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Sample records for town highlights disparities

  1. Age-disparity, sexual connectedness and HIV infection in disadvantaged communities around Cape Town, South Africa: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel research methods in order to determine whether HIV status is associated with age-disparity and sexual connectedness as well as establish the primary behavioural and socio-demographic predictors of the egocentric and community sexual network structures. Method/Design We will conduct a cross-sectional survey that uses a questionnaire exploring one-year sexual histories, with a focus on timing and age disparity of relationships, as well as other risk factors such as unprotected intercourse and the use of alcohol and recreational drugs. The questionnaire will be administered in a safe and confidential mobile interview space, using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI technology on touch screen computers. The ACASI features a choice of languages and visual feedback of temporal information. The survey will be administered in three peri-urban disadvantaged communities in the greater Cape Town area with a high burden of HIV. The study communities participated in a previous TB/HIV study, from which HIV test results will be anonymously linked to the survey dataset. Statistical analyses of the data will include descriptive statistics, linear mixed-effects models for the inter- and intra-subject variability in the age difference between sexual partners, survival analysis for correlated event times to model concurrency patterns, and logistic regression for association of HIV status with age disparity and sexual connectedness. Discussion This study design is

  2. The Socioeconomic, Health, Safety, and Educational Disparities Faced by Boys and Men of Color in California. Research Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic disparities exist across an array of domains. A broad literature addresses how racial/ethnic disparities have developed and persisted over time in the context of historical and structural racism that has shaped policies, practices, and programs in ways that create disadvantage for certain groups. In recognition…

  3. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    academic use case that has corollaries in offices everywhere. We also describe two distinct possibilities for provenance capture methods within this domain...Figure 1: Sample provenance graph of the librarians preparing the requested report, from the “Complete” dataset. The tool, SpectorSoft,2 was

  4. Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections among Orang Asli communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Abu Bakar, Edariah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-12-01

    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; PEntamoeba spp. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

  5. Educational health disparities in hypertension and diabetes mellitus among African descent populations in the Caribbean and the USA: a comparative analysis from the Spanish town cohort (Jamaica) and the Jackson heart study (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hambleton, Ian; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Francis, Damian; Bennett, Nadia; Griswold, Michael; Fox, Ervin; MacLeish, Marlene; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, E Nigel; Sullivan, Louis W

    2017-02-14

    Studies have suggested that social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes differ between industrialized and developing countries, but few have directly compared these effects. We explored inequalities in hypertension and diabetes prevalence between African-descent populations with different levels of educational attainment in Jamaica and in the United States of America (USA), comparing disparities within each location, and between countries. We analyzed baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) in the USA and Spanish Town Cohort (STC) in Jamaica. Participants reported their highest level of educational attainment, which was categorized as 'less than high school' (HS). Educational disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were examined using prevalence ratios (PR), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Analyses included 7248 participants, 2382 from STC and 4866 from JHS, with mean age of 47 and 54 years, respectively (p education level for both hypertension and diabetes in both studies; however, after accounting for confounding or interaction by age, sex and BMI these effects were attenuated. For hypertension, after adjusting for age and BMI, a significant education disparity was found only for women in JHS, with PR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.16) for  HS and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for HS vs > HS. For diabetes; when considering age-group and sex specific estimates adjusted for BMI, among men: significant associations were seen only in the 45-59 years age-group in JHS with PR 1.84 (95% CI 1.16-2.91) for  HS. Among women, significant PR comparing  HS was seen for all three age-groups for JHS, but not in STC; PR were 3.95 (95% CI 1.94-8.05), 1.53 (95% CI 1.10-2.11) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) for 25-44, 45-59 and 60-74 age-groups, respectively. In Jamaica, educational disparities were largely explained by age, sex and BMI, while in the USA these disparities were larger and persisted after accounting these variables.

  6. Terrace Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The "Terrace Town" program brings architecture and city planning curriculum to elementary schools in Madison, Wisconsin, and surrounding areas. Over eight weeks, classrooms discuss what makes a community livable, sustainable, and kid-friendly. Throughout the process, students gain a better understanding of their own city environments and…

  7. Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    458 young competitive basketball players in. Cape Town, including 122 club players and 336 school ... account for 12% of total sports injuries, they represent 25% of the total injury cost.” Similarly, knee injuries ... physical activity are well recognised. Although it is advantageous that 23 500 South African school children now.

  8. The changing face of Ghanaian towns | Adarkwa | African Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that the face of Ghanaian towns has changed since the initial contact with the colonialists. Investments in infrastructure, urbanisation and enhanced economic activities have combined to change the face of Ghanaian towns. These changes in turn have affected the quality of urban life and the disparity in ...

  9. AEB highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    AEB HIGHLIGHTS is a half yearly report reflecting the most important recent achievements of the various Research and Technical Divisions of the Atomic Energy Board. It appears alternately in English and Afrikaans [af

  10. AEB highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    AEB HIGHLIGHTS is a half-yearly report reflecting the most important recent achievements of the various Research and Technical Divisions of the Atomic Energy Board. It appears alternately in English and Afrikaans [af

  11. BBG Highlights

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — BBG Highlights is a monthly summary of the BBG's accomplishments and news and developments affecting the Agency's work. Now, for the first time, this monthly update...

  12. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  13. Brookhaven highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.S.; Belford, M.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1993-01-01

    This report highlights the research activities of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period dating from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. There are contributions to the report from different programs and departments within the laboratory. These include technology transfer, RHIC, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, physics, biology, national synchrotron light source, applied science, medical science, advanced technology, chemistry, reactor physics, safety and environmental protection, instrumentation, and computing and communications

  14. Symposium Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen-Whitred, K.

    2015-01-01

    Overview/Highlights: To begin, I'd like to take a moment to highlight some of the novel elements of this Symposium as compared to those that have been held in the past. For the first time ever, this Symposium was organized around five concurrent sessions, covering over 300 papers and presentations. These sessions were complemented by an active series of exhibits put on by vendors, universities, ESARDA, INMM, and Member State Support Programmes. We also had live demonstrations throughout the week on everything from software to destructive analysis to instrumentation, which provided the participants the opportunity to see recent developments that are ready for implementation. I'm sure you all had a chance to observe - and, more importantly, interact with - the electronic Poster, or ePoster format used this past week. This technology was used here for the first time ever by the IAEA, and I'm sure was a first for many of us as well. The ePoster format allowed participants to interact with the subject matter, and the subject matter experts, in a dynamic, engaging way. In addition to the novel technology used here, I have to say that having the posters strategically embedded in the sessions on the same topic, by having each poster author introduce his or her topic to the assembled group in order to lure us to the poster area during the breaks, was also a novel and highly effective technique. A final highlight I'd like to touch on in terms of the Symposium organization is the diversity of participation. This chart shows the breakdown by geographical distribution for the Symposium, in terms of participants. There are no labels, so don't try to read any, I simply wanted to demonstrate that we had great representation in terms of both the Symposium participants in general and the session chairs more specifically-and on that note, I would just mention here that 59 Member States participated in the Symposium. But what I find especially interesting and

  15. Dermatologic health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Kesha J.; Stevens, Erica I.; Elmets, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Though significant data exist highlighting the extent of health disparities there is limited data specifically on dermatologic health disparities. Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer outcomes are poorer for ethnic minorities, people of low socioeconomic status, less educated, elderly, and uninsured. Recent reports indicate that atopic dermatitis is more prevalent among ethnic minorities; however it is unclear if morbidity is also increased in these populations. Given the current dermatology workforce shortage, the increased patient load may have an adverse effect on dermatologic care access. Additional concerns include the state of dermatologic training, insufficient research involving ethnic minorities, and a lack of investigations of dermatologic health disparities. As the U.S. demographics shift to become more racially diverse, the need to address and reduce dermatologic health disparities will increase. PMID:22117867

  16. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  17. Sentencing Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice stakeholders are strongly concerned with disparities in penalty outcomes. Disparities are problematic when they represent unfounded differences in sentences, an abuse of discretion, and/or potential discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics. The Article presents an original empirical study that explores disparities in sentences at two levels: the individual case level and the regional level. More specifically, the study investigates upward departures in the United States’ federal sentencing system, which constitutes a guidelines-based structure. Upward departures carry unique consequences to individuals and their effects on the system as they lead to lengthier sentences, symbolically represent a dispute with the guidelines advice, and contribute to mass incarceration. Upward departures are discretionary to district courts and thus may lead to disparities in sentencing in which otherwise seemingly like offenders receive dissimilar sentences, in part because of the tendency of their assigned judges to depart upward (or not.

  18. in-town tour optimization town tour optimization town tour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    valuable tool for reducing some socio-economic and environmental impacts associated with solid waste economic and ... areas with high waste generation and accessibility problems, especially in ... IN-TOWN TOUR OPTIMIZATION OF CONVENTIONAL MODE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COLLECTION,. A. S. Aremu.

  19. VT Boundaries - town polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  20. LOCATION OF MOSQUES AND TOWN PLANNING LAWS IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr tomir

    It highlights land use planning and management policies and regulations of the city, ... called “town planning”. Town planning in modern usage, is a process of controlling the use of land, and the character and .... within the reach of the people. To Islam, in as much as a place performs the function for which the mosque has.

  1. Town and Regional Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 64 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  3. Town Square for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Dawson Elementary School (Corpus Chriti, Texas) where an atmosphere of an old town square and the feeling of community have been created. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  4. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  5. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  6. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripatetic Highlights in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ann M.

    The capital city of the Swiss Canton of Bern and of the Swiss Confederation is nestled in a narrow loop of the Aare river, at the foot of the Alps. The old town, founded around 1191, is well preserved despite a devastating fire in 1405.** Major industries of the region developed under the constraints of modest domestic markets, high transportation costs, and protectionist legislation across national borders. Switzerland thus found its niche in higher-end markets, such as chocolate making, engine building, instruments, fine textiles, and chemicals or pharmaceuticals. My tour past historically significant scientific sites in Bern will use the local legacy of its most illustrious residents, Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who lived there from 1902-1909, and Fritz Houtermans (1903-1966), who lived there from 1952-1966, as its guiding thread through the old town and the university district. Place names in italics mark stops along the tour.

  8. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  9. "Not a Museum Town"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    ) articulation of quaintness bridge the theoretical and the empirical in this paper. Empirical material from three Danish cases connects the authenticity discourse to a recurring turn of phrase used by respondents, the ‘museum town.’ A‘museum town’ epitomized a place absent of life. In this manner being...... authentic required a working fleet, which carried deeper implications for transformation of fishing communities....

  10. County town -- jian-zhi town differentials and migration to towns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R

    1993-07-01

    China's urbanization process is unique in having been due to economic systems and migration policies. Towns and townships in rural areas are different from cities in their social and economic characteristics and their structure and function. The urban system in China is initially described with the distinction drawn between cities, "jian-zhi towns", (organic town) which are officially recognized, and rural areas. Analysis is provided f the economic and residential registration status of town residents and migration in northern China. Data were obtained from a 1987 survey of 1314 households in Wongnioute Banner in Inner Mongolia, and a 1985 migration survey of 2089 rural households in 41 villages. The study area was selected because jian-zhi town status was easily obtained and the are needed more towns for local administration and trade; the area was similar in geographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics to other northern and northwestern regions. The Wongnioute Banner comprises 5 towns (Qiaotou, Wufendi, Hairesu, Wuduentaohai, and Wutonghua) and 1 country town (Wudan). All citizens from birth have an agricultural or nonagricultural status, which can be changed by passing national exams or completing a university education, joining the military and becoming an officer, marrying someone with a nonagricultural status, reunifying the family, or holding a special program. Quotas are set annually for status changes, e.g. in Tibet Autonomous Region the annual quota was 3%. Town residents may have either status. In the sample, 56.6% lived in town and had a nonagricultural status; 17.7% of heads of household town residents had an agricultural status and had stronger ties to villages because of family connections. Commuters are a third group and comprise 8.9%. County towns and jian-zhi towns are grouped the same, but are quite different in population size. Wudan had a population of 27,600 spread over an area of 480 hectares. The jian-zhi towns each had an

  11. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  12. What is Binocular Disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Lappin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the geometric primitives of binocular disparity? The Venetian blind effect and other converging lines of evidence indicate that stereo-scopic depth perception derives from disparities of higher-order structure in images of surfaces. Image structure entails spatial variations of in-tensity, texture, and motion, jointly structured by observed surfaces. The spatial structure of bin-ocular disparity corresponds to the spatial struc-ture of surfaces. Independent spatial coordinates are not necessary for stereoscopic vision. Stere-opsis is highly sensitive to structural disparities associated with local surface shape. Disparate positions on retinal anatomy are neither neces-sary nor sufficient for stereopsis.

  13. Archives: Town and Regional Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home > Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 12 of 12 ...

  14. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-09-01

    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  15. City and Town Halls; townHalls13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Locations of city and town halls in Rhode Island. Derived using information originally compiled by the State of Rhode Island (http://www.ri.gov), and built upon...

  16. Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town : the Power of Collective Governance. The city of Cape Town ... In 2008, it took some steps toward planning, preparedness and risk mitigation. Building on this ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work. Policy in Focus ...

  17. VLT Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzini, Alvio

    Over eight years have passed since April first, 1999, when the UT1 of the VLT started regular scientific observations. These have been incredibly exciting years, with all the four VLT telescopes coming progressively into play, and its ten scientific instruments starting to deliver high quality data. I have been asked to start this timely meeting on how best use the VLT over the next ten years and beyond, by mentioning some of the most exciting results so far achieved with the VLT. So many and in so many disparate areas have been the outstanding VLT results, that it is a great embarrassment to be forced to make a choice. I have then decided to show one result for each of the ten VLT instruments, preferentially when the instrument was pushed to its limits. This exercise may show what fascinating science is just beyond such limits, and draw indications for possible upgrades or new VLT instruments. Inevitably, important instrument modes and science areas have been left out of this brief introductory review. The choice is certainly biased depending on my more or less direct experience, and focuses in particular on two areas, exoplanets and galaxy evolution at 1.4

  18. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  19. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  20. Connecting town & beach in Bagamoyo

    OpenAIRE

    Pihl, Martina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction I spent two months in Bagamoyo in 2003 together with the Department of Architecture and Development Studies, LTH/LU when I participated in a project about streetscape of Bagamoyo. I became interested to continue working with spatial planning in Bagamoyo for my diploma work, as the town has as well an interesting history as a future. The small Swahili coastal town Bagamoyo, has a rich cultural heritage as once one of the most important trading harbours in East Africa. The importan...

  1. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a great many articles have been writ- ten on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writ- ers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort. Record Book and the existance of more than one. Cape Town time-gun has only recently been re- corded. By 1807 a noon gun ...

  2. FY 2016 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-23

    This fact sheet summarizes the research highlights for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) for Fiscal Year 2106. Topics covered include additive manufacturing for the wind industry, biomass-based chemicals substitutions, carbon fiber manufacturing facility siting, geothermal power plant turbines, hydrogen refueling stations, hydropower turbines, LEDs and lighting, light-duty automotive lithium-ion cells, magnetocaloric refrigeration, silicon carbide power electronics for variable frequency motor drives, solar photovoltaics, and wide bandgap semiconductor opportunities in power electronics.

  3. Recent highlights from STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Wangmei

    2018-02-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment takes advantage of its excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities at mid-rapidity to explore the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The STAR collaboration presented 7 parallel and 2 plenary talks at Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 and covered various topics including heavy flavor measurements, bulk observables, electro-magnetic probes and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  4. Clinical highlights from Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke T. Annema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contains highlights and a selection of the scientific advances from the Clinical Assembly that were presented at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The most relevant topics for clinicians will be discussed, covering a wide range of areas including interventional pulmonology, rehabilitation and chronic care, thoracic imaging, diffuse and parenchymal lung diseases, and general practice and primary care. In this comprehensive review, exciting novel data will be discussed and put into perspective.

  5. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  6. Highlights from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of recent results from ATLAS were presented. The data collected to date, the detector and physics performance, and measurements of previously established Standard Model processes were reviewed briefly before summarising the latest ATLAS results in the Brout-Englert-Higgs sector, where big progress has been made in the year since the discovery. Finally, selected prospects for measurements including the data from the HL-LHC luminosity upgrade were presented, for both ATLAS and CMS. Many of the results mentioned are preliminary. These proceedings reflect only a brief summary of the material presented, and the status at the time of the conference is reported.

  7. IGC highlights 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The major thrust of the research and development (R and D) activities of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam is oriented towards mastering fast breeder reactor (FBR) technology. Towards this end, its current R and D activities are carried out in a wide variety of disciplines. Highlights of its R and D activities during 1988 are summarised under the headings: Reactor Engineering and Design, Reactor Physics and Safety, Materials Science and Technology, Sodium Chemistry and Technology, Fuel Reprocessing and Electronics and Instrumentation. The text is illustrated with a number of figures, graphs and coloured pictures. (M.G.B.). figs., tabs

  8. BARC highlights '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay during 1988 are presented in chapters entitled: Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Materials and Materials Sciences, Radioisotopes, Reactors, Fuel Cycle, Radiological Safety and Protection, Electronics and Instrumentation, Engineering Services, and Life Sciences. Main thrust of the R and D activities of BARC is on nuclear power reactor technology and all stages of nuclear fuel cycle. Some activities are also in the frontier areas such as high temperature superconductivity and inertial confinement fusion. (M.G.B.). figs., tabs., coloured ills

  9. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  10. Science Highlights from SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erick T.

    2017-06-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center DLR to provide infrared and sub-millimeter observing capabilities to the worldwide astronomical community. With a wide range of instruments that cover both imaging and spectroscopy, SOFIA has produced unique scientific results that could not be obtained with a ground-based facility. In this talk, I will describe highlights from a range of areas in astronomy. A particular strength of SOFIA is high resolution spectroscopy. In the mid-infrared, the instrument EXES has enabled velocity-resolved observations of solar system, interstellar, and star forming regions. The heterodyne spectrometer GREAT has been a particularly productive instrument on SOFIA, with high resolution studies of the gas in the interstellar medium. With its extremely high spectral resolution, GREAT has allowed dynamical studies of clouds and their interactions. I will highlight observations that demonstrate the infall of material in star-forming regions. SOFIA can go to where the science is. This mobility is important for localized events such as occultations. Results from the recent Pluto occultation campaign will be discussed.

  11. REGIONAL DISPARITIES – HISTORICAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate

  12. Highlights from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Autermann, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This article summarizes the latest highlights from the CMS experiment as presented at the Lepton Photon conference 2017 in Guangzhou, China. A selection of the latest physics results, the latest detector upgrades, and the current detector status are discussed. CMS has analyzed the full dataset of proton-proton collision data delivered by the LHC in 2016 at a center-of-mass energy of $13$\\,TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $40$\\,fb$^{-1}$. The leap in center-of-mass energy and in luminosity with respect to the $7$ and $8$\\,TeV runs enabled interesting and relevant new physics results. A new silicon pixel tracking detector was installed during the LHC shutdown 2016/17 and has successfully started operation.

  13. PSI scientific highlights 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.; Dury, T.

    2013-05-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reviews research in various areas carried out by the institute in 2012. Also, the various facilities to be found at the institute are described. Research focus and highlights are discussed. These include work done using synchrotron light, neutrons and muons as well as work done in the particle physics, microtechnology and nanotechnology areas. Further areas of research include biomolecular research, radiopharmacy, radiochemistry and environmental chemistry. Other areas covered include general energy research and work done at the Competence Center for Energy and Mobility CCEM, work done on nuclear energy safety as well as systems analysis in the environmental and energy areas. The report is concluded with facts and figures on the PSI, its Advisory Board and its organisational structures

  14. PSI scientific highlights 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.

    2012-04-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the major highlights of the work done at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, in 2011. According to the institute's director, work was concerned with the design and analysis of advanced materials with new functionalities, for application in fields as diverse as communications and energy technology, transportation, construction and medicine. Of particular topical interest are research projects on materials for application in the field of energy, for example for improving batteries for future electrically powered vehicles. Another example is in the field of catalysts. Environmentally harmful compounds, such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide produced in an engine, are transformed into nontoxic gases through catalytic conversion. Work progress on the SwissFEL installation is noted, including a breakthrough for SwissFEL main Linac C-band accelerating systems. Further topics in relation to the SwissFEL system are noted. Planning of the initial set of experimental stations at the SwissFEL is discussed and close collaboration with growing number of user communities is noted. Cross-Correlation Scattering, and a theoretical framework for this method is being developed and experimentally verified, using artificial nanostructures and synchrotron radiation. Highlights of further research work are discussed, including topics such as Synchrotron light, work done on neutrons and muons, particle physics, micro and nanotechnology as well as on biomolecular research and radiopharmacy. Large research facilities are discussed as is the PSI proton therapy installation. General energy topics are looked at, as are nuclear energy and safety aspects and environmental and energy systems analysis. Various further work includes factors causing glacier retreat and aerosols. User facilities are listed, including accelerators, the SLS light source, the SINQ neutron source, the UCN ultra-cold neutron source

  15. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Jung, Minna; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Using a quality improvement framework to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care highlights multiple opportunities for federal and state governments to exert policy leverage, particularly through their roles as purchasers and regulators. Under such a framework, federal and state governments can expand their roles in collecting race/ethnicity data; define universal and meaningful race/ethnicity categories; more broadly disseminate standards for cultural competence; and demand the reduction of disparities through leveraging their status as collectively the largest U.S. health care payer.

  16. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  17. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  18. HIV and Cancer Interaction Highlights Need to Address Disease Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global landscape of disease highlights disparities that exist between nations. An estimated 36 million people worldwide live with HIV and AIDS, of which only 1 million are located within the United States. While the diagnosis of a life-threatening disease can be devastating, individuals with HIV and AIDS frequently bear an additional burden of stigma and discrimination.

  19. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  20. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS IN IAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kreft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reviewing and commenting highlights of the research published in Image Analysis and Stereology journal (IAS, volume 35, where 16 original research papers on image analysis, computer vision, modelling, and other approaches were published. We have reported on the precision of curve length estimation in the plane. Further, a focus was on a robust estimation technique for 3D point cloud registration. Next contribution in computer vision was on the accuracy of stereo matching algorithm based on illumination control. An attempt was also made to automatically diagnose prenatal cleft lip with representative key points and identify the type of defect in three-dimensional ultrasonography. Similarly, a new report is presenting estimation of torsion of digital curves in 3D images and next, the nuchal translucency by ultrasound is being analyzed. Also in ophthalmology, image analysis may help physicians to establish a correct diagnosis, which is supported by a new approach to measure tortuosity of retinal vessel. Another report of medical significance analyzed correlation of the shape parameters for characterization of images of corneal endothelium cells. Shape analysis is also an important topic in material science, e.g. in analyzing fine aggregates in concrete. As in concrete, in fiber reinforced composites image analysis may aid in improved quality, where the direction of fibers have decisive impact on properties. Automatic defect detection using a computer vision system improves productivity quality in industrial production, hence we report of a new Haar wavelet-based approach.

  1. Regional disparities in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Czabán, Vera

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  2. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  3. STS-70 mission highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The highlights of the STS-70 mission are presented in this video. The flight crew consisted of Cmdr. John Hendricks, Pilot Kevin Kregel, Flight Engineer Nancy Curie, and Mission Specialists Dr. Don Thomas and Dr. Mary Ellen Weber. The mission's primary objective was the deployment of the 7th Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS), which will provide a communication, tracking, telemetry, data acquisition, and command services space-based network system essential to low Earth orbital spacecraft. Secondary mission objectives included activating and studying the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R), The Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) studies, the Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4), the Hand-Held, Earth Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES), the Microcapsules in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment, the Windows Experiment (WINDEX), the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment. There was an in-orbit dedication ceremony by the spacecrew and the newly Integrated Mission Control Center to commemorate the Center's integration. The STS-70 mission was the first mission monitored by this new control center. Earth views included the Earth's atmosphere, a sunrise over the Earth's horizon, several views of various land masses, some B/W lightning shots, some cloud cover, and a tropical storm.

  4. in major towns of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for treatment of mainly malaria, gonorrhea, tuberculosis and for diabetes or hypertension. A total of 60 traditional health care facilities (premises) in 20 towns were considered during this survey. Students from health science teaching colleges were used to collect relevant information and to purchase samples of the remedies ...

  5. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  6. A town in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark

    Classical ways of defining urbanity are ill-matched with the early phases of a developing town, and indeed often with the archaeological source material at hand. New ways to describe urbanity in a way that is easier to recognize through archaeology are called for. In my PhD-project I explore some...

  7. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  8. Nerdfighters, "Paper Towns," and heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wilkinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Socially and politically controlled teenagers find emancipatory spaces in young adult (YA literature, spaces where institutions can be challenged and individuals can gain agency and empowerment. Drawing on Foucault's theory of heterotopia, I examine the literary spaces in John Green's YA novel Paper Towns and examine how Green's online social networking community Nerdfighters shares an ideological common ground with the novel.

  9. ESO Highlights in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  10. The Ecological Psychology of the Small Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Duane I.

    1989-01-01

    Uses principles of ecological theory to predict architectural needs of a small town. Examines Barker's concept of undermanning which led to six hypotheses regarding small-town behavior and corresponding design recommendations. Concludes that psychology of small-town resident is unique because of special ecological demands placed on the people.…

  11. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  12. Urbanization: priority to development of towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This news brief discusses the development of new towns and socioeconomic development in rural areas in China. The Ministry of Construction is currently engaged in piloting the promotion of rural urbanization in 500 selected towns in all provinces. Suburban towns in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan were selected as demonstration areas. 1200 towns will be formulating their own plans based on local conditions. The Ministry of Construction aims to establish new towns by the year 2000 and to create favorable conditions for the movement of over 30 million surplus laborers. The Chinese government also plans to modernize 20% of its towns. Guidelines will strictly control the growth of large cities, reasonably developing medium-sized cities, small cities, and vigorously developing towns. China has about 55,000 towns and 3.7 million villages. The National Program for Town and Village Development is responsible for the transfer of surplus labor to the new towns. It is estimated that the urban town population will reach over 200 million. The aim is to establish over 10,000 economically developed towns, of which each of 2000 should have a population of over 10,000. The development will require 2.79 billion sq. m of space for housing. 42% of the new housing will have access to running water, and 55% should have access to paved roads. 16% of urban acreage will be devoted to green cover, which amounts to about 2.85 sq. m per person in public areas.

  13. Regional disparities of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cismas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional issues include a variety of events that reflect the persistence of imbalances/ disparities in the development of a country’s regions (the trend of regional divergence. The major problem faced by all European regions is the high level of long-term unemployment, interregional disparities in this respect being obvious. The many (negative effects that unemployment generates - both for society and for individuals - fully justify the concerns of the world governments regarding both this reality and the continuous concern for finding solutions on employment at the highest level possible. These are the reasons why, this paper analyzes the issue of regional disparities of unemployment, in the EU countries, focusing on Romanian regions, using statistical data relevant for this purpose.

  14. Treatment of Household Waste in Small Towns of China: Status, Basic Conditions and Appropriate Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Pin-jing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Small town is the gateway of population migrating from rural areas to urban areas in the process of urbanization. The level of its household solid waste treatment is pivotal to the environmental and sanitary quality of surrounding rural areas. Furthermore, small town is the primary administrative center for rural districts, and will impose important influences on the solid waste management in villages. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of treatment modes on the household solid waste treatment in towns and surrounding villages. Based on the waste generation in small towns, this study analyzed the current status and existing problems for solid waste treatment, and discussed the related administrative management and financial supporting conditions in small towns. By summarizing the characteristics of the existing modes and comparing the costs for different treatment modes, the present study proposed that the most appropriate mode was“diversion in villages-diversion, transportation or treatment in towns-treatment and disposal in counties”, in which the town was the core node for the treatment of rural solid waste, so that the administrative and financial advantages of small towns could be highlighted and consequentially promoted the management of rural solid waste.

  15. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  16. Race and healthcare disparities: overcoming vulnerablity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes recently published data and recommendations about healthcare disparities experienced by African Americans who have Medicare or other healthcare coverage. Against this background the paper addresses the ethics of such disparities and how disadvantages of vulnerable populations like African Americans are typically maintained in decision making about how to respond to such disparities. Considering how to respond to disparities reveals much that vulnerable populations would bring to the policy-making table, if they can also be heard when they get there. The paper argues that vulnerable populations like African Americans need fair representation in bodies deciding what to do about such disparities and that fairness requires proportional representation at all levels of decisions that affect healthcare--a radical change. In this decision setting, how to provide adequate protection of minorities needs much further attention. The most attractive decision-making model is deliberative democracy. The paper shows that in deliberation, fair representation requires not only having a voice in decisions, but a fair hearing of those voices. Achieving a fair hearing requires changes in norms of communication and training of all to give importance to greetings and other measures of civility and trust building, and to be open to diverse forms of expression. Decisions about how to respond to healthcare disparities would include what programs to initiate for whom, how to evaluate the programs, and what to do in response to such evaluations. Conclusions are that achieving such goals will take a sea change in how healthcare institutions and providers do their business, and that social activism at every level will be needed to effect these changes. The discussion highlights many ethical issues that need much greater attention.

  17. Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical Gazette, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted are "The Teaching of Euclid" by Bertrand Russell, an article on integrals by G. H. Hardy, "An Address on Relativity" by A. S. Eddington, "The Food of the Gods" by Prof. E. H. Neville, and "Simplicity and Truthfulness in Arithmetic" by W. Hope-Jones. (CT)

  18. VT Designated New Town Center Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Municipalities that lack a historic downtown may obtain New Town Center designation, meeting requirements for planning, capital expenditures, and regulatory tools...

  19. Nigel Worden (ed., Cape Town between East and West: Social Identities in a Dutch Colonial Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Huigen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigel Worden (ed., Cape Town between East and West: Social Identities in a Dutch Colonial Town (Johannesburg, Hilversum: Jacana, Verloren, 2012, xxii + 264 pp., isbn 978 1 4314 0292 2, 978 90 8704 290 5.

  20. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic, social, psychological ...One aspect of our experimental approach is to test whether therapeutically targeting cholesterol using heart healthy diets and FDA approved, safe and...of the racial differences seen in incidence and mortality. We sought to test this using preclinical models (done by Dr. Solomon for which no data

  1. Intra-regional disparities in Sisak-Moslavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Braičić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct discrepancies in social and economic development levels between different parts of the Sisak-Moslavina County. Although discussed in earlier researches, the County's intraregional disparities were approached in a new way. The paper deals with the disparities between administrative cities and municipalities and between the northern (Sisak Posavina and Moslavina and the southern (Banovina part of the County by applying two groups of indicators – economic development and demographic development. Based on these indicators administrative cities and municipalities ranking has been conducted, two synthetic ranks have been derived and their correlation tested. According to different indicators, the Municipality of Gvozd is in the most unfavourable situation while the most favourable indicators are related to the town of Kutina.

  2. Urbanization and Effective Town Planning in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... studies and management is essentially for all town and country planning activities and development in the ... for the orderly growth of the towns and cities with the use of master plans, land use zoning, and layout ... urbanization resulting in our major cities growing and expanding in an unplanned manner.

  3. Surface roughness from highlight structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Rong; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    1999-01-01

    Highlights are due to specular reflection and cause the lustrous or mirrorlike appearance of many material surfaces. We investigated in detail the structure of highlight patterns that are due to material surface roughness. We interpret results in terms of a simple model of a random Gaussian surface.

  4. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health issues, disparities, and information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Becky

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons, while widely diverse in many ways, share health disparities related to the stigma and discrimination they experience, including disproportionate rates of psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and suicide. Lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and the transgender communities have additional health concerns and disparities unique to each population. This paper highlights the national recognition of these health issues and disparities and presents web-based information resources about them and their mitigation.

  5. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  6. Highlights of nuclear chemistry 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In this report 9 topics of the work of the Nuclear Chemistry Group in 1995 are highlighted. A list of publications and an overview of the international cooperation is given. (orig.). 19 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 2 app.

  7. Fluorescence Spectra of Highlighter Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; King, Damon

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra excited by laser pointers have been the subject of several papers in TPT. These papers all describe a fluorescence phenomenon in which the reflected laser light undergoes a change in color: this color change results from the combination of some partially reflected laser light and additional colors generated by fluorescent emission. Here we examine the fluorescence spectra of highlighter inks using green and violet laser pointers. We use an RSpec Explorer spectrometer to obtain spectra and compare the emission spectra of blue, green, yellow, orange, pink, and purple highlighters. The website Compound Interest details the chemical composition of highlighter inks; in addition, the site discusses how some base dye colors can be combined to produce the variety commercially available colors. Spectra obtained in this study were qualitatively consistent with the Compound Interest site. We discuss similarities and differences between various highlighter colors and conclude with the relevance of such studies to physics students.

  8. Highlights of nuclear chemistry 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In this report 9 topics of the work of the Nuclear Chemistry Group in 1995 are highlighted. A list of publications and an overview of the international cooperation is given. (orig.). 19 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 2 app

  9. VT App - Town Bridge and Culvert Inventories - Web Mapping App

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VTCULVERTS.org web mapping application. Town bridge and culvert inventories currently collected by the RPCs (Regional Planning Commissions), towns, and their...

  10. URBAN IDENTITY AND IRANIAN NEW TOWNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa PAZHUHAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era when urbanization on a large scale and at a rapid pace has become a dominant trend, particularly in developing countries, the fundamental issue of urban spaces identity is always being ignored. This is an important issue in two respects. First, it refers to the weakening of the identity elements over time, coinciding with the new development; second, it regards the lack of attention to identity stimulants, and failure in using them in a figurative and semantic manner in a small-scale structure to the macro-scale of urban tissues. The relative identity crisis is particularly apparent in new towns and it is one of the obstacles to attract population into these soulless towns. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the identity of 10 new towns in Iran to achieve a conceptual-cognitive framework for reviewing the above mentioned problem. We conducted this research based on qualitative and quantitative methods and by the use of the Goeller matrix and of a qualitative survey questionnaire. Findings indicate that in terms of selected measures, the new town of Baharestan achieved the first place and the other two towns “Andisheh and Pardis” occupied the next ranks. Results indicate that among new towns under investigation, the new town of Baharestan got the highest rank because its principles of identity were inspired by the principles of the Isfahan School.

  11. Towards the making of a town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark

    , that is just to set the scene for town life. What happens in the many encounters and relations between people living in the town, or visiting the town, I believe is a central aspect of urban life and something which deserves more attention. These ideas are key components in my PhD-project, which is a part......What makes the town a town is partly the diversity of activities taking place there – and with that comes a diversity of social roles among the people in the town. Trade, craft, clerical institutions and fortifications may be important functional and iconic trademarks of towns, but in some ways...... of the Urban Encounters project. My project deals with exploring the early urban development of Copenhagen, c. 1050-1300, with the material from recent year’s excavation at Rådhuspladsen as the main focus. By analyzing the material traces of daily practices related to the people active in this area, I want...

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices for Patients With Dementia Among Mental Health Providers in China: City and Town Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Zhaorui; Xu, Ling; Huang, Yueqin; Chi, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Mental health providers are the major resource families rely on when experiencing the effects of dementia. However, mental health resources and manpower are inadequate and unevenly distributed between cities and towns in China. This study was conducted to examine similarities and differences in knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices concerning dementia and working with family caregivers from mental health providers' perspectives in city versus town settings. Data were collected during focus group discussions with 40 mental health providers in the Xicheng (city) and Daxing (town) districts in Beijing, China in 2011. Regional disparities between providers' knowledge of early diagnosis of dementia and related counseling skills were identified. Regional similarities included training needs, dementia-related stigma, and low awareness of dementia among family caregivers. Culturally sensitive education specific to dementia for mental health providers and a specialized dementia care model for people with dementia and their family caregivers are urgently needed. Implications for geriatric practitioners and educators are discussed.

  13. Powering the town with hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed an innovative energy storage project that was established in the small off-grid town of Bella Coola, British Columbia. In this demonstration project, clean energy generated from a river hydroelectric plant is converted into hydrogen for storage. Previous to the establishment of the storage system, pollution-emitting diesel generators were required during periods of peak demand or low water flow to meet excess power needs. During off-peak hours, the Hydrogen Assisted Renewable Power (HARP) system uses electricity to convert water into hydrogen through an electrolyzer. The hydrogen gas is stored in high pressure tanks and then fed into a 100-kilowatt fuel cell to generate electricity when demand peaks. The electricity is produced when hydrogen reacts with oxygen. Smart grid technologies efficiently manage the system, determining when it is appropriate for the system to use hydroelectric power, the fuel cell, or diesel by wirelessly monitoring the power chain and automatically responding to changes in supply and demand. Micro-grid systems are well suited to off-grid communities as well as college campuses, industrial campuses, ports, and islands, and they are good at integrating renewable energy sources like wind and solar, saving on expensive fuel imports into these communities. For Bella Coola, the system is expected to reduce annual diesel consumption by 200,000 litres, thereby lowering annual greenhouse gas emissions by 600 tons. 5 figs.

  14. Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels for the Port of Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, FB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of the busiest ports on the African continent, thus highlighting the importance of characterising emissions from OGVs. This paper presents the results of ship emissions inventories that were compiled for the Port of Cape Town for a base year of 2012 using three...

  15. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of…

  16. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...... as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food...

  17. ROMANIAN SMALL TOWNS SEARCHING FOR THEIR IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ilinca STOICA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian small towns – urban settlements of less than 20 000 inhabitants, having a polarization function of the socio-economic activities in the narrow rural areas - are considered an interface between rural and urban communities. Determining the identity of small towns is rather difficult, because complex and varied political, social and economic changes occurred in the previous century. Thus, three distinct phases have been established: before 1950 the towns had a rather strong rural character; in 1950-1989 their identity was completely changed under the communist regime; after that they somehow regained their initial identity (that before 1950, or promoted it at higher levels. There is a main discrepancy between the present stage and that before 1989: the then identity wasconventional and constrained whereas today it develops in a natural process conditioned only by the town itself and by the choice of its inhabitants.

  18. The Influence of Antiquity on Town Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Marinko

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In planning towns, no less than in other fields of human activity, antiquity set an example, which was followed in later periods. Two urban types prevailed in the ancient times: one with the town plan adapted to the configuration of the ground and the other geometrically designed. The latter type is considered to be a higher form of urban arrangement. Both types, which stem from the town layouts of the Near East, had their rise, their climax (the ideal form and decline within the ancient period. The tendency to achieve an adequate arrangement is brought to light in this article on three levels; ancient models are shown to have been used to the present times, although subjected to modifications and variations. The first level is represented by a »gridiron« of streets meeting at right angles, which are characterised by evident geometrical regularity (later instances may also contain diagonals, whereas the town walls follow the configuration of the ground. Ancient instances are the towns of Miletus and Alexandria, modern instances are Washington, New York - Manhattan and Barcelona. The second level is to be seen in towns where both the town walls and the network of streets display a rectangular design. The highest achievement of Roman designers on this level was the so-called urbs quadrata. Many later towns were designed on the same rectangular model, but they soon outgrew the original limits. Ancient examples are the town of Birs - Nimrud in Mesopotamia and the Roman castra (military camp, while medieval examples are Aigues-Mortes and St. Gallen. The third level is to be found in distinguished town quarters, normally those containing public squares. Their originally irregular form gave way to the rectangular Greek agora, which was followed by the even more consistent geometricity of the Roman forum. The rectangular square with an addition of circular segments lined along the longitudinal axis was favoured during the Baroque period. The ancient

  19. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Cheryl A.; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS.

  20. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cheryl A; Black, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS.

  1. Brookhaven highlights, 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The highlights of research conducted between October 1985 and September 1987 at Brookhaven National Laboratory are reviewed in this publication. Also covered are the administrative and financial status of the laboratory and a brief mention of meetings held and honors received. (FI)

  2. Revitalisation as a Method of Planning Sustainable Development of Old Town Complexes in Historic Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Old towns in spatial structures of historic towns are the areas which - same as centuries before - serve as the town centres. This is almost invariably true about small towns especially, as the inner town district is more frequently the site where a town was originally located and is often the manifestation of its historic identity. However, functional and spatial problems of many small historic towns arise from the above trend, mostly because of the frequently high density of buildings in the oldest part of a town. The intricate nature of elements creating the structure of a town’s historic centre often calls for certain steps to be taken, which will ensure better exposure of an old town complex against the backdrop of the town’s other areas. Numerous problems need to be solved, not only spatial but also economic and social ones. A town is a living organism, inhabited by people. The key to tackling these issues successfully lies in the creation of such revitalisation programmes that will improve the quality of space and help achieve the sustainable development of inner-town areas in historic towns. The historic centres in the medieval towns of Warmia, a region rich in history and situated in north-eastern Poland, can serve as an example and has been investigated in the following study. All the towns in Warmia located in the Middle Ages, except the capital of the region Olsztyn, can be classified as small urban developments. This group of eleven towns is dominated by the ones whose territorial coverage has not changed considerably since the location and the population ranges from a few thousand to less than twenty thousand. To this day, the historic quarters of these towns have remained the central ones in each town, and their urban structures to a various extent reveal the features characteristic for the period when they were created. The differences are due to the war damage the towns suffered at the end of World War Two and because of the different ways in

  3. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  4. LHC Results Highlights (CLASHEP 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O.

    2015-05-22

    The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

  5. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, J. C.; Lara, L. M.; Quilis, V.; Gorgas, J.

    2013-05-01

    "Highlights of Astronomy and Astrophysics VII" contains the Proceedings of the biannual meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society held in Valencia from July 9 to 13, 2012. Over 300 astronomer, both national and international researchers, attended to the conference covering a wide variety of astrophysical topics: Galaxies and Cosmology, The Milky Way and Its Components, Planetary Sciences, Solar Physics, Instrumentation and Computation, and Teaching and Outreach of Astronomy.

  7. Highlights of nuclear chemistry 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Highlights were: 1. Fission product release: benchmark calculations for severe nuclear accidents; 2. Thermochemical data for reactor materials and fission products; 3. thermochemical calculations on fuel of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; 4. Formation of organic tellurides during nuclear accidents?; 5. Reaction of tellurium with Zircaloy-4; 6. Transmutation of fission products; 7. The thermal conductivity of high-burnup UO 2 fuel; 8. Tritium retention in graphite. (orig./HP)

  8. Development Track of Different County-Level Towns

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Haijiao; ZHANG, Zhenghe

    2015-01-01

    County-level town is important space carrier of China’s urbanization and the emphasis and key of strategic distribution for urbanization. Backwardness of county-level towns limits nearby transfer of surplus labor. To promote development of county-level towns, on the basis of classifying county-level towns, this paper analyzed motive and resistance factors of evolution of different county-level towns using historical data collection and statistical method, comparative approach, typical case ...

  9. [African towns and health: references and stakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, G; Fournet, F

    2003-08-01

    Urbanization is a fairly recent phenomenon. Thus during the 19th century, only 5% of the population was living in town. However it is more and more important as urban population has been multiplied by 15 since 1900. In Africa, this evolution is still more recent and the continent remains poorly urbanized. But the rate of urbanization is the fastest in the world and demographic forecasts indicate that by 2025, more than 50% of the African population will live in towns. Consequences of urbanization on human development are not well known. Concepts of demographic and epidemiological transitions were widely used for health. Health transition is another concept, including cultural, social and behavioural determining factors as well as ways of caring and being cared for. These processes account for the reduction of infectious diseases through a fall of mortality and birth rates and the emergence of non-transmissible diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers, mental diseases.... Although health situation is depicted as better in towns (better immunization, health care offer, better access to health care...), mortality and morbidity patterns seem to change more quickly in towns than in rural areas. However this is not true everywhere in urban areas where several towns are to be found within the same town and for example, health of populations living on margins may be worse than that of rural populations. Urban people resort to modern health care together with traditional healers, even informal, sometimes illegal health care, involving heavy costs but offering no guarantee as regards their quality and their efficiency for patients and society. It appears that developing countries have to face a new health care demand quite different from the one they used to face before, when they have simultaneously to cope with uncontrolled town growth. Under these conditions, urban health should become a priority.

  10. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  11. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION OF A DEFUNCT IRAQI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šedina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  12. No gynecologist in town: the gynecological care of women in rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-Jung Lai,1 Chia-Lin Chou,2 H Irene Su,3 Tzeng-Ji Chen,1,4 Li-Fang Chou,5 Yueh-Ching Chou,2,6,7 Shinn-Jang Hwang,1,8 Hann-Chin Yu9,10 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 5Department of Public Finance, National Chengchi University, 6Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, 7College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 8Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Taipei Veterans General Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu County, Taiwan; 10Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Background: A shortage of gynecologists exists in many countries. Even within an affluent country, gynecological clinics might not be evenly distributed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the disparity in gynecological care between adult women living in towns with and without gynecologists in Taiwan.Methods: Data sources were the cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, with claims data of 1 million beneficiaries in 2010. A woman’s residency was operationally inferred from the locations where she had most frequently visited physicians’ clinics or local community hospitals within the year.Results: In Taiwan, 145 (39.4% of 368 towns had no practicing gynecologist. Of 382,167 women with health care use in the datasets, 21,794 (5.7% lived in towns without a gynecologist. The overwhelming majority of these towns lay in sparsely populated, rural areas. During the year, 132,702 women (34.7% had sought medical help for gynecological diseases and 113,698 (29.8% had visited gynecologists for gynecological diseases. Women in towns without a gynecologist were less

  13. Demographic changes of the Visaginas town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavaliauskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The youngest Lithuanian town surrounded by pine forest is situated at the shore of a picturesque lake of Visaginas. The level of radiation of the town and its suburbs doesn't prevail the standards due to the data given by the Lithuanian Department of Environmental Protection. A relatively small, hilly, green, full of lakes areas have all facilities for tourism and recreation. The town's birth is directly linked with the construction of the nuclear power plant. Great number of nuclear energy specialists came here with their families from the East. The specific character of the town determined the ethnic composition of its population. In 1994-1995 there were Russians (59%), Lithuanians (14%), Byelorussian s (11%), Poles (6%), other nationalities (10%). The number of the residents in Visaginas is stable now with a slight tendency of increasing on the number of women. In 1990 the population of Visaginas was 33192, the women comprised 566 more in number than the men, in 1997 of its 33508 people were 1172 more women than the men. Recent Lithuanian social-economic changes greatly influenced the number of inhabitants of the town. In 1987, 3567 new inhabitants arrived to Visaginas and 1588 moved out. The inhabitants who had arrived to Visaginas in 1987 -1996 were 5,5 times less than in 1987, and moved out 5,4 times less also. One half of the inhabitants who moved from Visaginas went abroad. It shows that the mechanic and social mobility of the town's population decreased too. From 1989 to 1996 the main factor in changing the population number was not the natural increase of it but its migration. Then the natural increase lowered 4,8 times. The economic situation of the town is complex and becoming worse. The town was built as a satellite of the power plant. When the construction of the third block was stopped, the building of many objects was not completed. Other industries didn't develop in Visaginas. Most unemployed are the inhabitants at the age of 19-49 (87,9%). The

  14. The Evolution of Regional Disparities in the Rural Areas of Muscelele Argeşului

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA CÂRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities are clearly a significant challenge to the new European construction. Disparities are often sources of instability but are also sources of antagonism and unrest. In the case of Muscelele Argeşului, in the past, it was a unitary area in terms of economic and social development, the two Middle Ages royal capitals keeping the balance of this area. After the 50s, the situation changed radically and the uneven development of the towns and villages began to widen. Some villages were collectivized; others were industrialized, while a third category was simply omitted from the development plans. As a consequence, development disparities evolved and became common during the 80s. After 1992, around the towns of Curtea de Argeş and Câmpulung, two relatively more developed regions emerged, while regions in the north and central part of the area were disadvantaged. Beginning with 2002, we are witnessing a reduction of disparities because the underdeveloped areas are increasing and incorporate previously developed areas. The area is starting to become a huge underdeveloped area and some of the main factors that led to this situation are the decay of the two poles of regional development and the closing of the coal mines. Today, the entire area is experiencing a rebirth and the entrepreneurial activities are playing an important role. The huge number of small hotels and accommodation establishments constructed in the west part of the area in the last five years, coupled with several investment projects in Curtea de Argeş, has led to the increased regional importance of the town to the expense of Câmpulung. In the meantime, former mining centres that where the engines of growth for the region became rather underdeveloped. The main cause of this is the fact that the region does not have perspectives and lacks the much needed entrepreneurial activities.

  15. Primary Care Providers Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Eugene; Leiferman, Jenn A.; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of primary care providers (PCPs) regarding the presence and underlying sources of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control. METHODS We conducted a survey of 115 PCPs from 2 large academic centers in Colorado. We included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The survey assessed provider recognition and perceived contributors of disparities in hypertension control. RESULTS Respondents were primarily female (66%), non-Hispanic White (84%), and physicians (80%). Among respondents, 67% and 73% supported the collection of data on the patients’ race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Eighty-six percent and 89% agreed that disparities in race/ethnicity and SES existed in hypertension care within the US health system. However, only 33% and 44% thought racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities existed in the care of their own patients. Providers were more likely to perceive patient factors rather than provider or health system factors as mediators of disparities. However, most supported interventions such as improving provider communication skills (87%) and cultural competency training (89%) to reduce disparities in hypertension control. CONCLUSIONS Most providers acknowledged that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control exist in the US health system, but only a minority reported disparities in care among patients they personally treat. Our study highlights the need for testing an intervention aimed at increasing provider awareness of disparities within the local health setting to improve hypertension control for minority patients. PMID:25631381

  16. Joined at the hip: linked characters and the problem of missing data in studies of disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Rosario, Michael V; Eiting, Thomas P; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2014-08-01

    Paleontological investigations into morphological diversity, or disparity, are often confronted with large amounts of missing data. We illustrate how missing discrete data affect disparity using a novel simulation for removing data based on parameters from published datasets that contain both extinct and extant taxa. We develop an algorithm that assesses the distribution of missing characters in extinct taxa, and simulates data loss by applying that distribution to extant taxa. We term this technique "linkage." We compare differences in disparity metrics and ordination spaces produced by linkage and random character removal. When we incorporated linkage among characters, disparity metrics declined and ordination spaces shrank at a slower rate with increasing missing data, indicating that correlations among characters govern the sensitivity of disparity analysis. We also present and test a new disparity method that uses the linkage algorithm to correct for the bias caused by missing data. We equalized proportions of missing data among time bins before calculating disparity, and found that estimates of disparity changed when missing data were taken into account. By removing the bias of missing data, we can gain new insights into the morphological evolution of organisms and highlight the detrimental effects of missing data on disparity analysis. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Highlights of DAMA/LIBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabei R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAMA project develops and uses new/improved low background scintillation detectors to investigate the Dark Matter (DM particle component(s in the galactic halo and rare processes deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS of the I.N.F.N.. Here some highlights of DAMA/LIBRA (Large sodium Iodide Bulk for Rare processes as a unique apparatus in direct DM investigation for its full sensitive mass, target material, intrinsic radio-purity, methodological approach and all the controls performed on the experimental parameters are outlined. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles have reached a model-independent evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo exploiting the DM annual modulation signature with highly radio-pure NaI(Tl target. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 are summarised and the powerful tools offered by a model independent strategy of DM investigation are pointed out.

  18. Highlights from the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz Maestre, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the status and some recent results of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The performance of the detector is assessed using a luminosity of $\\approx 5~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ recorded in the first part of the 2017 data-taking period. Run~2 physics studies use data collected at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $36~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Highlights from studies in the Higgs sector are the first observation of its decay into tau leptons by a single experiment, the most precise measurement of its mass, $\\mathrm{m_H} = 125.26 \\pm 0.21~\\mathrm{GeV}$ and a first search for the $\\mathrm{H}\\to\\mathrm{b\\overline{b}}$ decay in a phase space region that is sensitive to the gluon-fusion production mechanism. In the electroweak sector, CMS provides the currently most precise measurement of the effective weak mixing angle at the LHC: $\\sin\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.23101\\pm 0.00052$, using an integrated luminosity of $\\approx 20~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $\\sqr...

  19. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  20. Refugees in towns: experiences of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Jacobsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In countries of first asylum, transit and destination it is increasingly towns and cities that are absorbing refugees. We must look at what is happening at a local level to better understand urban integration as a process shared by refugees and host communities alike.

  1. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  2. Town and Regional Planning - Vol 62 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public participation in town-planning applications: Tlokwe Local Municipality as a case study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Puren, T Goosen, T Jordaan, 36-49. The relationship between settlement type and undercount in the South African ...

  3. (Boda boda) riders in Bungoma Town, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in Erectile Dysfunction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long term bicycle riding on erectile function among bicycle taxi (bodaboda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Setting: Bungoma County, Kenya.

  4. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Qamar, S; Zubairy, M S

    2003-01-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.

  5. TOWN AND GOWN INTERFACE: ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    community service and extension, universities in many countries such as. Nigeria are increasingly becoming major ... the employment of natives in Nigerian federal universities located on their land. The concept of town and ..... Essentials of the 1988 Civil Service Reforms in Nigeria Ibadan: University Press. Ritzer, G (2008).

  6. Zoology Department, University of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA CONCOLOR AND CELLANA. CAPENSlS, AND THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION ON. LIMPET POPULATIONS ... fixed sites to determine the amount of movement taking place. I am most grateful to Mrs. Giles of Cape Town for access to her collection of P. concolor,.

  7. homegardens and agrobiodiversity conservation in sabata town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    peri-urban town located in the tepid-humid mid highland agroecological zone of southwest Shewa of Oromia Regional State (Ethiopia), were investigated using standard methods of ethnobotany with the aim of elucidating their diagnostic features and significance in agrobiodiversity conservation. Semi-structured interviews ...

  8. Town and Regional Planning - Vol 59 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land quality, urban development and urban agriculture within the Cape Town urban edge · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Geyer, B Schloms, D du Plessis, A van Eeden, 41-52 ...

  9. Zoology Department, University o/Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoology Department, University o/Cape Town. ABSTRACT. Forty-six species were recorded in association with Patella spp., but most of these are casual associates, seeking temporary shelter. The shell surface offers an important substrate for algae. The amphipod Hyale grandicornla is often associated with Patella, ...

  10. Environmental health disparities in housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E

    2011-12-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing.

  11. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  12. Going to Town: Where Is the Nearest Steakhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Growing up in Loretto, Tennessee, population 1,700, people called it "going to town" when they went to any city big enough to have a McDonald's, Walmart, or a movie theater. If someone is not from a small town, they may not know what type of economic activities a small town can support. Will the town have a police department? Will there…

  13. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Earth Sciences Division in atmospheric science research. Figure 1.1 shows the 20-year record of peer-reviewed publications and proposals among the various Laboratories. This data shows that the scientific work being conducted in the Laboratories is competitive with the work being done elsewhere in universities and other government agencies. The office of Deputy Director for Atmospheric Research will strive to maintain this record by rigorously monitoring and promoting quality while emphasizing coordination and integration among atmospheric disciplines. Also, an appropriate balance will be maintained between the scientists' responsibility for large collaborative projects and missions and their need to carry out active science research as a principal investigator. This balance allows members of the Laboratories to improve their scientific credentials, and develop leadership potentials. Interdisciplinary research is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other government agencies. Members of the Laboratories interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratories raise the public's awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Atmosphere Laboratories make substantial efforts to attract and recruit new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA's mission, provides highlights of our research scope and activities, and summarizes our scientists' major

  14. LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED. PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN. Lt-Cdr W. M. Bisset*. In 1975 Mr H. C. Willis suggested to the present writer that the SA Navy should mount a bronze plaque similar to those commissioned by the. Simon's Town Historical Society and displayed on certain historical buildings in the town at ...

  15. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County, Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian-zhao; Yang, Zai-tian; Liu Pei-lin

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town, have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture, where mountains, waters, shoals, towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously, the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns, old temples, ancient forests, ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in...

  16. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 Years in the United States ... Do To Address Disparities Community-wide Initiatives Preventing teen pregnancy: Remarkable progress for many teens, but challenges ...

  17. Outcomes and disparities in liver transplantation will be improved by redistricting-cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David Seth; Karp, Seth

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 2 years, the liver transplant community has been debating a proposal to redraw the maps of organ distribution. The basis for these proposed changes is reported disparities in severity of illness at transplantation across the USA - however, this is based on the allocation model for end-stage liver disease score. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the redistribution proposal, its flaws and how it may worsen outcomes and exacerbate disparities in liver transplantation. The main findings we highlight are data questioning the disparity metric used to justify the redistribution. We also review data published in recent articles and presented at public forums questioning whether there truly are disparities in access to transplant care among the broader population with liver disease, and whether disparities even getting to the waitlist are important and not to be ignored. This review article highlights major methodological and policy flaws with the current redistribution proposal. We demonstrate how the waitlist disparities that the proposal is intended to fix are not as they seem. Furthermore, if this proposal is passed, outcomes of liver transplantation nationally may worsen, and disparities for those with limited access to healthcare will worsen.

  18. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the town of Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sinkhole as a natural hazard is often underrated when compared with landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in Italy. Sinkholes are rarely included in risk analysis despite their frequent occurrence in several parts of Italy, especially in karst lands or in those sectors of the country where artificial cavities have been realized underground by man for different purposes. Among the most affected Italian regions, Campania (southern Italy) stands out for several reasons, with particular regard to the town of Naples, highly affected by anthropogenic sinkholes. These latter have caused serious damage to society, and above all to people in terms of deaths, missing persons, and injured people, due to the high urbanization of the city, developed above a complex and extensive network of cavities, excavated during the 2000 years of history of the town. Among the different typologies of artificial cavities, it is worth mentioning the high number of ancient quarry used to extract the building materials for the town construction. The Institute of Research for the Hydrological Protection (IRPI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) has been working in the last years at populating a specific chronological database on sinkholes in the whole Italian country. On the base of the collected data, Naples appears to have been affected by not less than 250 events from the beginning of the century to nowadays. The IRPI database includes only sinkholes for which a temporal reference on their time of occurrence is known. Particular attention was given on this information, since the catalogue idea is to make a starting point for a complete sinkhole hazard analysis. At this aim, knowledge of the time of occurrence is mandatory. Day, month and year of the event are known for about 70% of sinkholes that took place in Naples, but the hour of occurrence is known for just 6% of the data. Information about site of occurrence are, on the other hand, highly

  19. Where Have All the Youngsters Gone? The Background and Consequences of Young Adults’ Outmigration from Hungarian Small Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkai Bernadett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the general demographic situation in Hungary and the recent overall crisis of this traditional settlement-type, Hungarian small towns have been facing an intensive shrinking since the last decade. Although natural decrease and migration loss are almost equal factors of population decline, outmigration seems to be a more strategic, critical problem for these settlements. There are hardly any reliable data available about the migrants leaving small towns, but some of them seem to support the wellknown assumption that the young people, who leave these towns are looking for wider horizons and better perspectives. The aim of the present paper is to analyse the outmigration of young adults from small towns, and give estimation about the international aspects of migration, which is hardly ever published in official statistics. The paper also aims at revealing the impact of the intensive migration on the local labour market. A short statistical analysis based on census data and two empirical surveys conducted by the authors are also included. One was carried out with the support of volunteer contributors, former small-town students, who tried to reconstruct the post-secondary school migration of their former classmates. The other survey contains a series of interviews focusing on the consequences of the young adults’ migration on the labour market. The results facilitate the estimation regarding the (weak capability of small towns to keep their young population, and highlight the problems of local developmental options within the context of demographic shrinkage.

  20. Study on the natural and humanistic environment of runcheng town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Nie; Jinping, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Runcheng town is one of the first Chinese characteristic towns to be selected in Shanxi province. It is 38 kilometers from the Jin city and 7 kilometers from Yangcheng County. It’s also an important undertaking place for the project “Industrial Westward Move of Jincheng City” and an important tourist town of Qin Castle Valley. The Runcheng town has a history of thousands of years, with a deep cultural background and unique natural landscape. This paper studies the history and cultural resources and makes a preliminary study on the natural and humanistic environment of the Runcheng town.

  1. SERVIR Town Hall - Connecting Space to Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel; Albers, Cerese

    2013-01-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID project, strives to improve environmental decision making through the use of Earth observations, models, and geospatial technology innovations. SERVIR connects these assets with the needs of end users in Mesoamerica, East Africa, and Hindu Kush-Himalaya regions. This Town Hall meeting will engage the AGU community by exploring examples of connecting Space to Village with SERVIR science applications.

  2. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates.

  3. Innovative sewerage solutions for small rural towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaper, C; Sharma, A

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of alternative wastewater servicing approaches in rural communities in Australia appears more feasible than in larger urban developments as many rural centres rely on septic tanks and surface discharge of greywater. This method of disposal creates many environmental, social and economic issues and is seen to limit potential for growth in many towns. This paper describes a generic methodology for the selection of innovative sewerage options for six regional towns in Victoria, Australia. The method includes consultation with stakeholders, multi-criteria assessment and concept design of the most favourable option. Despite the broad range of initial wastewater servicing options presented which included cluster-scale systems, upgrade of existing systems, greywater reuse and alternative collection, the outcome for five of the six towns was a modified centralised collection system as the preferred option. Lack of robust and reliable data on the human health risks and environmental impacts of alternative systems were identified as the primary data gaps in the sustainability assessment. In addition, biases in the assessment method due to stakeholder perceptions were found to be an additional issue.

  4. When does power disparity help or hurt group performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakci, Murat; Greer, Lindred L; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2016-03-01

    Power differences are ubiquitous in social settings. However, the question of whether groups with higher or lower power disparity achieve better performance has thus far received conflicting answers. To address this issue, we identify 3 underlying assumptions in the literature that may have led to these divergent findings, including a myopic focus on static hierarchies, an assumption that those at the top of hierarchies are competent at group tasks, and an assumption that equality is not possible. We employ a multimethod set of studies to examine these assumptions and to understand when power disparity will help or harm group performance. First, our agent-based simulation analyses show that by unpacking these common implicit assumptions in power research, we can explain earlier disparate findings--power disparity benefits group performance when it is dynamically aligned with the power holder's task competence, and harms group performance when held constant and/or is not aligned with task competence. Second, our empirical findings in both a field study of fraud investigation groups and a multiround laboratory study corroborate the simulation results. We thereby contribute to research on power by highlighting a dynamic understanding of power in groups and explaining how current implicit assumptions may lead to opposing findings. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Town Mouse or Country Mouse: Identifying a Town Dislocation Effect in Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the “town dislocation effect.” When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention. PMID:25973960

  6. Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect." When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

  7. Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect." When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

  8. Dental needs of intellectualy disabled children attending six special educational facilities in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T; Chetty, M; Kimmie-Dhansay, F; Fieggen, K; Stephen, L X G

    2016-05-25

    To assess the dental needs of a group of children with intellectual disability (ID) attending six special educational facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study based on a convenience sampling method. One hundred and fifty-seven children with ID attending six special educational facilities in Cape Town were included in the survey. Five schools were exclusively funded by the State and one school received additional private financial support. The oral examinations complied with guidelines drafted by Special Olympics Special Smiles programme and the Centers for Disease Control, USA. The most common dental disorders requiring management were gingival disease (69%) and untreated dental caries (68%). Almost 50% of the children had missing teeth. Twenty-nine percent needed orthodontic correction of malocclusion and 7% had structural abnormalities of their teeth that required either aesthetic or functional intervention. Fillings were evident in only 8% of the children. Females required more dental treatment than males. The dental needs of children with ID increased with age. There were no significant differences in the dental needs of children attending State-funded schools and those attending the single school that received additional financial assistance. The frequency of unmet dental needs of children with ID attending special educational facilities in Cape Town was high and the dental care available to them was minimal. The study highlights the need for improved dental services to ensure that optimal oral health is accessible to children with ID attending special educational facilities in Cape Town.

  9. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  10. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  11. Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Disparities in psychological distress impacting lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Mustian, Karen M; Dozier, Ann; Bowen, Deborah J; Li, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted disparities in cancer diagnosis between lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual adults. Studies have yet to examine disparities between LGBT and heterosexual cancer survivors in prevalence of psychological distress. Data for the current study were drawn from the LIVESTRONG dataset, a US national survey that sampled 207 LGBT and 4899 heterosexual cancer survivors (all cancer types, 63.5% women, mean age 49) in 2010. Symptoms of psychological distress were assessed with dichotomous yes/no items in three symptom clusters (depression related to cancer, difficulties with social relationships post-cancer, fatigue/energy problems). We selected a sample of 621 heterosexual survivors matched by propensity score to the 207 LGBT survivors and assessed disparities in count of symptoms using Poisson regression. We also performed subgroup analyses by self-reported sex. Relative to heterosexuals, LGBT cancer survivors reported a higher number of depression and relationship difficulty symptoms. Exploratory analyses revealed that disparities in number of symptoms were visible between gay, bisexual, and transgender versus heterosexual men but not between lesbian, bisexual, and transgender versus heterosexual women. This study highlights several disparities in psychological distress that exist between LGBT and heterosexual survivors. A need remains for interventions tailored to LGBT survivors and for studies examining disparities within subgroups of LGBT survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in African American men, affected by prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Dalton, Kyle; Borysova, Meghan E; Kumar, Nagi B

    2011-06-15

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. PCa exhibits the most striking racial disparity, as African American men are at 1.4 times higher risk of being diagnosed, and 2-3 times higher risk of dying of PCa, compared to Caucasian men. The etiology of the disparity has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this article is to critically review the literature and summarize the most prominent PCa racial disparities accompanied by proposed explanations. The present literature on disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival of African American men affected by PCa was systematically reviewed. Original research as well as relevant review articles were included. African American men persistently present with more advanced disease than Caucasian men, are administered different treatment regimens than Caucasian men, and have shorter progression-free survival following treatment. In addition, African American men report more treatment-related side-effects that translates to the diminished quality of life (QOL). PCa racial disparity exists at stages of presentation, diagnosis, treatment regimens, and subsequent survival, and the QOL. The disparities are complex involving biological, socio-economic, and socio-cultural determinants. These mounting results highlight an urgent need for future clinical, scientific, and socio-cultural research involving transdisciplinary teams to elucidate the causes for PCa racial disparities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.

  16. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF JURIDICAL REGULATIONS UPON TOURIST TOWN-PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen IORDACHE; Iuliana CEBUC

    2009-01-01

    Urban tourism, if correctly planned, developed and managed, may create advantages and benefits both to urban communities and overall society. By systematically implementing planning based on intelligent management and town-planning regulations complying with the organizing and long-lasting growth requirements of towns, local and national communities, benefits can be maximized, whereas troubles minimized. Town planning should pursue the juridical requirements of the legislation in force, based...

  18. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care: The Role of 'Big Data'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-15

    Advances in a wide array of scientific technologies have brought data of unprecedented volume and complexity into the oncology research space. These novel big data resources are applied across a variety of contexts-from health services research using data from insurance claims, cancer registries, and electronic health records, to deeper and broader genomic characterizations of disease. Several forms of big data show promise for improving our understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer, and for powering more intelligent and far-reaching interventions to close the racial gap in breast cancer survival. In this article we introduce several major types of big data used in breast cancer disparities research, highlight important findings to date, and discuss how big data may transform breast cancer disparities research in ways that lead to meaningful, lifesaving changes in breast cancer screening and treatment. We also discuss key challenges that may hinder progress in using big data for cancer disparities research and quality improvement.

  20. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Selected Local Markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tamirat; Biruksew, Abdissa; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Eshetu, Teferi

    2014-01-01

    Background. A study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from local markets in Jimma Town, Ethiopia, was conducted between April and May 2013. Methods. A total of 360 samples of fruits and vegetables were examined by sedimentation concentration after washing using normal saline. Results. The overall prevalence of parasitic contamination was 57.8%. Strongyloides like parasite (21.9%) was the most frequent parasitic contaminant followed by Toxocara Spp (14.7%), Cryptosporidium Spp (12.8%), H. nana (8.3%), G. lamblia (7.5%), A. lumbricoides (6.7%), E. histolytica/dispar (5.3%), Cyclospora spp (5.0%), and H. diminuta (1.4%). Washing of the fruits and vegetables before display for selling was significantly associated with decreased parasitic contamination (P vegetables are potential sources of transmission for intestinal parasites in the study area, consumers should always avoid acquiring parasitic infection from contaminated fruits and vegetables supplied in Jimma Town through proper cleaning and cooking.

  1. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  2. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  3. Astroparticle Physics European Consortium Town Meeting Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium (APPEC) invites you to a town meeting at the Grand Amphithéatre de Sorbonne in Paris on the 6th and 7th April 2016 to discuss an update of the 2011 APPEC Astroparticle Physics roadmap, to be published in September 2016. In 2014 APPEC decided to launch an update of the 2011 Roadmap, transforming it to a “resource aware” roadmap. The intention was to gauge the financial impact of the beginnings of operation of the large global scale observatories put forward in the previous roadmap and to examine the possibilities of international coordination of future global initiatives. The APPEC Scientific Advisory Committee examined the field and prepared a set of recommendations. Based on these recommendations, the APPEC General Assembly drafted a set of “considerations” to be published by end of February 2016 and be debated in an open dialogue with the community, through the web page but primarily at the town meeting of 6-7 April. Based on this debate the final re...

  4. Toward New Towns in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Ocampo

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in new towns has not been matched by local research on planning and development. We have therefore conducted surveys and case studies focused on selected large community projects in Metro Manila.From the information that we have gathered so far, it would appear that many local governments in Metro Manila are not well prepared to plan for or regulate urban growth, including residential projects within their jurisdictions.For their own part, a few of the private firms engaged in real estate development seem capable of designing and constructing projects that meet at least some of the major features of new towns such as large individual size. However, whether separated or jointly supported by private and government agencies, large projects are not necessarily free of serious handicaps, such as having to assemble sufficiently large sites.Aside from inhibiting good planning and development practices, such handicaps tend to increase costs and prices in residential projects. Private projects thus tend to cater to people who can afford such prices, while "cheap" government-subsidized projects are addressed to poorer people.The deeper ramifications and wider implications of these tentative impressions will be probed further in the final stages and year of this investigation.

  5. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  7. Using an Electronic Highlighter to Eliminate the Negative Effects of Pre-Existing, Inappropriate Highlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Vicki; Kreiner, David; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Herring, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether using an active learning technique, electronic highlighting, can eliminate the negative effects of pre-existing, poor highlighting on reading comprehension. Participants read passages containing no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, or inappropriate highlighting. We hypothesized…

  8. Quality of Care and Disparities in Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Growing attention is being paid to obstetric quality of care as patients are pressing the health care system to measure and improve quality. There is also an increasing recognition of persistent racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in obstetric outcomes. Yet few studies have linked obstetric quality of care with racial and ethnic disparities. This article reviews definitions of quality of care, health disparities, and health equity as they relate to obstetric care and outcomes; describes current efforts and challenges in obstetric quality measurement; and proposes 3 steps in an effort to develop, track, and improve quality and reduce disparities in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary Care Providers Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jessica; Nuccio, Eugene; Leiferman, Jenn A; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of primary care providers (PCPs) regarding the presence and underlying sources of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control. We conducted a survey of 115 PCPs from 2 large academic centers in Colorado. We included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The survey assessed provider recognition and perceived contributors of disparities in hypertension control. Respondents were primarily female (66%), non-Hispanic White (84%), and physicians (80%). Among respondents, 67% and 73% supported the collection of data on the patients' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Eighty-six percent and 89% agreed that disparities in race/ethnicity and SES existed in hypertension care within the US health system. However, only 33% and 44% thought racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities existed in the care of their own patients. Providers were more likely to perceive patient factors rather than provider or health system factors as mediators of disparities. However, most supported interventions such as improving provider communication skills (87%) and cultural competency training (89%) to reduce disparities in hypertension control. Most providers acknowledged that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control exist in the US health system, but only a minority reported disparities in care among patients they personally treat. Our study highlights the need for testing an intervention aimed at increasing provider awareness of disparities within the local health setting to improve hypertension control for minority patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  11. Photon science 2012. Highlights and annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, Karen; Gehrke, Rainer; Gutt, Christian; Incoccia-Hermes, Lucia; Laarmann, Tim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Roehlsberger, Ralf; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Vainio, Ulla; Zimmermann, Martin von

    2012-12-01

    The synchrotron-radiation research at DESY is reviewed. The following topics are dealt with: Research highlights, research platforms and outstations, light sources, new technologies and developments. (HSI)

  12. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  13. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  14. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  15. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract ... review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A ... in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers.

  16. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address this urban challenge, the Cape Town Partnership developed the Central City Development Strategy (CCDS), a ten-year plan that calls for the densification of the central city to re-plan Cape Town into a more liveable, inclusive, democratic, and sustainable urban space. By critically examining the role that ...

  17. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  18. report on family planning clinics conducted in the cape town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... REPORT ON FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS CONDUCTED IN THE CAPE TOWN. MUNICIPAL AREA FROM 1960 TO 1969*. ISOBEL ROBERTSON, M.B., CH.B., D.P.H., Maternal and Child Welfare Officer, City Healch Deparcmenc,. Cape Town. SUMMARY. A statistical survey of the attendances at Family ...

  19. Sanitary Survey in Gondar Town | Admassu | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health and well being of population is directly affected by extremely low coverage of water supply and sanitation. Objectives: This study aims to assess the environmental sanitation status of Gondar town. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of the administrative structure of the town ...

  20. Guidelines for Speed Reduction in Towns Along Rural Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of the study undertaken to develop a guideline for setting up speed limit in towns along rural highways of Nevada. Generally, speed zones are provided in towns along rural highways to reduce speed-related crashes. How...

  1. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students | Flisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Setting. State high schools in Cape Town. Subjects. A multistage cluster sample of 2 740 grade 8 and 11 ...

  2. Demand For Improved Solid Waste Services In Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data for the study was obtained from a random sample of 200 households in Jimma town. Descriptive analysis of the data reveals that while some households are not willing to pay, others are interested to contribute either in labour, in cash or both for improvements in solid waste management services in Jimma town.

  3. Language policy and speech practice in Cape Town: An exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language policy and speech practice in Cape Town: An exploratory public health sector study. Michellene Williams, Simon Bekker. Abstract. Public language policy in South Africa recognises 11 official spoken languages. In Cape Town, and in the Western Cape, three of these eleven languages have been selected for ...

  4. In search of middle Indonesia: middle classes in provincial towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Berenschot, W.

    2014-01-01

    The post-1998 surge in local politics has moved the provincial town back to centre stage. This book examines the Indonesian middle class (now 43%!) up close in the place where its members are most at home: the town. Middle Indonesia generates national political forces, yet it is neither particularly

  5. Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town. C.D. Molteno, J Hollingshead, A.D. Moodie, D Bradshaw, M.D. Bowie, W Willoughby. Abstract. Developmental screening was applied during infancy to a birth cohort of 1 000 coloured infants born consecutively in Cape Town. The developmental progress of a ...

  6. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focuses...

  7. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  8. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  9. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national......Introduction: In developed countries men's health is poorer than women's for a range of key indicators, and being an Indigenous man in Australia widens the gap substantially. Establishing the rates of mortality and health inequality between the sexes is useful for identifying that men's health...... needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...

  10. Cyber Town at the Woodrow Wilson Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dennis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Town is a technology based after-school program that concentrates on reading and technology literacy. The program provides at-risk minority youth a safe environment where they learn skills that will make them competitive in the digital age. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected on all after-school program participants enabling program staff with the ability to individualize technology aided instruction. Youth are instructed at appropriate instructional levels these levels are determined through reading level assessment software programs, teacher recommendations, and reading scores. The program provides a model others can utilize in operating similar computer based programs. It illustrates that when working with youth, educators may discover deeper problems than originally anticipated and adaptations must be made to meet the needs of those young people.

  11. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...... recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national...... and local health priorities. They were then asked to prioritise their choices. Results: Three hundred and eighty participants completed the survey, 48% were male; 18.4% identified as an Indigenous person and 21% worked in the local mining industry. Men's and women's health priorities were generally similar...

  12. Editorial highlighting and highly cited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    Editorial highlighting-the process whereby journal editors select, at the time of publication, a small subset of papers that are ostensibly of higher quality, importance or interest-is by now a widespread practice among major scientific journal publishers. Depending on the venue, and the extent to which editorial resources are invested in the process, highlighted papers appear as News & Views, Research Highlights, Perspectives, Editors' Choice, IOP Select, Editors' Summary, Spotlight on Optics, Editors' Picks, Viewpoints, Synopses, Editors' Suggestions, etc. Here, we look at the relation between highlighted papers and highly influential papers, which we define at two levels: having received enough citations to be among the (i) top few percent of their journal, and (ii) top 1% of all physics papers. Using multiple linear regression and multilevel regression modeling we examine the parameters associated with highly influential papers. We briefly comment on cause and effect relationships between citedness and highlighting of papers.

  13. Small towns: an important part of the Moravian settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Vaishar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings characteristics of Moravian towns with inhabitants below 15 thousand. The towns still play an important role in the settlement structure. Their share in the coun-try’s population remains stable. As compared with larger towns and cities, the parameters of their natural and social environments exhibit a number of advantages. The future of small towns in Moravia is discussed with impulses for the conservation of urban functions being seen in the provision of central services for rural hinterlands and in specialization. Main future significance of small Moravian towns consists in the insurance of sustainable development of Moravian countryside, in the provision of alternative life style offer for a part of the population, and in keeping up local and regional identities in the process of globalization.

  14. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE TERRITORIAL EVOLUTION OF ODORHEIU SECUIESC TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ROŞIAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By its geographical position, in a large depression on an intensely circulated valley corridor, Odorheiu Secuiesc town represented an important center among the settlements in the East of Transylvania. Since the relief was not a major restrictive factor, in the territorial evolution of the town the major role was played by its economical development and growth of the number of inhabitants. Along the centuries the settlement received important liberties, turning into an important administrative, commercial and education center. By the economical point of view, while in the other towns in the area the agriculture still represented the major weight, in Odorheiu Secuiesc intensely developed the crafts. For all that, the industrial development of the town took place only in the last half of the century, times when the town also experienced the most intense territorial extension.

  15. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  16. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  17. School Discipline Disparities: Lessons and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief, recent actions related to school discipline, discipline disparities in schools, the school-to-prison pipeline, and the added costs of suspending students in the U.S. are explored. The recommendations offered focus on how school leaders and policy makers can address disparities and how school cultures can be changed to reduce the…

  18. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure... upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants, or members have not...

  19. Do transition towns have the potential to promote health and well-being? A health impact assessment of a transition town initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Nichols, A; Henry, T

    2012-11-01

    Climate change and energy vulnerability present significant challenges for the development and sustainability of our communities. The adverse effects will most likely impact on those already experiencing poverty, as energy and food costs will rise, thus increasing inequalities in health. Transition town initiatives seek to build cohesive sustainable communities to prepare for a future with limited oil and a changing climate. Increasingly, public health practitioners are interested in the role of transition towns as a community development initiative, and their potential to support the wider public health agenda. Health impact assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based process that aims to predict the positive and negative impacts of a strategy, proposal or development. The HIA process provides an opportunity to promote sustainable communities by ensuring that new strategies and developments are considered in the context of their contribution to the health and well-being of local populations. The aim of this study was to use an HIA to examine the potential health and well-being benefits of two related transition town initiatives. A rapid HIA to consider the potential lifestyle changes and health and well-being impacts of Transition Together/Transition Streets (TT/TS) projects. An HIA template was used to assess key documents related to the TT/TS initiatives and those related to the characteristics of the community. Additionally, meetings with 12 key informants (four involved in TT/TS and eight purposively selected for their local knowledge) were held using the HIA template to focus the discussion. The findings highlight the associated lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and healthy eating, and possible social and well-being benefits of engagement in such an initiative. Engagement may be limited to those already concerned about environmental issues. This paper illustrates the important links between transition towns and the wider public health agenda

  20. Regional economic disparities in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the analysis of regional income convergence inColombia, through the use of the income data recently estimated for the departments,the main subnational political units. The results show a polarization process betweenBogotá and the rest of the departments. The preponderance of Bogotá during the periodanalyzed is also discussed: its per capita income is more than double that of thenational average, and more than eight times the per capita income of the poorest department,Chocó. Persistence in the departmental per capita income ranking is observed:Bogotá is always ahead, while the departments in the periphery are in the last places.The findings lead to the conclusion that it is necessary to design policies to correctthe significant disparities in per capita income between Colombian regions.

  1. Leading Communities: Community-led Development in England’s Small Towns: the Market Towns Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Morris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.

  2. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes mellitus type 2 and the significance thereof in highlighting and addressing rural-urban disparities in .... that the gaps are a factor of a complex web of endemic problems such as poverty, racism and prejudice. ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the more common of the two types in South Africa, as in many other parts of ...

  3. Disparity filtering: proximity detection and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David; Horswill, Ian; von Kaenel, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Simple stereo disparity filters can provide `proximity detectors' shaped like concave shells in front of the observer. Ideally, these are isodisparity surfaces. In practice, a narrowly tuned filter results in a thin shell. The special case of the zero-disparity surface is called the horopter. A disparity filter can also be useful for distinguishing an object that lies on an isodisparity surface from its surroundings. These filters are much less expensive than stereographic scene interpretation since they are local operations. Similarly, they are also less general. We analyze the expected proximity sensitivity of one simple version of the disparity filter and compare this to its empirical performance. We also present some feature based and correlation based disparity filters and compare their `segmentation' performance on various scenes.

  4. Review: Increasing Awareness and Education on Health Disparities for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Shawna; Palomarez, Rigo Estevan

    2016-04-21

    The focus of this review is to highlight health care disparities and trends in several common diseases in selected populations while offering evidence-based approaches to mitigating health care disparities. Health care disparities cross many barriers and affect multiple populations and diseases. Ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more at-risk than others. However, many low SES Whites and higher SES racial minorities have poorer health than their racial or SES peers. Also, recent immigrant groups and Hispanics, in particular, maintain high health ratings. The so-called Hispanic Paradox provides an example of how culture and social background can be used to improve health outcomes. These groups have unique determinants of disparity that are based on a wide range of cultural and societal factors. Providing improved access to care and reducing the social determinants of disparity is crucial to improving public health. At the same time, for providers, increasing an understanding of the social determinants promotes better models of individualized care to encourage more equitable care. These approaches include increasing provider education on disparities encountered by different populations, practicing active listening skills, and utilizing a patient's cultural background to promote healthy behaviors.

  5. Morphological and biomechanical disparity of crocodile-line archosaurs following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas L.; Pierce, Stephanie E.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Anderson, Philip S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Mesozoic crurotarsans exhibited diverse morphologies and feeding modes, representing considerable ecological diversity, yet macroevolutionary patterns remain unexplored. Here, we use a unique combination of morphological and biomechanical disparity metrics to quantify the ecological diversity and trophic radiations of Mesozoic crurotarsans, using the mandible as a morpho-functional proxy. We recover three major trends. First, the diverse assemblage of Late Triassic crurotarsans was morphologically and biomechanically disparate, implying high levels of ecological variation; but, following the end-Triassic extinction, disparity declined. Second, the Jurassic radiation of marine thalattosuchians resulted in very low morphological disparity but moderate variation in jaw biomechanics, highlighting a hydrodynamic constraint on mandibular form. Third, during the Cretaceous terrestrial radiations of neosuchians and notosuchians, mandibular morphological variation increased considerably. By the Late Cretaceous, crocodylomorphs evolved a range of morphologies equalling Late Triassic crurotarsans. By contrast, biomechanical disparity in the Cretaceous did not increase, essentially decoupling from morphology. This enigmatic result could be attributed to biomechanical evolution in other anatomical regions (e.g. cranium, dentition or postcranium), possibly releasing the mandible from selective pressures. Overall, our analyses reveal a complex relationship between morphological and biomechanical disparity in Mesozoic crurotarsans that culminated in specialized feeding ecologies and associated lifestyles. PMID:24026826

  6. Spatial Disparities of Financial Intermediaries in Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LELIA PAPP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at identifying the disparities in the spatial distribution of financial intermediaries by taking as case-study a specific territorial unit, namely Cluj County. The knowledge of the number and location of financial intermediaries has importance in understanding the complex functionality of the territory, as well as in the complex process of territorial management, since there is a close linkage between the presence and the activity of the different financial institutions and economic and social development. The analysis is focused on the following financial intermediaries: monetary financial institutions, other financial intermediaries, insurance companies and pension funds. The interpreted data, the calculated indicators (such as the number of banks per 1,000 inhabitants, the number of ATMs per 1,000 inhabitants and the cartographic materials indicate a high concentration of financial intermediaries in Cluj-Napoca, a slight diversity in the other five towns of the county and low presence or even their absence in rural area.

  7. AEB-highlights. January - June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    AEB Highlights is a half-yearly report reflecting the most important recent achievements of the various Research and Technical divisions of the Atomic Energy Board. It appears alternatively in English and Afrikaans [af

  8. Wood machining highlights, 1972 and 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. Mcmillin

    1975-01-01

    Important wood machining research published during 1972 and 1973 is highlighted to provide the reader with a concise summary of activity in 17 fields of endeavor. The review is based on 427 references and contains 154 citations.

  9. Highlight: Knowledge-sharing meeting examines sustainability ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    sharing meeting on September 30, 2015 to highlight the major findings of the IDRC-supported project "Improving food and livelihood security in Punjab through water-energy-agriculture management under climate change and ...

  10. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  11. Micro Climate Simulation in new Town 'Hashtgerd'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in streets will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by

  12. Analysis of Disparity Error for Stereo Autofocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Shao-Kang; Shih, Kuang-Tsu; Chen, Homer H

    2018-04-01

    As more and more stereo cameras are installed on electronic devices, we are motivated to investigate how to leverage disparity information for autofocus. The main challenge is that stereo images captured for disparity estimation are subject to defocus blur unless the lenses of the stereo cameras are at the in-focus position. Therefore, it is important to investigate how the presence of defocus blur would affect stereo matching and, in turn, the performance of disparity estimation. In this paper, we give an analytical treatment of this fundamental issue of disparity-based autofocus by examining the relation between image sharpness and disparity error. A statistical approach that treats the disparity estimate as a random variable is developed. Our analysis provides a theoretical backbone for the empirical observation that, regardless of the initial lens position, disparity-based autofocus can bring the lens to the hill zone of the focus profile in one movement. The insight gained from the analysis is useful for the implementation of an autofocus system.

  13. Shrinking, ageing, disconnecting? The resilience of (some) Danish small towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2013-01-01

    analyse social networks, showing a wide variation of activity in local associations in the various towns. The associations and voluntary capital in the towns lay the foundation for what everyday life can be lived there as they organise common social events, cultural and sports. The associations can also......-economic geography of Denmark is characterised by an ongoing polarisation between two metropolitan areas and the peripheral areas of the country. The combination of demographic resilience, basic service provision, and local networks working with issues of quality of life might enable a future for some small towns...

  14. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  15. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  17. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...

  18. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  19. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  20. Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy for the Town of Franklin, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines best techniques for the Town, based on land uses and physical constraints, experience with the implementation of existing practices, and the findings of recently completed reviews of current programs and practices.

  1. Cities, Towns, Villages with 1990 Census Population (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains points for 1600 populated places, cities and towns, in New Mexico. The points were generated from latitude and longitude coordinates contained...

  2. Geological Study of Monica Pintado mine. Florida town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.; Carrion, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work is about the geological study carried in Monica Pintado mine in Florida town by photointepretation - scale 1.20.000. In the area were found rocks granites, deep metamorfites and black granite

  3. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 62 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Geophysical Investigations at the Hanna's Town Cemetery, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley D.

    Hanna's Town (36WM203), an 18th century site located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was a major frontier settlement that was attacked and destroyed by a force of British and Native Americans in 1782. The town never fully recovered, and by the early 1800s, no buildings remained from the settlement. The land was repurposed for agricultural use until it was purchased by the Westmoreland County Historical Society, who reconstructed the town for tourism and educational purposes. In addition to the town, the site also contains a cemetery that currently has five headstones. There are several stone fragments in storage that are no longer associated with burials, providing evidence that the cemetery may contain unmarked graves. Geophysical investigations using ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, and electrical resistance were performed to examine the presence of additional grave shafts in and adjacent to the present-day cemetery.

  5. Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG10-2 Wright, S., Larsen, F., and Springston, G., 2010,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  6. Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-1 Springston, G., Kim, J., Gale. M. and Thomas, E., 2016, Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  7. EPA Region 1 - New England Towns, with Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New England Town Boundary coverage is a compilation of coverages received from the six New England State GIS Offices. The EPA New England GIS Center appended the...

  8. Tuberculosis in Cape Town: An age-structured transmission model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nello Blaser

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of a first latent infection on subsequent infections and the faster progression in previously treated patients are the key determinants of the age-structure of TB notification rates in Cape Town.

  9. Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, D.; Krampen, M.; Moellring, F.

    1994-01-01

    The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW) [de

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention

  11. The structure of the medieval town of Rupea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The town of Rupea, set up at the beginning of the 12th century, was the capital of the county of Rupea between 1337 and 1876. Its urban structure and organization prove that it belonged to group of Transylvania’s German medieval towns. Here, alongside with the German (established in the central area, Romanians lived in the outskirts. This structure was preserved until the early 1800s, and even until nowadays although the initial ethnical composition has altered.

  12. OBSERVED AIR POLLUTION SPECIFICS OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS

    OpenAIRE

    ZOLTÁN UTASI; ILONA PAJTÓK-TARI; JÁNOS MIKA; CSABA PATKÓS; ANTAL TÓTH

    2012-01-01

    Observed air pollution specifics of the valley-based towns. There are 21 valley-based towns in the 100 most populated ones of Hungary. This topographical feature may be advantageous due to mezoscale circulation between the valley or basin, containing these settlements and the surrounding hills. On the other hand, the hills form a mechanical obstacle that may limit the vertical mixing of pollution. Final result of these counteracting features are analysed by comparing air pollution characteris...

  13. Status and recent highlights from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Van Mulders, Petra Karel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Run-2 at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV started in 2015. This proceeding highlights some of the physics results based on the collision data collected by the CMS experiment in 2015. In addition, the status and readiness of the experiment for the collisions in 2016 are discussed with concrete examples on the object reconstruction performance.

  14. Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.

  15. Brookhaven highlights, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Highlights are given for the research areas of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These areas include high energy physics, physics and chemistry, life sciences, applied energy science (energy and environment, and nuclear energy), and support activities (including mathematics, instrumentation, reactors, and safety)

  16. Brookhaven highlights, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Highlights are given for the research areas of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These areas include high energy physics, physics and chemistry, life sciences, applied energy science (energy and environment, and nuclear energy), and support activities (including mathematics, instrumentation, reactors, and safety). (GHT)

  17. Are Industrial Towns Safe for Human Dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, C.; Garg, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources in the developing countries are under severe stress with multiple stakeholders claiming rights to it. Regional industries, in absence to strict regulations, are responsible for dumping toxic wastes to rivers, ponds and other waterway which have devastating effects on water habitat as well as population that derives water for its daily needs. Key methodological challenges remain in connecting environment to levels of pollution and its relationship with diseases that affect humans. We present a case study from one of the highly industrialized town of South Asia. Ludhiana is the largest city and the largest urban settlement in Punjab, India. With the development of industry, agriculture and the growth of urban population, its water pollution has become a serious problem. Here, we will show how the distribution of heavy metals for groundwater affects its quality and role of regional hydrology on it. We will start with one of the major waterways in the Ludhiana district. Groundwater water samples including sewage water sample were collected within its vicinity of 2.0 km along the waterway (Buddha Nala). The concentration of nickel(Ni) and iron(Fe) in sewage water as well as in groundwater samples was much higher than the maximum permissible limits at a distance of 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala. In general, all the groundwater samples collected beyond 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala were found to be having normal concentrations of arsenic and Fe. We will also demonstrate regional health problems resulting from poor groundwater quality. Role of regional hydrology in modulating water quality will be discussed.

  18. Disparity implications of the Medicare medication therapy management eligibility criteria: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Kiraat D; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Brown, Lawrence M; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Wan, Jim Y; Wang, Junling

    2013-04-01

    The emphasis on eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare has received national attention, with various policy initiatives addressing this problem and proposing solutions. However, in the current economic era requiring tight monetary constraints, emphasis is increasingly being placed on economic efficiency, which often conflicts with the equality doctrine upon which many policies have been framed. The authors' review aims to highlight the disparity implications of one such policy provision - the predominantly utilization-based eligibility criteria for medication therapy management services under Medicare Part D - by identifying studies that have documented racial and ethnic disparities in health status and the use of and spending on prescription medications. Future design and evaluation of various regulations and legislations employing utilization-based eligibility criteria must use caution in order to strike an equity-efficiency balance.

  19. Integrating the 3Ds—Social Determinants, Health Disparities, and Health-Care Workforce Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. PMID:24385659

  20. Integrating the 3Ds--social determinants, health disparities, and health-care workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.

  1. Beyond individual neighborhoods: a geography of opportunity perspective for understanding racial/ethnic health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2010-11-01

    There has been insufficient attention to how and why place and neighborhood context contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities, as well as to policies that can eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. This article uses a geography of opportunity framework to highlight methodological issues specific for quantitative research examining neighborhoods and racial/ethnic health disparities, including study design, measurement, causation, interpretation, and implications for policy. We argue that failure to consider regional, racialized housing market processes given high US racial residential segregation may introduce bias, restrict generalizability, and/or limit the policy relevance of study findings. We conclude that policies must address the larger geography of opportunity within the region in addition to improving deprived neighborhoods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Scott A; Enlow, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there continue to be significant racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) rates, infant mortality, and fetal mortality rates. One potential mediator of these disparities is social determinants of health, including individual socioeconomic factors; community factors such as crime, poverty, housing, and the racial/ethnic makeup of the community; and the physical environment. Previous work has identified statistically significant associations between each of these factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there are recent studies that provide new, innovative insights into this subject, including adding social determinant data to population-based datasets; exploring multiple constructs in their analysis; and examining environmental factors. The objective of this review will be to examine this recent research on the association of each of these sets of social determinants on racial/ethnic disparities PTB, infant mortality, and fetal mortality to highlight potential areas for targeted intervention to reduce these differences.

  3. 77 FR 39651 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Circle Town, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... County Airport, Circle Town, MT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... airspace at Circle Town County Airport, Circle Town, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Circle Town County Airport. This...

  4. 77 FR 55691 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Circle Town, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... at Circle Town County Airport, Circle Town, MT to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Circle Town County..., at Circle Town County Airport, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) standard...

  5. Medium-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... all known cases of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis diag- nosed in the Greater Cape Town area (magisterial districts of. Bellville, Goodwood, Wynberg, Simonstown and Cape Town). Gastro-intestinal Clinic, Department of Medicine, Univer- sity of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape. Town.

  6. Molecular differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from Tunisian food handlers with amoeba infection initially diagnosed by microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ayed S.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to obtain more reliable epidemiological data concerning Entamoeba (E. histolytica infection in Tunisian food handlers using established molecular tools able to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar. From 2002 to 2005, 4,266 fresh stools specimens received in the setting of the National program of food handlers’ control were analysed by optical microscopy. Twelve (2.8 ‰ were positive for the presence of four nuclei cysts identified as E. histolytica/E. dispar. Extraction of DNA from the 12 samples, followed by specific amplifications of E. histolytica and E. dispar SSU rDNA, showed that 11 samples (92% were positive for E. dispar and negative for E. histolytica. Sequencing analysis of 8 PCR products permitted to verify the results obtained with conventional PCR. The remaining sample was negative by PCR amplifying E. histolytica DNA or E. dispar DNA specifically, although it did not show any inhibition. It probably contains protozoan cysts genetically distinct from these two species but morphological similar. Estimation of relative proportions between E. histolytica and E. dispar in cyst carriers showed that all explored individuals harboured the non pathogenic E. dispar strains. This result highlights the need of use in this population of complementary tests that allow specific diagnosis and obviate unnecessary chemotherapy.

  7. Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . The coding algorithm is based on bit-plane coding, disparity prediction via disparity warping and context-based arithmetic coding exploiting predicted disparity data. Experimental results show that the proposed compression scheme achieves average compression factors of about 48:1 for high resolution...... disparity maps for stereo pairs and outperforms different standard solutions for lossless still image compression. Moreover, it provides a progressive representation of disparity data as well as a parallelizable structure....

  8. Highlights of LHC experiments – Part I

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00072301; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The superb performance of the LHC accelerator in 2016, in both live time and peak luminosity, has provided a large data sample of collisions at 13 TeV. Excellent performances of the ATLAS and LHCb detectors, together with highly performant offline and analysis systems, mean that a wealth of results are already available from 13 TeV data. Selected highlights are reported here.

  9. Highlights from the LHC Energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Dong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This presentation at the Lake Louise Winter Institute 2017 opening session will introduce the highlights of the recent ATLAS and CMS physics results during the 2015-2016 Run 2 at 13 TeV. The physics topics include electroweak physics, top quark, new physics searches and Higgs physics to lead out the sessions to follow on these topics. As the opening talk, brief status of LHC and the ATLAS and CMS experiments will also be included.

  10. Recent Highlights from the ISOLDE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    2015-11-01

    The ISOLDE facility is CERN's longest running experiment. In its 45 years of operation it has become the world's most comprehensive radioactive-isotope factory. Now capable of delivering more than 1000 isotopes from 70 chemical elements, ISOLDE supports a wide and diverse physics programme. This short article summarizes some of the recent highlights from this programme in the areas of nuclear physics, medicine and biology.

  11. Trends and highlights of VCI 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize the presentations given at this conference. Topics related to R&D of gaseous and solid state detectors clearly point to several trends in particle physics instrumentation. More established techniques are represented by reports on recent experiments and facilities which can be considered the highlights in this research field. The extension of these techniques to space, arctic ice and deep sea are opening new frontiers of particle physics.

  12. Will health care reform reduce disparities in insurance coverage?: Evidence from the dependent coverage mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Dan M; Ayyagari, Padmaja

    2014-06-01

    We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on disparities in health insurance coverage rates and evaluated whether non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics gained coverage at the same rates as non-Hispanic whites. To estimate changes in insurance rates, we employed a difference-in-difference regression approach comparing 7962 young adults aged 19-25 to 9321 adults aged 27-34. Separate regressions were estimated for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites to understand whether the mandate had differential effects by race/ethnicity. Separate regressions by income level and race/ethnicity were also estimated. Insurance rates increased by 9.3 percentage points among non-Hispanic whites, 7.2 percentage points among Hispanics, and 9.4 percentage points among non-Hispanic blacks. These changes were not significantly different from each other. Among individuals with income of insurance rates among all racial and ethnic groups but did not change overall disparities. Disparities may have widened among low-income populations which highlights the importance of Medicaid expansions in reducing disparities. Among higher-income populations, disparities between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were reduced.

  13. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infection in Maceió, Alagoas State, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael V; Fontes, Gilberto; Duarte, Iasmin A C; Santos-Júnior, José A; Rocha, Eliana M M

    2016-10-31

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar by examining stool samples obtained from 1,003 students of public schools in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. All stool samples were processed using the spontaneous sedimentation technique and examined microscopically for the presence of Entamoeba species. In order to distinguish infections caused by E. histolytica, fecal samples presenting cysts of Entamoeba were subjected to specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analysis of the fecal specimens by microscopy identified 6.4% (64/1,003) students positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii cysts. The prevalence of E. histolytica detected by ELISA was 3.0% (30/1,003) and by PCR 2.8% (28/1,003), but the difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The prevalence of E. dispar in schoolchildren was 5.0% (50/1,003). Mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar were also detected by PCR.  Even though immunological and molecular methods have shown similar results for identification of E. histolytica, ELISA is advantageous over the PCR since it is relatively cheaper and easier to perform. Our study demonstrated the occurrence of E. histolytica in Maceió and highlights the need to introduce a specific diagnostic test to detect amoebiasis cases in public laboratories.

  14. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision New Town Center Growth Areas, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_new_town_growth_areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates town center new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Town center new growth areas include local...

  15. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-01-02

    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p alcohol use willingness in multivariable cross-sectional or longitudinal models by sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to reduce tobacco-related disparities among sexual minorities.

  16. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  17. Morphotype disparity in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Reitner, Joachim; Braiser, Martin; Donoghue, Phil; Schirrmeister, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Prokaryotes have dominated life on Earth for over 2 billion years. Throughout the Precambrian, prokaryotes acted as the major biological impetus for both large and small scale environmental changes. Yet, very little is known about the composition, diversity and evolution of ancient microbial communities due to poor preservation during the Precambrian period. Previous studies of fossils that date to this period relied mainly on light microscopy to identify microfossil morphology and abundance, with limited success. Here we present novel analyses of the microbial remains found in Precambrian stromatolites using Synchrotron Radiation x-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Microfossils found in samples of three Precambrian deposits, 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool, Australia, 2.1 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, and 650 Ma Rasthof Cap Carbonate, Namibia, have been reconstructed in 3D. Based on four scans from each sample, we estimated size and abundance of spheroidal microfossils within those deposits. Our findings show that while cell abundance decreased towards the end of the Precambrian, the biovolume of microfossils within the host rock remained relatively constant. Additionally, both size and disparity increase through time. Constant biovolumes and yet different sizes for these three deposits, point towards a negative correlation of large cell size and cell abundance. This negative correlation indicates that the systems in which these prokaryotes lived may have been biolimited. Both, gas exchange and nutrient uptake in prokaryotes function via diffusion. Therefore, one would expect bacteria to evolve towards an increasing surface to volume ratio. Increased cell sizes, and hence decreased overall surface to volume ratio observed in our data, suggest the influence of other selective factors. Decreased abundance and increased cell size could potentially be associated to changes in nutrient availability and the occurrence of predation. As cells increased in size, more nutrients would

  18. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  19. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  20. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Highlights of the SSC Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the Site Development Plan for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. The Plan, sometimes called a Master Plan, was prepared by the architectural and engineering firm for the Laboratory: Parsons Brinckerhoff/Morrison Knudsen (PB/MK) working in association with CRSS. Their task was to interpret the SSC project needs in the context of the Ellis County, Texas site. The team effort was under the direction of Lewis May from CRSS, guided by Robert Sims from the SSC Laboratory. Conceptual drawings are presented in this report

  2. Physics highlights at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukić, Strahinja

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, the physics potential for the e+e- linear collider experiments ILC and CLIC is reviewed. The experimental conditions are compared to those at hadron colliders and their intrinsic value for precision experiments, complementary to the hadron colliders, is discussed. The detector concepts for ILC and CLIC are outlined in their most important aspects related to the precision physics. Highlights from the physics program and from the benchmark studies are given. It is shown that linear colliders are a promising tool, complementing the LHC in essential ways to test the Standard Model and to search for new physics.

  3. Highlights and Perspectives from the CMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Joel Nathan [Fermilab

    2017-09-09

    In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider provided proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and achieved very high luminosity and reliability. The performance of the CMS Experiment in this running period and a selection of recent physics results are presented. These include precision measurements and searches for new particles. The status and prospects for data-taking in 2017 and a brief summary of the highlights of the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS detector are also presented.

  4. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely.

  5. OBSERVED AIR POLLUTION SPECIFICS OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN UTASI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Observed air pollution specifics of the valley-based towns. There are 21 valley-based towns in the 100 most populated ones of Hungary. This topographical feature may be advantageous due to mezoscale circulation between the valley or basin, containing these settlements and the surrounding hills. On the other hand, the hills form a mechanical obstacle that may limit the vertical mixing of pollution. Final result of these counteracting features are analysed by comparing air pollution characteristics of these settlements with those in two control groups, also counting 21-21 non-valley towns of the country. Each group represents slightly over 1 million inhabitants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulphur-dioxide (SO2 concentrations and the total particulate matter below 10 µm (PM10 are considered. Annual mean, maxima and median values are analysed in 2007. For NO2 the valley-based towns are slightly cleaner, whereas for SO2 the situation is the opposite. The PM10 values do not indicate much difference between valley based and fully plain settlements. For explanation of these results, selected settlement and communal statistics are also compared. The paper is terminated by a sub-collection of similar valley-based towns in Central Europe.

  6. Syndicate of renewable energies - Highlights 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication first proposes a presentation of the SER (Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, Syndicate of Renewable Energies), a professional body: missions, scope of action, members. It outlines its commitment in the French policy for energy transition as a major actor of the sector of renewable energies. It addresses the legal and regulatory framework by indicating evolutions introduced by the French law for energy transition and for a green growth for the different renewable energies (hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, biofuels and bio-energies, biogas), by the new regimes of authorisations for onshore wind energy, methanization and hydroelectricity, and by the law for growth, activity and equality of economic opportunities. It proposes brief presentations of transverse actions (agreements, meetings, partnership in exhibitions, commitment in the COP21), and of actions regarding power grids, overseas territories, or the building sector. Some highlights related bio-energy sectors, geothermal energy, onshore wind energy, renewable marine energies and offshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, hydroelectricity, or solar thermodynamic energy are mentioned. These highlights may concern legal, organisational, political or financial frameworks. Actions in the field of communication are indicated, and projects for 2016 are briefly indicated

  7. Astonishing the wild pigs highlights of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Trueb, Lucien F; Stuber, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    A hydraulic machine for astonishing wild pigs was one of the many technological highlights the author encountered in the course of his career as a research scientist and science writer. Writing a book about them, never taking more (or less) than two printed pages for each of 146 subjects was a very special challenge. The book covers fundamentally important achievements of technology that directly impacted mankind or even profoundly changed it. Many of those highlights are quite new, at least one of them (power generation by nuclear fusion) is not available yet. But particularly ingenious things dating way back were also included, as they are the base of our technical civilization Good examples are ceramics as well as copper, bronze and iron; whole periods of history have been named for the latter three. The analog computer of Antikythera used for stellar navigation was made some 2100 years ago, gunpowder was used in China as early as 1044 A.D., the astronomical clock in the Strasburg cathedral was built in th...

  8. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2015 literature highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Thomas A; Dalvie, Deepak; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Cyrus Khojasteh, S

    2016-05-01

    Since 1972, Drug Metabolism Reviews has been recognized as one of the principal resources for researchers in pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological fields to keep abreast of advances in drug metabolism science in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. With a distinguished list of authors and editors, the journal covers topics ranging from relatively mature fields, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, to a variety of emerging fields. We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year. Each review begins with a summary of the article followed by our comments on novel aspects of the research and their biological implications. This collection of highlights is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to be illustrative of recent research that provides new insights or approaches that advance the field of drug metabolism. Abbreviations NAPQI N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase AO aldehyde oxidase AKR aldo-keto reductase CES carboxylesterase CSB cystathionine β-synthase CSE cystathionine γ-lyase P450 cytochrome P450 DHPO 2,3-dihydropyridin-4-one ESI electrospray FMO flavin monooxygenase GSH glutathione GSSG glutathione disulfide ICPMS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry i.p. intraperitoneal MDR multidrug-resistant NNAL 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol NNK 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone oaTOF orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight PBK physiologically based kinetic PCP pentachlorophenol SDR short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SULT sulfotransferase TB tuberculosis.

  9. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  10. Mediation Analysis for Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica E M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-08-15

    Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation. We used data on 900,726 births from 2003 to 2007 in the Penn Moms study, conducted in Pennsylvania, to assess the extent to which breastfeeding prior to hospital discharge explained the racial disparity in infant mortality. Overall, for every 1,000 births, 3.36 more infant deaths occurred among non-Hispanic black women relative to all other women (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 3.93). Using the difference and generalized product methods to assess the disparity that would remain if everyone breastfed prior to discharge suggested a complete elimination of the disparity (risk difference = -0.87 per 1,000 births; 95% confidence interval: -1.39, -0.35). In contrast, doubly robust methods suggested a reduction in the disparity to 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 2.20, 2.71) more infant deaths per 1,000 births among non-Hispanic black women. Standard approaches for mediation analysis in health disparities research can yield misleading results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet Siena; Uribe, Erika Flores; Weingart, Saul

    2017-09-01

    Although there is extensive evidence on disparities in the process and outcomes of health care, data on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety remain inconclusive in the United States. The aims of this study were to (1) explore differences in reporting race/ethnicity in studies on disparities in patient safety; (2) assess adjustment for socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and disease severity; and (3) make recommendations on the inclusion of race/ethnicity for future studies on adverse events. We searched PubMed database (for articles published from 1991 to May 1, 2013) using a predetermined criteria for studies on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety. Only quantitative studies that used chart review or administrative data for the detection of adverse events were considered for eligibility. Two reviewers independently extracted data on inclusion of race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and in stratification of outcomes. A total of 174 studies were initially obtained from the search. Of these, 24 met inclusion criteria and received full-text review. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies. Eight studies included race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and adjusted for confounders. Hospital-level variations such teaching status and percentage of minorities served were infrequently analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first methodological review of racial/ethnic disparities in patient safety in the United States. The evidence on the existence of disparities in adverse events was mixed. Poor stratification of outcomes by race/ethnicity and consideration of geographic and hospital-level variations explain the inconclusive evidence; variations in the quality of care at hospitals should be considered in studies using national databases.

  12. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education.

  13. Credit Risk and Regional Economic Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vaněk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to bridge the areas of credit risk and regional economic disparities, and investigates the relationship between credit risk and economic indicators in the Czech Republic at the regional (NUTS 3 level. This relationship is consecutively examined using graphical and correlation analysis, regression techniques, and different types of clustering methods. Regions are then clustered into three groups according to their economic similarities and disparities. Subsequently, it is shown on the real data that region-specific information has the potential to be utilizable in credit scoring and possibly other applications.

  14. Partnerships in Sustainability: The Transition Town Movement in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie MacKenzie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition Towns is a citizen-led movement that seeks to address individual and societal dependence on fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas production in order to fight climate change. The foundation of Transition is permaculture, a design process based on whole-systems thinking informed by the patterns and relationships found in nature. Since its inception in 2005, the Transition movement has spread worldwide, as people in small groups and across large towns look for ways to take practical action to fight climate change: from home vegetable gardens to weatherization work parties, from time banks and tool shares to renewable energy systems. Transition looks different in every location because it meets the needs and draws on the skills of the local community. This article looks at Transition in one community: The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, profiling several Transition Town groups.

  15. New Town in the Øresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Ærø, Thorkild

    2006-01-01

    there is a huge demand for housing in this area and a lack of supply. The result is a dramatic housing price increase as well as rising commuting time in general. In the Greater Copenhagen region alone there is a call for another 90.000 dwellings in the next 12 years. The new town in the middle finger...... of the Fingerplan is one of the answers to this. The new town will be located at Store Rørbæk next to Frederikssund and the intention is to start construction work in 2010. The aim is to realise a new town with 14.000 people, 6.000 dwellings and 3-6.000 jobs. This paper presents possible future resident groups...

  16. Epidemiological health study of a town exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Ngo, L; Hartney, C; Lloyd, K; Tager, I; Midtling, J; Huel, G

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the health status of community residents exposed to a 16-day release of Catacarb from a nearby refinery and to document the prevalence rates of symptoms and illnesses of this town. The health status of the exposed residents was compared to that of unexposed residents of a demographically similar control town. An epidemiologic study design was used and questionnaires were mailed to all households in both towns. Response rate was 43%. Household cluster effects, gender, education, and race were controlled in the analysis. Questionnaire health data reveal increased reporting of symptoms in the exposed, specifically headaches, respiratory, visual, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 3. Exposure relationships with increased symptoms and worsening of illnesses was found.

  17. Highlights from NuFact05

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The 7th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Superbeams was held in Frascati in June 2005 with nearly 200 participants. The most recent progress in the design of future neutrino facilities was described, including novel ideas in detectors, and many issues were raised. The International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future Neutrino Facility which would incorporate a Neutrino Factory and/or a high intensity Neutrino Superbeam was launched at that occasion. Built upon previous studies in the USA, Europe and Japan, it will aim to i) define the physics case and a baseline design for such a facility including the related neutrino detection systems, ii) identify the required research and development programme and iii) perform comparisons with other options such as beta beams. The highlights of the meeting and the upcoming studies will be presented.

  18. Brookhaven highlights, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These highlights present an overview of the major research and development achievements at Brookhaven National Laboratory from October 1978 to September 1979. Specific areas covered include: accelerator and high energy physics programs; high energy physics research; the AGS and improvements to the AGS; neutral beam development; heavy ion fusion; superconducting power cables; ISABELLE storage rings; the BNL Tandem accelerator; heavy ion experiments at the Tandem; the High Flux Beam Reactor; medium energy physics; nuclear theory; atomic and applied physics; solid state physics; neutron scattering studies; x-ray scattering studies; solid state theory; defects and disorder in solids; surface physics; the National Synchrotron Light Source ; Chemistry Department; Biology Department; Medical Department; energy sciences; environmental sciences; energy technology programs; National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems; advanced reactor systems; nuclear safety; National Nuclear Data Center; nuclear materials safeguards; Applied Mathematics Department; and support activities

  19. Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)

  20. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  1. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  2. ATOMLLL: atoms with shading and highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.; y.

    1979-01-01

    The ATOMS program, written at Bell Telephone Laboratory, is capable of determining the visible portions of a scene consisting of interpenetrating spheres and cylinders, put together to represent space-filling or ball-and-stick molecular models. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory version contains enhancements to add shading and highlights, and to render the spheres on film as ellipses, so they will appear round when projected in various wide-screen formats. The visible parts of each sphere or cylinder are shaded by a minicomputer controlling the film recorder, thus releasing the main computer from transferring the millions of intensity values for each frame. The minicomputer is microprogrammed with an efficient algorithm for the intensities, which uses the color look-up tables in the film recorder to store the reflectance as a function of angle of incidence. 8 references

  3. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  4. Syndicate of renewable energies - Highlights 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication first proposes a presentation of the SER (Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, Syndicate of Renewable Energies), a professional body: missions, scope of action, members. It outlines its commitment in the French policy for energy transition as a major actor of the sector of renewable energies. It addresses the legal and regulatory framework as well as the economic framework and markets. It proposes brief presentations of transverse actions regarding power grids, overseas territories, the building sector and the international export. Some highlights related to ground-based wind power, renewable marine energies and offshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, bio-energies (wood-fueled power plants for collective, tertiary and industrial sectors, biogas, biofuels and municipal wastes), domestic wood space heating, geothermal energy and hydroelectricity are mentioned. Actions in the field of communication are summarized, and projects for 2017 are briefly indicated

  5. Physical Sciences 2007 Science and Technology Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    2008-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007

  6. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2016 literature highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dalvie, Deepak; Miller, Grover

    2017-08-01

    We are pleased to present a second annual issue highlighting a previous year's literature on biotransformation and bioactivation. Each contributor to this issue worked independently to review the articles published in 2016 and proposed three to four articles, which he or she believed would be of interest to the broader research community. In each synopsis, the contributing author summarized the procedures, analyses and conclusions as described in the original manuscripts. In the commentary sections, our authors offer feedback and highlight aspects of the work that may not be apparent from an initial reading of the article. To be fair, one should still read the original article to gain a more complete understanding of the work conducted. Most of the articles included in this review were published in Drug Metabolism and Disposition or Chemical Research in Toxicology, but attempts were made to seek articles in 25 other journals. Importantly, these articles are not intended to represent a consensus of the best papers of the year, as we did not want to make any arbitrary standards for this purpose, but rather they were chosen by each author for their notable findings and descriptions of novel metabolic pathways or biotransformations. I am pleased that Drs. Rietjens and Dalvie have again contributed to this annual review. We would like to welcome Grover P Miller as an author for this year's issue, and we thank Tom Baillie for his contributions to last year's edition. We have intentionally maintained a balance of authors such that two come from an academic setting and two come from industry. Finally, please drop us a note if you find this review helpful. We would be pleased to hear your opinions of our commentary, and we extend an invitation to anyone who would like to contribute to a future edition of this review. This article is dedicated to Professor Thomas Baillie for his exceptional contributions to the field of drug metabolism.

  7. DESIGNING OF TOWN SKYLINE ON THE STAGE OF GENERAL LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kishik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to consider an aggregation of such active elements of town structure as multistoreyed dominants to be used as a basis for designing skyline of a large town on the stage of its general layout. Some interrelated principles, namely: spatial integration, subordination, nature consistence, succession are formulated for improvement of their spatial organization. Every principle takes down any general property of the network of vertical accents which is formed as a system. The obtained principles of the system organization of the multistoreyed dominants are checked while designing Grodno skyline. 

  8. Exploring regional and gender disparities in Beninese primary school attendance: A multilevel approach

    OpenAIRE

    McNabb, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    This study combines household survey data from the Beninese Demographic and Health Survey with school supply statistics in order to investigate regional and gender disparities in primary school attendance rates in Benin. Despite almost unparalleled increases in enrolment since the 1990s, Benin remains virtually ignored in the literature surveying school attendance. Results of a logistic regression model highlight the important role played by factors such as household wealth and religion and s...

  9. The Promise and Perils of the Island City of George Town (Penang as a Creative City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suet Leng Khoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral and semi-peripheral roles of islands are being challenged and contested as contemporary island cities assume positions as engines of growth and become centres of progress for driving economic development. Notably, island cities around the globe have become instrumental in shaping and influencing the dynamics of urban development as cities now compete with each other to strategically position themselves in today’s competitive global economy that leverages creativity and innovation. Particularly in a creative economy, the availability, quantity, and quality of unique cultures; creative talents; and creative/cultural industries within a city are differentiating and determining factors that can boost a city’s position and subsequently spur economic growth and progress. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the position of the island city of George Town (Penang en route to becoming a Creative City. This paper highlights the island’s urban dynamics as well as discusses the promise and perils of transforming George Town into a Creative City in its own right.

  10. Digital Advertising System in Urban Transport System of Žilina Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňák Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT have changed everything: news, commerce, advertising, relating to others, getting information and transport too. It has changed how the people work, how they practice religion, how they date, how they spend the free time and how they travel. One of the technological innovations that are based on usage ICT in advertising space is digital signage. This article presents the results of research dedicated to investigate the relationships between customers-passengers and this new ICT technology in real environment. The results of the research stimulate the discussion about the future advertising practices in Žilina town. Based on the wide analysis of opportunities the digital signage technology in advertising practices, the presented marketing research investigates how passengers accept virtual advertising technology in urban transport system of Žilina town. Authors highlight the advantages of interactivity between digital signage technology and consumers. The conclusions of this article triggers further investigations in the area of the interactions between the digital advertising technology and passengers, and the passengers’ perception and acceptation of shopping activities on the basis of advertising in digital signage medias.

  11. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  12. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  13. Gender disparity in hopelessness among unemployed graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking recourse to the traditional gender-role expectation which views males as the family breadwinner and head, it is assumed that the psychological consequences of unemployment may not be the same for both male and female unemployed. In view of this, this study examined gender disparities in hopelessness in a ...

  14. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA was extracted from microscopic positive stool samples and used to amplify a part of the genus Entamoeba small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), using ... between E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii because it obviates unnecessary chemotherapy with possible costs, side effects and drug resistance.

  15. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  16. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    ... on Guidance for Designing A National Healthcare Disparities Report INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other th...

  17. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  18. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We plan to expand the inquiry into the mechanisms in behavior and biology that lead to disparities as well as integrate the environmental, social, and cultural factors that affect these disparities. NIMHD ...

  20. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  1. AGILE Highlights after Six Years in Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pittori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AGILE is an ASI space mission in collaboration with INAF, INFN and CIFS, dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy range, with simultaneous X-ray imaging capability in the 18-60 keV band. The AGILE satellite was launched on April 23rd, 2007, and produced several important scientic results, among which the unexpected discovery of strong ares from the Crab Nebula. This discovery won to the AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012 by the High Energy Astrophysics division of the American Astronomical Society. Thanks to its sky monitoring capability and fast ground segment alert system, AGILE detected many Galactic and extragalactic sources: among other results AGILE discovered gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3, detected many bright blazars, discovered several new gamma-ray pulsars, and discovered emission up to 100 MeV from Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. We present an overview of the main AGILE Data Center activities and the AGILE scientic highlights after 6 years of operations.

  2. LHC Highlights, from dream to reality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The idea of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was born in the early 1980s. Although LEP (CERN’s previous large accelerator) was still under construction at that time, scientists were already starting to think about re-using the 27-kilometre ring for an even more powerful machine. Turning this ambitious scientific plan into reality proved to be an immensely complex task. Civil engineering work, state-of-the-art technologies, a new approach to data storage and analysis: many people worked hard for many years to accomplish all this.   Here are some of the highlights: 1984. A symposium organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, is the official starting point for the LHC. LHC prototype of the two beam pipes (1992). 1989. The first embryonic collaborations begin. 1992. A meeting in Evian, France, marks the beginning of the LHC experiments. 1994. The CERN Council approves the construction of the LHC accelerator. 1995. Japan becomes an Observer of CERN and announces a financial contribution to ...

  3. Highlights on the IAEA project QUATRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, F.

    2012-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy in term of prob- ability of local control of the tumor and the limiting factor in treatments in term of probability of complications are strictly depending on the accuracy and precision of the pa- tient treatment. An overall Quality Assurance programme (QAP) has been recognized as an essential tool to assure that the goals of radiotherapy are achieved. As part of a comprehensive approach to QAP an independent external audit is considered a very effective method of checking that the quality of activities in an Institution permits to achieve the required objectives. Since many years the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has audited Member States for radiotherapy dosimetry, for educating and training radio- therapy professionals and for reviewing the radiotherapy process. Recently a new approach has been developed and named ''Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO)''. The principal aim of QUATRO is to review all the radiotherapy process, including organization, infra- structure, clinical and medical physics aspects of the radio- therapy services. It also includes a review of the hospital's professional competence with a view to quality improve- ment. The aim of this paper is to introduce and to highlight the QUATRO methodology describing its effectiveness on improving either the quality of the radiotherapy treatments and in general the management of the patient.

  4. Highlights from past and future physics

    CERN Document Server

    Daisy Yuhas

    2009-01-01

    A two-day symposium was held at CERN on 3 and 4 December in celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Proton Synchrotron and the twentieth anniversary of LEP. The symposium, entitled “From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider- 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics”, included a series of seminars reflecting on the past fifty years in particle physics and an exhibition highlighting CERN’s research over this period.   Lyn Evans, LHC project leader, addressing the audience gathered in the Main Auditorium during the symposium that celebrated the 50 years of the PS and the 20 years of LEP.  The events were well attended on both days. Thursday’s reception, to which the Director-General invited everyone working at CERN, attracted over 1200 people. The seminars drew about 500 people to the Main Auditorium and the Council Chamber each day, with at least as many on-line attendees. The symposium speakers, including thirteen No...

  5. Engineering sciences research highlights. Fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, E.F.; Dobratz, B.

    1984-05-01

    The Laboratory's overall mission is sixfold. We are charged with developing nuclear warheads for defense, technology for arms control, and new concepts for defense against nuclear attack; with supporting programs for both nonnuclear defense and energy research and development; and with advancing our knowledge of science and technology so that we can respond to other national needs. Major programs in support of this mission involve nuclear weapons, energy, environmental science, and basic research. Specific areas of investigation include the design, development, and testing of nuclear weapons; nuclear safeguards and security; inertial and magnetic fusion and nuclear, solar, fossil, and geothermal energy; and basic research in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, and the computer and life sciences. With the staff and facilities maintained for these and other programs, the Laboratory can respond to specific national needs in virtually all areas of the physical and life sciences. Within the Laboratory's organization, most technical research activities are carried out in three directorates: Engineering Sciences; Physics and Mathematics; and Chemistry, Earth and Life Sciences. The activities highlighted here are examples of unclassified work carried out in the seven divisions that made up the Engineering Sciences Directorate at the end of fiscal year 1983. Brief descriptions of these divisions' goals and capabilities and summaries of selected projects illustrate the diversity of talent, expertise, and facilities maintained within the Engineering Sciences Directorate

  6. Highlighting cancer cells with macromolecular probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Brown, Adrienne S.; Wilson, James N.; Raymo, Françisco M.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional fluorophore-ligand constructs for the detection of cancer cells generally produce relatively weak signals with modest contrast. The inherently low brightness accessible per biding event with the pairing of a single organic fluorophore to a single ligand as well as the contribution of unbound probes to background fluorescence are mainly responsible for these limitations. Our laboratories identified a viable structural design to improve both brightness and contrast. It is based on the integration of activatable fluorophores and targeting ligands within the same macromolecular construct. The chromophoric components are engineered to emit bright fluorescence exclusively in acidic environments. The targeting agents are designed to bind complementary receptors overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells and allow internalization of the macromolecules into acidic organelles. As a result of these properties, our macromolecular probes switch their intense emission on exclusively in the intracellular space of target cells with minimal background fluorescence from the extracellular matrix. In fact, these operating principles translate into a 170-fold enhancement in brightness, relative to equivalent but isolated chromophoric components, and a 3-fold increase in contrast, relative to model but non-activatable fluorophores. Thus, our macromolecular probes might ultimately evolve into valuable analytical tools to highlight cancer cells with optimal signal-to-noise ratios in a diversity of biomedical applications.

  7. The role of provider supply and organization in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Doksum, Teresa; Chen, Chih-nan; Carle, Adam; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access in the United States are well documented. Prior studies highlight the importance of individual and community factors such as health insurance coverage, language and cultural barriers, and socioeconomic differences, though these factors fail to explain the extent of measured disparities. A critical factor in mental health care access is a local area’s organization and supply of mental health care providers. However, it is unclear how g...

  8. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  9. Hypertension care at a Cape Town community health centre | Lunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the demographic profile of hypertensive patients and the quality of care for hypertension at a Cape Town community health centre (CHC). Design. Prospective, descriptive study. Setting and subjects. Medium-sized CHC, attended by 1098 hypertensive patients during a 1-year period from 1 January ...

  10. Youth, Work and Lifestyles in an Indonesian Industrial Town

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Naafs (Suzanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation is an ethnographic study of lower middle class youth and their education-to-work transitions in the Indonesian industrial town of Cilegon, Banten. The study examines how relatively educated young men and women (upper secondary school and tertiary graduates) navigate the

  11. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of. SA registrars (SARs). Methods.

  12. Stretching Local Dollars: A Small Town Guide to Matching Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hamilton

    The purpose of this guidebook is to help elected leaders of small towns and communities stretch their investments when matching funds are required to compete for a grant or to pay for development costs above the grant award itself. The federal "small cities" Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) is used as an example throughout the…

  13. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  14. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  15. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns in Ethiopia: Qualitative study. ... Reasons were found to be attributed to individual characteristics, perceived capacities of health facilities and friendliness of service providers and socio-cultural factors including socially sanctioned expectations at community ...

  16. DRUG ABUSE IN KISUMU TOWN WESTERN KENYA Otieno AO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, western. Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer influence on drug abuse and to establish the reasons why students abuse drugs. Nine schools were randomly selected for the study. A total of 458 ...

  17. Modeling growth in arm circumference of infants in Jimma Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper models the growth in arm circumference of 450 infants during their first year of life. The model is based on longitudinal data obtained from Jimma, a town in southeast Ethiopia. A linear mixed model was employed to see how arm circumference of these infants change over their first year of life. A polynomial model ...

  18. An assessment of urban heat island of Lokoja Town and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urban centre and its suburban environment are largely influenced by changes driven by people as a result of urbanization and other anthropogenic activities. Urbanization impacts on air and water quality, local climate and biodiversity. This study assesses the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Lokoja town and surroundings ...

  19. Talk of the Town: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Allen

    2016-01-01

    "Talk of the Town" is a community led approach to supporting the speech, language and communication (SLC) skills of children and young people, aged 0-19, living in areas of social disadvantage. It is delivered by the Communication Trust. This evaluation reports on a randomised controlled trial undertaken with 2696 pupils in 64 primary…

  20. Weed occurrence on pavements in five North European towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Holst, N.; Grundy, A.; Kempenaar, C.; Riemens, M.M.; Verschwele, A.; Hansson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Weeds on pavements in urban areas are unwanted mainly because they cause an untidy appearance or sometimes structural damage. Glyphosate has been the principal weed control method for years, but policies in several European towns have changed to lower dependence on herbicides. Instead, less

  1. Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in Cape Town children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the epideIDiology of Haemophilus influenzae infections in South Africa. This study was designed to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and effect of age and hospitalisation on the carriage of H. influenzae in 322 Cape Town children. The overall and type b ...

  2. comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... In hosting future events, it is recommended that relevant government departments and stakeholders such as event managers involve and consult local businesses through ...

  3. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  4. Muslim Public Claiming Heritage in Post-Apartheid Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1929-11-29

    great-great-grandson (of Tuan Guru, the then) the Imaum, or Priest, of the Chiappini-Street Mosque,” told a journalist of the. Cape Times that: The Circle of Islam around Cape Town and suburbs, prophesied by a holy man of Islam 260 years ago, ...

  5. The epidemiology of hypertension family practice in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study of hypertension in 8 family practices in low socio-economic areas of Cape Town examined 1046 patients over the age of 15 years. The crude prevalence rate of hypertension was 20,26%. There was no significant sex difference. Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and hypertensive status increased with ...

  6. Small towns as centres of rural micro-regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 70-81 ISSN 1803-8417 Grant - others:Nadace Volkswagen(DE) RA2240/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : small towns * periphery * Czechia Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning http://versita.metapress.com/content/w7p7282292l48735/fulltext.pdf

  7. World Town Planning Day and GIS Day to be celebrated

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2003-01-01

    On Wednesday, Nov. 19, Montgomery County will unveil the county's new comprehensive plan during a joint celebration of the fifth anniversary of Geographic Information Systems Day and the 30th anniversary of World Town Planning Day. The event will feature programs by the Virginia Tech Center for Geospatial Information Technology (CGIT) and Virginia's Geospatial Extension Program (GEP).

  8. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  9. A student surgical society – the Cape Town experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UCT Surgical Society is a student-managed academic society that promotes undergraduate interest in the field of surgery at the. University of Cape Town. It is Africa's first student surgical society, and with over 700 enrolled members in 2009 has grown to become both one of the largest academic medical student ...

  10. Consumption patterns of street food consumers in Cape Town | Hill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cape Town metropolitan area, with trained fieldworkers using a structured questionnaire on 1121 SF consumers. The first ten clients who visited a randomly-sampled SF vendor were approached and invited to participate. Data were analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 23.

  11. Public participation in town-planning applications: Tlokwe Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although public participation is deemed important in South Africa, negative perceptions of its legitimacy are widely acknowledged. Inclusive town-planning processes, as instruments to address inequality, have a significant role in enhancing democracy. This article reports on a study done from a communicative planning ...

  12. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Butajira town, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: In order to design effective tobacco control policy in low income countries, it is essential to understand smoking prevalence and predictors. In Ethiopia, most of what is known on the prevalence of smoking comes from studies in larger towns. Little is known about predictors of smoking in any Ethiopian ...

  13. Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. South Africa has endorsed a World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution calling for control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). In Cape Town, services and housing that exist in old-established suburbs should minimise the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, even when residents are poor. Where families ...

  14. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal ...

  15. Micro Enterprises in Small Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Nature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multivariate analysis revealed that the most critical variables affecting the performance of micro enterprises were capital, access to information, licensing and access to telephone ... Local demand should also be enhanced through improved agricultural productivity in the hinterland and increased income of town dwellers.

  16. The Town-Gown Relationship: Collaboration in University Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotsones, Rena K.

    2013-01-01

    As communities and universities confront increasingly complex social and fiscal pressures, there is a growing need to align and maximize local resources, knowledge and efforts. Historic and current tensions between town and gown can challenge the ability of universities and communities to collaborate for mutual benefit. This dissertation explores…

  17. Identification of the main processes in new towns Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of the main processes in new towns Development Company in Iran and provision of the model of ideal processes for optimal management of ... The most important result of this project is that after identifying the status quo, mapping the processes, revising the processes and applying revised processes, the ...

  18. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...

  19. Tracking alcohol-related violence in Cape Town's townships | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... As part of the Safe and Inclusive Cities initiative, IDRC-supported researchers in South Africa are evaluating the impact of liquor control laws and urban upgrades on violence and injury. University of Cape Town researchers are collaborating with the Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading program ...

  20. Investigating Urinary Schistosomiasis in Bali Town, Bali Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, it draws attention to the health hazards posed by the disease among the people. Therefore, prompt intervention by the Federal, State and Local Governments are needed in order to effectively control the disease in Bali town. This should include health education by health authorities to sensitizing the people ...

  1. The burden of imported malaria in Cape Town, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many foreign migrants come from malaria-endemic areas and present to SA healthcare services after arrival. Groote Schuur. Hospital (GSH) in Cape Town is a ..... Displacement: The New 21st Century Challenge – UNHCR. Global Trends 2012. Geneva: UNHCR, 2012. http://unhcr.org/ globaltrendsjune2013/ (accessed 5 ...

  2. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Short communication. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of. Campylobacter spp. from environmental waters. SM Diergaardt, SN Venter*, M Chalmers, J Theron and VS Brözel. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, ...

  3. Location of mosques and town planning laws in Nigeria: Imperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the interface between planning and religiosity of the Nigerian people with particular reference to the location of the mosque. It examines the ways in which the mosque intersects with the town and country planning laws of Nigeria and identifies means of improvement for sustainable development.

  4. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about

  5. The South African functional metropolis – A synthesis | Geyer | Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on morphological differences, it classifies Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria and the Witwatersrand as metropolitan areas, but regards the sprawled urban agglomeration in Gauteng as a megalopolis. A case is also made for greater recognition of the daily urban regions of the three primary cities of South Africa as part of ...

  6. Neighbourhood renewal in Cape Town's inner city: Is it gentrification?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    privaat

    served in London: “….. the working class quarters of. London have been invaded .... IN CAPE TOWN. Urban decay and renewal should be seen as by- products of urban growth. The spatial transformation of the urban structure usually takes place in an unbal- ... years of Jan van Riebeeck's arrival in Table Bay in. 1652, there ...

  7. The Tijaniyya Tariqa in Cape Town | Lliteras | Journal for Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study finds that the spiritual praxis of the Tijaniyya profoundly influences the social behaviour of its followers, as is exemplified by its impact on issues of race relations and identity in South Africa. The findings suggest that the Tijaniyya tariqa in Cape Town offers the unique opportunity to challenge racism and prejudice, ...

  8. Assessment of Sexual Assault Among Women in Assendabo Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 323 women 10 years and above. Data was collected by trained female interviewers using structured questionnaire and entered into computer, ...

  9. Report on family planning clinics conducted in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A statistical survey of the attendances at Family Planning Clinics in Cape Town over the past 10 years is presented, together wich the effect in reducing the birth rate. Derails of numbers of and reasons for dropouts, types of contraceptives used and results of [UD are shown.

  10. Influences on residential water consumption in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... non-pricing policies such as increasing consumer awareness. Accurate demand estimates are central to these strategies and policies (Jorgensen et al., 2009). The City of Cape Town Water Services Development. Plan (CoCT, 2008) and Water Demand Management Strategy. (CoCT, 2007b) are intended ...

  11. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. Objective. To evaluate screening ...

  12. Contravention of town planning regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated possible relationships between educational attainment, awareness of town planning regulations and contravening these regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Lagos. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data were obtained from both published and unpublished ...

  13. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... The potable water use recorded by 3 579 residential consumer water meters in Cape Town, South Africa, was analysed as part of this ..... class (m2). Number of records in stand size class. Actual AADD of stands with GAPs. (L/stand∙day). Estimated AADD as per guidelines. (L/stand∙day). Actual AADD.

  14. prevalence of sexual assault in asendabo town, oromiya region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept of Population and Family Health

    BACKGROUND: Violence against women is increasingly being recognized as important human rights, development and health issue however it is difficult to know its magnitude in. Ethiopia. The objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A ...

  15. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potable water use recorded by 3 579 residential consumer water meters in Cape Town, South Africa, was analysed as part of this research. The focus was on selected residential properties in serviced areas, with additional private access to groundwater as a supplementary household water source. Private consumers ...

  16. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-06-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  17. Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7 th annual texas conference on health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyne Kpetemey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD, a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE, aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center′s outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was "Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies". The scientific program consisted of three sessions: "Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer", "Triple Negative Breast Cancer," and "Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer" featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.

  18. Gynecologic cancer disparities: a report from the Health Disparities Taskforce of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Yvonne; Holcomb, Kevin; Chapman-Davis, Eloise; Khabele, Dineo; Farley, John H

    2014-05-01

    To review the extent of health disparities in gynecologic cancer care and outcomes and to propose recommendations to help counteract the disparities. We searched the electronic databases PubMed and the Cochrane Library. We included studies demonstrating quantifiable differences by race and ethnicity in the incidence, treatment, and survival of gynecologic cancers in the United States (US). Most studies relied on retrospective data. We focused on differences between Black and White women, because of the limited number of studies on non-Black women. White women have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer compared to Black women. However, the all-cause ovarian cancer mortality in Black women is 1.3 times higher than that of White women. Endometrial and cervical cancer mortality in Black women is twice that of White women. The etiology of these disparities is multifaceted. However, much of the evidence suggests that equal care leads to equal outcomes for Black women diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. Underlying molecular factors may play an additional role in aggressive tumor biology and endometrial cancer disparities. Gynecologic cancer disparities exist between Black and White women. The literature is limited by the lack of large prospective trials and adequate numbers of non-Black racial and ethnic groups. We conclude with recommendations for continued research and a multifaceted approach to eliminate gynecologic cancer disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  20. Understanding China’s electricity market reform from the perspective of the coal-fired power disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Dunguo

    2014-01-01

    In China, electricity consumption has grown quickly, supply is highly dependent on coal-fired power, and the prices of electricity are determined by the government, which increases the need for reform to enhance efficiency. In response to disputes about China’s electricity market reform, this paper analyses the efficiency of China’s coal-fired power plants using the Data Envelopment Analysis—Slack Based Measure (DEA-SBM) method on three levels: groups, provinces, and plants. The results indicate that there are both coal-electricity efficiency disparities and generation-hour arrangement unfairness across groups; the disparity across provinces is obvious and long-lasting, as indicated by capacity surpluses and coal-electricity efficiencies; and the disparities are displayed in detail by the estimation at the plant level. The disparities are primarily caused by the generator combination and generation hour arrangement. Competition may be able to solve the disparities, but a further comparison indicates that competition at the national level will enhance the efficiency to a greater degree than competition at the regional level. These results demonstrate that both competition and a united electricity market are necessary for further electricity market reform. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the coal-fired electricity efficiency from three levels. • There are efficiency disparities and hour arrangement unfairness at group level. • The disparities and unfairness are long-lasting across provinces. • The disparities and unfairness are detailed by analysis at plant level. • Competition at national market can improve the efficiency better than at regional market

  1. Determining town base socioeconomic indices to sensitize development in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Urban Population is increasing tremendously across the World with many cities struggling to reduce urban divides. Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan and a provincial capital confronted with challenge of urban divides. Socioeconomic inequalities engrossed the city and have become unrelenting in the wake of absence of an effective mechanism to ensure equity of services and development priorities. Consequently, state/cities resources are misdirected from the real and cogent use. Area based socio-economic indices help to classify areas which require for setting priorities and compatible uses. This paper highlights application of Principle Component Analysis to make socioeconomic indices (SESI) for towns of Lahore with outlined extension to union council level. (author)

  2. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  3. Racial/ethnic disparities in client unilateral termination: The role of therapists' cultural comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Drinane, Joanna; Tao, Karen W; Adelson, Jill L; Hook, Joshua N; Davis, Don; Fookune, Natacha

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence highlighting the existence of inequities in mental health treatments that occur on the basis of client race and ethnicity for some therapists. In particular, therapists vary in the degree to which their racial/ethnic minority clients unilaterally terminate as compared to White clients. Although therapists have been shown to be a key source of racial/ethnic mental health treatment disparities, less is known about what predicts which therapists will have larger disparities among their clients. With this in mind, the current study examined client unilateral termination within therapist caseloads, and then examined therapists' racial/ethnic comfort and general comfort as predictors of client unilateral termination. The sample included 23 counselors who treated 177 clients at a large university counseling center. The results indicated that therapists' racial/ethnic comfort was significantly associated with racial/ethnic disparities within their caseloads; however, therapists' general comfort was not. Implications for research and practice are offered. Therapists' racial/ethnic comfort may help explain disparities in unilateral termination.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Outpatient Substance Use Disorder Treatment Episode Completion for Different Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates how racial and ethnic disparities in treatment episode completion vary across different problem substances in an urban sample of 416,224 outpatient treatment discharges drawn from the 2011 U.S. Treatment Episode Dataset-Discharge (TEDS-D) data set. Fixed effects logistic regression is employed to test for the association of race and ethnicity with treatment episode completion for different substances of use while controlling for confounding demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic clustering factors. Results show that African Americans and Hispanics are less likely to complete a treatment episode than Whites, and that these disparities vary among users of different substances. For African Americans, this disparity is observed over all substances, but is particularly acute among users of alcohol and methamphetamine, substances for which African Americans generally have lower rates of use disorder as compared to Whites. For Hispanics, this disparity is driven primarily by users of heroin, for which Hispanics are only 75% as likely as Whites to complete a treatment episode. For users of cocaine and methamphetamine, there is no significant difference between Hispanics and Whites in the likelihood of treatment episode completion. These results contribute to emerging research on the mechanisms of substance use disorder treatment outcomes and highlight the need for culturally appropriate treatment programs to enhance treatment program retention and associated positive post-treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Paradox of Town Spatial Development: The Growing Real Estate and Shrinking Town - a Case Study of Hsinchu County, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Tung; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Lin, Wen-Yen

    2017-04-01

    The key factors of many discussions on shrinking towns are focusing at decreasing population and declining industries. Our study, using Hsinchu County as an example, has found that part of the county (Guanxi township) is following a typical and traditional town development pattern, while somewhere else of this county (Zhubei township) shows rapid growth in real estate but with a high vacancy rate. Even though the distance between Guanxi and Zhubei is less than 20 kilometers, the spatial development phenomenon of the two townships are both "shrinking" in the same county but very different in their developing paths. This study used GIS to overlay the maps from field survey and archive data, such as real estate prices of different years, environmental hazards and disaster records, local area power consumptions, and vulnerable population data, to clarify the causes and systems behind the shrinking phenomena of the two townships and to construct a theory of "shrinking town" in Taiwan. The contribution of this study is the findings of the tangling relations of the vulnerability from land-enclosure policy, the system design of local industrial development and urban planning, and structural factors of environmental hazards. Note: This study is part of the results from the Ministry of Science and Technology funding project (MOST 105-2621-M-120-002) KEYWORDS: shrinking town, environmental hazards, urban planning, spatial disasters, real estate development

  6. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  7. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile and by 6.0 and 2.4 years, respectively, in the highest income quartile. Life expectancy increased by 5.2 years among women in the lowest income quartile, 2.4 years due to premature deaths and 2.8 years due to late deaths. The gain in life expectancy among women in the highest income quartile of 5...... and mortality from 1986 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in life expectancy, life disparity and the threshold age that separates 'premature' and 'late' deaths. Mortality compression was quantified and compared between income quartiles. RESULTS: Since 1986, male life expectancy increased by 4.2 years...

  8. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  9. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  10. European Union of the Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to the idea of the necessity of changing EU’s political approach in order to face to the new inside and global challenges. In order to support this idea, the analysis uses four representative indicators: educational attainment level, hospital beds at 100000 inhabitants, employment rate and unemployment rate. The initial analysis was focused on EU’s regions and pointed out great disparities. A distinct part of the analysis covers Romanian regions. The analysis is realized on two levels: macroregions and NUTS 2 regions. Romania is not an exception from the paper’s approach. The main conclusion of the analysis is that EU arrived into critical point and has to change its political and economic approach in order to reduce and to eliminate the regional disparities and to increase its credibility as global actor.

  11. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  12. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  13. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  15. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  16. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  17. Work with the public in an industrial town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Open joint stock company 'Mashinostroitelny zavod' ('MSZ') is the manufacturer of nuclear fuel for 20 NPPs in Russia, CIS countries and Europe; it is situated in 55 km to the east of Moscow in a town called Electrostal that has the population of 150.000 people. The Public Information Center of the factory established 6 years ago informs the population of and public of the town of the technological and ecological peculiarities of the nuclear fuel production and forms positive attitude towards both, activities of the enterprise and atomic energy on the whole. Annually the Center is visited by up to 1.5 thousand people, mainly these are schoolchildren and college students. This has certain importance. The center maintains constant links with all the educational establishments of the town. Each excursion of the students to the Center turns into an open lesson on the main issues of nuclear physics, energy and ecology. The Center has sufficient choice of demo material in favour of the nuclear energy and fuel cycle enterprises.These are NPP diagrams, dummy reactors, full-scale dummy fuel rods and fuel assemblies produced by the factory, stands, scientific popular literature, huge video fund including films on nuclear energy . Video films made in the main workshops of the enterprise and demonstrating high degree of automation of the processes providing for the good quality of nuclear fuel and high level of nuclear and radiation safety of the production are of the highest interest. The work with the public is carried out through the factory weekly paper 'Energia' (3.5 000 copies) distributed almost for free as well as own TV-station 'Pioneer' connected to the town cable TV-network for 2000 users. The paper publications and TV broadcasting constantly enlighten on the issues related to the optimization of the technology of the nuclear fuel production, irradiation and nuclear protection means. The results of the polls held in 1996 show that the majority of the town population

  18. Acculturation, nutrition, and health disparities in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in the United States and will represent 25% of the US population by 2050. Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of poverty and poor health outcomes. We critically examined the evidence for a link between acculturation and health disparities in Latinos with a focus on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nutrition-related risk factors and illustrated how acculturation principles can help design a culturally appropriate T2D self-management intervention in Latinos. Evidence presented in this article was drawn from 1) systematic reviews identified through PubMed searches, 2) backward searches that were based on articles cited, 3) experts in the field, and 4) the author's personal files. The preponderance of the evidence supported an association of acculturation with poor dietary quality and obesity. These associations appeared to be modified by several socioeconomic and demographic factors and were not always linear. The association between acculturation and T2D is unclear. Longitudinal studies and more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to better understand if and how acculturation affects health-disparity outcomes in Latinos. Tailoring interventions to the acculturation level of individuals is likely to help reduce health disparities in Latinos.

  19. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  20. Electric transport in the Netherlands. Highlights 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland. Highlights 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Businesses, social and educational institutions and governmental institutes work together to accelerate electric transport and to discover and exploit economic opportunities. In 2012, many activities were carried out and results achieved, of which the highlights are presented in this brochure [Dutch] Bedrijfsleven, maatschappelijke- en kennisinstellingen en overheden werken samen aan versnelling van elektrisch vervoer en het ontdekken en benutten van economische kansen. In 2012 werden veel activiteiten uitgevoerd en resultaten geboekt, waarvan in deze brochure verslag wordt gedaan.

  1. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    . References: [1] http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ and https://ildwg.wordpress.com/ [2] Foing B. Moon exploration highlights and Moon Village introduction. [3] Young Lunar Explorers Report ESTEC Moon village sessions with community and young professionals.

  2. Townes-Brocks syndrome with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, limb deformity, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Intelligence is usually normal, although mild moderate mental retardation has been reported. It can be difficult to differentiate clinically between hemifacial microsomia (HFM and Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS. The distinction is important because TBS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, whereas HFM is sporadic. We report a classical case of TBS with overlapping features of hemifacial microsomia in an 11 year old boy who presented with unilateral anotia with hearing defect, renal agenesis and imperforate anus by birth.

  3. Landscape–oriented new town development in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Serious environmental degradation has followed China’s rapid urban growth. In the wake of unprecedented urbanization, modernization and economic development, new models to expand cities in more sustainable ways are actively sought. This study addresses the question of how Western design firms can...... contribute to raising the level of environmental sustainability in the development of new towns in China. The main research question explores whether landscape-oriented urbanism—a mode of practice that allows landscape to give direction to urban development—can provide tools for Western design firms...... to approach environmental sustainability in this setting. Hence, the study aims to shed light on the prospects for landscape-oriented development of new towns in China and the subsequent practical implications for Western design firms. The study introduces site-reading, inspired by site theories and theory...

  4. Historic town centre management - The real estate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciubotaru Mihai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, many of the socio-economic aspects of our lives (beside the classical understanding of the term industry “evolved(?” into industries: music, arts in general, sports, education, health....have become professionally managed industries. Historical town centres provide goods and services and, in this context, can be regarded as industries, as a whole. All the elements of an industry can be identified in these complex “places”: provision of goods and services, human resources issues, technology, marketing, regulatory and legal aspects, management...all of which pointing towards an approach that needs to be looked at as such. The most important industry in hist oric town centres is the real estate industry.

  5. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  6. Valladolid, a Festival Town (17th-18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes AMIGO VÁZQUEZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The festival was a great sociocultural event whose dimensions reached their maximum evolution in Early Modern Spain, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries and in its urban centres. This was the «festive society» par excellence, because of the frequency of the celebrations and the multiplicity of meanings, implications and consequences. Society and power, ultimately, were represented at the festival. In this context, the specific case of Valladolid demonstrates both its character as a germane model, applicable to any other town, and its uniqueness. Significantly, in the early 17th century it was once again the seat of the Court and yet even after being abandoned by Philip III in 1606, it continued to be one of the most important towns of Castile, the seat of the Royal Chancellery.

  7. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  8. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christian S; Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M; Vega, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC's impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done.

  9. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  10. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirak Zenebe Gebreab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use regression (LUR modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS. Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  12. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  13. [Patients' diet in "Town" and "City" hospitals in Belgrade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Svetlana; Jovanović-Simić, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The roots of hospital foundation in Serbs date from the 12th century, when the hospitals in the monasteries Hilandar (1199) and Studenica (1207) were established. The "Town" Hospital of Belgrade was founded in 1841, which had the status of town and regional hospital until 1881. After that, it was transformed into a general state-owned hospital based on the Law of National Health Protection. The inhabitants of Belgrade obtained a municipal hospital again in 1935, when the "City" Hospital was founded in Zvezdara municipality, named at that period Bulbulder. By researching and observing hospital diet development of municipal hospitals in Belgrade, it was concluded that from the very beginning of the "Town" Hospital functioning there was awareness about its significance, place and role in the overall treatment of patients. Hospital diet, regardless of existing knowledge as the part of medical doctrines of particular time-periods, was often conditioned by limited hospital budgets and under the influence of different social movements and wartime periods

  14. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  15. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and

  18. Enrollment Trends and Disparity Among Patients With Lung Cancer in National Clinical Trials, 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wong, Melisa L; Cheng, Perry; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Sargent, Daniel J; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Chen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Redman, Mary W; Manola, Judith B; Schilsky, Richard L; Cohen, Harvey J; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Adjei, Alex A; Gandara, David; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E

    2016-11-20

    Purpose Under-representation of elderly, women, and racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer in clinical trials is of national concern. The goal of this study was to characterize enrollment trends and disparities by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in lung cancer trials. Methods We analyzed data for 23,006 National Cancer Institute cooperative group lung cancer trial participants and 578,476 patients with lung cancer from the SEER registry from 1990 to 2012. The enrollment disparity difference (EDD) and enrollment disparity ratio (EDR) were calculated on the basis of the proportion of each subgroup in the trial population and the US lung cancer population. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in the subgroup proportions in each population were compared over time. Results Enrollment disparity for patients ≥ 70 years of age with non-small-cell lung cancer improved from 1990 to 2012 (test of parallelism, P = .020), with a remaining EDD of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.25) and EDR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.51 to 1.82) in 2010 to 2012. No improvement was seen for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), with an APC of 0.20 ( P = .714) among trial participants, despite a rising proportion of elderly patients with SCLC in the US population (APC, 0.32; P = .020). Enrollment disparity for women with lung cancer improved overall, with the gap closing by 2012 (EDD, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00 to 0.06]; EDR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16]). Enrollment disparities persisted without significant improvement for elderly women, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Conclusion Under-representation in lung cancer trials improved significantly from 1990 to 2012 for elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and for women, but ongoing efforts to improve the enrollment of elderly patients with SCLC and minorities are needed. Our study highlights the importance of addressing enrollment disparities by demographic and disease subgroups to better target under-represented groups of patients

  19. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles (Chuck) T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  20. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  1. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  2. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  4. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: A case study in a Chinese town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Q. Lin; Liu, Cong; Wu, H. Yun; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B. Wan; Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002–2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures. - Highlights: • The sediment is strongly polluted by Cd in a Chinese town. • Cd concentration surged when the nearby ceramic factory was established. • Cd is solely loaded in a principal component and abundant in the ceramic pigments. • The local ceramic industry may be responsible for the soil Cd contamination

  5. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouse, Hetta; Joska, John A; Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Burnhams, Warren; Carrico, Adam W; Meade, Christina S

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent in parts of South Africa, and there is concern this will contribute to the country's substantial HIV epidemic. We examined the feasibility of implementing routine HIV testing at a community-based substance abuse treatment centre in Cape Town and determined the HIV sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking treatment at this site. In this cross-sectional study, 293 participants completed measures of demographics, substance use and HIV treatment. HIV sero-prevalence was determined by a rapid finger-prick HIV test, and prior HIV diagnosis was confirmed via clinic records. The majority of participants were male and self-identified as 'Coloured', with a mean age of 28 years. The HIV sero-prevalence was 3.8%. Of the 11 participants who tested HIV positive, four were newly diagnosed. HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were comparable on demographic and substance use factors. Uptake of HIV testing among all clients at the drug treatment centre increased from treatment is feasible in a community-based health centre. The low HIV prevalence among this sample of treatment-seeking methamphetamine users highlights the potential benefits of supporting expanded efforts to optimise HIV prevention with this young adult population. [Gouse H, Joska JA, Lion RR, Watt MH, Burnhams W, Carrico AW, Meade CS. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:580-583]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  7. The development areas - between cohesion and disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena LUPCHIAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current development regions are composed by counties with very different development levels, and the urban centres they include are also characterised by different polarisation abilities. Great differences persist among the Romanian development regions, created in order to mitigate the development discrepancies existing in Romania. The comparative analysis of socio-economic development, attractiveness and quality of life benchmarks, from the beginning of these territorial constructions to the current time, seeks to outline the extent to which they have led to a rebalancing or, on the contrary, to greater disparities, not only within the development areas themselves, but also at national level

  8. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  9. Research collaboration 2011-2012: A joint publication highlighting the research partnerships between the CSIR and University of the Western Cape, University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available -organisms in groundwater is not well understood. This is due to the complex biophysical and biochemical processes that affect the fate and transport of micro-organisms that enter groundwater. Besides movement of groundwater, there are many biological... and palladium. The intention was to monitor and apply the research results in specific water management areas of South Africa, where heavy metal pollution from precious metal refineries has been identified. Knowledge of the life cycle of heavy metal...

  10. Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

  11. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Epidemiology, Analysis, and Library Services (DEALS) Disparities Analytics CDC Disability and Health, Health Care Data & Statistics Healthy People 2020 HHS National Partnership for Action (NPA) AHRQ ...

  12. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei

    2017-09-01

    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Disparities in obesity among rural and urban residents in a health disparate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie L; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2014-10-08

    The burden of obesity and obesity-related conditions is not borne equally and disparities in prevalence are well documented for low-income, minority and rural adults in the United States. The current literature on rural versus urban disparities is largely derived from national surveillance data which may not reflect regional nuances. There is little practical research that supports the reality of local service providers such as county health departments that may serve both urban and rural residents in a given area. Conducted through a community-academic partnership, the primary aim of this study is to quantify the current levels of obesity (BMI), fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) in a predominately rural health disparate region. Secondary aims are to determine if a gradient exists within the region in which rural residents have poorer outcomes on these indicators compared to urban residents. Conducted as part of a larger ongoing community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative, data were gathered through a random digit dial telephone survey using previously validated measures (n = 784). Linear, logistic and quantile regression models are used to determine if residency (i.e. rural, urban) predicts outcomes of FV intake, PA and BMI. The majority (72%) of respondents were overweight (BMI = 29 ± 6 kg/m2), with 29% being obese. Only 9% of residents met recommendations for FV intake and 38% met recommendations for PA. Statistically significant gradients between urban and rural and race exist at the upper end of the BMI distribution. In other words, the severity of obesity is worse among black compared to white and for urban residents compared to rural residents. These results will be used by the community-academic partnership to guide the development of culturally relevant and sustainable interventions to increase PA, increase FV intake and reduce obesity within this health disparate region. In particular, local stakeholders may wish to

  14. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  15. Disparities in parent confidence managing child weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Curran, Jennifer L; Abatemarco, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    To describe ethnic disparities in parental confidence managing child weight-related behaviors. This was a cross-sectional survey of 59 parents of children with obesity between 4 and 7 years of age presenting to a tertiary care pediatric weight management clinic. Parents completed a validated measure assessing their confidence managing their child's weight-related behaviors (parent confidence score). Student's t-tests and linear regression analyses were used to determine parent and child characteristics associated with parent confidence score. Families were ethnically diverse with half being of Hispanic ethnicity. Mean parent confidence score was 159 (SD 66) with 71% of parents with parent confidence scores below the clinical cut-off for the measure. Parent confidence score was lower among Hispanic (mean 133, SD 67) compared to non-Hispanic parents (mean 184, SD 55, p confidence score was most strongly associated with parental ethnicity (β = -0.39, p = 0.002, adjusted R(2) = 0.14). Parental confidence managing weight-related behaviors was low among parents of young obese children, especially those of Hispanic ethnicity. This study highlights the need to assess parental confidence in managing weight-related behaviors as part of pediatric obesity care and to provide counseling to improve parental management of weight-related behaviors in a culturally-appropriate manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  17. PLANNING STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF SMALL TOWNS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kashiripoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning structure of cities plays an important role in shaping their sustainable development while elaborating urban planning documentation (master plans and detailed plan projects. The existing studies of small towns in Iran reveal issues of architectural heritage and do not touch upon such peculiar features of small town planning as shape of their plan, network of streets, their configuration. It has not been established how a planning structure of a small city influences on its sustainable development.An inspection of 16 small towns of Iran has shown that the majority of the cities have a compact planning form which is due to flat relief, as well as the need for efficient use of valuable agricultural land. At the same time the paper demonstrates that territory development for building construction within city boundaries has unequal character. It has been determined that cities have very few green areas. Undeveloped wastelands owned by private individuals are often located close to densely developed areas. Such situation is due to specific features of the Iranian legislation that does not specify time terms for territory development. Parameters of urban road-street networks (width in red lines, presence of such transverse profile elements as landscaping along roadways do not correspond to the existing recommendations in Iran. Mixed or free system of streets is considered as the most common one and it is due to changes in urban conditions during the long process of development. Frequent network of narrow streets forms a system of small blocks of various shapes and needs to be improved. The majority of the inspected cities do not have bypass roads for freight transport, and there is also a transit transport through their historic centers.

  18. Development of Government Schools in Orangi Town, Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Zafar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary school system in Pakistan needs improvement in order to provide the basic right of education to all. Government schools are not enough to cater the needs of increasing population of the country. The main goal of this study was to present a methodology for the development of government schools based on geographical information system (GIS through a case study of Orangi Town in Karachi. In this study, first the adequacy of government schools in the study area was evaluated and then the need for additional schools with their suitable locations were identified.  Data regarding school locations and students enrollments were collected from Sindh Basic Education Program of a non-profit NGO iMMAP. School building footprints were digitized from 2001 and 2013 Google Earth archived images. Population in 2013 was estimated by projecting 1998 census data downloaded from the website of the Census Bureau of Pakistan. An educated assumption of 20 % of the total population of Orangi Town was used to calculate number of primary school-aged children. Study results showed that schools existed in 2013 were not sufficient to serve all these children. This study also revealed that new schools were built during this time period, but the population growth rate was much higher than the growth rate of schools that created a big supply-demand gap. The most progressive Union Council (UC of Orangi Town was Haryana Colony where 17 new schools were constructed between 2001 and 2013 though the required number of schools still fall short. New sites for schools were also proposed to optimally serve Orangi Town’s residents using GIS proximity analysis.

  19. Landscape–oriented new town development in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    to approach environmental sustainability in this setting. Hence, the study aims to shed light on the prospects for landscape-oriented development of new towns in China and the subsequent practical implications for Western design firms. The study introduces site-reading, inspired by site theories and theory......-oriented urbanism through ecological infrastructure (EI), informed by landscape ecology, inspired by vernacular principles and more clearly coupled to smart growth principles. To tactically operate with EI in this setting, a basic orientation framework is developed together with a set of recommendations...

  20. Recent development of Slovene towns - social structure and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas several processes of social transformation and change have been present in the last decade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increased social differentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urban areas. Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older inner city areas were affected by social degradation and concentration of low-income population and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner cities processes of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However, the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of most transitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  1. Towns-Energies-Services-2030; Villes-Energies-Service-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waroux, D. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - La-Plaine-Saint-Denis (France)Direction de la Recherche; Arnaud, P. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Direction de Programme au P.C.A.; Burgel, G. [Paris-10 Univ., 92 - Nanterre (France). Direction du Laboratoire de Geographie Urbaine; Moser, G. [Universite Rene Descartes, 75 - Paris (France). Direction du Laboratoire de Psychologie de l`Environnement

    1998-11-28

    This report is the compilation of the 4 dissertations presented during the first part of the conference and dealing with: a particular aspect of todays and tomorrows urban energies: the perceptions and opinions of the younger generation (results of a public inquiry realized for Gaz de France company); the urban natural gas fueled mass transportation systems in 2010-2030 (socio-economical aspects); the helps provided by the new technologies to elderly people in tomorrows towns at the 2030 vista; and the integration of new technologies with safety purposes in collective residential buildings: the point of view of urban emergency services. (J.S.)

  2. Urban Structure Matters, Even in a Small Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Jensen, Ole B.

    2002-01-01

    for these factors and a range of other potential explanatory variables, we find clear relationships between urban structural characteristics and travel activity. These relationships exist across most subgroups of the population. The statistical relationships found between urban structure and travel behavior......A recent study in Frederikshavn, Denmark, shows that urban structural variables influence travel behavior also in a small town of around 30 000 inhabitants. As one might expect, socioeconomic and attitudinal factors play a role for the respondents? traveling patterns. But also when controlling...

  3. Renewal of a Small Town in Poland Based on Example of Ustka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczobut, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    Ustka is a historical seaside town, port and health resort, a town of many possibilities. In this tourist town the old urban arrangement and many historic objects are preserved. Despite such potential, the town struggles with various problems, as do many small towns in the north of Poland. In 2003 works on a revitalization programme began (it has been implemented since 2005). The next stage was a programme which started in 2011. At present Ustka prepares for the next revitalization plan–a “District Revitalization Programme for 2016 – 2022”. The article describes: the situation at different stages of town development related to previously carried out revitalization programmes and the prospects for its further prosperity.

  4. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003 and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011 were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  5. Socioeconomic disparity in survival after breast cancer in ireland: observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Walsh

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer survival and deprivation using data from the Irish National Cancer Registry. Cause-specific survival was compared between five area-based socioeconomic deprivation strata using Cox regression. Patient and tumour characteristics and treatment were compared using modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Based on 21356 patients diagnosed 1999-2008, age-standardized five-year survival averaged 80% in the least deprived and 75% in the most deprived stratum. Age-adjusted mortality risk was 33% higher in the most deprived group (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45, P<0.001. The most deprived groups were more likely to present with advanced stage, high grade or hormone receptor-negative cancer, symptomatically, or with significant comorbidity, and to be smokers or unmarried, and less likely to have breast-conserving surgery. Cox modelling suggested that the available data on patient, tumour and treatment factors could account for only about half of the survival disparity (adjusted hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.97-1.43, P = 0.093. Survival disparity did not diminish over time, compared with the period 1994-1998. Persistent survival disparities among Irish breast cancer patients suggest unequal use of or access to services and highlight the need for further research to understand and remove the behavioural or other barriers involved.

  6. Racial and socioeconomic disparity in perforated appendicitis among children: where is the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwomeh, Benedict C; Chisolm, Deena J; Caniano, Donna A; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2006-03-01

    Significant racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities have been observed in the rates of perforated appendicitis among children, by using large administrative databases. This study evaluated whether these factors had an impact on the care of patients with appendicitis at a major children's hospital with a well-established, comprehensive, primary referral system. A retrospective analysis was performed for all children between the ages of 2 and 20 years who were treated for appendicitis between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003. Demographic variables included patient age, gender, race, insurance status, parental educational status, and income level. Coding data were used to identify patients with perforated appendicitis. The use of radiologic imaging was also analyzed. During the 3-year period, 788 patients were treated for appendicitis. The racial distribution (white: 81%; black: 12%; other: 7%) was consistent with the demographic composition of the local population. The overall perforation rate was 25%, and the rate was significantly greater in the age group of racial and socioeconomic groups. Although racial and socioeconomic disparities in the rates of perforated appendicitis among children have been reported, we found no significant evidence for such inequality at our institution. This may reflect improved access, early diagnosis, and referral by primary care physicians in the community. Pooled national and multiple-state administrative databases have been used to highlight persistent disparities in health care. This study illustrates how single-institution data sources can be used to test a local hypothesis generated by national data, with surprisingly different results.

  7. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L; Yoder, Aaron M; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K; Nguyen, Minh N; Shaikh, Raees A

    2016-12-21

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income ( p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  8. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A.; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L.; Yoder, Aaron M.; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Shaikh, Raees A.

    2016-01-01

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing. PMID:28009807

  9. The men's health center: Disparities in gender specific health services among the top 50 “best hospitals” in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Choy

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: A considerable disparity exists between the prevalence of gender-specific health services, with WHCs being much more numerous than MHCs. All but one leading institution had WHCs compared to less than one-third having MHCs. Our findings also highlight the heterogeneous nature of men's health programs, as they exhibit great variability in program type and focus, yet are all being marketed under the “Men's Health” banner.

  10. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  12. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of gender disparity is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in ...

  13. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  14. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  15. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  16. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  17. Difference between highlight and object colors enhances glossiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-06-01

    The effect of highlight and object colors on perception of glossiness was examined. Ten participants rated glossiness of object images. The color coordinates of objects and highlights were varied while luminance of each pixel was unchanged. Four colors were used for objects and highlights. Objects were perceived as glossier when the highlight color was different from the object color than when they were the same. Objects with some unnatural combinations of highlight and object colors were perceived to be as glossy as those with natural color combinations. The results suggested that differences between highlight and object colors enhance perceived glossiness and that perceived glossiness does not depend on naturalness of color combination for highlights and objects.

  18. The enduring and spatial nature of the enterprise richness of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan F. Toerien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise richness (measured by the number of enterprise types showed a statistically significant log-log relationship (or power law with the total number of enterprises in (1 towns in different regions of South Africa and (2 towns in the same region but seven decades apart. Entrepreneurial space in towns develops or disappears in a regular way as towns grow or regress, which is further proof of orderliness in the enterprise dynamics of South African towns. The power laws are very similar to one another, which was powerfully illustrated by the fact that one relationship extracted from seven-decade-old information could accurately predict the enterprise richness of modern towns in South Africa. The enterprise richness power law of towns in South Africa extends over space and time. Recent reviews of research on small towns and local economic development in South Africa have ignored the orderliness detected in their enterprise structures. Islands have provided laboratories for the study of natural evolution and the MacArthur-Wilson Species Equilibrium Model based on island biogeography was a main contributor to progress in ecology. Research on regional economic geography in South Africa should move beyond the merely descriptive/narrative to more quantified research. In considering the lack of employment and poverty in South Africa, the National Development Plan suggests that towns and rural areas are important cogs in efforts to overcome these problems. Development plans that are out of sync with the observed regularities are perhaps bound to fail.

  19. Perceived descriptive safety-related driving norms within and outside Arab towns and villages in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Obid, Samira; Fertig, Shahar; Gitelman, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in car crashes is higher among Israeli Arabs compared to Jews. This study characterized perceived descriptive driving norms (PDDNs) within and outside Arab towns/villages and estimated their association with involvement in car crashes. Arab drivers (594) living in 19 towns and villages were interviewed in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire included questions about involvement in car crashes, PDDNs within and outside the towns/villages, attitudes toward traffic safety laws, traffic law violations, and socioeconomic and demographic variables. PDDNs represent individuals' perceptions on how safe other people typically drive. The low scores indicate a low percentage of drivers performing unsafe behaviors (safer driving-related norms). A structural equation modeling analysis was applied to identify factors associated with PDDNs and involvement in car crashes. A large difference was found in PDDNs within and outside the towns/villages. Mostly, the respondents reported higher rates of unsafe PDDNs within the towns/villages (mean = 3.76, SD = 0.63) and lower rates of PDDNs outside the towns/villages (mean = 2.12, SD = 0.60). PDDNs outside the towns/villages were associated with involvement in a car crash (r = -0.12, P Arab Israelis. Because PDDNs outside towns/villages were better, increased law enforcement within towns/villages may improve these norms and decrease involvement in car crashes.

  20. Detection and Solution of Indoor Air Quality Problems in a Danish Town Hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik; Brohus, Henrik

    In connection with the research programme "Healthy Buildings", a building with indoor air quality problems was selected for further investigations. A Danish town hall was chosen because of many complaints over several years. A full-scale mock-up of a typical town hall office was built in the clim......In connection with the research programme "Healthy Buildings", a building with indoor air quality problems was selected for further investigations. A Danish town hall was chosen because of many complaints over several years. A full-scale mock-up of a typical town hall office was built...

  1. Fertility and prospects of family planning in The Three Towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A Y

    1983-12-01

    This article studies fertility and prospects of family planning in the Three Towns based on data from the survey on the beginning of family limitation in Khartoum province (1975). The data was obtained using a stratified random sample design of currently married women, using the 1973 census records as the sample frame. Family planning is a recent development in the Three Towns. The inherent difficulties (political, administrative, economic and cultural), of organizing an effective program are numerous and complex. The main problem facing the program at present is ignorance rather than failure to act on information already acquired. Most people do not know that fertility control is possible. Lack of communication, rather than lack of motivation is the issue the program should address itself to. Due to social attitudes, much more attention should be given to contacting husbands, informing and motivating them. A material stimulus towards successful encouragement is that contraceptives should be widely available and cheap in relation to the incomes of the masses. This opens a door of economic responsibilities that can not be met by the association alone. Therefore, contacts with philanthropic institutions and individuals, domestically and internationally, are necessary for getting financial help.

  2. Community participation in tsunami early warning system in Pangandaran town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Sapari D.; Khadijah, Ute Lies Siti; Saepudin, Encang; Budiono, Agung; Yuliawati, Ayu Krishna

    2017-07-01

    Disaster-resilient communities are communities capable of anticipating and minimizing destructive forces through adaptation. Disaster is an event very close to the people of Indonesia, especially in the small tourism town of Pangadaran located at West Java, Indonesia. On July 17, 2006, the town was hit by a Mw 7.8 earthquake and tsunami that effected over 300 km of the coastline, where the community suffered losses in which more than 600 people were killed, with run up heights exceeding 20 m. The devastation of the tsunami have made the community more alert and together with the local government and other stakeholder develop an Early Warning System for Tsunami. The study is intended to discover issues on tsunami Early Warning System (EWS), disaster risk reduction measures taken and community participation. The research method used is descriptive and explanatory research. The study describe the Tsunami EWS and community based Disaster Risk Reduction in Pangandaran, the implementation of Tsunami alert/EWS in disaster preparedness and observation of community participation in EWS. Data were gathered by secondary data collection, also primary data through interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. Research resulted in a description of EWS implementation, community participation and recommendation to reduce disaster risk in Pangandaran.

  3. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  4. Town of Canmore Energy Management Action Plan (EMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    In 1999, the Town of Canmore, Alberta joined the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' Partners for Climate Protection (PCP) Program and committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal operations by 20 per cent and community-wide emissions by 6 per cent of 2000 levels by 2012. To date, the City has completed a baseline analysis for municipal operations and the community. It has also initiated an Energy Management Action Plan (EMAP) to identify opportunities in sustainable development through energy, GHG and air quality management. The broad community objectives include housing and transportation management, job creation and local economic development. The city has adopted The Natural Step (TNS) framework which defines sustainability and the guiding principles for decision-making. The objectives of EMAP are to define and evaluate options for a practical strategy and action plan to meet the city's GHG reduction targets; raise local awareness of the issues and opportunities of energy planning and GHG reductions and develop a local action plan outlining action items to reduce energy use and GHG emissions from municipal operations throughout the community. This report explained the methodology and framework for EMAP management and presented a community profile for the Town of Canmore. It also included an energy and emissions inventory and forecast with reference to corporate energy and emissions baseline; community energy and emissions baseline; corporate energy and emissions forecast; community energy and emissions forecast and corporate and community GHG targets. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Bacteriological quality of icecream marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ambily

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the bacteriological quality of ice creams marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven ice cream samples randomly collected from selected retail outlets and street vendors in the town over a period of two months were analyzed for total viable count and for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: Total Viable Count ranged from 1.2 x 10 2 to 8.2 x 10 3 CFU/g in industrial brands whereas in street vendor samples it was high in the range of 5.2 x 10 5 to 6.6 x 10 6 CFU/g. Coliform counts were high in 30 % of the samples. 27 % of the samples had high Staphylococcal count. E coli were isolated from two samples from street vendors and Salmonella spp. from one of the samples. Listeria spp. was not isolated from any of the samples. Conclusion: The presence of potential pathogens in the ice cream samples reveals the significance of implementation of quality control measures in marketing ice creams thus reducing the public health hazards. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 738-741

  6. In-town dispersion calculations with RIMPUFF and UDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrup, P.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2005-11-01

    Input to ERMIN, deposition of radioactive matter inside inhabited areas from releases both within and outside such areas, shall in a decision support system be produced by dispersion codes, followed by data-assimilation. The present work focuses on the differences in near surface concentrations and in depositions obtained with a code designed for dispersion of a release from a nuclear power plant, typically situated at a distance from densely inhabited areas, and a code specifically designed for predicting dispersion from sources inside urban areas. The codes applied are the RIMPUFF code, RIsoe Mesoscale PUFF model from Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, and the UDM code, Urban Dispersion Model, from 'dstl', Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, United Kingdom. For an above-town release only small differences are seen between the codes, but for a in-town ground release, e.g. a dirty bomb, the UDM code predicts much larger concentrations in an area close to the release point and, if wind shifts occur, gives a rather different plume all over. (au)

  7. Hong Kong New Town Sustainability Analysis from the Perspective of Low-Carbon Eco-City—Taking Tseung Kwan O New Town as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Huang, Guanqi

    2018-01-01

    Recent years, people have paid more attentions to environmental issues involving air pollution, urban heat island effect and accessibility of green space. Hong Kong is a representative high-density city. The mission of Hong Kong New Town Development is to scatter the densely urban centre population and to improve living quality. Based on the ArcGIS and CFD scientific simulation, this paper focus on the sustainability analysis of Hong Kong new town from the view of Low-Carbon Eco-City, taking Tseung Kwan O new town as the research object.

  8. Investigation on Industrial Waste Waters Reuse of Industrial Towns for Agricultural and Irrigation Uses (Case Study: Treatment Plant of Jahan Abad MeybodIndustrial Town)

    OpenAIRE

    Azra Dehghani firoozabady; hady Zarei MahmoodAbady; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampush

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: With attention to the existence numerous numbers of industrial towns and them volume of generated wastewater  and problems of shortage of water in the Yazd province, therfore the proper wastewater treatment and efficient management of waste water of industrial towns for reuse of them  is one of  the most important of program for reducing & saving in water consumption.  Hence, this study aimed to the feasibility of the reuse of waste water of industrial town o...

  9. Husserl and Heidegger: exploring the disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Henry, Tracy; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Introduced as an alternative to empirical science, phenomenology offers nursing an insightful means for understanding nursing phenomena specifically in relation to lived experiences. However, not all phenomenologies were created equal, a point which has left many a nursing researcher not only confused. Furthermore, this confusion might result in the choosing of a philosophical framework that is neither cognizant with the research question nor the epistemological lens through which the researcher operates. Drawing on common nursing examples to illustrate concepts, the authors closely examine and debate the disparities between Husserl's transcendental phenomenology and Heidegger's hermeneutic approach to phenomenology. The aim of the article is to demystify the dense language used and present the fundamental beliefs of each philosopher in a format that is accessible to novice phenomenologists.

  10. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  11. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_talamas@hotmail.com [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Talamás-Rohana, Patricia, E-mail: ptr@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime, E-mail: rogelio@fis.cinvestav.mx [Department of Physics, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha, E-mail: mespinosac@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana, E-mail: bchavez@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); González-Robles, Arturo, E-mail: goroa@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo, E-mail: amartine@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  12. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica

  13. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  14. Health Disparities and Cancer: Racial Disparities in Cancer Mortality in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Eileen B.; Meltzer, Jeremy P.; Bethea, Traci N.

    2015-01-01

    Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S.) have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates and mortality trends for Blacks and Whites. The complex relationship between socioeconomic status and race and its contribution to racial cancer disparities is discussed. Based on current trends and the potential and limitations of the patient protection and affordable care act with its mandate to reduce health care inequities, future trends, and challenges in cancer mortality disparities in the U.S. are explored. PMID:25932459

  15. Social Networks and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400

  16. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological 'design' space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused morphometric studies. The unique structural and

  17. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W.; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological ‘design’ space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Methods Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Key Results Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Conclusions Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused

  18. Defining racial and ethnic disparities in THA and TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgit, Kaan; Nelson, Charles L

    2011-07-01

    For minority populations in the United States, especially African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, healthcare disparities are a serious problem. The literature documents racial and ethnic utilization disparities with regard to THA and TKA. We therefore (1) defined utilization disparities for total joint arthroplasty in racial and ethnic minorities, (2) delineated patient and provider factors contributing to the lower total joint arthroplasty utilization, and (3) discussed potential interventions and future research that may increase total joint arthroplasty utilization by racial and ethnic minorities. We searched the MEDLINE database and identified 67 articles, 21 of which we excluded. By searching Google and Google Scholar and reference lists of the included articles, we identified 40 articles for this review. Utilization disparities were defined by documented lower utilization of THA or TKA in specific racial or ethnic groups. Lower utilization of THA and TKA among some racial and ethnic minority groups (African Americans, Hispanics) is not explained by decreased disease prevalence or disability. At least some utilization disparities are independent of income, geographic location, education, and insurance status. Causal factors related to racial and ethnic disparities may be related in part to patient factors such as health literacy, trust, and preferences. Provider unconscious or conscious biases or beliefs also play a role in at least some healthcare disparities. Racial and ethnic THA and TKA utilization disparities exist. These disparities are not explained by lower disease prevalence. The existing data suggest patient education, improved health literacy regarding THA and TKA, and a patient-provider relationship leading to improved trust would be beneficial. Research providing a better understanding of the root causes of these disparities is needed.

  19. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  20. Increasing Prevalence of US Elementary School Gardens, but Disparities Reduce Opportunities for Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Eliason, Meghan; Sandoval, Anna; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of school garden programs at US public elementary schools. The study examined time trends, demographic and regional disparities, and associations with related programs such as farm-to-school. Annual surveys were gathered from nationally representative samples of elementary schools between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014. Annual samples ranged from 553 to 748 schools. The prevalence of gardens increased steadily from 11.9% in 2006-2007 to 31.2% in 2013-2014 (p garden programs varied significantly by school characteristics. Gardens were more prevalent in the west than in other regions. Gardens were less prevalent at schools serving higher proportions of lower-income students, and were more prevalent at urban schools than in suburbs, towns, or rural areas. Gardens were more common at schools with farm-to-school programs. Gardens also were associated with offering formal classroom-based nutrition education. Garden programs in elementary schools have increased over time, but there is room for wider implementation, particularly at schools serving lower-income students. Given the role of childhood in establishing food preferences and dietary consumption habits, such programs are important and can reinforce the messages imparted through nutrition education. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Large social disparities in spontaneous preterm birth rates in transitional Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grjibovski, A M; Bygren, L O; Yngve, A; Sjöström, M

    2005-02-01

    This study estimated the effect of maternal sociodemographic, obstetric and lifestyle factors on the risk of spontaneous preterm birth in a Russian town. All women with singleton pregnancies registered at prenatal care centres in Severodvinsk in 1999 comprised the cohort for this study (n=1559). Analysis was based on spontaneous live singleton births at the maternity home (n=1103). Multivariable logistic regression was applied to quantify the effect of the studied factors on the risk of preterm birth. Differences in gestation duration were studied using multiple linear regression. In total, 5.6% of all spontaneous births were preterm. Increased risks of preterm delivery were found in women with lower levels of education and in students. Placental complications, stress and a history of fetal death in previous pregnancies were also associated with elevated risks for preterm delivery. Smoking, hypertension and multigravidity were associated with reduced length of pregnancy in metric form. In addition to medical risk factors, social factors are important determinants of preterm birth in transitional Russia. Large disparities in preterm birth rates may reflect the level of inequalities in transitional Russia. Social variations in pregnancy outcomes should be monitored.

  2. Geographically Weighted Regression Models in Estimating Median Home Prices in Towns of Massachusetts Based on an Urban Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiong Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a key component of urban sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of key spatial determinants of median home price in towns in Massachusetts that impact sustainable growth. Our analysis investigates the presence or absence of spatial non-stationarity in the relationship between sustainable growth, measured in terms of the relationship between home values and various parameters including the amount of unprotected forest land, residential land, unemployment, education, vehicle ownership, accessibility to commuter rail stations, school district performance, and senior population. We use the standard geographically weighted regression (GWR and Mixed GWR models to analyze the effects of spatial non-stationarity. Mixed GWR performed better than GWR in terms of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Our findings highlight the nature and spatial extent of the non-stationary vs. stationary qualities of key environmental and social determinants of median home price. Understanding the key determinants of housing values, such as valuation of green spaces, public school performance metrics, and proximity to public transport, enable towns to use different strategies of sustainable urban planning, while understanding urban housing determinants—such as unemployment and senior population—can help modify urban sustainable housing policies.

  3. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Corella, Susana; García-Pérez, Javier; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-08-14

    This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER). This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

  4. Brookhaven highlights, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.; Kuper, J.B.H. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Highlights from all the department are illustrated. The main topics are on accelerator development and applications. (LSP)

  5. Racial disparities in the type of postmastectomy reconstruction chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Tsai, Thomas C; Wenger, Julia B; Guo, Lifei

    2015-05-01

    Racial disparities remain for women undergoing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Understanding patterns of racial disparities in IBR utilization may present opportunities to tailor policies aimed at optimizing care across racial groups. The aim of this study was to determine if racial disparities exist for types of IBR chosen. A national, retrospective cohort study used the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to detect the odds by race for receiving each subtype of IBR after mastectomy-prosthetic, pedicled-transfer autologous tissue, or free-transfer autologous tissue. Secondary outcome was trends in IBR rates over time. There were 44,597 women identified in the data set who underwent mastectomy. Thirty-seven percent of women (N = 16, 642) were noted to undergo IBR after mastectomy. Prosthetic reconstruction (84.4%, n = 37, 640) was the most common form of IBR compared with pedicled-autologous reconstruction (15.4%, n = 6868) and free transfer autologous reconstruction (4.9%, n = 2185), P Racial disparities persisted from 2005-2011; as minority patients were less likely to undergo IBR than whites (P disparities in access to high-quality care and underlying cultures. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in IBR should be tailored to specific patterns of disparities among Asian, black, and Hispanic women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Persisting Racial Disparities in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Utilization and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandran, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to study whether racial disparities in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) utilization and outcomes have declined over time. We used the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011. We used chi-squared test to compare characteristics, Cochran-Armitage test to compare utilization rates, and Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression to compare time-trends in outcomes by race. From 1998 to 2011, 176,141 Whites and 7694 Blacks underwent TSA. Compared to Whites, Blacks who underwent TSA were younger (69.1 vs. 64.2 years; p racial disparities increased from 1998 to 2011 (p disparities did not change over time (p = 0.31). These disparities in utilization were borderline significant in adjusted analyses. There were no racial differences in proportion discharged to inpatient medical facility in 1998-2000, 15.2 vs. 15.0 % (p = 0.95), and in 2009-2011, 12.3 vs. 11.1 % (p = 0.37), respectively. We found increasing racial disparities in TSA utilization. Some disparities in outcomes exist as well. Patients, surgeons, and policy-makes should be aware of these findings and take action to reduce racial disparities.

  7. A New Neighborhood Every Fall: Aging in Place in a College Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kathleen H

    Older adults who live in residential neighborhoods adjacent to college and university campuses have a unique experience that makes them vulnerable to marginalization and displacement. As these neighborhoods become increasingly dominated by college students living in rental properties, older adults find themselves in the minority in a neighborhood where they have lived for many years. In addition, these neighborhoods are attractive to universities, city governments, and private companies for their development potential, which can result in gentrification. A year-long ethnographic study of a campus-adjacent neighborhood in a small US college town that is home to a medium-sized public university sheds light on the relationships between members of 5 stakeholder groups that have a vested interest in the neighborhood. The study highlights the need for additional research on different types of neighborhoods and their effects on aging in place in addition to outlining social work interventions in campus-adjacent neighborhoods that are designed to enhance these intergenerational spaces.

  8. Substance use, gender inequity, violence and sexual risk among couples in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Myers, Bronwyn; Reed, Elizabeth; Carney, Tara; Emanuel, Andrea N; Browne, Felicia A

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug use, gender power inequities and violence are key contributors to sexual risks for HIV among South African men and women. Little is known about the intersection between these sex-risk behaviours among couples in established heterosexual relationships. We conducted 10 focus-group discussions with men and women in relationships of 1 year or longer recruited from shebeens (informal taverns) in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants described: high levels of alcohol consumption at shebeens; low levels of condom use with main and casual sex partners; gender roles disfavouring women's condom negotiating power that also promoted economic dependency on male partners; men often spending a portion of the household income on alcohol and other drugs and sex with others in shebeens; loss of household income driving women to trade sex to provide for their families; and sexual violence and the exploitation of women occurring in shebeens. Findings highlight how the social contexts of alcohol and other drug use, gender inequitable norms and gender violence promote HIV risk within established heterosexual relationships in South African communities. Evidence of this kind should inform the design of HIV-risk-reduction interventions tailored to heterosexual couples who drink alcohol in shebeens.

  9. Use of crystal methamphetamine among male adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa: Caregivers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwaku Oppong; Lentoor, Antonio G

    2017-03-27

    Against the background that crystal methamphetamine (colloquially known as "tik") is extensively used by the emerging working class Coloured youth in Cape Town, South Africa, this exploratory qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of mothers whose children use methamphetamine. The researchers conducted one-to-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixteen (16) purposively selected caregivers (mothers) whose sons use methamphetamine. Interviews were recorded and simultaneously translated and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to the experiences of caregivers of youth with methamphetamine problems. Findings showed that youth misbehaviour provided a context that led to feelings of shame and embarrassment. Participants also experienced personal challenges which included emotional problems, fear and self-blame. Participants also expressed family disruptions and financial drain as adverse experiences as a results of their sons' misbehaviour. The study results highlight the psychosocial challenges for caregivers of children who use methamphetamine. These findings underscore the need for effort to be directed at the development of formal support interventions for mothers of youth who are troubled with addiction.

  10. Metropolises in emerging countries: actors in energy transitions? Lessons from Cape Town (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaglin, Sylvy

    2017-01-01

    The role of cities, as places and drivers of the energy transition is increasingly recognized. The research project Termos tested the robustness of this assumption in four cities of emerging countries by asking two questions: to what extent do urban local actors really drive an urban energy transition and of what kind? To what extent are their actions supporting an urban territorialisation of energy systems? The paper first presents the findings of this comparative research, which he then extends with the case study of Cape Town. It analyzes why, despite their energy and environmental voluntarism, the municipality have little room of manoeuvre, while the changes observed seem to strengthen the stranglehold of the 'central sphere' in the energy system. Analyzing this as the expression of a conflict between a strong national electricity sector and an alternative approach to energy issues carried by urban actors, it highlights the resulting tensions and their impact on the municipal actions, both limited by resistance but also 'swallowed up' by actors from the central sphere. The paper finally draws lessons from this example to enrich the general analysis of dynamics observed in other cities of emerging countries

  11. Integrated biomass and solar town: Incorporation of load shifting and energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Haslenda; Ho, Wai Shin; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Macchietto, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The IBS (Integrated Biomass Solar) town is a concept which encourages local community to utilize biomass waste comprehensively with strong ties between community and local stakeholders. This paper discusses an IBS model and solution for an electrically self-sufficient eco-village with and without LS (load shifting). ES (energy storage) is also incorporated to help reduce electricity demand during peak periods and smooth variations in power generation by variable generation of solar power. Application to a realistic case study shows that substantial technical and economic benefits are achieved through the implementation of IBS with LS and ES. In this study, the LS is used mainly to increase demand during periods of high supply and also shift the load to intervals with low demand. This reduces the size of ES significantly, where the load is subject to distinct weekday and weekend profiles. The study shows that highly competitive electricity prices are obtained and the concept offers the opportunity to spur economic growth and environmental protection through energy efficiency improvement and deployment of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • A hybrid energy system for designing and optimizing RE resource utilization. • The load shifting and energy storage are incorporated. • The proposed model is demonstrated on an Iskandar Malaysia case study. • The optimal power generation scheme and power generation schedule are determined

  12. The distribution of lung cancer mortality in Cape Town and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... and is second only to breast cancer in women. It was responsible for 22,9% of all cancer deaths in .... Information on individual deaths was obtained from the. Department of Community Health, University of Cape Town, .... mental variables that were selected. Simon's Town and Marina da Gama, the two ...

  13. Book review: Don Pinnock, Gang town | van der Spuy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Gang town. Publisher: Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2016. Price: 312. Pages: R196 Availability: Published ISBN: 9780624067894. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  14. Small City Transit : Chapel Hill, North Carolina : Public Transit Serving a University and Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, is an illustration of a public transit service providing a high level of service for a town its size and a good example of a cooperative arrangement between a town and a resident university. This case study is one of thir...

  15. Impact of Birth Order on Procrastination among College Students in Eldoret Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Chege Kimani

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…

  16. The Other Half Speaks: Reminiscences of Coal Town Women, 1900-1950, Athens County, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Helen, Ed.; Good, Roger, Ed.

    These materials are intended to accompany a videotape, that incorporates stories from 15 women who lived in the coal producing towns of Athens County, Ohio during the first half of the 20th century. Discussion questions, a list of resource volunteers, and background information on mining and Athens County coal towns are included. (DB)

  17. The Hans Kramer collection at the national Library, Cape Town: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hans Kramer (1911–2002) was important for two reasons: he owned the Home of Music, a unique music store in Cape Town, and he founded the Cape Town Concert Club, which hosted regular concerts by international artists. Rather than constructing a biographical narrative, the present article focuses on the contents of ...

  18. Challenges and prospects of Danish service towns in the new urban geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2012-01-01

    towns influenced by the emergence of the new functional urban geography and the administrative reforms? - What are the major challenges in urban development these towns are confronted with? We use historical register data as well as land use data to draw a broad picture of the development of Danish...

  19. Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town : the Power of Collective Governance. The city of Cape Town is facing the dual challenge of redressing the legacy apartheid (inequality and spatial segregation) and responding to climate change. Over the past two decades, the rate of residential and ...

  20. Phenomenology of ‘the people’ – the body goes to town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Antonio Borgogni 2012: Body, Town Planning, and Participation – The Roles of Young People and Sport. University of Jyväskylä. PhD.......Anmeldelse af Antonio Borgogni 2012: Body, Town Planning, and Participation – The Roles of Young People and Sport. University of Jyväskylä. PhD....

  1. Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands: Death rites in a small town context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, C.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands. Death rites in a small town context. Claudia Venhorst This study on the common practice of Islamic death rites in the Netherlands affords valuable insights in the lived religion of Muslims. Particularly in a small town context, marked by migration and

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: New Town Builders, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    All homes in the Stapleton community must be ENERGY STAR certified; New Town Builders has announced that it will build 250–300 new homes over the next 7–10 years, all of which will be Challenge Homes. New Town received a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  3. Sustainability and cities: a proposal for implementation of a sustainable town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a literature review on the concept of sustainability applied to cities and a proposal for transforming a town in the south of Brazil into a sustainable town. Improvements in energy, sanitation, waste and water conditions, as well as food, clothing, education and jobs generation were considered to enhance the citizen's quality of life and environmental protection.

  4. Housing Cape Town's Forgotten Dead: Conflict in the Post-apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The announcement placed the Ossuary alongside other Partnership initiates and events such as the Harvest Festival, the Creative Cape Town initiative, and the upgrading of the Cape Town Station and the Grand Parade managed through the Partnership and the City ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ad.v35i4.70218.

  5. Regional disparities in medical equipment distribution in the Slovak Republic - a platform for a health policy regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavurová, Beáta; Kováč, Viliam; Fedačko, Ján

    2017-11-09

    This study aims to examine the localisation of selected parameters in the deployment and use of medical equipment in the Slovak Republic and to verify potential regional disparities. The study evaluates the benefits of an analytical platform for regulatory mechanisms in the healthcare system. The correspondence analysis is applied to the entire data set containing information regarding medical equipment distribution and mortality. The results highlight regional differences in the use of medical equipment throughout the analysed period from 2008 to 2014. The total amount of medical equipment increased slightly to 9192 devices during the time span. In 2014, there was a significant decrease of 16.44%. Disparities are found in the frequencies and structure of medical equipment. In some regions, medical equipment is not present or is present in low numbers. The results regarding regional disparities demonstrate the regional development of the amount of medical equipment. The deployment of medical equipment is not proportional, and not all of the analysed devices are available in each region. The tests also indicate the appropriateness of the amount of medical equipment and create a platform for further investigation. The results of the analysis suggest the unsuitable distribution of medical equipment throughout the Slovak regions, where there are significant regional disparities. These findings can serve as a monitoring platform to evaluate the accessibility and efficiency of medical equipment usage. No human participants were involved in the research.

  6. Negotiating the Economy of the Eighteenth-Century Scottish Town:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    trade and consumption. The world of business was increasingly cast in a masculine mould, while tract literature progressively more often described women’s ‘proper place’ as the world of home and children. At the same time, these changes altered the gendered characteristics of many town economies......, and transformed the structures within women had to operate. Yet, many women consciously continued to work in the commercial world, projecting their own image of themselves and of their businesses, defining and shaping their commercial enterprises within the urban world. Clearly there were social differences...... in the impact of these changes, and had little effect on how many women related to the Scottish urban economies—they needed to work and continued to do so, often in time-honoured ways. Many were entrepreneurial in small ways, while others were able to utilise a larger array of resources to develop and sustain...

  7. Application of GIS Technology for Town Planning Tasks Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyashko, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    For developing territories, one of the most actual town-planning tasks is to find out the suitable sites for building projects. The geographic information system (GIS) allows one to model complex spatial processes and can provide necessary effective tools to solve these tasks. We propose several GIS analysis models which can define suitable settlement allocations and select appropriate parcels for construction objects. We implement our models in the ArcGIS Desktop package and verify by application to the existing objects in Primorsky Region (Primorye Territory). These suitability models use several variations of the analysis method combinations and include various ways to resolve the suitability task using vector data and a raster data set. The suitability models created in this study can be combined, and one model can be integrated into another as its part. Our models can be updated by other suitability models for further detailed planning.

  8. Survey of radon concentrations in three Italian towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.; Pessina, V.; Dallara, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 was measured in 187 dwellings in Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Orvieto. Samples were collected using activated carbon canisters, placed in basements and on the upper floors for at least 48 h in the period starting from January 1989 to July 1990. Gamma spectroscopy was used for the measurement of 222 Rn and its progeny. The data for the three towns show a lognormal distribution. Owing to the high radium concentration in building materials and underlying soil, high radon concentrations were observed in Orvieto's dwellings. Additional measurements carried out in 22 public schools of Parma and Reggio Emilia showed moderate radon concentrations, while significant radon levels were recorded in 37 castles and ancient buildings in Parma and Reggio Emilia provinces

  9. Hexographic Method of Complex Town-Planning Terrain Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of a complex town-planning analysis based on the “hexographic” graphic analytic method, makes a comparison with conventional terrain estimate methods and contains the method application examples. It discloses a procedure of the author’s estimate of restrictions and building of a mathematical model which reflects not only conventional town-planning restrictions, but also social and aesthetic aspects of the analyzed territory. The method allows one to quickly get an idea of the territory potential. It is possible to use an unlimited number of estimated factors. The method can be used for the integrated assessment of urban areas. In addition, it is possible to use the methods of preliminary evaluation of the territory commercial attractiveness in the preparation of investment projects. The technique application results in simple informative graphics. Graphical interpretation is straightforward from the experts. A definite advantage is the free perception of the subject results as they are not prepared professionally. Thus, it is possible to build a dialogue between professionals and the public on a new level allowing to take into account the interests of various parties. At the moment, the method is used as a tool for the preparation of integrated urban development projects at the Department of Architecture in Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (National Research University)”, FSAEIHE SUSU (NRU). The methodology is included in a course of lectures as the material on architectural and urban design for architecture students. The same methodology was successfully tested in the preparation of business strategies for the development of some territories in the Chelyabinsk region. This publication is the first in a series of planned activities developing and describing the methodology of hexographical analysis in urban and architectural practice. It is also

  10. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Wa...

  11. Strategies for targeting health care disparities among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju

    2010-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in United States and at a great risk for poor health outcomes linked to poor access to health care. Their large geographic distribution makes it critical that the underlying factors resulting in health care disparities among documented and undocumented Hispanics be addressed at local, state, and national levels. Health care systems should establish community partnership for effective strategies to address these disparities. This article presents factors identified in the literature that contribute to health care disparities among Hispanics and provides strategies for improving access to health care for health promotion.

  12. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    , the ability of H. somnus and M. dispar to act as primary pathogens under these conditions were minimal and inconsistent. However, a transient rise in body temperature, a marked granulocytosis and increased levels of interleukin-8 in peripheral blood after inoculation with H. somnus indicated a clear systemic...... investigated by recording clinical data, cytokine expression of peripheral blood cells and pathology. Twelve calves were included in the study: Three animals were exposed to H. somnus only, and two to M. dispar only, whereas five were challenged to M. dispar followed by exposure to H. somnus 11-14 days later...

  13. Energy use for transport in 22 Nordic towns; Energibruk til transport i 22 nordiske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, Petter; Larsen, Synnoeve Lyssand; Roee, Per Gunnar

    1994-07-01

    This report presents the methods used and the results obtained from an investigation of relationships between energy use for transport and the physical urban structure of 22 towns in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It is found that urban planning is very important for the inhabitants' average energy use for transport. High population density in the inner and central areas of a town tends to reduce the energy use. The composition of trades and the commuting frequency between the town and its surroundings affect the energy use to the same degree as does the urban planning. The energy data are based on the oil companies' information on the sales of gasoline and auto diesel oil from the filling stations in each town and on the public transport companies' information on the energy use of their vehicles. The energy data are combined with physical and socio economical characteristics of each town.

  14. Old regime towns and villages: consent and conflict in local castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Truchuelo García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Castilian towns and villages had a long development process in medieval times. Then, they were formed as political bodies to the prosecution of the common good. Despite town and village reciprocal relationships were part of the common political body they formed together, their relationships were hierarchical. Towns, as heads of jurisdictional districts, kept relations of domination on the villages. There, powerful local lineages tried to widen their authority and power. This traditional scheme, that explained town and village Old Regime relationships, was changing in the long-run perspective. Charles V initiated sales of town titles and privileges to increase royal incomes. This favored not only these last, but also higher degrees of jurisdictional local autonomy and, at the same time, it went in favor of local oligarchies aspirations of wider spheres of local self government

  15. Rethinking sustainability of small towns : towards a socio-technical approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelser, A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available /10/2012 12:24 PM 07 October 2012 12:24 PM Small Towns Book Page 1 Screen clipping taken: 07/10/2012 12:24 PM 07 October 2012 12:24 PM Small Towns Book Page 2 Screen clipping taken: 07/10/2012 12:22 PM 07 October 2012 12:22 PM Small... Towns Book Page 3 Screen clipping taken: 07/10/2012 12:23 PM 07 October 2012 12:23 PM Small Towns Book Page 4 Screen clipping taken: 07/10/2012 12:23 PM 07 October 2012 12:23 PM Small Towns Book Page 5 Screen clipping taken: 07...

  16. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  17. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional Disparities in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBOLYA KURKÓ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abolishment of the communist regime, the establishment of a democratic legal and institutional system brought important changes in the development of the regional economy of Romania. The old – from an economic point of view – differentiating factors have lost some of their importance, mainly the level of industrialization, which, in the past, was used to measure economic development. In addition, other factors came forward, that correlate more with the economic capacity, but, nowadays, their positive effect can only be increased by the combination of several other factors: foreign investments, as an indicator of regional attractiveness, regional GDP, the level of personal income, and the appreciation of human resources. Today, in the interest of enhancing the competitiveness of the regions a special role is reserved for entrepreneurial activity, the strength of the SME sector, the role of foreign working capital in the local economy, but also the territorial concentration of R&D centers. The study focuses on some aspects of disparities regarding the regional economic structure.

  19. Disparities in the management of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer Y; Chen, Ling; Gumer, Arielle R; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is common among young women. Treatment can consist of either surgery with salpingectomy or salpingostomy or medical management with methotrexate. In addition to acute complications, treatment of ectopic pregnancy can result in long-term sequelae that include decreased fertility. Little is known about the patterns of care and predictors of treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy. Similarly, data on outcomes for various treatments are limited. We examined the patterns of care and outcomes for women with ectopic pregnancy. Specifically, we examined predictors of medical (vs surgical) management of ectopic pregnancy and tubal conservation (salpingostomy vs salpingectomy) among women who underwent surgery. The Perspective database was used to identify women with a diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy treated from 2006-2015. Perspective is an all-payer database that collects data on patients at hospitals from throughout the United States. Women were classified as having undergone medical treatment, if they received methotrexate, and surgical treatment, if treatment consisted of salpingostomy or salpingectomy. Multivariable models were developed to examine predictors of medical treatment and of tubal conserving salpingostomy among women who were treated surgically. Among the 62,588 women, 49,090 women (78.4%) were treated surgically, and 13,498 women (21.6%) received methotrexate. Use of methotrexate increased from 14.5% in 2006 to 27.3% by 2015 (Pectopic pregnancy. There are significant race- and insurance-related disparities associated with treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.