported by a high correlation between the EC50 data and the reversed-phase C18-HPLC behavior of the benzoquinolines (k{sub 0}), which is likely to be governed by similar processes.

  18. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  20. Involvement of the histamine H4 receptor in clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity: Vulnerability under granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Aya; Mouri, Akihiro; Nagai, Tomoko; Yoshimi, Akira; Ukigai, Mako; Tsubai, Tomomi; Hida, Hirotake; Ozaki, Norio; Noda, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but can cause fatal hematopoietic toxicity as agranulocytosis. To elucidate the mechanism of hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine, we developed an in vitro assay system using HL-60 cells, and investigated the effect on hematopoiesis. HL-60 cells were differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into three states according to the following hematopoietic process: undifferentiated HL-60 cells, those undergoing granulocytic ATRA-differentiation, and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells. Hematopoietic toxicity was evaluated by analyzing cell survival, cell proliferation, granulocytic differentiation, apoptosis, and necrosis. In undifferentiated HL-60 cells and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells, both clozapine (50 and 100 μM) and doxorubicin (0.2 µM) decreased the cell survival rate, but olanzapine (1–100 µM) did not. Under granulocytic differentiation for 5 days, clozapine, even at a concentration of 25 μM, decreased survival without affecting granulocytic differentiation, increased caspase activity, and caused apoptosis rather than necrosis. Histamine H 4 receptor mRNA was expressed in HL-60 cells, whereas the expression decreased under granulocytic ATRA-differentiation little by little. Both thioperamide, a histamine H 4 receptor antagonist, and DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, exerted protection against clozapine-induced survival rate reduction, but not of live cell counts. 4-Methylhistamine, a histamine H 4 receptor agonist, decreased the survival rate and live cell counts, as did clozapine. HL-60 cells under granulocytic differentiation are vulnerable under in vitro assay conditions to hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine. Histamine H 4 receptor is involved in the development of clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity through apoptosis, and may be a potential target for preventing its occurrence through granulocytic differentiation. - Highlights: • HL-60

  1. Ionoregulatory disruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T.; Richards, J.G.; Wood, C.M

    2003-07-16

    The mechanism for acute toxicity of lead (Pb) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 of 1.0 mg dissolved Pb l{sup -1} (0.8-1.4, 95% C.I.) determined in dechlorinated Hamilton city tap water (from Lake Ontario, hardness=140 mg l{sup -1} CaCO{sub 3}). Tissue Pb accumulation associated with death was highest in the gill, followed by kidney and liver. Significant ionoregulatory impacts were observed in adult rainbow trout (200-300 g) fitted with indwelling dorsal aortic catheters and exposed to 1.1{+-}0.04 mg dissolved Pb l{sup -1}. Decreased plasma [Ca{sup 2+}], [Na{sup +}] and [Cl{sup -}] occurred after 48 h of exposure through to 120 h, with increases in plasma [Mg{sup 2+}], ammonia, and cortisol. No marked changes in PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}, pH, glucose, or hematological parameters were evident. Branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity in juvenile trout exposed to concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 was inhibited by approximately 40% after 48 h of Pb exposure. Calcium ion flux measurements using {sup 45}Ca as a radiotracer showed 65% inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} influx after 0, 12, 24 or 48 h exposure to the 96 h LC50 concentration of Pb. There was also significant inhibition (40-50%) of both Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} uptake, measured with {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl simultaneously. We conclude that the mechanism of acute toxicity for Pb in rainbow trout occurs by ionoregulatory disruption rather than respiratory or acid/base distress at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 in moderately hard water.

  2. TOXICOPHORES AND QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE -TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR SOME ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Gorinchoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed to reveal the toxicophore and to predict aquatic toxicity quantitatively using as a training set a series of 51 compounds that have aquatic toxicity to fish. By performing conformational analysis (optimization of geometries of the low-energy conformers by the PM3 method and electronic structure calculations (by ab initio method corrected within the SM54/PM3 solvatation model, the Electron-Conformational Matrix of Congruity (ECMC was constructed for each conformation of these compounds. The toxicophore defined as the EC sub-matrix of activity (ECSA, a sub-matrix with matrix elements common to all the active compounds under consideration within minimal tolerances, is determined by an iterative procedure of comparison of their ECMC’s, gradually minimizing the tolerances. Starting with only the four most toxic compounds, their ECSA (toxicophore was found to consists of a 4x4 matrix (four sites with certain electronic and topologic characteristics which was shown to be present in 17 most active compounds. A structure-toxicity correlation between three toxicophore parameters and the activities of these 17 compounds with R2=0.94 was found. It is shown that the same toxicophore with larger tolerances satisfies the compounds with les activity, thus explicitly demonstrating how the activity is controlled by the tolerances quantitatively and which atoms (sites are most flexible in this respect. This allows for getting slightly different toxicophores for different levels of activity. For some active compounds that have no toxicophore a bimolecular mechanism of activity is suggested. Distinguished from other QSAR methods, no arbitrary descriptors and no statistics are involved in this EC structure-activity investigation.

  3. EC6 safety design improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Lee, A.G.; Soulard, M. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) builds on the proven high performance design such as the Qinshan CANDU 6 reactor, and has made improvements to safety, operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback. Completion of all three phases of the pre-licensing design review by the Canadian Regulator - the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has provided a higher level of assurance that the EC6 reference design has taken modern regulatory requirements and expectations into account and further confirmed that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the EC6 design in Canada. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles in INSAG-10 and provides further safety features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. With these safety features, the EC6 design has strengthened accident prevention as the first priority in the defence-in-depth strategy, as outlined in INSAG-10. As well, the EC6 design has incorporated further mitigation measures to provide additional protection of the public and the environment if the preventive measures fail. The EC6 design has an appropriate combination of inherent, passive safety characteristics, engineered features and administrative safety measures to effectively prevent and mitigate severe accident progressions. A strong contributor to the robustness and redundancy of CANDU design is the two-group separation philosophy. This ensures a high degree of independence between safety systems as well as physical separation and functional independence in how fundamental safety functions are provided. This paper will describe the following safety features based on the application of defence-in-depth and design approach to prevent beyond design basis events progressing to severe accidents and to mitigate the consequences if it occurs: Improved steam generator heat sink via a more reliable emergency heat removal system; Increased time before manual field actions are required via enhanced capacity of

  4. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  5. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Tam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea, Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin’s toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin’s ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain, we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin’s ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain. Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  6. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  7. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164 ...

  8. Renal cysteine conjugate C-S lyase mediated toxicity of halogenated alkenes in primary cultures of human and rat proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Trevor A; Lock, Edward A; Rodilla, Vicente; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tubular cells from human (HPT) and rat (RPT) kidneys were isolated, grown to confluence and incubated with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)- l-cysteine (DCVC), S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)- l-cysteine (TCVC), S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)- l-cysteine (TFEC) and S-(2-chloro-1,1-difluorethyl)- l-cysteine (CDFEC), the cysteine conjugates of nephrotoxicants. The cultures were exposed to the conjugates for 12, 24 and 48 h and the toxicity determined using the MTT assay. All four conjugates caused dose-dependent toxicity to RPT cells over the range 50-1,000 microM, the order of toxicity being DCVC>TCVC>TFEC=CDFEC. The inclusion of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 250 microM), an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes such as C-S lyase, afforded protection, indicating that C-S lyase has a role in the bioactivation of these conjugates. In HPT cultures only DCVC caused significant time- and dose-dependent toxicity. Exposure to DCVC (500 microM) for 48 h decreased cell viability to 7% of control cell values, whereas co-incubation of DCVC (500 microM) with AOAA (250 microM) resulted in cell viability of 71%. Human cultures were also exposed to S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-glutathione (DCVG). DCVG was toxic to HPT cells, but the onset of toxicity was delayed compared with the corresponding cysteine conjugate. AOAA afforded almost complete protection from DCVG toxicity. Acivicin (250 microM), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), partially protected against DCVG (500 microM)-induced toxicity at 48 h (5% viability and 53% viability in the absence and presence of acivicin, respectively). These results suggest that DCVG requires processing by gamma-GT prior to bioactivation by C-S lyase in HPT cells. The activity of C-S lyase, using TFEC as a substrate, and glutamine transaminase K (GTK) was measured in rat and human cells with time in culture. C-S lyase activity in RPT and HPT cells decreased to approximately 30% of fresh cell values by the time the cells reached

  9. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongkang; Morandi, Garrett D; Brown, R Stephen; Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and logKow values provided a rough estimation of structure-activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete explanation of the chronic toxicity of alkyl PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.; Lacrosse, L. [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y. [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  11. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M; Lacrosse, L [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  13. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Rawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group: control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new

  14. Toxicities of azadirachtin and polychlorinated petroleum Hydrocarbon against resist and susceptible strains of tribolium castaneum (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Riaz, M.; Riaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The LC/sub 50/ values for malathion-resistant (PAK) and organo-50 phosphate-susceptible (FSS-II) strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adult beetles were determined through filter paper impregnated method against azadirachtin (Nimbokil 60 EC) and polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachtin. Furthermore, both the insecticides were equally toxic to the adult beetles of T. castaneum as the difference was non-significant because of overlapping 95% FLs to LC./sub 50/. (author)

  15. Identification of a new reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloid retrorsine: (3H-pyrrolizin-7-yl)methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashe, Muluneh M; Juvonen, Risto O; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Rahnasto-Rilla, Minna; Auriola, Seppo; Soininen, Pasi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Pasanen, Markku

    2014-11-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) such as retrorsine are common food contaminants that are known to be bioactivated by cytochrome P450 enzymes to putative hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic metabolites known as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPs). We compared how both electrochemical (EC) and human liver microsomal (HLM) oxidation of retrorsine could produce short-lived intermediate metabolites; we also characterized a toxicologically important metabolite, (3H-pyrrolizin-7-yl)methanol. The EC cell was coupled online or offline to a liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer (LC/MS), whereas the HLM oxidation was performed in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.4) in the presence of NADPH at 37 °C. The EC cell oxidation of retrorsine produced 12 metabolites, including dehydroretrorsine (m/z 350, [M + H(+)]), which was degraded to a new reactive metabolite at m/z 136 ([M + H(+)]). The molecular structure of this small metabolite was determined using high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy followed by chemical synthesis. In addition, we also identified another minor but reactive metabolite at m/z 136, an isomer of (3H-pyrrolizin-7-yl)methanol. Both (3H-pyrrolizin-7-yl)methanol and its minor isomer were also observed after HLM oxidation of retrorsine and other hepatotoxic PAs such as lasiocarpine and senkirkin. In the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH), each isomer formed identical GSH conjugates at m/z 441 and m/z 730 in the negative ESI-MS. Because (3H-pyrrolizine-7-yl)methanol) and its minor isomer subsequently reacted with GSH, it is concluded that (3H-pyrrolizin-7-yl)methanol may be a common toxic metabolite arising from PAs.

  16. High pH ammonia toxicity, and the search for life on the Jovian planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, P H; Souza, K A; Mack, H M

    1975-10-01

    Jovian plants have enviroments apparently suitable for the evolution of life, but nevertheless, present severe challenges to organisms. One such challenge arises from the presence of ammonia. Ammonia is an efficient biocide, its effect being dependent on pH as well as on concentration. The effects of pH and ammonia concentration were studied separately, where possible, on a variety of organisms, including some isolated from natural enviornments of high pH and/or ammonia concentration. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are both extremely sensitive to ammonia. An aerobic organism (growth up to pH 11.4) from an alkaline spring is more resistant, but exhibits a toxic response to ammonia at a pH much lower than its maximum for growth. The greatest ammonia resistance has been found in an unidentified organism growing at near neutral pH. Even in this case, however, survival at ammonia concentrations reasonably expected on the Jovian planets is measured in hours. This is, nevertheless, two to three orders of magnitude longer than for E. coli. Our data support the tentative conclusion that contamination of the Jovian planets with terrestrial organisms that can grow is unlikely. However, the range of toxic response noted, coupled with the observation that terrestrial life has not been exposed to high ammonia concentrations for millions of years, suggests that adaptation to greater ammonia tolerance may be possible.

  17. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  18. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongkang [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Morandi, Garrett D. [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Brown, R. Stephen [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Jørgensen, Kåre B. [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Hodson, Peter V., E-mail: peter.hodson@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log K{sub ow} values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but K{sub ow} alone did not provide

  19. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenxing, Chi; Rutao, Liu; Zhang Hao, E-mail: Trutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K{sub 293K} = 7.09 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1} and K{sub 311K} = 3.31 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1}. The thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  20. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zhenxing; Liu Rutao; Zhang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K 293K = 7.09 x 10 4 L mol -1 and K 311K = 3.31 x 10 4 L mol -1 . The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔG o and ΔS o ) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  1. Modulating and Measuring Intracellular H2O2 Using Genetically Encoded Tools to Study Its Toxicity to Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijing K; Stein, Kassi T; Sikes, Hadley D

    2016-12-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 play paradoxical roles in mammalian physiology. It is hypothesized that low, baseline levels of H 2 O 2 are necessary for growth and differentiation, while increased intracellular H 2 O 2 concentrations are associated with pathological phenotypes and genetic instability, eventually reaching a toxic threshold that causes cell death. However, the quantities of intracellular H 2 O 2 that lead to these different responses remain an unanswered question in the field. To address this question, we used genetically encoded constructs that both generate and quantify H 2 O 2 in a dose-response study of H 2 O 2 -mediated toxicity. We found that, rather than a simple concentration-response relationship, a combination of intracellular concentration and the cumulative metric of H 2 O 2 concentration multiplied by time (i.e., the area under the curve) determined the occurrence and level of cell death. Establishing the quantitative relationship between H 2 O 2 and cell toxicity promotes a deeper understanding of the intracellular effects of H 2 O 2 specifically as an individual reactive oxygen species, and it contributes to an understanding of its role in various redox-related diseases.

  2. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  4. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  5. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  6. Signal Immune Reactions of Macrophages Differentiated from THP-1 Monocytes to Infection with Pandemic H1N1PDM09 Virus and H5N2 and H9N2 Avian Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, T M; Poloskov, V V; Shuvalov, A N; Rudneva, I A; Timofeeva, T A

    2018-03-01

    In culture of THP-1 cells differentiated into macrophages with PMA (THP-PMA macrophages) infected with influenza viruses of subtypes H1, H5 and H9, we measured the expression of TLR7 and RIG1 receptor genes, sensors of viral RNA and ribonucleoprotein, and the levels of production of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, IL-10, and IFNα. The sensitivity and inflammatory response of THP-PMA macrophages to pandemic influenza A virus H1N1pdm09 and avian influenza H5N2 and H9N2 viruses correlate with the intracellular level of their viral RNA and activation of the RIG1 gene. Abortive infection is accompanied by intensive macrophage secretion of TNFα, IL-1β, and toxic factors inducing cell death. Activity of endosomal TLR7 receptor gene changed insignificantly in 24 h after infection and significantly decreased in 48 and 72 h under the action of H5N2 and H9N2, which correlated with manifestation of the cytopathogenic effect of these viruses. H5N2 and H9N2 avian viruses in THP-PMA macrophages are strong activators of the expression of the gene of the cytoplasmic RIG1 receptor 24 and 48 h after infection, and the pandemic virus H1N1pdm09 is a weak stimulator of RIG1 gene. Avian influenza H5N2 and H9N2 viruses are released by rapid induction of the inflammatory response in macrophages. At the late stages of infection, we observed a minor increase in IL-10 secretion in macrophages and, probably, the polarization of a part of the population in type M2. The studied influenza A viruses are weak inductors of IFN in THP-PMA macrophages. In the culture medium of THP-PMA macrophages infected with H9N2 and H5N2 viruses, MTT test revealed high levels of toxic factors causing the death of Caco-2 cells. In contrast to avian viruses, pandemic virus H1N1pdm09 did not induce production of toxic factors.

  7. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  8. Toxicity and Fate Comparison between Several Brass and Titanium Dioxide Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    the entire gut without showing any apparent effects . 14. UBJET TEMS1I. NUMBER OF PAGES 27 Daphnia Algae EC50 Aquatic toxicity 11T.PRICE CODE 9...levels of soluble copper and zinc in solution. 3. RESULTS The titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) materials did not show any apparent toxic effects to daphnia up to...The extended exposure did not show any apparent toxic effects . Long term effects on aquatic org.rnisms exposed to TiO2 are not known. It is apparent

  9. Comparative investigation of toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd-based quantum dots and Cd salt in freshwater plant Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlitbová, Pavlína; Novotný, Karel; Pořízka, Pavel; Klus, Jakub; Lubal, Přemysl; Zlámalová-Gargošová, Helena; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of two different sources of cadmium, i.e. CdCl 2 and Cd-based Quantum Dots (QDs), for freshwater model plant Lemna minor L. Cadmium telluride QDs were capped with two coating ligands: glutathione (GSH) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Growth rate inhibition and final biomass inhibition of L. minor after 168-h exposure were monitored as toxicity endpoints. Dose-response curves for Cd toxicity and EC50 168h values were statistically evaluated for all sources of Cd to uncover possible differences among the toxicities of tested compounds. Total Cd content and its bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in L. minor after the exposure period were also determined to distinguish Cd bioaccumulation patterns with respect to different test compounds. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with lateral resolution of 200µm was employed in order to obtain two-dimensional maps of Cd spatial distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results show that GSH- and MPA-capped Cd-based QDs have similar toxicity for L. minor, but are significantly less toxic than CdCl 2 . However, both sources of Cd lead to similar patterns of Cd bioaccumulation and distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results are in line with previous reports that the main mediators of Cd toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic plants are Cd 2+ ions dissolved from Cd-based QDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H.; Denisov, G.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Mukherjee, A.; Rasmussen, D.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Sakamoto, K.; Tanga, A.

    2010-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  11. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO 2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r 2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K ow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  12. Role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions.

  13. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H2O2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fang; Hu Chun; Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H 2 O 2 process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H 2 O 2 process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R OH,UV , defined as the experimentally determined ·OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R OH,UV values represent the background ·OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H 2 O 2 due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H 2 O 2 process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H 2 O 2 process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of ·OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H 2 O 2 process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  14. Involvement of the histamine H{sub 4} receptor in clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity: Vulnerability under granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Aya; Mouri, Akihiro; Nagai, Tomoko; Yoshimi, Akira; Ukigai, Mako; Tsubai, Tomomi; Hida, Hirotake [Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503 (Japan); Ozaki, Norio [Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Noda, Yukihiro, E-mail: ynoda@meijo-u.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but can cause fatal hematopoietic toxicity as agranulocytosis. To elucidate the mechanism of hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine, we developed an in vitro assay system using HL-60 cells, and investigated the effect on hematopoiesis. HL-60 cells were differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into three states according to the following hematopoietic process: undifferentiated HL-60 cells, those undergoing granulocytic ATRA-differentiation, and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells. Hematopoietic toxicity was evaluated by analyzing cell survival, cell proliferation, granulocytic differentiation, apoptosis, and necrosis. In undifferentiated HL-60 cells and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells, both clozapine (50 and 100 μM) and doxorubicin (0.2 µM) decreased the cell survival rate, but olanzapine (1–100 µM) did not. Under granulocytic differentiation for 5 days, clozapine, even at a concentration of 25 μM, decreased survival without affecting granulocytic differentiation, increased caspase activity, and caused apoptosis rather than necrosis. Histamine H{sub 4} receptor mRNA was expressed in HL-60 cells, whereas the expression decreased under granulocytic ATRA-differentiation little by little. Both thioperamide, a histamine H{sub 4} receptor antagonist, and DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, exerted protection against clozapine-induced survival rate reduction, but not of live cell counts. 4-Methylhistamine, a histamine H{sub 4} receptor agonist, decreased the survival rate and live cell counts, as did clozapine. HL-60 cells under granulocytic differentiation are vulnerable under in vitro assay conditions to hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine. Histamine H{sub 4} receptor is involved in the development of clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity through apoptosis, and may be a potential target for preventing its occurrence through granulocytic differentiation

  15. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  16. Lethal toxicity of Lindane on a teleost fish, Anguilla anguilla from Albufera Lake (Spain): hardness and temperature effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, M D; Almar, M M; Andreu, E

    1988-02-01

    This paper reports the results of toxicity tests conducted using Anguilla anguilla under three different water temperature (15, 22 and 29 degrees C) and two hardness regimes (250 and greater than 600 ppm CaCO3). The 96-h LC50 increased in the experimental medium (p less than 0.05) by an order of magnitude from 0.32 to 0.45 mg/L between 15 and 29 degrees C. However in the natural medium it is similar (p greater than 0.05) (0.54 to 0.55 mg/L) for these same temperatures. The toxicity of Lindane on eels increased when the water hardness decreased. The 24, 48, 72 and 96-h LC50 for this fish in both media is less at 15 degrees C (96-h LC50 = 0.32 and 0.55 mg/L) than at 29 degrees C (96-h LC50 = 0.45 and 0.55 mg/L). These results suggest that the toxicity of Lindane presents a negative temperature coefficient.

  17. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  18. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  19. Dual EC : a standardized back door

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Dual EC is an algorithm to compute pseudorandom numbers starting from some random input. Dual EC was standardized by NIST, ANSI, and ISO among other algorithms to generate pseudorandom numbers. For a long time this algorithm was considered suspicious -- the entity designing the algorithm could have

  20. Effect of soil contaminant extraction method in determining toxicity using the Microtox(reg.) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, G.A.; Young, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the influence of different extraction methods on the measured toxicity of contaminated soils collected from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites differing in soil composition and contaminant concentration. Aged soils from a number of MGP sites were extracted using a saline solution, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was assessed using two forms of Microtox tests: acute aqueous tests on saline and SFE soil extracts and solid-phase tests (SPTs) on soil particles. Microtox SPTs were performed on soils before and after SFE to determine resulting toxicity reduction. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Toxicity of soil extracts is related to contaminant concentrations of the extracts, (2) measured toxicity significantly decreases with less vigorous methods of extraction, and (3) supercritical fluid extractability correlates with measured toxicity. The EC50s for SPTs performed before and after SFE were not different for some soils but were significantly greater after extraction for other soils tested. The most significant toxicity reductions were observed for soils exhibiting the highest toxicity in both preextraction SPTs and acute aqueous tests. Acute Microtox tests performed on SFE extracts showed significantly lower EC50s than those reported from saline-based extraction procedures. Toxicity of the soils measured by Microtox SPTs was strongly correlated with both SFE efficiency and measures of contaminant aging. Data from this project provide evidence of sequestration and reduced availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils extracted via physiologically based procedures compared to vigorous physical extraction protocols

  1. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.; Vitiello, V.; Casals, E.; Puntes, V.F.; Iamunno, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Changwen, W.; Benvenuto, G.; Buttino, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl_2 than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl_2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L"−"1 and 1, 5 and 10 mg L"−"1 NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L"−"1 NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC_5_0 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L"−"1) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L"−"1) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC_5_0 of 7.45 mg L"−"1 and 6.97 mg L"−"1 for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl_2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L"−"1, showed EC_5_0 of 0.164 and 0.039 mg L"−"1, respectively

  2. Acute toxicity of azadirachtin to a teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.9455

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Srivastav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute static renewal test of a botanical pesticide - azadirachtin for the freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis has been performed to determine the LC50 values at different exposure period. The LC50 values at various exposure periods are 173.06 mg L-1 for 24h; 80.69 mg L-1 for 48h; 58.57 mg L-1 for 72h and 52.35 mg L-1 for 96h. The upper confidence limits were 196.87, 86.91, 79.20 and 70.04 mg L-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and lower confidence limits were 154.01, 74.24, 37.33 and 33.83 mg L-1, respectively. These results indicate that azadirachtin exposure to the fish caused toxic effects.

  3. Role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions. PMID:26713714

  4. The effect of soil properties on the toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ag nanoparticles and Ag ions in Enchytraeus crypticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2017-10-01

    Standard natural Lufa soils (2.2, 2.3 and 5M) with different organic carbon contents (0.67-1.61%) and pH CaCl2 (5.5-7.3) were spiked with ionic Ag (AgNO 3 ) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (AgNP-PVP) and citrate (AgNP-Cit) coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Enchytraeus crypticus were exposed for 21 days to assess effects on survival and reproduction. Soil, pore water and animals were analyzed for Ag. AgNP-Cit had a strong increasing effect on soil pH, leading to high enchytraeid mortality at concentrations higher than 60-100mg Ag/kg dry soil which made it impossible to determine the influence of soil properties on its toxicity. LC50s were lower for AgNO 3 than for AgNP-PVP (92-112 and 335-425mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively) and were not affected by soil properties. AgNO 3 and AgNP-PVP had comparable reproductive toxicity with EC50s of 26.9-75.2 and 28.2-92.3mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively; toxicity linearly increased with decreasing organic carbon content of the soils but did not show a clear effect of soil pH. Ag uptake in the enchytraeids was higher at higher organic carbon content, but could not explain differences in toxicity between soils. This study indicates that the bioavailability of both ionic and nanoparticulate Ag is mainly affected by soil organic carbon, with little effect of soil pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Contact toxicity and residual effects of selected insecticides against the adult Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2013-12-01

    The contact toxicity of four insecticide formulations (deltamethrin, fipronil, fenitrothion, and imidacloprid) applied on three different substrates (tile, plywood, and concrete) against the adult rove beetle, Paederus fuscipes Curtis, was evaluated. The relative order of speed of killing effects was as follows: deltamethrin > imidacloprid > fipronil > fenitrothion. Although deltamethrin showed the fastest action against P. fuscipes, the recovery rate of rove beetles at 48 h posttreatment was moderate (approximately 25%) on the tile surface to high (approximately 80%) on the plywood surface. Thus, it is likely that the insects did not pick up the lethal dose especially on porous surfaces. In contrast, fipronil demonstrated delayed toxicity that might promote maximal uptake by the insects. More than 80% mortality was registered for tile and plywood surfaces up to 4 wk after exposure. High mortality (almost 100%) was recorded for imidacloprid-exposed P. fuscipes at 48 h posttreatment, but only on the tile surface. Among the four insecticides tested, fenitrothion was the least effective against P. fuscipes because low percentage to no mortality was recorded in the fenitrothion treatment.

  6. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  7. The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of silver to the soil nitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kate A; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Merrington, Graham

    2014-05-01

    Silver (Ag) is being increasingly used in a range of consumer products, predominantly as an antimicrobial agent, leading to a higher likelihood of its release into the environment. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ag to the nitrification process in European and Australian soils in both leached and unleached conditions. Overall, leaching of soils was found to have a minimal effect on the final toxicity data, with an average leaching factor of approximately 1. Across the soils, the toxicity was found to vary by several orders of magnitude, with concentrations of Ag causing a 50% reduction in nitrification relative to the controls (EC50) ranging from 0.43 mg Ag/kg to >640 mg Ag/kg. Interestingly, the dose-response relationships in most of the soils showed significant stimulation in nitrification at low Ag concentrations (i.e., hormesis), which in some cases produced responses up to double that observed in the controls. Soil pH and organic carbon were the properties found to have the greatest influence on the variations in toxicity thresholds across the soils, and significant relationships were developed that accounted for approximately 90% of the variability in the data. The toxicity relationships developed from the present study will assist in future assessment of potential Ag risks and enable the site-specific prediction of Ag toxicity. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Toxicity Thresholds Based on EDTA Extractable Nickel and Barley Root Elongation in Chinese Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyun Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the risk assessment of trace metal elements in soils when total metal contents are used can be decreased by assessing their availability and/or extractability when the soils have a high background value or different sources of trace metal elements. In this study, the added water-soluble nickel (Ni toxicity to barley root elongation was studied in 17 representative Chinese soil samples with and without artificial rainwater leaching. The extractability of added Ni in soils was estimated by three sequential extractions with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The results showed that the effective concentration of EDTA extractable Ni (EC50, which caused 50% inhibition of barley root elongation, ranged from 46 to 1019 mg/kg in unleached soils and 24 to 1563 mg/kg in leached soils. Regression models for EDTA extractable Ni and total Ni added to soils against soil properties indicated that EDTA extractable Ni was significantly correlated with the total Ni added to soils and that pH was the most important control factor. Regression models for toxicity thresholds based on EDTA extractable Ni against soil properties showed that soil citrate dithionate extractable Fe was more important than soil pH in predicting Ni toxicity. These results can be used to accurately assess the risk of contaminated soils with high background values and/or different Ni sources.

  9. PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN EC2 AND ITS INTERFERENCE IN THE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN A MILK MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri de Jesus Lopes de Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference can occur through various mechanisms, including the production of peroxides, acids, ammonia, bacteriolytic enzymes or bacteriocins. The strain Escherichia coli EC2 produces the antimicrobial substance (AMS EC2, able to inhibit different strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from food, as E. coli and Salmonella sp. The activity of AMS EC2 was lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, indicating the presence of an active proteinaceous compound, suggesting that it is a bacteriocin. The substance, renamed bacteriocin EC2, has its better production when the producer strain is grown on Casoy medium, at 37ºC and pH 6.0, without NaCl addition, but it is also able to be produced in milk. When co-cultivated in UHT milk with the producer strain E. coli EC2, the growth of the indicator strain Salmonella Typhi is totally inhibited within the first 4 hours of incubation, suggesting a potential application of bacteriocin EC2 in the control of Salmonella sp. e.g. in foods.

  10. Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests.

  11. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  12. Validating potential toxicity assays to assess petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in polar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Potential microbial activities are commonly used to assess soil toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and are assumed to be a surrogate for microbial activity within the soil ecosystem. However, this assumption needs to be evaluated for frozen soil, in which microbial activity is limited by liquid water (θ(liquid)). Influence of θ(liquid) on in situ toxicity was evaluated and compared to the toxicity endpoints of potential microbial activities using soil from an aged diesel fuel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica. To determine in situ toxicity, gross mineralization and nitrification rates were determined by the stable isotope dilution technique. Petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)), packed at bulk densities of 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 g cm(-3) to manipulate liquid water content, was incubated at -5°C for one, two, and three months. Although θ(liquid) did not have a significant effect on gross mineralization or nitrification, gross nitrification was sensitive to PHC contamination, with toxicity decreasing over time. In contrast, gross mineralization was not sensitive to PHC contamination. Toxic response of gross nitrification was comparable to potential nitrification activity (PNA) with similar EC25 (effective concentration causing a 25% effect in the test population) values determined by both measurement endpoints (400 mg kg(-1) for gross nitrification compared to 200 mg kg(-1) for PNA), indicating that potential microbial activity assays are good surrogates for in situ toxicity of PHC contamination in polar regions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  14. Bioremoval of the azo dye Congo Red by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Montes-Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2015-07-01

    Discharge of dye-containing wastewater by the textile industry can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bioremoval is an alternative to industrial processes for detoxifying water contaminated with dyes. In this work, active and inactive biomass of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was assayed for the ability to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. Through biosorption and biodegradation processes, Chlorella vulgaris was able to remove 83 and 58 % of dye at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 200 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model best described the experimental equilibrium data. The acute toxicity test (48 h) with two species of cladocerans indicated that the toxicity of the dye in the effluent was significantly decreased compared to the initial concentrations in the influent. Daphnia magna was the species less sensitive to dye (EC50 = 17.0 mg L(-1)), followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50 = 3.32 mg L(-1)). These results show that Chlorella vulgaris significantly reduced the dye concentration and toxicity. Therefore, this method may be a viable option for the treatment of this type of effluent.

  15. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  16. Toxic epidermal necrolysis successfully treated with etanercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubinelli, Emanuela; Canzona, Flora; Tonanzi, Tiziano; Raskovic, Desanka; Didona, Biagio

    2009-03-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare and acute severe adverse reaction to drugs, characterised by massive apoptosis and widespread epidermal and mucosal detachment. Although no gold standard therapy exists, human i.v. immunoglobulins have recently been described as an effective treatment for this disease. We report a case of phenobarbital-induced TEN in a 59-year-old white woman where the epidermal detachment stopped 48 h after beginning the etanercept treatment with complete healing after 20 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of TEN successfully treated with etanercept.

  17. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mico, C.; Li, H.F.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl 2 . Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC 50 ) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg -1 , representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co 2+ activity in soil solution. The EC 50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co 2+ activity, respectively. Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models obtained showed that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most consistent single predictors of the EC 50 values based on soil added Co. - Soil eCEC and exchangeable Ca were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Co to barley root growth on different soils

  18. The pH-dependent toxicity of basic pharmaceuticals in the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus can be explained with a toxicokinetic ion-trapping model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwoehner, Judith [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Escher, Beate I., E-mail: b.escher@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Road, Brisbane, QLD 4108 (Australia); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-01-17

    Several previous studies revealed that pharmaceuticals with aliphatic amine function exhibit a higher toxicity toward algae than toward other aquatic organisms. Here we investigated the pH-dependent toxicity of the five basic pharmaceuticals fluoxetine, its metabolite norfluoxetine, propranolol, lidocaine, and trimipramine. For all of them, the toxicity increased with increasing pH when aqueous effect concentrations were considered. Since these pharmaceuticals contain a basic amine group that is protonated and thus positively charged at physiological pH and because algae are capable of biological homeostasis, i.e., pH inside the algal cell remains virtually independent of variable external pH, the speciation of aliphatic amines can be different inside the algal cell compared to the external medium. Therefore, we hypothesized that the high toxicity of aliphatic amines in algae is a toxicokinetic effect caused by speciation and not a toxicodynamic effect caused by a specific mode of toxic action. This hypothesis also implies that internal effect concentrations are independent on external pH. On this basis we developed a simple toxicokinetic model, which assumes that only the neutral molecule is bioavailable and can pass the plasma membrane. This assumption is likely to be valid at pH values down to two units below the acidity constant (pK{sub a}). For lower pH values a more complex model would have to be evoked that includes, an, albeit smaller, permeability of the charged species. For pH > pK{sub a} - 2, we can safely assume that the outer membrane serves as insulator and that the charged species is formed inside the cell according to the pH in the cytoplasm. Thus this toxicokinetic model is an ion-trapping model. The input parameters of this model are the measured aqueous effect concentrations determined as a function of pH and the membrane-water partitioning, which was modelled by the liposome-water partition coefficients of the neutral and cationic species. They

  19. The pH-dependent toxicity of basic pharmaceuticals in the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus can be explained with a toxicokinetic ion-trapping model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwoehner, Judith; Escher, Beate I.

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies revealed that pharmaceuticals with aliphatic amine function exhibit a higher toxicity toward algae than toward other aquatic organisms. Here we investigated the pH-dependent toxicity of the five basic pharmaceuticals fluoxetine, its metabolite norfluoxetine, propranolol, lidocaine, and trimipramine. For all of them, the toxicity increased with increasing pH when aqueous effect concentrations were considered. Since these pharmaceuticals contain a basic amine group that is protonated and thus positively charged at physiological pH and because algae are capable of biological homeostasis, i.e., pH inside the algal cell remains virtually independent of variable external pH, the speciation of aliphatic amines can be different inside the algal cell compared to the external medium. Therefore, we hypothesized that the high toxicity of aliphatic amines in algae is a toxicokinetic effect caused by speciation and not a toxicodynamic effect caused by a specific mode of toxic action. This hypothesis also implies that internal effect concentrations are independent on external pH. On this basis we developed a simple toxicokinetic model, which assumes that only the neutral molecule is bioavailable and can pass the plasma membrane. This assumption is likely to be valid at pH values down to two units below the acidity constant (pK a ). For lower pH values a more complex model would have to be evoked that includes, an, albeit smaller, permeability of the charged species. For pH > pK a - 2, we can safely assume that the outer membrane serves as insulator and that the charged species is formed inside the cell according to the pH in the cytoplasm. Thus this toxicokinetic model is an ion-trapping model. The input parameters of this model are the measured aqueous effect concentrations determined as a function of pH and the membrane-water partitioning, which was modelled by the liposome-water partition coefficients of the neutral and cationic species. They were

  20. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qin Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Benzophenone (BP and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs. There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50 on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

  1. GHS additivity formula: can it predict the acute systemic toxicity of agrochemical formulations that contain acutely toxic ingredients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Andrew; Hastings, Charles E; Landsiedel, Robert; Kolle, Susanne; Stinchcombe, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In vivo acute systemic testing is a regulatory requirement for agrochemical formulations. GHS specifies an alternative computational approach (GHS additivity formula) for calculating the acute toxicity of mixtures. We collected acute systemic toxicity data from formulations that contained one of several acutely-toxic active ingredients. The resulting acute data set includes 210 formulations tested for oral toxicity, 128 formulations tested for inhalation toxicity and 31 formulations tested for dermal toxicity. The GHS additivity formula was applied to each of these formulations and compared with the experimental in vivo result. In the acute oral assay, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 110 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 119 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (43% accuracy). With acute inhalation, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 50 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (61% accuracy) and 34 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (73% accuracy). For acute dermal toxicity, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 16 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 20 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (36% accuracy). This data indicates the acute systemic toxicity of many formulations is not the sum of the ingredients' toxicity (additivity); but rather, ingredients in a formulation can interact to result in lower or higher toxicity than predicted by the GHS additivity formula. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alpha clustering in Ti isotopes: 40,44,48Ca + α resonant scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Sam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were made of the 4He(40,44,48Ca,α resonant scattering reactions at 180° and up to Ec.m. ~ 11.5MeV, using the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics technique. These measurements are discussed, with a focus on assessing their usefulness for investigating α-clustering in medium mass 44,48,52Ti nuclei.

  3. 4"t"h Annual workshop proceedings of the collaborative project ''Redox phenomena controlling systems'' (7"t"h EC FP CP RECOSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Kienzler, Bernhard; Duro, Lara; Grive, Mireia; Montoya, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The EURATOM 7"t"h EC Framework Program Collaborative Project REdox phenomena Controlling SYstems (RECOSY) started in April 2008 and extends over 4 years. Although redox is not a new geochemical issue, different questions are still not resolved. For this reason, main objectives of RECOSY project are a) the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal, b) providing tools to apply the result to Performance Assessment/Safety Case, c) training of next generation and d) documentation and communication of the results. To this aim, the project set up a consortium of 32 Beneficiaries/Contractors and 6 Associated Groups. The consortium includes key European Research Institutes, Universities, National Waste Management Agencies and SMEs, from 13 EURATOM signatory states, Russia, Japan, Korea, USA and one European Joint Research Centre. The ReCosy concept is innovative in the scientific approach to the redox phenomena. It includes i) advanced analytical tools, ii) investigations of processes responsible for redox control (thermodynamically and kinetically controlled processes, surface reactions and microbial processes,..), iii) provision of required data on redox controlling processes, and iv) response to disturbances in disposal systems. The work program is structured along six RTD workpackages (WP1-6). They cover near-field and far field aspects as well as all relevant host-rocks considered in Europe. In WP1, the scientific state-of-the-art and its application to Performance Assessment/Safety Case is documented and regularly updated. WP2 focuses on development of redox determination methods. WP3 focuses on redox response of defined and near-natural systems. WP4 studies the redox reactions of radionuclides. WP5 focuses on Redox processes in radionuclide transport and WP6 deals with redox reactions affecting the spent fuel source-term. Specific workpackages on knowledge management, education and

  4. The EC discourse on vocational training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a ‘common vocational training policy' as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational...... EC vocational training policy (Ball, What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2), 1993)....

  5. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Insights into the CuO nanoparticle ecotoxicity with suitable marine model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, A; Gallo, A; Parlapiano, I; Berducci, M T; Boni, R; Tosti, E; Prato, E; Maggi, C; Cicero, A M; Migliore, L; Manfra, L

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, among them copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), are widely used in different applications (e.g. batteries, gas sensors, superconductors, plastics and metallic coatings), increasing their potential release in the environment. In aquatic matrix, the behavior of CuO NPs may strongly change, depending on their surface charge and some physical-chemical characteristics of the medium (e.g. ionic strength, salinity, pH and natural organic matter content). Ecotoxicity of CuO NPs to aquatic organisms was mainly studied on freshwater species, few tests being performed on marine biota. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CuO NPs on suitable indicator species, belonging to the ecologically relevant level of consumers. The selected bioassays use reference protocols to identify Effect/Lethal Concentrations (E(L)C), by assessing lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. Mortality tests were performed on rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis), shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and copepod (Tigriopus fulvus). While moult release failure and fertilization rate were studied, as sub-lethal endpoints, on T. fulvus and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), respectively. The size distribution and sedimentation rates of CuO NPs, together with the copper dissolution, were also analyzed in the exposure media. The CuO NP ecotoxicity assessment showed a concentration-dependent response for all species, indicating similar mortality for B. plicatilis (48hLC 50 = 16.94 ± 2.68mg/l) and T. fulvus (96hLC 50 = 12.35 ± 0.48mg/l), followed by A. franciscana (48hLC 50 = 64.55 ± 3.54mg/l). Comparable EC 50 values were also obtained for the sub-lethal endpoints in P. lividus (EC 50 = 2.28 ± 0.06mg/l) and T. fulvus (EC 50 = 2.38 ± 0.20mg/l). Copper salts showed higher toxicity than CuO NPs for all species, with common sensitivity trend as follows: P. lividus ≥ T. fulvus (sublethal endpoint) ≥ B. plicatilis >T. fulvus (lethal endpoint) >A. franciscana. CuO NP micrometric

  7. Finite impulse testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) in Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Darbhea, M.D.; Bharadhwaj, G; Jangra, L.R.; Geetha, Patil; Das, Shantanu; Sonnis, S.T.; Trevedi, P.; Patil, M.B.; Biswas, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Finite Impulse Testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) is used to check healthiness of ECS logic circuits in an online mode. The ECS is an important safety system that ensures the cooling of reactor core during shutdown state of Main Coolant Pumps (MCPs), and hence FIT-ECS that monitors the health of ECS logic circuits in an online (real time) mode is an important part of it. Based on a Safety Related Unusual Occurrence in ECS system due to the malfunction of its earlier single channel FIT system, the new FIT-ECS system has been designed with new features and is commissioned. The FIT-ECS system feeds the simulated input signals (fine impulses of nominal width 575 μS) to the ECS logic circuits and read the outputs. These output (predicted) signals from ECS logic circuit are processed in the FIT-ECS system and in event of any discrepancy, the FIT-ECS system displays fault signature on local panel, detailed information of the fault on Operator Console (OC), and generates an alarm 'ECS logic Fail' in the control room. FIT-ECS also monitors the inputs and outputs of ECS logic circuit. All the information required is stored as a database that can be subsequently displayed in various formats. ECS system is designated as Category I-A system and is a hardwired system and FIT-ECS monitors the healthiness of the logics of the ECS System is a computerized system. As per IEC 1226, FIT-ECS is categorized as Category I-B system. This paper provides technical information on FIT-ECS system design, its important features, the testing carried on the FIT-ECS system, interconnections of FIT-ECS and ECS and the commissioning experience of FIT-ECS system. (author)

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate and toxicity of the biodegradation metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Núñez-Olea, Josefa; Lechuga, Manuela

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a study was made of the biodegradation of a non-ionic surfactant, a nonylphenol polyethoxylate, in biodegradability tests by monitoring the residual surfactant matter. The influence of the concentration on the extent of primary biodegradation, the toxicity of biodegradation metabolites, and the kinetics of degradation were also determined. The primary biodegradation was studied at different initial concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg/L, (at sub-and supra-critical micelle concentration). The NPEO used in this study can be considered biodegradable since the primary biodegradation had already taken place (a biodegradation greater than 80% was found for the different initial concentration tested). The initial concentration affected the shape of the resulting curve, the mean biodegradation rate and the percentage of biodegradation reached (99% in less than 8 days at 5 mg/L, 98% in less than 13 days at 25 mg/L and 95% in 14 days at 50 mg/L). The kinetic model of Quiroga and Sales (1991) was applied to predict the biodegradation of the NPEO. The toxicity value was measured as EC(20) and EC(50). In addition, during the biodegradation process of the surfactant a toxicity analysis was made of the evolution of metabolites generated, confirming that the subproducts of the biodegradation process were more toxic than the original.

  9. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Using Rainbow Trout to Measure Arsenic Toxicity in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Naddafi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine arsenic toxicity on rainbow trout. Acute toxicity of arsenic was determined by measuring the lethal effects on rainbow trout in static conditions. Five aquariums of 25×30×30 cm with five concentrations of 5,10,15,20 and 25 mg/L of arsenic were prepared and then ten fishes were added to each concentration. Also one aquarium with similar conditions was considered as a control with no arsenic solution. Hardness, temperature and dissolved oxygen of dilution water were determined by standard methods, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature of solution test in time periods of 2,4,6,8,24,48,72 and 96 hrs were measured. Water temperature of aquarium was regulated by circulation of water in refrigerator through indirect conduction with solution test. LC50 was measured at intervals of 24,48,72 and 96 hrs by SPSS software and respectively showed 28.13,21.77,15.78 and 12.72 mg/L.Probit curve was drawn by Harvard Chart XL software, and LC50 curve was drawn by Excel software.

  11. Altered apoptotic profiles in irradiated patients with increased toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, Nigel E.A.; Miralbell, Raymond; Rutz, Hans-Peter; Ersoy, Fuegen; Sanal, Oezden; Wellmann, Danielle; Bieri, Sabine; Coucke, Philippe A.; Emery, Gillian C.; Shi Yuquan; Blattmann, Hans; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study of radiation-induced apoptosis in CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes, from 12 cancer patients who displayed enhanced toxicity to radiation therapy and 9 ataxia telangiectasia patients, was performed to test for altered response compared to healthy blood-donors and normal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Three milliliters of heparinized blood from each donor was sent via express post to the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) for subsequent examination. The blood was diluted 1:10 in RPMI medium, irradiated with 0-, 2-, or 9-Gy X-rays, and incubated for 48 h. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were then labeled using FITC-conjugated antibodies, erythrocytes were lysed, and the DNA stained with propidium iodide. Subsequently, cells were analyzed using a Becton Dickinson FACScan flow cytometer. Radiation-induced apoptosis was recognized in leukocytes as reduced DNA content attributed to apoptosis-associated changes in chromatin structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and by the use of commercially available apoptosis detection kits (in situ nick translation and Annexin V). Data from hypersensitive individuals were compared to a standard database of 105 healthy blood-donors, and a database of 48 cancer patient blood donors who displayed normal toxicity to radiation therapy. To integrate radiosensitivity results from CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes after 2 and 9 Gy, z-score analyses were performed. Results: A cohort of 12 hypersensitive patients was evaluated; 8 showed enhanced early toxicity, 3 showed enhanced late toxicity, and 1 showed both. The cohort displayed less radiation-induced apoptosis (-1.8 σ) than average age-matched donors. A cohort of 9 ataxia telangiectasia homozygotes displayed even less apoptosis (-3.6 σ). Conclusion: The leukocyte apoptosis assay appears to be a useful predictor of individuals likely to display increased toxicity to radiation therapy; however, validation of this requires a prospective

  12. Everyone talk about EC technology - What's about this technology? AC versus AC technology; Alle reden von EC-Technologie - was bringt sie wirklich? AC- versus EC-Motorentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-12-15

    Meanwhile, the EC motor technology is the state of the art in fans. In the consciousness of a possible energy conservation, the EC motor technology is demanded to a large extent with the new installations of the customers. But how high are the possible savings actually? A comparative measurement at a condenser of Guentner AG (Fuerstenfeldbruck, Federal Republic of Germany) supports information.

  13. Toxicity ranking and toxic mode of action evaluation of commonly used agricultural adjuvants on the basis of bacterial gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Nobels

    Full Text Available The omnipresent group of pesticide adjuvants are often referred to as "inert" ingredients, a rather misleading term since consumers associate this term with "safe". The upcoming new EU regulation concerning the introduction of plant protection products on the market (EC1107/2009 includes for the first time the demand for information on the possible negative effects of not only the active ingredients but also the used adjuvants. This new regulation requires basic toxicological information that allows decisions on the use/ban or preference of use of available adjuvants. In this study we obtained toxicological relevant information through a multiple endpoint reporter assay for a broad selection of commonly used adjuvants including several solvents (e.g. isophorone and non-ionic surfactants (e.g. ethoxylated alcohols. The used assay allows the toxicity screening in a mechanistic way, with direct measurement of specific toxicological responses (e.g. oxidative stress, DNA damage, membrane damage and general cell lesions. The results show that the selected solvents are less toxic than the surfactants, suggesting that solvents may have a preference of use, but further research on more compounds is needed to confirm this observation. The gene expression profiles of the selected surfactants reveal that a phenol (ethoxylated tristyrylphenol and an organosilicone surfactant (ethoxylated trisiloxane show little or no inductions at EC(20 concentrations, making them preferred surfactants for use in different applications. The organosilicone surfactant shows little or no toxicity and good adjuvant properties. However, this study also illustrates possible genotoxicity (induction of the bacterial SOS response for several surfactants (POEA, AE, tri-EO, EO FA and EO NP and one solvent (gamma-butyrolactone. Although the number of compounds that were evaluated is rather limited (13, the results show that the used reporter assay is a promising tool to rank commonly

  14. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    performance of the assays.One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes.The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter.The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs.Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay.Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail.The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that :(1 Virtually all results from assays performed with Daphnias taken from lab cultures or with Daphnia microbiotests are within the acceptability range set by ISO standard 6341 for the reference chemical potassium dichromate.(2 The mean 24 h EC50s of the Daphnia microbiotests performed in different laboratories are within the range of the mean EC50s of the assays based on lab cultures, and the variation coefficients (20 to 30% are similar.(3 The precision – in terms of the long term in house variability – of the quality control Daphnia

  15. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  16. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  17. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of sediment on the fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant system (MON 0818) in aquatic microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Besser, J.M.; Buckler, D.R.; Honegger, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Kurtzweil, M.L.; MacGregor, J.; McKee, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) surfactant system, MON 0818, was evaluated in water–sediment microcosms during a 4-d laboratory study. A surfactant solution of 8 mg l−1 nominal concentration was added to each of nine 72-l aquaria with or without a 3-cm layer of one of two natural sediments (total organic carbon (TOC) 1.5% or 3.0%). Control well water was added to each of nine additional 72-l aquaria with or without sediment. Water samples were collected from the microcosms after 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of aging to conduct 48-h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and to determine surfactant concentrations. Elevated mortality of D. magna (43–83%) was observed in overlying water sampled from water-only microcosms throughout the 96-h aging period, whereas elevated mortality (23–97%) was only observed in overlying water sampled from water–sediment microcosms during the first 24 h of aging. Measured concentrations of MON 0818 in water-only microcosms remained relatively constant (4–6 mg l−1) during the 96-h period, whereas the concentrations in overlying water from microcosms containing either of the two types of sediment dissipated rapidly, with half-lives of 13 h in the 3.0% TOC sediment and 18 h in the 1.5% TOC sediment. Both toxicity and the concentration of MON 0818 in overlying water decreased more rapidly in microcosms containing sediment with the higher percent TOC and clay and with a higher microbial biomass. Mortality of D. magna was significantly correlated with surfactant concentrations in the overlying water. These results indicate that the toxicity of the POEA surfactant in water rapidly declines in the presence of sediment due to a reduction in the surfactant concentration in the overlying water above the sediment.

  19. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  20. Toxicity assessment of metoprolol and its photodegradation mixtures obtained by using different type of TiO{sub 2} catalysts in the mammalian cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Četojević-Simin, Dragana D., E-mail: ddaaggeerr@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Dr Goldmana 4, 21204 Sremska Kamenica (Serbia); Armaković, Sanja J., E-mail: sanja.armakovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Šojić, Daniela V., E-mail: daniela.sojic@dh.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abramović, Biljana F., E-mail: biljana.abramovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2013-10-01

    Toxicity of metoprolol (MET) alone and in mixtures with its photocatalytic degradation intermediates obtained by using TiO{sub 2} Wackherr and Degussa P25 under UV irradiation in the presence of O{sub 2} was evaluated in vitro in a panel of three histologically different cell lines: rat hepatoma (H-4-II-E), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and human fetal lung (MRC-5). Both catalysts promoted a time-dependent increase in the toxicity of the photodegradation products, and those obtained using Degussa P25 photocatalyst were more toxic. The most pronounced and selective toxic action of MET and products of its photodegradation was observed in the hepatic cell line. The higher toxicity of the mixtures obtained using Degussa P25 catalyst could be explained by a different mechanism of MET degradation, i.e. by the presence or higher concentrations of some intermediates. Although the concentrations of intermediates obtained using TiO{sub 2} Wackherr catalyst were higher, they did not affect significantly the growth of the examined cell lines, indicating their lower toxicity. This suggests that a treatment aiming at complete mineralization should be performed bearing in mind that the type of catalyst, the concentration of target molecule, and the duration of the process are significant factors that determine the nature and toxicity of the resulting mixtures. Although the EC{sub 50} values of MET obtained in mammalian cell lines were higher compared to the bioassays for lower trophic levels, the time-dependent promotion of toxicity of degradation mixtures should be attributed to the higher sensitivity of mammalian cell bioassays. - Highlights: • Toxicity study of metoprolol and its photocatalytic degradation mixtures • Toxicity evaluation in vitro in H-4-II-E, HT-29 and MRC-5 cell lines • TiO{sub 2} Wackherr and Degussa P25 promoted a time-dependent increase in toxicity. • The higher toxicity of degradation mixtures obtained using Degussa P25 • Most pronounced and

  1. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1, deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisin B1 (FB1, T-2 toxin (T-2, and zearalenone (ZEA are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB1 toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB1, FB1, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model.

  2. Efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and toxicity for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J C; Ribeiro, W L C; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Macedo, I T F; Santos, J M L; Paula, H C B; Araújo Filho, J V; Magalhães, R D; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2014-08-29

    Herbal medicines with anthelmintic effects are alternatives for the sustainable control and prevention of disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites. The nanoencapsulation of essential oils has been proposed to enhance the absorption of their constituents and improve their efficacy. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO) on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan was used as a matrix for the formulation of a nanoemulsion. Chromatographic and physico-chemical analyses of EcEO were performed. Egg hatch (EHT) and larval development (LDT) tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated and free EcEO on the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Acute toxicity of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO was evaluated using mice. Finally, nanoencapsulated EcEO efficacy on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes was calculated by fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) treating 30 sheep naturally infected with 250 mg/kg of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO. In vitro tests were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with the Tukey test. The efficacy of FECRT was calculated by the BootStreet program through arithmetic average, using the formula 100 (1-XT/XC). To compare the differences between epg, the data were transformed to log(x+1) and subjected to an ANOVA to compare the significant differences between groups by Tukey's. The level of significance was P<0.05. The free (4 mg/ml concentration) and nanoencapsulated (2mg/ml concentration) EcEO inhibited larvae hatching by 97.2% and 92.8%, respectively. Free and nanoencapsulated EcEO at 8 mg/ml inhibited larval development by 99.8% and 98.1%, respectively. In the acute toxicity test, the LD10 and LD50 of free EcEO was 1999 and 2653 mg/kg, respectively, while the LD10 and LD50 of nanoencapsulated EcEO was 1121 and 1681 mg/kg, respectively

  3. Assessment of Individual and Combined Toxicities of Four Non-Essential Metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb in the Microtox Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Although most researches with non-essential metals (NEMs have been done with single or individual metals, in reality, organisms are often exposed to multiple contaminants at the same time through the air, food and water. In this study, we tested the toxicity of four NEMs, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, individually and as a composite mixture using the microtox bioassay. This assay uses the reduction of bioluminescence of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a measure of toxicity. The concentrations of each chemical in the mixture were based on multiples of their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs set by the U.S. EPA. The highest concentration of exposure was 20 times the MCL, which translated into 200, 100, 40 and 300 ppb for As, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. The ratio for the mixture from these concentrations was 10:5:2:15 for As, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. Among the individual metals tested, the ranking of toxicity was Hg>Pb>Cd>As based on the EC50 values of 109, 455, 508 and 768 ppb for Hg, Pb, Cd and As, respectively. The EC50 for the composite mixture was 495% MCL which translated into nominal concentrations of 49, 25, 10 and 74 ppb for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, respectively. Overall, the EC50 value of each NEM within the mixture was lower than the EC50 of the individual chemical; an evidence of synergism for the mixture. The individual toxic units (TU were 0.06, 0.05, 0.09, and 0.16 for As, Cd Hg, and Pb, respectively and the summed toxic unit (TU was 0.37 (less than 1. This study provides needed scientific data necessary for carrying out complete risk assessment of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb mixtures of some priority compounds.

  4. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  5. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    effects of 48-h GLP-1 infusions in patients with congestive HF. In a randomized, double-blind crossover design, 20 patients without diabetes and with HF with ischemic heart disease, EF of 30 +/- 2%, New York Heart Association II and III (n = 14 and 6) received 48-h GLP-1 (0.7 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1......)) and placebo infusion. At 0 and 48 h, LVEF, diastolic function, tissue Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise testing, noninvasive cardiac output, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolic parameters were recorded. Fifteen patients completed...... patients. GLP-1 infusion increased circulating insulin levels and reduced plasma glucose concentration but had no major cardiovascular effects in patients without diabetes but with compensated HF. The impact of minor increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure during GLP-1 infusion requires...

  6. Acute toxicity of trichlorofon on four viviparous fish: Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri (Cyprinodontiformes: Poecilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine toxicity and safety margins of trichlorofon in different species as trichlorofon toxicity has a large variation in the susceptibility of different species. Methods: In this research, four viviparous aquarium fish were exposed to trichlorofon for 96 h. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of trichlorofon (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L for 96 h and mortality were recorded, separately. Results: The 96 h LC50 of Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri were 9.80, 9.80, 9.95 and 7.99 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, LC50 values indicated Xiphophorus helleri was the most resistant and Gambusia holbrooki, with a few differences, was the most sensitive species compared with the fishes examined.

  7. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium. These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of performance of the assays. One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes. The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter. The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs. Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay. Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail. The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that : (1 Virtually all results from assays performed with

  8. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. Chest Wall Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Malignant Lesions of the Lung and Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andolino, David L.; Forquer, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Mark A.; Barriger, Robert B.; Shapiro, Ronald H.; Brabham, Jeffrey G.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R.; Fakiris, Achilles J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the frequency of rib fracture and chest wall (CW) pain and identify the dose-volume parameters that predict CW toxicity after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: The records of patients treated with SBRT between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed, and toxicity was scored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 for pain and rib fracture. Dosimetric data for CW and rib were analyzed and related to the frequency of toxicity. The risks of CW toxicity were then further characterized according to the median effective concentration (EC 50 ) dose-response model. Results: A total of 347 lesions were treated with a median follow-up of 19 months. Frequency of Grade I and higher CW pain and/or fracture for CW vs. non-CW lesions was 21% vs. 4%, respectively (p 2 > 0.9). According to the EC 50 model, 5 cc and 15 cc of CW receiving 40 Gy predict a 10% and 30% risk of CW toxicity, respectively. Conclusion: Adequate tumor coverage remains the primary objective when treating lung or liver lesions with SBRT. To minimize toxicity when treating lesions in close proximity to the CW, Dmax of the CW and/or ribs should remain <50 Gy, and <5 cc of CW should receive ≥40 Gy.

  10. Structure and molecular motion in three modifications of a binary C23H48-C24H50 paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.; Denicolo, I.; Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the intensities of the (00l) X-ray reflections from a binary paraffin (C 23 H 48 -25% C 24 H 50 ) was determined, in order to obtain structure parameters related to the molecular motion and intramolecular defects. The long lattice spacing was also determined as a function of the temperature. All of these results are compared with the temperature dependence of the ratio of the two short lattice parameters. The clear correlation of all of these experimental results provides a close characterization of the molecular structures and their changes at the several solid state phase transitions. (Author) [pt

  11. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si; Hogerwerf, Lenny [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hogerwerf@students.uu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl

    2008-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep.

  12. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep

  13. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L. and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Biddinger

    Full Text Available The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae. The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG, λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II, dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC, phosmet (Imidan 70W, and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F. At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards.

  14. Biochar alleviates the toxicity of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoka, Ngitheni Winnie-Kate; Kanyile, Sthandiwe Nomthandazo; Bredenhand, Emile; Prinsloo, Godfried Jacob; Voua Otomo, Patricks

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the use of biochar for the alleviation of the toxic effects of a nanosilver colloidal dispersion and a chloronicotinyl insecticide. The survival and reproduction of the potworm Enchytraeus albidus were assessed after exposure to imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). E. albidus was exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg imidacloprid/kg and 0, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg Ag/kg for 21 days in 10% biochar amended and non-biochar amended OECD artificial soil. In both exposure substrates, the effects of imidacloprid on survival were significant in the two highest treatments (p imidacloprid. In the case of AgNPs, significant mortality was only observed in the highest AgNP treatments in both the amended and non-amended soils (p imidacloprid/kg in the non-amended soil and a higher EC 50  = 46.23 mg imidacloprid/kg in the biochar-amended soil. This indicated a 2-fold decrease in imidacloprid toxicity due to biochar amendment. A similar observation was made in the case of AgNPs where a reproduction EC 50  = 166.70 mg Ag/kg soil in the non-amended soil increased to an EC 50  > 625 mg Ag/kg soil (the highest AgNP treatment) in the amended soil. This indicated at least a 3.7-fold decrease in AgNPs toxicity due to biochar amendment. Although more studies may be needed to optimize the easing effects of biochar on the toxicity of these chemicals, the present results show that biochar could be useful for the alleviation of the toxic effects of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles in the soil.

  15. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Xuexiang, Hu; Dongbin, Wei; Yong, Chen; Jiuhui, Qu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  16. Fate Of Fissile Material Bound To Monosodium Titanate During Cooper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation Of Tank 48H Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H 2 O 2 with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of ∼34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to precipitate from

  17. Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from...... the race was 68 (11)%VO2 max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h....... The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact...

  18. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and toxicity after high-dose methotrexate treatments in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordas, Katalin; Hegyi, Marta; Eipel, Oliver T; Muller, Judit; Erdelyi, Daniel J; Kovacs, Gabor T

    2013-02-01

    We carried out a detailed comparative study of the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate (7-OH-MTX) after high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HD-MTX) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Overall, 65 children were treated with 5 g/m2/24 h MTX and 88 children were treated with 2 g/m2/24 h MTX according to ALL-BFM 95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols (mean age: 6.4 years, range 1.0-17.9 years). A total of 583 HD-MTX courses were analyzed. Serum MTX and 7-OH-MTX levels were measured at 24, 36, and 48 h, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MTX levels were determined 24 h after the initiation of the infusion. The area under the concentration-time curve was calculated. Hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and bone marrow toxicity were estimated by routine laboratory tests. We investigated pharmacokinetics and toxicity in distinct age groups ( 14 years). 5 g/m2/24 h treatments resulted in higher serum and CSF MTX and 7-OH-MTX levels (P treatments did not alter MTX or 7-OH-MTX levels. 7-OH-MTX levels were correlated with nephrotoxicity (r = 0.36, P children aged older than 14 years (P treatments. To predict the development of toxicity, monitoring of the level of the 7-OH-MTX is useful. Monitoring of pharmacokinetics is essential to prevent the development of severe adverse events in adolescents.

  19. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  20. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@ugent.be; Nys, C., E-mail: chnys.nys@ugent.be; Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be

    2014-10-15

    accurate toxicity predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment.

  1. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Nys, C.; Janssen, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment

  2. Relative sensitivity of an amphipod Hyalella azteca, a midge Chironomus dilutus, and a unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea to a toxic sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Hughes, Jamie P.; Wang, Ning; Ireland, D. Scott; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Valenti, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relative sensitivity of test organisms in exposures to dilutions of a highly toxic sediment contaminated with metals and organic compounds. One dilution series was prepared using control sand (low total organic carbon [TOC; TOC [∼10% TOC, higher binding capacity for contaminants]). Test organisms included an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 10-d and 28-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 20-d and 48-d exposures started with <1-h-old larvae, and 13-d and 48-d exposures started with 7-d-old larvae), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposures). Relative species sensitivity depended on the toxicity endpoint and the diluent. All 3 species were more sensitive in sand dilutions than in West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. The <1-h-old C. dilutus were more sensitive than 7-d-old C. dilutus, but replicate variability was high in exposures started with the younger midge larvae. Larval biomass and adult emergence endpoints of C. dilutus exhibited a similar sensitivity. Survival, weight, and biomass of H. azteca were more sensitive endpoints in 28-d exposures than in 10-d exposures. Weight and biomass of L. siliquoidea were sensitive endpoints in both sand and West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. Metals, ammonia, oil, and other organic contaminants may have contributed to the observed toxicity.

  3. High power millimeter wave experiment of torus diamond window prototype for ITER EC H and CD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Omori, T.; Henderson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the reliable and manufacturable design. ► Transmission of 740 kW-100 s on the window prototype was successfully demonstrated. ► tan δ = 7.8 × 10 −6 , which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. ► The window structure promising the high power transmission more than 1 MW was obtained. -- Abstract: The design of the torus diamond window for the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive (EC H and CD) system has advanced considering a reliable and manufacturable structure. The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the design and the high power experiment was carried out to verify the millimeter wave transmission capability. Transmission of 740 kW-100 s was demonstrated and no significant temperature increase of the window structure and no damage on the diamond disk were obtained. The temperature saturation of the cooling water for the window was observed and loss tangent of 7.8 × 10 −6 , which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. This result indicates that the diamond window design is feasible and promising the high power more than 1 MW transmission

  4. 78 FR 22209 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GmbH (Eurocopter) Model EC135 P1, EC135 P2, EC135 P2+, EC135 T1, EC135 T2, EC135 T2+, and MBB-BK 117 C... holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the economic evaluation, any comments received, and... evaluation of the estimated costs to comply with this proposed AD and placed it in the AD docket. List of...

  5. Assessment of the relative toxicity of Cu2+ by measuring structural changes of supercoiled DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; Chang Guohua; Chen Hao; Giusti, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the relative toxicity of Cu 2+ in aquatic environments is proposed. It is based on the quantitative measurement on the shape change of the supercoiled DNA after it is contacted with different levels of Cu 2+ for various time intervals. In the absence of any redox reagents, all supercoiled DNA degraded into other forms of DNA after 24 h incubation in the presence of 5.13 x 10 -3 , 5.08 x 10 -4 and 5.35 x 10 -5 mol/L Cu 2+ . At a lower Cu 2+ concentration (10 -6 mol/L), 44% of supercoiled DNA retained its original supercoiled form after 24 h, and 29% after 48 h. The concentration of RC 50 , i.e. concentration of pollutants at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA was relaxed compared to control samples, can be obtained from the does-response curves at different exposure time, which may provide a rapid and convenient approach to assess the relative toxicity of environmental pollutants. - RC 50 values (concentration at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA relaxed) can be used to reflect the relative toxicity of Cu in aquatic environment

  6. Toxicity of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on a Freshwater Green Algal Strain of Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Oukarroum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A freshwater microalga strain of Chlorella vulgaris was used to investigate toxic effects induced by nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs in suspension. Algal cells were exposed during 96 h to 0–100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs and analyzed by flow cytometry. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles in tested media showed a soluble fraction (free Ni2+ of only 6.42% for 100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs, indicating the low solubility capacity of these NPs. Toxicity analysis showed cellular alterations which were related to NiO-NPs concentration, such as inhibition in cell division (relative cell size and granularity, deterioration of the photosynthetic apparatus (chlorophyll synthesis and photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, and oxidative stress (ROS production. The change in cellular viability demonstrated to be a very sensitive biomarker of NiO-NPs toxicity with EC50 of 13.7 mg L−1. Analysis by TEM and X-ray confirmed that NiO-NPs were able to cross biological membranes and to accumulate inside algal cells. Therefore, this study provides a characterization of both physicochemical and toxicological properties of NiO-NPs suspensions in tested media. The use of the freshwater strain of C. vulgaris demonstrated to be a sensitive bioindicator of NiO-NPs toxicity on the viability of green algae.

  7. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  8. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1α induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra S.; Hennings, Leah; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    HIF-1α is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1α. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1α in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1α in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1α induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

  9. Translation, data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjansson Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17 is a self-administered questionnaire for evaluating self-management interventions that empower and educate people with rheumatic conditions. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the Norwegian version of EC-17 against the necessary criteria for a patient-reported outcome measure, including responsiveness to change. Methods Data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness were assessed in two groups. One group comprising 103 patients received a questionnaire before and at the end of a self-management programme. The second group comprising 96 patients' received the questionnaire two weeks before and on arrival of the program. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, (BACQ, the Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20. Responsiveness was assessed with the Standardised Response Mean (SRM. Results Respondents included 66 (64% and 52 (54% patients from the first and second groups respectively. Levels of missing data were low for all items. There was good evidence for unidimensionality, item-total correlations ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 and Cronbach's Alpha and test-retest correlations were over 0.90. As hypothesised EC-17 scores had statistically significant low to moderate correlations with the BACQ, EAC and GHQ-20 in the range 0.26 to 0.42. Following the self-management program, EC-17 scores showed a significant improvement with an SRM of 0.48. Conclusion The Norwegian version of the EC-17 has evidence for data quality, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to change. The EC-17 seems promising as an outcome measure for evaluating self-management interventions for people with rheumatic conditions, but further studies are needed.

  10. Translation, data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnes, Bente; Garratt, Andrew; Kjeken, Ingvild; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Hagen, Kåre B

    2010-01-29

    The Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17) is a self-administered questionnaire for evaluating self-management interventions that empower and educate people with rheumatic conditions. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the Norwegian version of EC-17 against the necessary criteria for a patient-reported outcome measure, including responsiveness to change. Data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness were assessed in two groups. One group comprising 103 patients received a questionnaire before and at the end of a self-management programme. The second group comprising 96 patients' received the questionnaire two weeks before and on arrival of the program. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, (BACQ), the Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Responsiveness was assessed with the Standardised Response Mean (SRM). Respondents included 66 (64%) and 52 (54%) patients from the first and second groups respectively. Levels of missing data were low for all items. There was good evidence for unidimensionality, item-total correlations ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 and Cronbach's Alpha and test-retest correlations were over 0.90. As hypothesised EC-17 scores had statistically significant low to moderate correlations with the BACQ, EAC and GHQ-20 in the range 0.26 to 0.42. Following the self-management program, EC-17 scores showed a significant improvement with an SRM of 0.48. The Norwegian version of the EC-17 has evidence for data quality, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to change. The EC-17 seems promising as an outcome measure for evaluating self-management interventions for people with rheumatic conditions, but further studies are needed.

  11. COMPUTER-BASED PREDICTION OF TOXICITY USING THE ELECTRON-CONFORMATIONAL METHOD. APPLICATION TO FRAGRANCE ALLERGENS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Gorinchoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed for the toxicophore (Tph identification and quantitative prediction of toxicity using the training set of 24 compounds that are considered as fragrance allergens. The values of a=LD50 in oral exposure of rats were chosen as a measure of toxicity. EC parameters are evaluated on the base of conformational analysis and ab initio electronic structure calculations (including solvent influence. The Tph consists of four sites which in this series of compounds are represented by three carbon and one oxygen atoms, but may be any other atoms that have the same electronic and geometric features within the tolerance limits. The regression model taking into consideration the Tph flexibility, anti-Tph shielding, and influence of out-of-Tph functional groups predicts well the experimental values of toxicity (R2 = 0.93 with a reasonable leaveone- out cross-validation.

  12. Toxicity of Imidacloprid to the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hellen Maria; Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-06-01

    The stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica is an important pollinator of native and cultivated plants in Brazil. Among the factors affecting the survival of these insects is the indiscriminate use of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. This work determined the toxicity of imidacloprid as the topical median lethal dose (LD50) and the oral median lethal concentration (LC50) as tools for assessing the effects of this insecticide. The 24 and 48 h LD50 values were 25.2 and 24.5 ng of active ingredient (a.i.)/bee, respectively. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values were 42.5 and 14.3 ng a.i./µL of diet, respectively. Ours results show the hazard of imidacloprid and the vulnerability of stingless bees to it, providing relevant toxicological data that can used in mitigation programs to ensure the conservation of this species.

  13. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukov, Oliver, E-mail: vuko3930@mylaurier.ca [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Chemistry Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60 mg CaCO{sub 3} mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23 °C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24 h old neonates for 48 h in the case of D. pulex and with 2–9 days old offspring for 96 h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5–2.0 mM), Na (0.5–2.0 mM) and Mg (0.125–0.5 mM). The effect of pH (6.5–8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13 mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (Log K values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The log K value for Dy{sup 3+} toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific

  14. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D. Scott; McGeer, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60 mg CaCO 3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23 °C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24 h old neonates for 48 h in the case of D. pulex and with 2–9 days old offspring for 96 h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5–2.0 mM), Na (0.5–2.0 mM) and Mg (0.125–0.5 mM). The effect of pH (6.5–8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13 mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (Log K values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The log K value for Dy 3+ toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality

  15. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chang-Lun; Xu, Ru-Fang; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Kai-Ling; Wei, Mei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1-3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4-6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound.

  16. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2015-04-02

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1–3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4–6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  17. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagranadeiro@gmail.com, E-mail: steh.vdsole@gmail.com, E-mail: jotarosa@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); SENAI, Faculdade de Tecnologia Antoine Skaf, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5{sup th} in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  19. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC) for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) EC isolation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L. A.; Kessler, J. D.

    2005-10-01

    The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM) to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC) isotopic (14C) speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of "soot" (EC), the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust), showed a range of results, but since the "truth" was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC) of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002). Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple), however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically). NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot) has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char) from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) and thermal optical transmission (TOT) methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1) both methods exhibited biomass-C "leakage"; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC) isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2) the initial isothermal oxidation stage of

  20. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK EC isolation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of 'soot' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the 'truth' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK and thermal optical transmission (TOT methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1 both methods exhibited biomass-C 'leakage'; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2 the initial isothermal oxidation stage

  1. 哈氏弧菌EcGY020401优化培养%Optimization Culture of Vibrio harveyi EcGY020401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶家发; 赖迎迢; 潘厚军; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2010-01-01

    目的:为规模化制备弧菌疫苗提供相关数据.方法:利用摇瓶和小型发酵罐培养,通过平板计数测定培养菌液的活菌数.结果:哈氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)EcGY020401株最适盐度为20~25g/L,合适的pH为7.5~7.7,葡萄糖浓度最适浓度为2~5g/L,用TSB优化培养基:胰蛋白胨5g/L、蛋白胨15g/L、大豆蛋白胨3g/L、酵母膏1g/L、葡萄糖4g/L、磷酸氢二钾5g/L、氯化钠15g/L、pH 7.5,培养EcGY020401菌株,可达2.95×1010 cfu/mL;小型发酵罐培养,10h可达到生长最大值,菌液浓度为3.46×1010cfu/mL 结论:用优化TSB培养基,采用发酵罐培养弧菌,可降低成本,提搞培养效率.

  2. Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1 and needle-abraded human skin (experiment 2. Co3O4NPs at a concentration of 1000 mg/L in physiological solution were used as donor phase. Cobalt content was evaluated by Inductively Coupled–Mass Spectroscopy. Co permeation through the skin was demonstrated after 24 h only when damaged skin protocol was used (57 ± 38 ng·cm−2, while no significant differences were shown between blank cells (0.92 ± 0.03 ng cm−2 and those with intact skin (1.08 ± 0.20 ng·cm−2. To further investigate Co3O4NPs toxicity, human-derived HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to Co3O4NPs and cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT, Alamarblue® and propidium iodide (PI uptake assays. The results indicate that a long exposure time (i.e., seven days was necessary to induce a concentration-dependent cell viability reduction (EC50 values: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.8–1.9 × 10−4 M, MTT essay; 3.7 × 10−5 M, 95% CI = 2.2–6.1 × 10−5 M, AlamarBlue® assay that seems to be associated to necrotic events (EC50 value: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.9–1.9 × 10−4 M, PI assay. This study demonstrated that Co3O4NPs can penetrate only damaged skin and is cytotoxic for HaCat cells after long term exposure.

  3. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Lesher, Emily K.; Diedrich, Daniel J.; McKnight, Diane M.; Sofield, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  4. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  6. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (pbuprofezin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using probit analysis. The 24 h LC50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for embryos was estimated to be 6.725 (3.167-15.017) mg/L. The hatching of fish embryos was recorded as 68.8, 68.9, 66.9, 66.4, 26.9, 25.1 and 0.12% in response to 7 different concentrations of buprofezin, respectively. The mortality rate of larvae significantly (pbuprofezin concentrations exposed to 24-48 h. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for the larvae was estimated to be 5.702 (3.198-8.898) and 4.642 (3.264-6.287) mg/L respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  7. Combined effects of elevated CO_2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A.; Iannelli, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO_2 decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO_2 reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO_2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L"−"1 Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO_2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO_2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO_2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  8. Effect of 48-h food deprivation on the expressions of myosin heavy-chain isoforms and fiber type-related factors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Sawano, Shoko; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 48-h food deprivation on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform composition and some metabolism-related factors in both slow-type dominant and fast-type dominant muscle tissues. Male Wistar rats (7 wk old) were treated with 48-h food deprivation or ad libitum feeding as control. After the treatment, the soleus muscle (slow-type dominant) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-type dominant) were excised. We found that 48-h food deprivation did not affect MyHC composition in either the soleus or EDL, compared with fed rats by electrophoretic separation of MyHC isoforms. However, 48-h food deprivation significantly increased the mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC2B in the EDL muscle. Moreover, food deprivation increased fatty acid metabolism, as shown by elevated levels of related serum energy substrates and mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) 3 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both the soleus and EDL. UCP3 and LPL are generally expressed at higher levels in slow-type fibers. Furthermore, we found that food deprivation significantly decreased the protein amounts of PGC1α and phosphorylated FOXO1, which are known as skeletal muscle fiber type regulators. In conclusion, 48-h food deprivation increased mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC isoform and oxidative metabolism-related factors in EDL, whereas MyHC composition at the protein level did not change in either the soleus or EDL.

  9. Response of Sitophilus granarius L. to fumigant toxicity of some plant volatile oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali F. Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One-week-old adults of Sitophilus granarius (L. reared on wheat were subjected to pure plant volatile oils of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint. Volatile oil of Thuja was extracted from unripe fruits of Thuja orientalis plant by water distillation. The objective of the current study was to determine the fumigant toxicity of these volatile oils against adults of S. granarius. The fumigant toxicity of the volatile oils was tested against 1week old adults of S. granarius at 28±2 °C and 65±5% RH in darkness. The mortality of adults was tested at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 μl of Thuja, 10–30 μl of Eucalyptus and 3–15 μl of Peppermint at different exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h. The results demonstrated that the mortality increased with increases in concentration and exposure periods. The percent mortality of S. granarius reached 91.2, 95.0 and 91.2% when 1-w-old adult exposed to higher concentration of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint oils, respectively, comparing to 0% in the control after 24 h. After 72 h the percent mortality was 100% at the higher concentration of the three volatile oils. LC50 and LC90 were determined for each volatile oil and each exposure period. Data probit analysis demonstrated that concentrations of 70.71 μl Thuja, 16.95 μl Eucalyptus and 10.48 μl Peppermint, recorded 50% mortality after 24 h, however it reached 90% when concentrations increased to 104.04 μl Thuja, 25.48 μl Eucalyptus and 15.92 μl Peppermint after the same period. LC50 and LC90 values were decreased by increasing the exposure periods. These results showed that the three volatile oils could be applicable to the management of populations of S. granarius (L..

  10. Application of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in detecting the toxicity of harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tian; Wang, Yunfeng; Wang, Liping; Chen, Yang; Han, Gang; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2009-05-01

    The toxicity of seven major HAB (harmful algal bloom) species/strains, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Phaeocystis globosa, Prorocentrum micans, Alexandrium tamarense (AT-6, non-PSP producer), Alexandrium lusitanicum, Alexandrum tamarense (ATHK) and Heterosigma akashiwo were studied against rotifer Brachionus plicatilis under laboratory conditions. The results show that P. donghaiense, P. globosa, P. micans, A. tamarense (AT-6), or A. lusitanicum could maintain the individual survival and reproduction, as well as the population increase of the rotifer, but the individual reproduction would decrease when exposed to these five algae at higher densities for nine days; H. akashiwo could decrease the individual survival and reproduction, as well as population increase of the rotifer, which is similar to that of the starvation group, indicating that starvation might be its one lethal factor except for the algal toxins; A. tamarense (ATHK) has strong lethal effect on the rotifer with 48h LC50 at 800 cells/mL. The experiment on ingestion ability indicated by gut pigment change shows that P. donghaiense, P. globosa, P. micans, A. tamarense (AT-6) and A. lusitanicum can be taken by the rotifers as food, but A. tamarense (ATHK) or H. akashiwo can be ingested by the rotifers. The results indicate that all the indexes of individual survival and reproduction, population increase, gut pigment change of the rotifers are good and convenient to be used to reflect the toxicities of HAB species. Therefore, rotifer is suggested as one of the toxicity testing organisms in detecting the toxicity of harmful algae.

  11. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc-arsenic interactions in soil: Solubility, toxicity and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Wang, Liang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) are common co-contaminants in mining impacted soils. Their interaction on solubility and toxicity when present concurrently is not well understood in natural systems. The aim of this study was to observe their interaction in solubility (soil-solution), bioaccumulation (shoot uptake) and toxicity to cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) conducting 4 weeks pot study in 5 different soils spiked with As (0, 2, 4, 8 to 1024 mg kg -1 ) individually and with Zn at two phytotoxic doses. The As pore-water concentration was significantly reduced (df = 289, Adjusted R 2  = 0.84, p soils. This outcome may be due to adsorption/surface precipitation or tertiary bridging complexation. No homogenous precipitation of zinc arsenate could be established using electron microscopy, XRD or even equilibrium calculations. For bioaccumulation phase, no significant effect of Zn on As uptake was observed except acidic MG soil whereas, Zn uptake was significantly reduced (p soil. The synergistic response (more than additive) was predominant in this soil for a wide range of inhibition concentration (0-80%) at both Zn EC10 and EC50 levels. Since additive response is mostly considered in risk assessment for mixtures, precautions should be implemented for assessment of toxicity for As-Zn mixture in acidic soil due to their synergistic response in some soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  14. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  15. Influence of a {sup 99m}TcN core on the biological and physicochemical behavior of {sup 99m}Tc complexes of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangera, Kennedy O; Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Bellande, Emmanuel; Pasqualini, Roberto; Verbruggen, Alfons M

    1996-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-nitrido complexes of L,L-ethylene dicysteine ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC) and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ethylene dicysteine diethylester ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD) were prepared and their characteristics compared to those of the respective {sup 99m}Tc-oxo complexes. {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC and {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC migrate to similar extents during electrophoresis at pH 12, but, at pH 6, {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC migrates further than {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC. Renal excretion of {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC is inferior to that of {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC, indicating that the TcN-glycine sequence has lower affinity for the renal tubular system. Both {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-ECD and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD are neutral, but {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD is hydrophilic and shows minimal brain uptake in both mice and the baboon.

  16. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2008-05-30

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC50, was approximately as follows: PAHs>two-stroke engines>four-stroke engines>BTEX.

  17. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-T.; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5α. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC 50 , was approximately as follows: PAHs > two-stroke engines > four-stroke engines > BTEX

  18. EC-construction product guideline 89/106/EEC and EC-pressure equipement guideline 97/23/EC; EG-Bauproduktenrichtlinie 89/106/EWG und EG-Druckgeraeterichtlinie 97/23/EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, F. [DVGW Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For now nearly ten years the EC-directive 90/396/EEC is well established in the gas field. In the meantime other EC-directives are playing a role which cannot be left out of consideration. Particularly the EC-Construction Product Directive (89/106/EEC) and the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EG) constitute a focal point as many key-issues (e.g. scope) are still open, causing thus hotly debated discussions. The present contribution reflects the current consultations at the national and European level, pointing out then the gas-specific features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit nahezu zehn Jahren hat sich die EG-Richtlinie 90/396/EWG fuer Gasverbrauchseinrichtungen im europaeischen Gasfach fest etabliert. Inzwischen sind andere EG-Richtlinien ins Spiel gekommen, deren Einfluss nicht ausser Acht gelassen werden kann. Besonders die EG-Bauproduktenrichtlinie (89/106/EWG) und die EG-Druckgeraeterichtlinie (97/23/EG) stehen z.Z. im Mittelpunkt, da viele Schluesselfragen (z.B. Geltungsbereich) noch offen sind und heftige Debatten mit sich bringen. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt den Stand der auf nationaler und europaeischer Ebene gefuehrten Beratungen wieder und stellt dabei die gasspezifischen Gegebenheiten heraus. (orig.)

  19. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  20. The application of 99mTc-EC renal dynamic imaging in urinary system calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Ruqi; Li Shiyun; Liu Xueshu; Huang Wei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of 99m Tc-EC renal dynamic imaging (RDI) for diagnosis of urinary system calculus. Methods: 135 case with confirmed urinary system calculus by ultrasound and IVP were examined by 99m Tc-EC renal dynamic imaging and to analyze the degree of hydronephrosis and the remaining renal function. The quantitative indexes used were effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and peak uptake rate (PUR). Results: RDI almost accorded with IVP in renal calculus complicated by mild and moderate hydronephrosis cases. On other cases of the severe hydronephrosis and serious renal insufficiency, RDI was more sensitive than IVP which had no excretion in 6 patients with hydronephrosis. ERPF and PUR showed the remaining function of the morbid kidney more accurately than other methods. In severe and mild hydronephrosis the ERPF were 84.3 ± 49 ml/min and 202.2 ± 52.4 ml/min, the PUR were 20.4 ± 11.5% and 48.5 ± 13.6% respectively. Conclusion: RDI can correctly reflect the degree of hydronephrosis and the remaining function of the morbid kidney in urinary system calculus, which would be helpful for the clinical surgical planning

  1. RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

  2. SwissProt search result: AK104994 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104994 001-002-H11 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-m...onooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  3. SwissProt search result: AK067591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067591 J013112H19 (P33261) Cytochrome P450 2C19 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-m...onooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  4. SwissProt search result: AK106068 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106068 001-206-H02 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-m...onooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  5. SwissProt search result: AK120986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120986 J023042H12 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  6. SwissProt search result: AK105993 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105993 001-205-H03 (P33261) Cytochrome P450 2C19 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-...monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  7. SwissProt search result: AK065971 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065971 J013050H07 (P33261) Cytochrome P450 2C19 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-m...onooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  8. SwissProt search result: AK059010 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059010 001-020-H10 (P33261) Cytochrome P450 2C19 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-...monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase)

  9. SwissProt search result: AK067458 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067458 J013107H17 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  10. SwissProt search result: AK070167 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070167 J023042H13 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  11. Vegetation relevés and soil measurements in the Netherlands: the Ecological Conditions Database (EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Dobben, van H.F.; Frissel, J.Y.; Held, den M.E.; Joosten, V.; Malinowska, A.H.; Slim, P.A.; Wegman, R.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its establishment around 1990, the Ecological Conditions Database (EC; GIVD ID EU-00-006) has been accumulating vegetation relevés from the Netherlands, each accompanied by at least one abiotic soil measurement (e.g. pH or nutrient availability). On 1-1-2010, the database contained 8,229

  12. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Academic Centre for Innovation and Development in the Food Industry (CAISIAL), Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici (Italy); Vitiello, V. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Casals, E. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, V.F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Iamunno, F. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Pellegrini, D. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Changwen, W. [Zhejiang Ocean University, 1 Rd. South Haida, Lincheng New Area, Dinghai District Zhoushan City, 316022 (China); Benvenuto, G. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Buttino, I., E-mail: isabella.buttino@isprambiente.it [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl{sub 2} than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl{sub 2} and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L{sup −1} and 1, 5 and 10 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC{sub 50} values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L{sup −1}) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L{sup −1}) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC{sub 50} of 7.45 mg L{sup −1} and 6.97 mg L{sup −1} for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl{sub 2} concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L{sup −1

  13. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  14. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Elsa T.; Pardal, Miguel Â.; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M. Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Serafim, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC_5_0) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC_5_0). IC_5_0_s and LC_5_0 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_4_8_h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_7_2_h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. - Highlights: • Fish toxicity data are still considered standard information in ecotoxicology. • Alternatives to animal testing have become an important topic of research. • Cell-based assays are currently a promising in vitro alternative. • Comparative studies to accelerate the validation of cell-based methods are required. • H9c2 cell line proved to produce in vitro reliable toxicity results for azoxystrobin. - The application of cell-based assays for environmental toxicity studies would greatly reduce the number of fish needed for toxicity testing without any loss of reliability.

  15. Temperature influences the toxicity of deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari) and the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, O O; Owojori, O J; Römbke, J

    2017-06-01

    In order to assess the influence of temperature on pesticide toxicity to soil fauna, specimens of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and the springtail Folsomia candida were exposed in artificial soil spiked with different concentrations of three pesticides (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin) at 20°C vs 28°C for the mites and 20°C vs 26°C for the springtails. All tests were carried out according to OECD guidelines. In the mite tests, the toxic effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on survival was about two orders of magnitude more at 28°C than at 20°C. Mite reproduction decreased in the tests with chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin by about four to five orders of magnitude at 28°C than at 20°C. (EC50 28 ° C =1.42 and 2.52mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =6.18 and 10.09mg/kg) In the collembolan tests, the toxicity of dimethoate on survival was higher at 26°C than at 20°C (LC50 26 ° C =0.17mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =0.36mg/kg), while the opposite was detected for deltamethrin (LC50 26 ° C =11.27mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =6.84mg/kg). No difference was found in the test with chlorpyrifos. Effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on reproduction were higher at 26°C than at 20°C (EC50 26 ° C =0.11 and 0.018mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =0.29 and 0.031mg/kg respectively), but in the case of deltamethrin the opposite was observed (EC50 26 ° C =12.85mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =2.77mg/kg). A preliminary risk assessment of the three pesticides at the two temperature regimes based on the Toxicity Exposure Ratio (TER) approach of the European Union, shows that in general there are few different outcomes when comparing data gained at different temperatures. However, in the light of the few comparisons made data gained in temperate regions should be used with caution in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  17. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  18. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L(Cu)) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L(Cu) varied from 0.08 microM in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 microM in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC(50) of 0.64 microM, significantly higher than the Cu EC(50) of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 microM. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC(50). This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC(50), while L(Cu) correlated

  19. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula; Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L Cu ) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L Cu varied from 0.08 μM in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 μM in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC 50 of 0.64 μM, significantly higher than the Cu EC 50 of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 μM. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC 50 . This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC 50 , while L Cu correlated better with the

  20. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula, E-mail: paulasanchez@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Beiras, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L{sub Cu}) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L{sub Cu} varied from 0.08 {mu}M in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 {mu}M in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC{sub 50} of 0.64 {mu}M, significantly higher than the Cu EC{sub 50} of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 {mu}M. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC{sub 50}. This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC{sub 50}, while L

  1. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  2. Histopathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus induced by the action of Talstar 10EC insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PĂUNESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological biomarkers of toxicity in frog organs are a useful indicator of environmental pollution. The frogs were experimentally exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.5mg bifenthrin/g of body weight of Talstar 10EC for 3 weeks. The present study proves its toxic potential in terms of the damages in liver and kidney level. Tissues were normal in the control group. Hepatic lesions in frog exposed to bifenthrin were characterized by vacuolation of hepatocytes and nuclear pycnosis, perisinusoidal and periportal fibrosis, dilatation of Disse space and sinusoid capillaries, presence of cellular infiltrates. Kidney lesions consisted of dilation of Bowman’s space, tubular necrosis, and epithelial cells shows pycnotic nuclei, discrete degree of interstitial edema.

  3. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  4. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  5. Toxicity and disruption of quorum sensing in Aliivibrio fisheri by environmental chemicals: Impacts of selected contaminants and microplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gagné

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dissolved and particulate compounds on quorum sensing in the marine luminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fisheri. Bacteria were exposed to increasing concentrations of CuSO4 (Cu2+, gadolinium chloride (Gd3+, 20-nm silver nanoparticles (nanoAg and 1-3 μm microplastic polyethylene beads for 250 min. During this period, luminescence measurements were taken at 5-min intervals. Toxicity was first examined by measuring luminescence output at 5-min and 30-min incubation time. Based on the effective concentration that decreases luminescence by 20% (EC20, the compounds were toxic at the following concentrations in decreasing toxicity: Cu2+ (3.2 mg/L < nanoAg (3.4 mg/L, reported < Gd3+ (34 mg/L < microplastics (2.6 g/L. The data revealed that luminescence changed non-linearly over time. In control bacteria, luminescence changed at eight specific major frequencies between 0.04 and 0.27 cycle/min after Fourier transformation of time-dependent luminescence data. The addition of dissolved Cu2+ and Gd3+ eliminated the amplitude changes at these frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating loss of quorum sensing between bacteria at concentrations below EC20. In the presence of nanoAg and microplastic beads, the decreases in amplitudes were modest but compressed the luminescence profiles, with shorter frequencies appearing at concentrations well below EC20. Thus, loss of communication between bacteria occurs at non-toxic concentrations. In addition, with exposure to a mixture of the above compounds at concentrations that do not produce effects for Gd3+, nanoAg and microplastics, Cu2+ toxicity was significantly enhanced, suggesting synergy. This study revealed for the first time that small microplastic particles and nanoparticles can disrupt quorum sensing in marine bacteria.

  6. Renal responses to prolonged (48 h) hypoxemia without acidemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    The effect of sustained moderate hypoxia on renal blood flow and renal function was studied in the ovine fetus (123-129 days). The experiments consisted of 48 h of isocapnic hypoxia, not resulting in acidemia, but sufficient to produce redistribution of blood flow in favor of the brain at the

  7. Toxicity of Lanthanum to Pathogenic Fungi and Its Morphological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of La on the mycelial growth of several soil-borne pathogenic fungi including Rhizoctonia solani , Pythium sp . , Fusarium solani , Selerotinia sclerotiorum , and Fusarium oxyspoxum were studied in vitro. The results show that the mycelial growth was inhibited strongly by the La, with EC50 of 130 ~ 320 mg· L-1 and EC95 of about 550 ~ 40007 mg· L- 1 respectively. In addition, the morphological toxicity of La was studied by using the scanning electronic microscope. Treated by La, the mycelial growth of pathogenic fungi was significantly restrained, and the morphological characteristics were found to be abnormal, such as increased ramification, malformation, partial swelling and shrinking, and irregularly entangled mycelial block or rhizomorph.

  8. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products. PMID:23098077

  9. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  10. Clinical analysis of 48-h emergency department visit post outpatient extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Heng; Kuo, Junne-Yih; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Huang, William J S; Wu, Howard H H; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Lin, Alex T L; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2017-09-01

    Patients suffering from renal or ureteral stones can undergo significant discomfort, even when timely diagnosed and treated. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and safety of outpatient Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) in the management of patients with renal or ureteral stones. In this study, our cohort consisted of 844 outpatients who underwent outpatient ESWL treated between February 2012 and November 2014 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Patients who visited the emergency room (ER) within 48 h after Outpatient ESWL were included in this article. This article analyzes the stone size, stone shape (long to short axis ratio), stone location, previous medical management, urinalysis data, complications and treatment received in the emergency department. Among the 844 initial consecutive patients who underwent outpatient ESWL a total of 1095 times, there were 22 (2%) patients who sought help at our emergency room within 48 h after the outpatient ESWL. Of those 22 patients, the mean age was 54.3 ± 12.6 years, and the BMI was 25.9 ± 3.2. The most common complication complaint was flank pain (55.2%). Other complications included hematuria (13.8%), fever (17.2%), nausea with vomiting (6.9%), acute urinary retention (3.4%) and chest tightness with cold sweating (3.4%). In 22 patients who went back to the ER, 7 patients were admitted to the ward and 1 patient again returned to the ER. All patients received medical treatment without ESWL or surgical management. The meaningful risk factor of ER-visiting rate following outpatient ESWL within 48 h was stone location, and the renal stones showed statistic significant (p = 0.047) when compared to ureteral stones. Our study indicated that renal stone contributed to a significantly higher risk of ER-visiting rate to patients than did ureteral stone, following outpatient ESWL within 48 h. This study confirmed that Outpatient ESWL is a safe treatment for renal or ureteral stones, while

  11. Implication of oxidative stress in size-dependent toxicity of silica nanoparticles in kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passagne, Isabelle; Morille, Marie; Rousset, Marine; Pujalté, Igor; L’Azou, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (nano-SiO 2 ) are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in industrial manufacturing, synthesis, engineering and medicine. While inhalation of nanoparticles causes pulmonary damage, nano-SiO 2 can be transported into the blood and deposit in target organs where they exert potential toxic effects. Kidney is considered as such a secondary target organ. However, toxicological information of their effect on renal cells and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of nano-SiO 2 of different sizes was investigated on two renal proximal tubular cell lines (human HK-2 and porcine LLC-PK 1 ). The molecular pathways involved were studied with a focus on the involvement of oxidative stress. Nanoparticle characterization was performed (primary nanoparticle size, surface area, dispersion) in order to investigate a potential relationship between their physical properties and their toxic effects. Firstly, evidence of particle internalization was obtained by transmission electron microscopy and conventional flux cytometry techniques. The use of specific inhibitors of endocytosis pathways showed an internalization process by macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis for 100 nm nano-SiO 2 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were localized in vesicles. Toxicity was size- and time-dependent (24 h, 48 h, 72 h). Indeed, it increased as nanoparticles became smaller. Secondly, analysis of oxidative stress based on the assessment of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production (DHE, dihydroethidium) or lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde) clearly demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in the toxicity of 20 nm nano-SiO 2 . The induction of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, GSTpi, thioredoxin reductase) could explain their lesser toxicity with 100 nm nano-SiO 2 .

  12. EC6 design features and pre-project licensing review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Lee, A.G.; Dinh, N.B.; Soulard, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) is the new Generation III CANDU reactor design that meets the most up to date Canadian regulatory requirements and customer expectations. Candu Energy Inc. is finalizing development of the EC6 which incorporates the CANDU 6's well-proven features, and adds enhancements that strengthened reactor safety margin and improved operability. The EC6 builds on the proven high performance design and the defence-in-depth features of CANDU 6 units, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback including lessons learned from Fukushima. This paper will provide status of the engineering program including progress on the pre-licensing review of the EC6 design by the Canadian Regulator, CNSC, and will also highlight the design and safety enhancements incorporated in the EC6 product. Safety enhancements to meet safety goals and to improve robustness of systems to respond to design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents include: new severe accident recovery and heat removal system; improved emergency heat removal system; faster shutoff rods with improved safety margins; mechanical guaranteed shutdown rods; daily load cycling capability; robust containment with containment filter venting system; and improved backed-up electrical supply and cooling services. (author)

  13. Passive dosing of pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna: Expressing excess toxicity by chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Gan, Jay; Kretschmann, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    ) Effective chemical activities resulting in 50% immobilisation (Ea50) will be estimated from pyrethroid EC50 values via the correlation of sub-cooled liquid solubility (S L, [mmol/L], representing a=1) and octanol to water partitioning ratios (Kow), (3) The excess toxicity observed for pyrethroids...

  14. Oxothiomolybdenum derivatives of the superlacunary crown heteropolyanion {P8W48}: structure of [K4{Mo4O4S4(H2O)3(OH)2}2(WO2)(P8W48O184)]30– and studies in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Vladimir S; Floquet, Sébastien; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Mbomekallé, Israël-Martyr; Taulelle, Francis; Sokolov, Maxim N; Fedin, Vladimir P; Cadot, Emmanuel

    2012-02-20

    Reaction of the cyclic lacunary [H(7)P(8)W(48)O(184)](33-) anion (noted P(8)W(48)) with the [Mo(2)S(2)O(2)(H(2)O)(6)](2+) oxothiocation led to two compounds, namely, [K(4){Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(WO(2))(P(8)W(48)O(184))](30-) (denoted 1) and [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) (denoted 2), which were characterized in the solid state and solution. In the solid state, the structure of [K(4){Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(WO(2))(P(8)W(48)O(184))](30-) reveals the presence of two disordered {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) "handles" connected on both sides of the P(8)W(48) ring. Such a disorder is consistent with the presence of two geometrical isomers where the relative disposition of the two {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) handles are arranged in a perpendicular or parallel mode. Such an interpretation is fully supported by (31)P and (183)W NMR solution studies. The relative stability of both geometrical isomers appears to be dependent upon the nature of the internal alkali cations, i.e., Na(+) vs K(+), and increased lability of the two {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) handles, compared to the oxo analogous, was clearly identified by significant broadening of the (31)P and (183)W NMR lines. Solution studies carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy showed that formation of the adduct [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) occurs in the 1.5-4.7 pH range and corresponds to a fast and quantitative condensation process. Furthermore, (31)P NMR titrations in solution reveal formation of the "monohandle" derivative [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(P(8)W(48)O(184))](38-) as an intermediate prior to formation of the "bishandle" derivatives. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) was studied in aqueous medium and compared with the parent anion P(8)W(48).

  15. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  16. Do Decision 2003/54/EC and Decision no. 1229/2003/EC result in a European market for electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenting, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2003 the European Parliament and the European Council issued a new Directive with respect to the internal market for electricity (Directive 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity) and Guidelines for trans-European networks in the energy sector (Decision no. 1229/2003/EC). The question is whether these decisions will lead to a European and free market for electricity. It is concluded that this is not yet the case [nl

  17. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  18. The characteristics changes of pH and EC of atmospheric precipitation and analysis on the source of acid rain in the source area of the Yangtze River from 2010 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-Jie, Li; Song, Ling-Ling; Jing-zhu, Ma; Li, Yong-ge

    2017-05-01

    Through the analysis of pH value, EC, precipitation and wind speed of 402 precipitation samples in the source region of the Yangtze River from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015, especially for the analysis of the 14 acid rain events. The results showed that: the acid rain in the source region of the Yangtze River was mainly affected by the southwest monsoon and the westerly circulation. The occurrence of acid rain mainly controlled by industrial pollution and other pollutants coming from India and other surrounding areas. And the other cause was that because of the Qinghai Tibet highway and the Qinghai Tibet railway, there were a lot of cars coming and going. And there were people in the summer to plateau tourism increased year by year, and more for self-driving travelling. This added additional pollutants (automobile exhaust) for the source of the Yangtze River. During the period of sampling, the variation range of pH value was from 4.0 to 8.57, with the mean was 6.37. And the range of EC was from 5.2 to 124.4 μs/cm, the average was 27.59 μs/cm. The order of conductivity in the four seasons was Spring > Winter > Summer > Autumn. And the order of pH in four seasons was Summer > Spring = Winter > Autumn. The results are also helpful for further understanding the acid rain in the Tibetan Plateau and providing scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of acid rain.

  19. Biotoxicity assessment and toxicity mechanism on coal gasification wastewater (CGW): A comparative analysis of effluent from different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Zheng, Mengqi

    2018-05-04

    Even though coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treated by various biochemical treatment processes generally met the national discharge standard, its potential biotoxicity was still unknown. Therefore, in this study, bioassay with Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the variation of biotoxicity in raw CGW and the treated effluent from lab-scale micro-electrolysis integrated with biological reactor (MEBR), single iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes. The results illustrated that raw CGW presented intensive acute toxicity with 24 h EC 50 value of 8.401% and toxic unit (TU) value of 11.90. Moreover, it performed significant cell membrane destruction and DNA damage even at 10% dilution concentration. The toxicant identification results revealed that multiple toxic polar compounds such as phenolic, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were the main contributors for biotoxicity. Furthermore, these compounds could accelerate oxidative stress, thereby inducing oxidative damage of cell membrane and DNA. As for treated effluent, TU value was decreased by 90.58% in MEBR process. An effective biotoxicity reduction was achieved in MEBR process owing to high removal efficiency in polar organic toxicants. In contrast, effluent from ICME and CAS processes presented relatively high acute toxicity and genotoxicity, because various heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were difficult to be degraded in these processes. Therefore, it was suggested that MEBR was a potential and feasible process for improving CGW treatment and minimizing ecological risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the

  1. Long-term wireless pH monitoring of the distal esophagus: prolonging the test beyond 48 hours is unnecessary and may be misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, G; Salvador, R; Spadotto, L; Voltarel, G; Pesenti, E; Perazzolo, A; Nicoletti, L; Merigliano, S; Costantini, M

    2017-10-01

    Wireless pH monitoring of the esophagus has been widely used to detect GERD for more than a decade. It is generally well tolerated and accepted by patients, but it is still unclear whether prolonging a recording beyond the usual 48 hours can improve the test's diagnostic value. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic yield of 96-hour pH monitoring vis-à-vis 24- and 48-hour tests, and to ascertain whether any gain in diagnostic terms was of genuine clinical utility. Patients with suspected GERD underwent 4-day PPI-off wireless pH monitoring of the distal esophagus. The capsule was inserted under endoscopic control, 6 cm above the squamocolumnar junction. Average acid exposure time was calculated after 24, 48, and 96 hours of recording. Ninety-nine patients completed the 96 hour test, and formed the study sample. The wireless test method was used in 42 patients (42.4%) unable to tolerate the traditional pH-monitoring catheter, and in 57 (57.6%) with a previous negative pH study despite symptoms suggestive of GERD. On complete analysis, 47 patients (47.5%) had a pathological test result: 19 patients within the first 24 hours (19.2%, 24 hour group); another 16 after 48 hours (+16.2%, 48 hour group), and a further 12 (+12.1%, 96 hour group) only after 96 hours of monitoring. All 47 patients with an abnormal acid exposure were offered and accepted surgery (10 patients) or medical therapy (37 patients). Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients with a positive Bravo test result after a median 67 months (IQR: 38-98) using a validated symptom questionnaire. A good outcome after fundoplication or medical therapy was achieved in 73.7% of patients in the 24 hour group, in 62.5% of those in the 48 hour group, and in only 25% of those in the 96 hour group, P = 0.02. Long-term wireless pH monitoring enables an increase in the diagnostic yield over traditional 24- and 48-hour pH studies, but prolonging the test may constitute an unwanted bias and prompt the

  2. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...... all rats received a lidocaine challenge (LC) in the form of an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lidocaine (65 mg/kg). After the injection the animals were observed for occurrence of motor seizures. A total of 67% (10/15), 47% (7/15), and 0% (0/18) of the daily, weekly, and sham groups, respectively......, had motor seizures in response to the LC. In the second experiment five groups of rats received an ECS daily for 0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 days, respectively. Eighteen weeks after the last ECS all rats received an LC and 0% (0/15), 13% (2/15), 20% (3/15), 53% (8/15), and 58% (7/12), respectively, developed...

  3. Growth inhibition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings in Ga- and In-contaminated acidic soils is respectively caused by Al and Al+In toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jeng-Yan; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2018-02-15

    Limited information exists on the effects of emerging contaminants gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on rice plant growth. This study investigated the effects on growth and uptake of Ga and In by rice plants grown in soils with different properties. Pot experiment was conducted and the rice seedlings were grown in two soils of different pH (Pc and Cf) spiked with various Ga and In concentrations. The results showed concentrations of Ga, In, and Al in soil pore water increased with Ga- or In-spiking in acidic Pc soils, significantly decreasing growth indices. According to the dose-response curve, we observed that the EC 50 value for Ga and In treatments were 271 and 390mgkg -1 in Pc soils, respectively. The context of previous hydroponic studies suggests that growth inhibition of rice seedlings in Ga-spiked Pc soils is mainly due to Al toxicity resulting from enhanced Al release through competitive adsorption of Ga, rather than from Ga toxicity. In-spiked Pc soils, both In and Al toxicity resulted in growth inhibition, while no such effect was found in Cf soils due to the low availability of Ga, In and Al under neutral pH conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrocoagulation (EC and Electrocoagulation/Flotation(ECF Processes for Removing High Turbidity from Surface Water Using Al and Fe Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC and Electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF processes are simple and efficient in water and wastewater treatment. In recent years, many investigations have focused on the use of these processes for treating of polluted water. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of EC and ECF processes in removal of high turbidity water using different electrodes in different circumstances. In present study an electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/ flotation reactor in a lab scale to an approximate volume of 6 liters which is equipped with four Al-AL and Fe-Fe electrodes (200 * 20 * 2 mm was used  for removing of high turbidity water. The effects of operating parameters such as type of electrodes, initial water turbidity, applied voltage (10 to 30 v, initial pH of the solution (3 to 12 and reaction times (5 to 30 minutes were evaluated. The batch experimental results showed that initial turbidity water, initial pH of the solution, different applied voltages up to %88 turbidity as initial turbidity of 1200 NTU have been removed when using Al-Al and Fe-Fe electrodes and reaction times highly effective on the turbidity removal efficiency in these processes. In ECF process, 84% in optimum condition. However, in EC  process the maximum removal was found  up to 68% of initial turbidity when using Al-Al and Fe-Fe electrodes in same operation. Based on the result obtained in this study, the type of electrodes in EC and ECF processes  significantly affect the removal rate of high turbid water. Also, it was found that much higher turbidity removal could be achieved by ECF process than that by EC process in the same condition.

  5. Migration of nonylphenol from food-grade plastic is toxic to the coral reef fish species Pseudochromis fridmani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Heather J; Marciano, Kathleen; Downs, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a non-ionic surfactant used extensively in industrial applications, personal care products, and many plastics. We exposed marine orchid dottybacks (Pseudochromis fridmani) for 48h to either glass, Teflon, or two bags labeled as FDA food-grade polyethylene (PE1 and PE2) from different manufacturers. The PE2 bags leached high levels of NP into the contact water, which were taken up by the fish, and decreased short and long-term survival. Concentrations of NP that leached from the bags were consistent with 96h LC50 values determined in this study, indicating NP is the likely toxic agent. Despite being similarly labeled, the NP concentrations that leached from the bags and the resultant toxicity to the fish varied dramatically between manufacturers. This study highlights that some plastics, labeled as food-safe, can be highly toxic to aquatic animals, and could pose a greater threat to humans than previously realized. This study also highlights risks for aquatic animals exposed to increasing quantities of plastic waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fumigant Toxicity of some Essential Oils on Adults of some Stored-Product Pests Toxicidad Fumigante de Algunos Aceites Esenciales sobre Adultos de algunas Plagas de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials with insecticidal properties have been traditionally used for generations in some parts of the world. In this study, fumigant toxicity of some essential oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora, and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin on adults of stored-product pests, including Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus granarius, Callosobruchus maculatus, and Plodia interpunctella were investigated. Pure essential oils were used in glass vials for the bioassay. LC50 values of Citrus sinensis var. hamlin against T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus were 391.28, 367.75, and 223.48 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 362.40, 20.45, and 207.17 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, LC50 values of the fumigant test of C. sinensis and M. pulegium essential oils against S. granarius were 0.038 and 367.75 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 0.025 and 320.45 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. On the other hand, LC50 values of R. officinalis and Z. multiflora on P. interpunctella moths were 0.93 and 1.75 µL L-1 after 24 h. Results showed that among tested essential oils, C. sinensis var. hamlin had good fumigant toxicity on T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus. In addition, M. pulegium essential oil was stronger than C. sinensis var. hamlin on S. granarius. Results also indicated that both Z. multiflora and R. officinalis had fumigant toxicity on P. interpunctella adults. In summary, results indicated that these essential oils have good fumigant toxicity on stored-product pests.Materiales vegetales con propiedades insecticidas han sido usados tradicionalmente por generaciones en algunas partes del mundo. En este estudio se estudió la toxicidad fumigante de algunos aceites esenciales extraídos desde Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora y Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin sobre adultos de plagas de productos almacenados, incluyendo Tribolium castaneum

  7. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  8. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  9. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Jay Prakash; Saha, Bedabrata; Regon, Preetom; Sahoo, Smita; Chowra, Umakanta; Pradhan, Amit; Roy, Anupam; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check) were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root) of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM) toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR) protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h irrespective of the dose used in the study.

  10. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... for Quotations. EC01MY91.002 [60 FR 34763, July 3, 1995] ...

  11. Disulfide-stabilized Helical Hairpin Structure and Activity of a Novel Antifungal Peptide EcAMP1 from Seeds of Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Rogozhin, Eugene A.; Barinov, Nikolay A.; Balashova, Tamara A.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Baranov, Yuri V.; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Tsezi A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and 1H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a common fold. PMID:21561864

  12. Disulfide-stabilized helical hairpin structure and activity of a novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from seeds of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Barinov, Nikolay A; Balashova, Tamara A; Samsonova, Olga V; Baranov, Yuri V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V

    2011-07-15

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and (1)H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a commo