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Sample records for toughness high strength

  1. Strength-toughness requirements for thick walled high pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness requirements of materials for use in high pressure vessels has been the subject of some discussion in the meetings of the Materials Task Group of the Special Working Group High Pressure Vessels. A fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to theoretically establish the required toughness for a high pressure vessel. This paper reports that the analysis performed is based on the validity requirement for plane strain fracture of fracture toughness test specimens. This is that at the fracture event, the crack length, uncracked ligament, and vessel length must each be greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone size for brittle fracture to occur. For high pressure piping applications, the limiting physical dimension is the uncracked ligament, as it can be assumed that the other dimensions are always greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone. To perform the fracture mechanics analysis several parameters must be known: these include vessel dimensions, material strength, degree of autofrettage, and design pressure. Results of the analysis show, remarkably, that the effects of radius ratio, pressure and degree of autofrettage can be ignored when establishing strength and toughness requirements for code purposes. The only parameters that enter into the calculation are yield strength, toughness and vessel thickness. The final results can easily be represented as a graph of yield strength against toughness on which several curves, one for each vessel thickness, are plotted

  2. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  3. Processing of a new high strength high toughness steel with duplex microstructure (Ferrite + Austenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martis, Codrick J.; Putatunda, Susil K.; Boileau, James

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This new steel has exceptional combination of high strength and fracture toughness. ► Austempering treatment resulted in a very fine scale bainitic ferrite microstructure. ► As the austempering temperature increases yield strength and toughness decreases. ► Maximum fracture toughness of 105 MPa √m is obtained after austempering at 371 °C. ► A relationship between fracture toughness and the parameter σ y (X γ C γ ) 1/2 was observed. - Abstract: In this investigation a new third generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) has been developed. This steel was synthesized by austempering of a low carbon and low alloy steel with high silicon content. The influence of austempering temperature on the microstructure and the mechanical properties including the fracture toughness of this steel was also examined. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile specimens were prepared from a low carbon low alloy steel and were initially austenitized at 927 °C for 2 h and then austempered in the temperature range between 371 °C and 399 °C to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography. Test results show that the austempering heat treatment has resulted in a microstructure consisting of very fine scale bainitic ferrite and austenite. A combination of very high tensile strength of 1388 MPa and fracture toughness of 105 MPa √m was obtained after austempering at 371 °C

  4. Fracture toughness of welded joints of a high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, S.M.B. da; Bastian, F.L.; Pope, A.M.

    1985-10-01

    The fracture toughness of the different regions of welded joints of a high strength low alloy steel, Niocor 2, was evaluated at different temperatures and compared with the toughness of the base metal. The studied regions were: the weld metal, fusion boundary and heat affected zone. The welding process used was the manual metal arc. It is shown that the weld metal region has the highest toughness values. (Author) [pt

  5. Crack Arrest Toughness of Two High Strength Steels (AISI 4140 and AISI 4340)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripling, E. J.; Mulherin, J. H.; Crosley, P. B.

    1982-04-01

    The crack initiation toughness ( K c ) and crack arrest toughness ( K a ) of AISI 4140 and AISI 4340 steel were measured over a range of yield strengths from 965 to 1240 MPa, and a range of test temperatures from -53 to +74°C. Emphasis was placed on K a testing since these values are thought to represent the minimum toughness of the steel as a function of loading rate. At the same yield strengths and test temperatures, K a for the AISI 4340 was about twice as high as it was for the AISI 4140. In addition, the K a values showed a more pronounced transition temperature than the K c values, when the data were plotted as a function of test temperature. The transition appeared to be associated with a change in fracture mechanism from cleavage to dimpled rupture as the test temperature was increased. The occurrence of a “pop-in” behavior at supertransition temperatures has not been found in lower strength steels, and its evaluation in these high strength steels was possible only because they are not especially tough at their supertransition temperatures. There is an upper toughness limit at which pop-in will not occur, and this was found for the AISI 4340 steel when it was tempered to its lowest yield strength (965 MPa). All the crack arrest data were identified as plane strain values, while only about one-half of the initiation values could be classified this way.

  6. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-02-01

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400-450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0-1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3-5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry.

  7. Effect of prestrain on ductility and toughness in high strength line pipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Y.; Besson, J. [Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris; Madi, Y. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs, Sceaux (France). Ermess EPF; Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris

    2009-07-01

    The anisotropic plasticity, ductility and toughness of an X100 steel pipeline was investigated both before and after a series of prestraining experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of prestraining on ductility and toughness in high strength pipe steels. Results of the study showed that primary void growth and coalescence was dependent on initial plastic anisotropy and not dependent on tensile prestrain. Secondary void nucleation and growth was not influenced by either the initial plastic anisotropy or by prestraining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the main damage mechanism was the void growth of primary dimples. Dimples in the prestrained materials were larger than those observed in materials that had not been prestrained. However, the effect on prestrain on dimple size was limited. Results showed both plastic and rupture anisotropies. It was concluded that prestraining induces a decrease in ductility, but has a significant impact on toughness. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. The Evolution of Plate and Extruded Products with High Strength and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, D. K.; Rioja, R. J.; Bray, G. H.; Venema, G. B.; Colvin, E. L.

    From the first use of 2017-T74 on the Junkers F13, improvements have been made to plate and extruded products for applications requiring the highest attainable strength and adequate fracture toughness. One such application is the upper wing of large aircraft. The progression of these product improvements achieved through the development of alloys that include 7075-(T6 & T76), 7150-(T6 & T77) and 7055-(T77 & T79) and most recently 7255-(T77 & T79) is reviewed. The most current advancements include aluminum-copper-lithium, alloy 2055 plate and extruded products that can attain strength equivalent to that of 7055-T77 with higher modulus, similar fracture toughness and improved fatigue, fatigue crack growth and corrosion performance. The achievement of these properties is explained in terms of the several alloy design principles. The highly desired and balanced characteristics make these products ideal for upper wing applications.

  9. Bioinspired, Graphene/Al2O3 Doubly Reinforced Aluminum Composites with High Strength and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunya; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-11-08

    Nacre, commonly referred to as nature's armor, has served as a blueprint for engineering stronger and tougher bioinspired materials. Nature organizes a brick-and-mortar-like architecture in nacre, with hard bricks of aragonite sandwiched with soft biopolymer layers. However, cloning nacre's entire reinforcing mechanisms in engineered materials remains a challenge. In this study, we employed hybrid graphene/Al 2 O 3 platelets with surface nanointerlocks as hard bricks for primary load bearer and mechanical interlocking, along with aluminum laminates as soft mortar for load distribution and energy dissipation, to replicate nacre's architecture and reinforcing effects in aluminum composites. Compared with aluminum, the bioinspired, graphene/Al 2 O 3 doubly reinforced aluminum composite demonstrated an exceptional, joint improvement in hardness (210%), strength (223%), stiffness (78%), and toughness (30%), which are even superior over nacre. This design strategy and model material system should guide the synthesis of bioinspired materials to achieve exceptionally high strength and toughness.

  10. Development of high toughness, high strength aluminide-bonded carbide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, P.F.; Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Cemented carbides are widely used in applications where resistance to abrasion and wear are important, particularly in combination with high strength and stiffness. In the present case, ductile aluminides have been used as a binder phase to fabricate dense carbide cermets by either sintering of mixed powders or a melt-infiltration sintering process. The choice of an aluminide binder was based on the exceptional high temperature strength and chemical stability exhibited by these alloys. For example, TiC-based composites with a Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase exhibit improved oxidation resistance, Young`s moduli > 375 GPa, high fracture strengths (> 1 GPa) that are retained to {ge} 900{degrees}C, and fracture toughness values of 10 to 15 MPa{radical}m, identical to that measured in commercial cobalt-bonded WC with the same test method. The thermal diffusivity values at 200{degrees}C for these composites are {approximately} 0.070 to 0.075 cm{sup 2}/s while the thermal expansion coefficients rise with Ni3Al content from {approximately} 8 to {approximately}11 x 10{sup {minus}6}/{degrees}C over the range of 8 to 40 vol. % Ni{sub 3}Al. The oxidation and acidic corrosion resistances are quite promising as well. Finally, these materials also exhibit good electrical conductivity allowing them to be sectioned and shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes.

  11. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, I.

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design. (Author)

  13. The limit of strength and toughness of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the governing principles of strength and toughness, along with the approaches that can be used to improve these properties and the inherent limits to how strong and tough a steel can be.

  14. The effect of the precipitation of coherent and incoherent precipitates on the ductility and toughness of high-strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the coexistence of coherent and incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl, on the ductility and plane strain fracture toughness of 5 wt pct Ni-2 wt pct Al-based high-strength steels was studied. In order to disperse coherent and incoherent precipitates, the heat treatments were carried out as follows: (a) austenitizing at 1373 K, (b) tempering at 1023 or 923 K for dispersing the incoherent precipitates of M 2 C and NiAl, and then (c) aging at 843 K for 2.4 ks to disperse the coherent precipitate of NiAl into the matrix, which contains incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl. The results were obtained as follows: (a) when the strengthening precipitates consist of coherent ones, such as M 2 C and/or NiAl, the ductility and toughness are extremely low, and (b) when the strengthening precipitates consist of coherent and incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl, the ductility and fracture toughness significantly increase with no loss in strength. It is shown that the coexistence of coherent and incoherent precipitates increases homogeneous deformation, thus preventing local strain concentration and early cleavage cracking. Accordingly, the actions of coherent precipitates in strengthening the matrix and of incoherent precipitates in promoting, homogeneous deformation can be expected to increase both the strength and toughness of the material

  15. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design.El desarrollo de nuevos grados de acero se tropieza con frecuencia con la necesidad de incrementar la resistencia mecánica al mismo tiempo que se reduce la temperatura de transición dúctil-frágil y se eleva la energía del palier dúctil. Hacer frente a este reto requiere un diseño microestructural. La tenacidad en aceros está controlada por diferentes constituyentes microestructurales. Algunos de ellos, como las inclusiones son intrínsecos, pero otros que se manifiestan a diferentes escalas microestructurales dependen de las condiciones de proceso. Existen algunas ecuaciones empíricas que permiten calcular para ferrita-perlita en aceros de bajo carbono la temperatura de transición como suma de contribuciones de elementos en solución sólida, nitrógeno libre, carburos, fracción de perlita, tamaño de grano y, eventualmente

  16. Lanthanum additions and the toughness of ultra-high strength steels and the determination of appropriate lanthanum additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, Warren M.; Maloney, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of commercial heats of AF1410 steel suggest that under appropriate conditions additions of rare-earth elements can significantly enhance fracture toughness. This improvement in toughness is not due to an extremely low inclusion volume fraction but is apparently due to the formation of larger and more widely spaced inclusions. The purpose of this work is to discuss our experience in using rare-earth additions to laboratory scale vacuum induction melted and subsequently vacuum arc remelted heats of ultra-high strength steels to achieve inclusion distributions similar to those observed in commercial heats modified with lanthanum additions. The results indicate that lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% to low sulfur steels which have been well deoxidized using carbon-vacuum deoxidation can result in lanthanum rich inclusions which are similar in size, volume fraction and spacing to those obtained in commercially produced heats of ultra-high strength steel to which lanthanum has been added. The heat of steel to which lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% were made had significantly higher toughness than did the heat of the same steel in which the sulfur had been gettered as small and closely spaced particles of MnS and which had an inclusion volume fraction similar to that of the heat modified by the addition of 0.015 wt.% lanthanum. This improvement in toughness was attributed to an increase in inclusion spacing. An addition of 0.06 wt.% lanthanum was excessive. Such an addition of lanthanum resulted in a huge volume fraction of large cuboidal inclusions which primarily contain lanthanum and oxygen and which are extremely detrimental to toughness

  17. Strength, toughness and aging stability of highly-translucent Y-TZP ceramics for dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Inokoshi, Masanao; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Naert, Ignace; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Vleugels, Jef

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the optical properties, mechanical properties and aging stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia with different compositions, highlighting the influence of the alumina addition, Y 2 O 3 content and La 2 O 3 doping on the translucency. Five different Y-TZP zirconia powders (3 commercially available and 2 experimentally modified) were sintered under the same conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translucency (n=6/group) was measured with a color meter, allowing to calculate the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Mechanical properties were appraised with four-point bending strength (n=10), single edge V-notched beam (SEVNB) fracture toughness (n=8) and Vickers hardness (n=10). The aging stability was evaluated by measuring the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation (n=3) after accelerated hydrothermal aging in steam at 134°C, and the transformation curves were fitted by the Mehl-Avrami-Johnson (MAJ) equation. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Lowering the alumina content below 0.25wt.% avoided the formation of alumina particles and therefore increased the translucency of 3Y-TZP ceramics, but the hydrothermal aging stability was reduced. A higher yttria content (5mol%) introduced about 50% cubic zirconia phase and gave rise to the most translucent and aging-resistant Y-TZP ceramics, but the fracture toughness and strength were considerably sacrificed. 0.2mol% La 2 O 3 doping of 3Y-TZP tailored the grain boundary chemistry and significantly improved the aging resistance and translucency. Although the translucency improvement by La 2 O 3 doping was less effective than for introducing a substantial amount of cubic zirconia, this strategy was able to maintain the mechanical properties of typical 3Y-TZP ceramics. Three different approaches were compared to improve the translucency of 3Y-TZP ceramics. Copyright

  18. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  19. Isolation of Aramid Nanofibers for High Strength and Toughness Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiajun; Bang, Sun Hwi; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2017-03-29

    The development of nanoscale reinforcements that can be used to improve the mechanical properties of a polymer remains a challenge due to the long-standing difficulties with exfoliation and dispersion of existing materials. The dissimilar chemical nature of common nanofillers (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and polymeric matrix materials is the main reason for imperfect filler dispersion and, consequently, low mechanical performance of their composites relative to theoretical predictions. Here, aramid nanofibers that are intrinsically dispersible in many polymers are prepared from commercial aramid fibers (Kevlar) and isolated through a simple, scalable, and low-cost controlled dissolution method. Integration of the aramid nanofibers in an epoxy resin results in nanocomposites with simultaneously improved elastic modulus, strength, and fracture toughness. The improvement of these two mutually exclusive properties of nanocomposites is comparable to the enhancement of widely reported carbon nanotube reinforced nanocomposites but with a cost-effective and more feasible method to achieve uniform and stable dispersion. The results indicate the potential for aramid nanofibers as a new class of reinforcements for polymers.

  20. Effect of welding heat input on microstructures and toughness in simulated CGHAZ of V–N high strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jun, E-mail: hujunral@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Lin-Xiu [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Jun [Institute of Materials Research, School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern university, Shenyang 110819 (China); Gao, Cai-Ru [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2013-08-10

    For the purpose of obtaining the appropriate heat input in the simulated weld CGHAZ of the hot-rolled V–N microalloyed high strength S-lean steel, the microstructural evolution, hardness, and toughness subjected to four different heat inputs were investigated. The results indicate that the hardness decreases with increase in the heat input, while the toughness first increases and then decreases. Moderate heat input is optimum, and the microstructure is fine polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, and acicular ferrite with dispersive nano-scale V(C,N) precipitates. The hardness is well-matched with that of the base metal. Moreover, the occurrence of energy dissipating micromechanisms (ductile dimples, tear ridges) contributes to the maximum total impact energy. The detrimental effect of the free N atoms on the toughness can be partly remedied by optimizing the microstructural type, fraction, morphologies, and crystallographic characteristics. The potency of V(C,N) precipitates on intragranular ferrite nucleation without MnS assistance under different heat inputs was discussed.

  1. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Liangyun; Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. → Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. → MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. → High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  2. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Liangyun, E-mail: lly.liangyun@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. {yields} Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. {yields} MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. {yields} High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  3. Enhancement of Impact Toughness by Delamination Fracture in a Low-Alloy High-Strength Steel with Al Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Hongji; Guo, Shengwu; Liu, Yongning

    2016-12-01

    The effect of delamination toughening of martensitic steel was investigated both at room and low temperatures [253 K and 233 K (-20 °C and -40 °C)]. Two low-alloy martensitic steels with and without Al alloying were both prepared. Layered structure with white band and black matrix was observed in Al alloyed steel, while a homogeneous microstructure was displayed in the steel without Al. Both steels achieved high strength (tensile strength over 1600 MPa) and good ductility (elongation over 11 pct), but they displayed stark contrasts on impact fracture mode and Charpy impact energy. Delamination fracture occurred in Al alloyed steel and the impact energies were significantly increased both at room temperature (from 75 to 138 J, i.e., nearly improved up to 2 times) and low temperatures [from 47.9 to 71.3 J at 233 K (-40 °C)] compared with the one without Al. Alloying with Al promotes the segregation of Cr, Mn, Si and C elements to form a network structure, which is martensite with higher carbon content and higher hardness than that of the matrix. And this network structure evolved into a band structure during the hot rolling process. The difference of yield stress between the band structure and the matrix gives rise to a delamination fracture during the impact test, which increases the toughness greatly.

  4. MICROTOUGH - calculation of characteristic upper shelf fracture toughness values from microstructural parameters for high strength structural steels with normalized or quenched and tempered microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenstermann, S.; Dahl, W.; Langenberg, P.; Deimel, P.; Sattler, E.

    2004-01-01

    In modern applications, high strength steels are often utilised to increase the load bearing capacity of components. For safe design it is also necessary that these steels have an adequate fracture toughness. The mechanical properties of high strength structural steels are a result of the production process. In consequence, they are strongly related to the microstructure. Therefore, the aim of the research work in the Microtough project is to develop and apply a new method of quantitative correlation between microstructural parameters and characteristic fracture toughness values. This correlation will on the one hand help for the design of new structural steels with high toughness. On the other hand, it shall allow to characterise the fracture toughness of steel without performing expensive fracture mechanics tests. The research work is carried out in the full temperature range from lower to upper shelf. As both RWTH Aachen University and MPA Uni Stuttgart concentrate on ductile fracture behaviour in their research work, the focus of the presentation lies in the upper shelf. (orig.)

  5. Increasing strength, ductility and impact toughness of ultrafine-grained 6063 aluminium alloy by combining ECAP and a high-temperature short-time aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L W; Schoenherr, R; Hockauf, M

    2010-01-01

    Since fully-dense ultrafine or nanocrystalline bulk materials can be processed, there has been an increasing scientific interest in several plastic deformation (SPD) procedures, particularly in the last decade. Especially the equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has widely been investigated due to its ability of producing billets sufficiently large for industrial applications in functional or structural components. The significant strength increase based on grain refinement is typically accompanied by a significant decrease in ductility and toughness. Within this work, a new methodology was applied for combining ECAP with a subsequent high-temperature short-time aging for the 6063 aluminium alloy. An increase in strength, ductility as well as impact toughness regarding its coarse grained counterparts was reached. More precisely, ultimate tensile strength, elongation to failure and impact toughness were increased by 46%, 21% and 40% respectively. This was observed after only one run of ECAP at room temperature in a solid-solution treated condition and an aging at 170 0 C for 18 minutes. The regular aging time for maximum strength at 170 0 C is around 6 hours. Longer exposure times lead to recrystallisation and, as for regular aging, it leads to overaging, both causing a decrease of properties. The work demonstrates a strategy for an efficient processing of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys with outstanding mechanical properties.

  6. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  7. Effect of Boron on the Strength and Toughness of Direct-Quenched Low-Carbon Niobium Bearing Ultra-High-Strength Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Jaakko; Kömi, Jukka; Porter, David A.; Somani, Mahesh C.; Kaijalainen, Antti; Suikkanen, Pasi; Yang, Jer-Ren; Tsai, Shao-Pu

    2017-11-01

    The effect of boron on the microstructures and mechanical properties of laboratory-control-rolled and direct-quenched 6-mm-thick steels containing 0.08 wt pct C and 0.02 wt pct Nb were studied. The boron contents were 24 ppm and a residual amount of 4 ppm. Two different finish rolling temperatures (FRTs) of 1093 K and 1193 K (820 °C and 920 °C) were used in the hot rolling trials to obtain different levels of pancaked austenite prior to DQ. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed to reveal the effect of boron on the transformation behavior of these steels. Microstructural characterization was carried out using various microscopy techniques, such as light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). The resultant microstructures after hot rolling were mixtures of autotempered martensite and lower bainite (LB), having yield strengths in the range 918 to 1067 MPa with total elongations to fracture higher than 10 pct. The lower FRT of 1093 K (820 °C) produced better combinations of strength and toughness as a consequence of a higher degree of pancaking in the austenite. Removal of boron lowered the 34 J/cm2 Charpy-V impact toughness transition temperature from 206 K to 158 K (-67 °C to -115 °C) when the finishing rolling temperature of 1093 K (820 °C) was used without any loss in the strength values compared to the boron-bearing steel. This was due to the finer and more uniform grain structure in the boron-free steel. Contrary to expectations, the difference was not caused by the formation of borocarbide precipitates, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, but through the grain coarsening effect of boron.

  8. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  9. A new high-strength iron base austenitic alloy with good toughness and corrosion resistance (GE-EPRI alloy-TTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new high strength, iron based, austenitic alloy has been successfully developed by GE-EPRI to satisfy the strength and corrosion resistance requirements of large retaining rings for high capacity generators (>840Mw). This new alloy is a modified version of the EPRI alloy-T developed by the University of California, Berkeley, in an earlier EPRI program. It is age hardenable and has the nominal composition (weight %): 34.5 Ni, 5Cr, 3Ti, 1Nb, 1Ta, 1Mo, .5Al, .3V, .01B. This composition was selected based on detailed metallurgical and processing studies on modified versions of alloy-T. These studies helped establish the optimum processing conditions for the new alloy and enabled the successful scale-up production of three large (50-52 inch dia) test rings from a 5,000 lb VIM-VAR billet. The rings were metallurgically sound and exhibited yield strength capabilities in the range 145 to 220 ksi depending on the extent of hot/cold work induced. The test rings met or exceeded all the property goals. The above alloy can provide a good combination of strength, toughness and corrosion resistance and, through an suitable modification of chemistry or processing conditions, could be a viable candidate for high strength LWR internal applications. 3 figs

  10. Advanced characterization techniques in understanding the roles of nickel in enhancing strength and toughness of submerged arc welding high strength low alloy steel multiple pass welds in the as-welded condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Kin-Ling

    Striving for higher strength along with higher toughness is a constant goal in material properties. Even though nickel is known as an effective alloying element in improving the resistance of a steel to impact fracture, it is not fully understood how nickel enhances toughness. It was the goal of this work to assist and further the understanding of how nickel enhanced toughness and maintained strength in particular for high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel submerged arc welding multiple pass welds in the as-welded condition. Using advanced analytical techniques such as electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermodynamic modeling software, the effect of nickel was studied with nickel varying from one to five wt. pct. in increments of one wt. pct. in a specific HSLA steel submerged arc welding multiple pass weldment. The test matrix of five different nickel compositions in the as-welded and stress-relieved condition was to meet the targeted mechanical properties with a yield strength greater than or equal to 85 ksi, a ultimate tensile strength greater than or equal to 105 ksi, and a nil ductility temperature less than or equal to -140 degrees F. Mechanical testing demonstrated that nickel content of three wt. pct and greater in the as-welded condition fulfilled the targeted mechanical properties. Therefore, one, three, and five wt. pct. nickel in the as-welded condition was further studied to determine the effect of nickel on primary solidification mode, nickel solute segregation, dendrite thickness, phase transformation temperatures, effective ferrite grain size, dislocation density and strain, grain misorientation distribution, and precipitates. From one to five wt. pct nickel content in the as-welded condition, the primary solidification was shown to change from primary delta-ferrite to primary austenite. The nickel partitioning coefficient increased and dendrite/cellular thickness was

  11. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  12. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  13. Strength and low temperature toughness of Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Keisuke; Maruyama, Norio; Tsuya, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    Mechanical tests were made on newly developed Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys for eryogenic service. The effects of the additional elements were investigated from the viewpoint of the strength and the low temperature toughness. The alloys added by Al, Ti or V have the better balance of these properties. They did not show low temperature brittleness induced by cleavage fracture in Charpy impact test at 77 K. The microfractography showed the utterly dimple rupture patterns on the broken surface of all specimens. It would be supposed that the cleavage fracture stress is considerably higher than the flow stress. These alloys are superior to some commercial structural materials for low temperature use in the balance between the strength at 300 K and the toughness at 77 K. Additionally, it is noted that these experimental alloys have a good advantage in getting high strength and high toughness by the rather simple heat treatment. (auth.)

  14. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength-Toughness-Corrosion Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialong; Wang, Wei; Babar Shahzad, M; Yan, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Jiang, Zhouhua; Yang, Ke

    2017-11-10

    A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength-toughness-corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength-toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni₃Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  15. Anisotropic toughness and strength in graphene and its atomistic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Zubaer; Ahmed, Tousif; Silverman, Benjamin; Khawaja, M. Shehroz; Calderon, Justice; Rutten, Andrew; Tse, Stanley

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the implication of crystallographic orientation on toughness and ideal strength in graphene under lattice symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking deformations. In symmetry-preserving deformation, both toughness and strength are isotropic, regardless of the chirality of the lattice; whereas, in symmetry-breaking deformation they are strongly anisotropic, even in the presence of vacancy defects. The maximum and minimum of toughness or strength occur for loading along the zigzag direction and the armchair direction, respectively. The anisotropic behavior is governed by a complex interplay among bond-stretching deformation, bond-bending deformation, and the chirality of the lattice. Nevertheless, the condition for crack-nucleation is dictated by the maximum bond-force required for bond rupture, and it is independent of the chiral angle of the lattice or loading direction. At the onset of crack-nucleation a localized nucleation zone is formed, wherein the bonds rupture locally satisfying the maximum bond-force criterion. The nucleation zone acts as the physical origin in triggering the fracture nucleation process, but its presence is undetectable from the macroscopic stress-strain data.

  16. Effects of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Toughness of Flash Butt Welded High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajan, Nikhil; Arora, Kanwer Singh; Asati, Brajesh; Sharma, Vikram; Shome, Mahadev

    2018-04-01

    Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the weld microstructure, texture, and its correlation to the toughness of flash butt welded joints were investigated. Upon flash butt welding, the α and γ-fiber in the parent material converted to Goss (110)[001], rotated Goss (110)[1 \\bar{1} 0], and rotated cube (001)[1 \\bar{1} 0], (001)[ \\overline{11} 0] textures along the fracture plane. Formation of these detrimental texture components was a result of shear deformation and recrystallization of austenite at temperatures above T nr resulting in a drop of toughness at the weld zone. Inter-critical and sub-critical annealing cycles proved to be less effective in reducing the Goss (110)[001], rotated Goss (110)[1 \\bar{1} 0], and rotated cube (001)[1 \\bar{1} 0], (001)[ \\overline{11} 0] texture components, and therefore, toughness values remained unaffected. Post-weld heat treatment in the austenite phase field at 1000 °C for 5 seconds resulted in the formation of new grains with different orientations leading to a reduction in the texture intensities of both Goss and rotated Goss components and therefore improved weld zone toughness. Prolonged annealing time was found to be ineffective in improving the toughness due to grain growth.

  17. Bioinspired Hierarchical Alumina-Graphene Oxide-Poly(vinyl alcohol) Artificial Nacre with Optimized Strength and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinrong; Qiao, Jinliang; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-05-06

    Due to hierarchical organization of micro- and nanostructures, natural nacre exhibits extraordinary strength and toughness, and thus provides a superior model for the design and fabrication of high-performance artificial composite materials. Although great progress has been made in constructing layered composites by alternately stacking hard inorganic platelets and soft polymers, the real issue is that the excellent strength of these composites was obtained at the sacrifice of toughness. In this work, inspired by the layered aragonite microplatelets/chitin nanofibers-protein structure of natural nacre, alumina microplatelets-graphene oxide nanosheets-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Al2O3/GO-PVA) artificial nacre is successfully constructed through layer-by-layer bottom-up assembly, in which Al2O3 and GO-PVA act as "bricks" and "mortar", respectively. The artificial nacre has hierarchical "brick-and-mortar" structure and exhibits excellent strength (143 ± 13 MPa) and toughness (9.2 ± 2.7 MJ/m(3)), which are superior to those of natural nacre (80-135 MPa, 1.8 MJ/m(3)). It was demonstrated that the multiscale hierarchical structure of ultrathin GO nanosheets and submicrometer-thick Al2O3 platelets can deal with the conflict between strength and toughness, thus leading to the excellent mechanical properties that cannot be obtained using only one size of platelet. We strongly believe that the work presented here provides a creative strategy for designing and developing new composites with excellent strength and toughness.

  18. Comparison of fracture toughness values of normal and high strength concrete determined by three point bend and modified disk-shaped compact tension specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Ríjos, J. D.; Cifuentes, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 42 (2017), s. 56-65 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18702S; GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * Stress intensity factors * T-stress * Compact tension test * Fracture behavior * Fracture toughness Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  19. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  20. Thermodynamic Alloy Design of High Strength and Toughness in 300 mm Thick Pressure Vessel Wall of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-sung Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, there is an increasing need for high-capacity, high-efficiency, and environmentally friendly power generation systems. The environmentally friendly integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC technology has received particular attention. IGCC pressure vessels require a high-temperature strength and creep strength exceeding those of existing pressure vessels because the operating temperature of the reactor is increased for improved capacity and efficiency. Therefore, high-pressure vessels with thicker walls than those in existing pressure vessels (≤200 mm must be designed. The primary focus of this research is the development of an IGCC pressure vessel with a fully bainitic structure in the middle portion of the 300 mm thick Cr-Mo steel walls. For this purpose, the effects of the alloy content and cooling rates on the ferrite precipitation and phase transformation behaviors were investigated using JMatPro modeling and thermodynamic calculation; the results were then optimized. Candidate alloys from the simulated results were tested experimentally.

  1. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Lee, Weng Lan [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  2. Multiparameter structural optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: toward record strength, stiffness, and toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Ho, Szushen; Podsiadlo, Paul; Sun, Kai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-07-28

    Efficient coupling of mechanical properties of SWNTs with the matrix leading to the transfer of unique mechanical properties of SWNTs to the macroscopic composites is a tremendous challenge of today's materials science. The typical mechanical properties of known SWNT composites, such as strength, stiffness, and toughness, are assessed in an introductory survey where we focused on concrete numerical parameters characterizing mechanical properties. Obtaining ideal stress transfer will require fine optimization of nanotube-polymer interface. SWNT nanocomposites were made here by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and the first example of optimization in respect to key parameters determining the connectivity at the graphene-polymer interface, namely, degree of SWNT oxidation and cross-linking chemistry, was demonstrated. The resulting SWNT-PVA composites demonstrated tensile strength (σ(ult)) = 504.5 ± 67.3 MPa, stiffness (E) = 15.6 ± 3.8 GPa, and toughness (K) = 121.2 ± 19.2 J/g with maximum values recorded at σ(ult) = 600.1 MPa, E = 20.6 GPa, and K = 152.1 J/g. This represents the strongest and stiffest nonfibrous SWNT composites made to date outperforming other bulk composites by 2-10 times. Its high performance is attributed to both high nanotube content and efficient stress transfer. The resulting LBL composite is also one of the toughest in this category of materials and exceeding the toughness of Kevlar by 3-fold. Our observation suggests that the strengthening and toughening mechanism originates from the synergistic combination of high degree of SWNT exfoliation, efficient SWNT-PVA binding, crack surface roughening, and fairly efficient distribution of local stress over the SWNT network. The need for a multiscale approach in designing SWNT composites is advocated.

  3. Anisotropy of fracture toughness of austenitic high nitrogen chromium-manganese steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitskii, A.I.; Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Diener, M.; Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O.

    1999-01-01

    The anisotropy of mechanical properties, in particular of the fracture toughness measured by the J-integral method, is demonstrated for industrially manufactured high strength retaining rings made from the nitrogen alloyed steel 18Mn18Cr. The RT-orientation turns out to be the weakest with regard to the resistance of the material to stable crack growth. The fracture toughness results are compared with results from calorimetric measurements. Here, also an orientation dependence of the heat irradiation energy is observed, clearly showing the same ranking of specimen orientation as the toughness data suggest. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating the fracture toughness and flexural strength of pressable dental ceramics: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Ravi; Krishna, C H Vamsi; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Reddy, G V K Mohan; Shastry, Y Mahadev

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength, biaxial flexural strength after etching with 9 % HF acid and fracture toughness of three commonly used pressable all ceramic core materials. Ninety glass ceramic specimens were fabricated from three commercially available leucite based core ceramic material (1) Esthetic Empress, (2) Cergo, and (3) Performance Plus. Thirty discs of each material were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Biaxial flexural strength (30 discs,) Biaxial flexural strength for samples treated with 9 % HF acid (30 discs) and fracture toughness (30 discs) were evaluated. Core material Performance Plus had the lowest biaxial strength of 124.89 MPa, Cergo had strength of 152.22 MPa and the highest value of 163.95 was reported for Esthetic Empress. For samples treated 9 % HF, Performance Plus had the lowest biaxial strength of 98.37 MPa, Cergo had strength of 117.42 MPa and the highest value of 143.74 was reported for Esthetic Empress. Core material Performance Plus had the lowest fracture toughness of 1.063 MPa, Cergo had strength of 1.112 MPa and the highest value of 1.225 was reported for Esthetic Empress. The results shows that Esthetic Empress had better mechanical properties compared to Cergo had Performance Plus in relation to the parameters tested.

  5. Fracture toughness and strength change of neutron-irradiated ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienst, W.; Zimmermann, H.

    1994-01-01

    In order to analyse the results of bending strength measurements on neutron-irradiated samples of Al 2 O 3 , AlN and SiC, fracture toughness measurements were additionally conducted. The neutron fluences concerned were mostly in the range of 0.6 to 3.2x10 26 n/m 2 at irradiation temperatures of 400 to 550 C. A fracture toughness decrease was generally observed for polycrystalline materials which, however, was considerably smaller than the reduction of the fracture strength. Exceptional increase of the fracture toughness seems typical for the effect of rather coarse irradiation defects. The irradiation-induced change of the fracture toughness of single crystal Al 2 O 3 appeared dependent on the crystallographic orientation; both reduced and increased fracture toughness after irradiation was observed. Recent results of neutron irradiation to about 2x10 25 n/m 2 at 100 C showed, that the strength decrease of various Al 2 O 3 grades sets in at (3-5)x10 24 n/m 2 and seems to be little dependent on the irradiation temperature. ((orig.))

  6. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanghang; Fu, Paixian; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Dianzhong

    2018-01-01

    The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT) possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT) steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T) demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17%) compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5%) treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels. PMID:29642642

  7. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanghang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17% compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5% treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels.

  8. Strategies for fracture toughness, strength and reliability optimisation of ceramic-ceramic laminates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, L.; Bermejo, R.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Danzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2011), s. 613-626 ISSN 1862-5282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Ceramic laminates * Layered ceramics * Residual stress * Fracture toughness * Threshold strength Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2011

  9. Effect of heat-treatment on toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Jasmin binti Baba

    1991-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two types of heat-treatment have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperature is discussed also

  10. Effect of heat treatment of toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Yasmin binti Baba

    1989-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two type of heat-treatments have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperatures also is discussed. (author)

  11. Temperature dependence of the fracture toughness and the cleavage fracture strength of a pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotilainen, H.

    1980-01-01

    A new model for the temperature dependence of the fracture toughness has been sought. It is based on the yielding processes at the crack tip, which are thought to be competitive with fracture. Using this method a good correlation between measured and calculated values of fracture toughness has been found for a Cr-Mo-V pressure vessel steel as well as for A533B. It has been thought that the application of this method can reduce the number of surveillance specimens in nuclear reactors. A method for the determination of the cleavage fracture strength has been proposed. 28 refs

  12. An investigation of improved strength and toughness of ausformed H13 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yong Chul; Yoon, Han Sang

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ausforming for AISI H13 steel was studied. Plastic deformation of metastable austenite increased the hardness and strength of the subsequently formed martensite. The increases in yield and tensile strength were proportional to the degree of austenite deformation without sacrifice of toughness, and large deformation (60%) resulted in significant increase in impact value. Furthermore, temper resistance up to 500 deg C, that is, consequent improvement in elevated-temperature strength property was demonstrated. These results can be interpreted as being attributed to the formation of cellular substructures which were fixed by alloy carbides. (Author)

  13. Compliant threads maximize spider silk connection strength and toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Avery; Pugno, Nicola M.; Cranford, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of functionalities, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of material. One feature that has escaped extensive investigation is the silk-on-silk connection joints within spider webs, particularly from a structural mechanics perspective. We report a joint theoretical and computational analysis of an idealized silk-on-silk fibre junction. By modifying the theory of multiple peeling, we quantitatively compare the performance of the system while systematically increasing the rigidity of the anchor thread, by both scaling the stress–strain response and the introduction of an applied pre-strain. The results of our study indicate that compliance is a virtue—the more extensible the anchorage, the tougher and stronger the connection becomes. In consideration of the theoretical model, in comparison with rigid substrates, a compliant anchorage enormously increases the effective adhesion strength (work required to detach), independent of the adhered thread itself, attributed to a nonlinear alignment between thread and anchor (contact peeling angle). The results can direct novel engineering design principles to achieve possible load transfer from compliant fibre-to-fibre anchorages, be they silk-on-silk or another, as-yet undeveloped, system. PMID:25008083

  14. The influence of water removal on the strength and toughness of cortical bone

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Shen, Xinmei; Acuna, Rae L.; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of dehydration on the mechanical behavior of cortical bone are known, the underlying mechanisms for such effects are not clear. We hypothesize that the interactions of water with the collagen and mineral phases each have a unique influence on mechanical behavior. To study this, strength, toughness, and stiffness were measured with three-point bend specimens made from the mid-diaphysis of human cadaveric femurs and divided into six test groups: control (hydrated), drying i...

  15. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...

  16. Effects of substrate preheating during direct energy deposition on microstructure, hardness, tensile strength, and notch toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gyeong Yun; Lee, Ki Yong; Park, Sang Hu; Shim, Do Sik

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the effects of substrate preheating for the hardfacing of cold-press dies using the high-speed tool steel AISI M4. The preheating of the substrate is a widely used technique for reducing the degree of thermal deformation and preventing crack formation. We investigated the changes in the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the high-speed tool steel M4 deposited on an AISI D2 substrate with changes in the substrate preheating temperature. Five preheating temperatures (100-500 °C; interval of 100 °C) were selected, and the changes in the temperature of the substrate during deposition were observed. As the preheating temperature of the substrate was increased, the temperature gradient between the melting layer and the substrate decreased; this prevented the formation of internal cracks, owing to thermal stress relief. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed that a dendritic structure was formed at the interface between the deposited layer and the substrate while a cellular microstructure was formed in the deposited layer. As the preheating temperature was increased, the sizes of the cells and precipitated carbides also increased. Furthermore, the hardness increased slightly while the strength and toughness decreased. Moreover, the tensile and impact properties deteriorated rapidly at excessively high preheating temperatures (greater than 500 °C). The results of this study can be used as preheating criteria for achieving the desired mechanical properties during the hardfacing of dies and molds.

  17. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1994-03-08

    This work describes a high strength, high toughness bainitic/ferritic steel alloy comprising about 2.75% to 4.0% chromium, about 2.0% to 3.5% tungsten, about 0.10% to 0.30% vanadium, and about 0.1% to 0.15% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy having been heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled at a rate sufficient to produce carbide-free acicular bainite. 15 figures.

  18. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  19. Fracture toughness versus micro-tensile bond strength testing of adhesive-dentin interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Luehrs, Anne-Katrin; Poitevin, André; Van Ende, Annelies; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2013-06-01

    To assess interfacial fracture toughness of different adhesive approaches and compare to a standard micro-tensile bond-strength (μTBS) test. Chevron-notched beam fracture toughness (CNB) was measured following a modified ISO 24370 standard. Composite bars with dimensions of 3.0×4.0×25 mm were prepared, with the adhesive-dentin interface in the middle. At the adhesive-dentin interface, a chevron notch was prepared using a 0.15 mm thin diamond blade mounted in a water-cooled diamond saw. Each specimen was loaded until failure in a 4-point bend test setup and the fracture toughness was calculated according to the ISO specifications. Similarly, adhesive-dentin micro-specimens (1.0×1.0×8-10 mm) were stressed in tensile until failure to determine the μTBS. A positive correlation (r(2)=0.64) was observed between CNB and μTBS, which however was only nearly statistically significant, mainly due to the dissimilar outcome of Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE). While few μTBS specimens failed at the adhesive-dentin interface, almost all CNB specimens failed interfacially at the notch tip. Weibull moduli for interfacial fracture toughness were much higher than for μTBS (3.8-11.5 versus 2.7-4.8, respectively), especially relevant with regard to early failures. Although the ranking of the adhesives on their bonding effectiveness tested using CNB and μTBS corresponded well, the outcome of CNB appeared more reliable and less variable. Fracture toughness measurement is however more laborious and requires specific equipment. The μTBS nevertheless appeared to remain a valid method to assess bonding effectiveness in a versatile way. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of strength and toughness of SKD11 type cold work tool steel; SKD 11 gata reikan koguko no kyojinsei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaura, K.; Sunada, H.; Yokoyama, Y. [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan); Teramoto, K. [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan). Graduate School| Sanyo Special Steel Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Toughness and wear resistance are the factors which affect on the lifetime of cold work tool steels importantly. Generally, both properties show the contrary characteristics. The evaluation of tool steel materials has been carried out focusing on the strength and wear resistance mainly. However, owing to the rapid progress of recent plastic working techniques, usage environments are under the severe conditions more and more. Therefore, it is expected to develop the high reliable cold work tool steels which balanced with toughness including wear resistance. In this study, the strength and toughness of a newly developed 0.8C-8Cr cold work tool steel whose composition was controlled to suppress the precipitation of massive eutectic M7C3 carbides were investigated with reference to microstructure and were compared with conventional SKD11. The toughness was evaluated by the area under the stress-strain curve. As a result, it was clarified that the tensile strength of the newly developed steel designated as Mod. SKD 11 was about 400 MPa higher and the toughness was 1.8 times larger than that of SKD 11 throughout a wide range of tempering temperatures and so forth. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Process development for 9Cr nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) with high fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Hoelzer, David T.; Lee, Yong Bok; Kang, Suk Hoon; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is to summarize the process development and key characterization results for the newly-developed Fe–9Cr based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) with high fracture toughness. One of the major drawbacks from pursuing ultra-high strength in the past development of NFAs is poor fracture toughness at high temperatures although a high fracture toughness is essential to prevent cracking during manufacturing and to mitigate or delay irradiation-induced embrittlement in irradiation environments. A study on fracture mechanism using the NFA 14YWT found that the low-energy grain boundary decohesion in fracture process at a high temperature (>200 °C) resulted in low fracture toughness. Lately, efforts have been devoted to explore an integrated process to enhance grain bonding. Two base materials were produced through mechanical milling and hot extrusion and designated as 9YWTV-PM1 and 9YWTV-PM2. Isothermal annealing (IA) and controlled rolling (CR) treatments in two phase region were used to enhance diffusion across the interfaces and boundaries. The PM2 alloy after CR treatments showed high fracture toughness (K JQ ) at represented temperatures: 240–280 MPa √m at room temperature and 160–220 MPa √m at 500 °C, which indicates that the goal of 100 MPa √m over possible nuclear application temperature range has been well achieved. Furthermore, it is also confirmed by comparison that the CR treatments on 9YWTV-PM2 result in high fracture toughness similar to or higher than those of the conventional ferritic–martensitic steels such as HT9 and NF616

  2. Fracture Toughness and Strength in a New Class of Bainitic Chromium-Tungsten Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. X.; Sikka, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    This project dealt with developing an understanding of the toughening and stengthening mechanisms for a new class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with Nooter Corporation and other industrial partners. The new steele had 50% higher tensile strength up to 650 degrees Celsius than currently used steels and the potential for not requiring any postweld heat treatment (PWHT) and for reducing equipment weight by 25%. This project was closely related to the Nooter project described in the report Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic steels for Industrial Process Applications (ORNL/TM-2005/82). The project was carried out jointly by the University of Pittsburgh and ORNL. The University of Pittsburgh carried out fracture toughness measurements and microstructural analysis on base metal and welded plates prepared at ORNL. The project focused on three areas. The first dealt with detailed microstructural analysis of base compositions of 3Cr-3WV and 3Cr-3WBV(Ta) in both normalized (N) and normalized and tempered (NT) conditions. The second aspect of the prject dealt with determining tensile properties and fracture toughness values of K{subIC} at room temperature for both 3Cr-3Wv and 3Cr-3WV(Ta) compositions. The third focus of the project was to measure the fracture toughness values of the base metal and the heat-affectged zone (HAZ) of a plate of Fe-3Cr-W(Mo)V steel plate welded by the gas tungsten are (GTA) process. The HAZ toughness was measured in both the as-welded and the PWHT condition.

  3. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  4. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  5. Flexural toughness of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete containing nano-SiO2 and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Li, Qing-Fu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tian-Hang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the effect of steel fiber on the flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2. The flexural toughness was evaluated by two methods, which are based on ASTM C1018 and DBV-1998, respectively. By means of three-point bending method, the flexural toughness indices, variation coefficients of bearing capacity, deformation energy, and equivalent flexural strength of the specimen were measured, respectively, and the relational curves between the vertical load and the midspan deflection (P(V)-δ) were obtained. The results indicate that steel fiber has great effect on the flexural toughness parameters and relational curves (P(V)-δ) of the three-point bending beam specimen. When the content of steel fiber increases from 0.5% to 2%, the flexural toughness parameters increase gradually and the curves are becoming plumper and plumper with the increase of steel fiber content, respectively. However these flexural toughness parameters begin to decrease and the curves become thinner and thinner after the steel fiber content exceeds 2%. It seems that the contribution of steel fiber to the improvement of flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2 is well performed only when the steel fiber content is less than 2%.

  6. Effect of post-weld heat treatments on strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Shan, Jiguo; Wang, Chunxu; Tian, Zhiling

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates here the strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam under different approaches of three post-weld heat treatments, i.e. aging (A), solutionizing+aging (SA) and homogenizing+solutionizing+aging (HSA). The microstructures of the weld metals with A and SA processes both comprised of finely dispersive Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitates, small martensite lath and reverted austenite along the grain boundary. However, in the weld metal with HSA process, it exhibited the same Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitate with the large martensite lath and the absence of reverted austenite. The ultimate tensile strength and static toughness of the welded joint with HSA process were 1350.6 MPa and 63.8 MJ m −3 , respectively. The static toughness has been remarkably improved from 71% to 91% of the applied parent metal compared with that of the welded joint with A process. The present study underscores that the Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitate and martensite are significant to ensure the high strength of welded joints. Due to its inconsistent deformation with the matrix of martensite, the reverted austenite has a notable influence on the toughness of welded joints. It shows that the post-weld heat treatments of HSA process can influence the mechanical behavior of welded joints by eliminating the reverted austenite.

  7. Effect of post-weld heat treatments on strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shan, Jiguo, E-mail: shanjg@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Professing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Chunxu; Tian, Zhiling [Institute for Special Steel, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-04-29

    This paper elucidates here the strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam under different approaches of three post-weld heat treatments, i.e. aging (A), solutionizing+aging (SA) and homogenizing+solutionizing+aging (HSA). The microstructures of the weld metals with A and SA processes both comprised of finely dispersive Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitates, small martensite lath and reverted austenite along the grain boundary. However, in the weld metal with HSA process, it exhibited the same Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate with the large martensite lath and the absence of reverted austenite. The ultimate tensile strength and static toughness of the welded joint with HSA process were 1350.6 MPa and 63.8 MJ m{sup −3}, respectively. The static toughness has been remarkably improved from 71% to 91% of the applied parent metal compared with that of the welded joint with A process. The present study underscores that the Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate and martensite are significant to ensure the high strength of welded joints. Due to its inconsistent deformation with the matrix of martensite, the reverted austenite has a notable influence on the toughness of welded joints. It shows that the post-weld heat treatments of HSA process can influence the mechanical behavior of welded joints by eliminating the reverted austenite.

  8. Fracture toughness and flexural strength of Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr){sub 7-8} magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Libo. E-mail: ren@me.udel.edu; Hadjipanayis, George C.; Parvizi-Majidi, Azar

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric investigation of the strength and fracture toughness of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} type permanent magnets in the Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr){sub 7-8} family of alloys. The strength and fracture toughness of the as-received materials were characterized as a function of temperature, loading direction, and magnetization. Since these magnets are candidates for applications with service temperatures up to 450 deg. C, the effect of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties was determined by characterizing the properties after a thermal treatment of 40 h at 450 deg. C00.

  9. Fracture toughness and flexural strength of Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)7-8 magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Libo.; Hadjipanayis, George C.; Parvizi-Majidi, Azar

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric investigation of the strength and fracture toughness of Sm 2 Co 17 type permanent magnets in the Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr) 7-8 family of alloys. The strength and fracture toughness of the as-received materials were characterized as a function of temperature, loading direction, and magnetization. Since these magnets are candidates for applications with service temperatures up to 450 deg. C, the effect of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties was determined by characterizing the properties after a thermal treatment of 40 h at 450 deg. C

  10. High toughness alumina/aluminate: The role of hetero-interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.E.; Yasuoka, M.; Kanzaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    Silica doped alumina/aluminate materials present a combination of high strength and high toughness not achieved before in other alumina systems, except for transformation toughened alumina. The authors have associated the increase in toughness to crack bridging by anisotropically grown alumina grains with concurrent interfacial debonding of these grains. A HREM study of grain boundaries and hetero-interface structures in this material shows the absence of amorphous phases at grain boundaries. Local Auger electron analysis of fractured surfaces revealed the coexistence of Si and La at the grain facets exposed by the noticeable intergranular fracture mode of this material. It is concluded that a certain and important degree of boundaries weakness is related to both presence of Si at the interfaces and existence of alumina/aluminate hetero-interfaces

  11. Yield strength, shear stress and toughness of YBCO samples textured by Bridgman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J J; Capdevila, X G; Martinez, M; Segarra, M; Jimenez-Pique, E

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the orthorhombic phase of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Y-123) at room temperature have been investigated at different applied loads using nanoindentation technique. The study was carried out for several monodomains on the (001) planes for textured Bridgman samples with dispersed Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y-211) particles as pinning centers. The yield strength (σ ys ), shear stress (τ m ) and toughness (K IC ) of Y123/Y211composite was determined at different applied loads. First and second mechanical properties have been calculated though the Hertz equations and the last one with Lawn et al. equations. Finally, the ultra-low imprints obtained by nanoindentation have been correlated with parameters obtained by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM)

  12. Effects of consolidation temperature, strength and microstructure on fracture toughness of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, P.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Alinger, M.; Hoelzer, D.; Gragg, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fully consolidated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) were prepared by attritor milling pre-alloyed Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti and 0.3 wt% Y 2 O 3 powders, followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at 1000 o C or 1150 o C at 200 MPa for 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed similar bimodal distributions of fine and coarse ferrite grains in both cases. However, as expected, the alloy microhardness decreased with increasing in HIPing temperature. Three point bend tests on single edge notched specimens, with a nominal root radius ρ = 0.15 mm, were used to measure the notch fracture toughness, K ρ , as a function of test temperature. The K ρ curves were found to be similar for both processing conditions. It appears that the coarser ferrite grains control cleavage fracture, in a way that is independent of alloy strength and HIPing temperature

  13. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  14. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27 mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  15. Strength development of high-strength ductile concrete incorporating Metakaolin and PVA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Shafiq, Nasir; Ayub, Tehmina

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  16. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, C.W.; Landow, M.P.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1993-10-01

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests

  17. Strength-toughness relations in sintered and isostatically hot-pressed ZrO2-toughened Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, S.; Yoshimura, M.; Somiya, S.

    1986-01-01

    The fracture toughness of fine-grained undoped ZrO 2 -toughened Al 2 O 3 (ZTA) was essentially unchanged by post-sintering hot isostatic pressing and increased monotonically with ZrO 2 additions up to 25 wt%. The strength of ZTA with 5 to 15 wt% tetragonal ZrO 2 , which depended monotonically on the amount of ZrO 2 present before hot isostatic pressing, was increased by pressing but became almost constant between 5 and 15 wt% ZrO 2 addition. The strength appeared to be controlled by pores before pressing and by surface flaws after pressing; the size of flaws after pressing increased with ZrO 2 content. The strength of ZTA containing mostly monoclinic ZrO 2 (20 to 25 wt%) remained almost constant despite the noticeable density increase upon hot isostatic pressing because the strength was controlled by preexisting microcracks whose extent did not change on postsintering pressing. These strength-toughness relations in sintered and isostatically hot-pressed ZTA are explained on the basis of R-curve behavior. The importance of the contribution of microcracks to the toughness of ZTA is emphasized

  18. Electrostatic Assembly Preparation of High-Toughness Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites with Enhanced Thermal Shock Resistance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoxi; Zhang, Xinghong; Hong, Changqing; Qiu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jia; Han, Jiecai; Hu, PingAn

    2016-05-11

    The central problem of using ceramic as a structural material is its brittleness, which associated with rigid covalent or ionic bonds. Whiskers or fibers of strong ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (Si3N4) are widely embedded in a ceramic matrix to improve the strength and toughness. The incorporation of these insulating fillers can impede the thermal flow in ceramic matrix, thus decrease its thermal shock resistance that is required in some practical applications. Here we demonstrate that the toughness and thermal shock resistance of zirconium diboride (ZrB2)/SiC composites can be improved simultaneously by introducing graphene into composites via electrostatic assembly and subsequent sintering treatment. The incorporated graphene creates weak interfaces of grain boundaries (GBs) and optimal thermal conductance paths inside composites. In comparison to pristine ZrB2-SiC composites, the toughness of (2.0%) ZrB2-SiC/graphene composites exhibited a 61% increasing (from 4.3 to 6.93 MPa·m(1/2)) after spark plasma sintering (SPS); the retained strength after thermal shock increased as high as 74.8% at 400 °C and 304.4% at 500 °C. Present work presents an important guideline for producing high-toughness ceramic-based composites with enhanced thermal shock properties.

  19. Fracture toughness and reliability in high-temperature structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    advanced propulsion systems, such as gas turbine engines .... cing current commercial high strength SiC fibres such as. Nicalon ... of the polymer pyrolysis technique to produce CFCC. ... tural applications in aerospace, military, and industrial.

  20. Comparisons of irradiation-induced shifts in fracture toughness, crack arrest toughness, and Charpy impact energy in high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program is examining relative shifts and changes in shape of fracture and crack-arrest toughness versus temperature behavior for two high-copper welds. Fracture toughness 100-MPa√m temperature shifts are greater than Charpy 41-J shifts for both welds. Mean curve fits to the fracture toughness data provide mixed results regarding curve shape changes, but curves constructed as lower boundaries indicate lower slopes. Preliminary crack-arrest toughness results indicate that shifts of lower-bound curves are approximately the same as CVN 41-J shifts with no shape changes

  1. Effect of quenching temperature on martensite multi-level microstructures and properties of strength and toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Shao-lei [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yi-long, E-mail: liangyilong@126.com [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Jiang, Yun [Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yu; Yang, Ming; Yi, Yan-liang [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China)

    2016-10-31

    The martensite multi-level microstructures of 20CrNi2Mo steel, which were quenched at the different temperatures of 900–1200 °C and tempered at 200 °C, were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between the microstructures and properties of strength and toughness was discussed by the classic formula of Hall–Petch. The results show that the size of prior austenite grain (d{sub r}), martensite packet (d{sub p}) and block (d{sub b}) increase with increasing of the quenching temperature, while the martensite lath (d{sub l}) size is opposite. On another hand, the confusion degree of the martensite packets changes from disorder to order. The boundaries of prior austenite grain, packet, block and the martensite lath are high angle boundaries (HBs) and low angle boundaries (LBs), respectively, and the ratio of the low angle boundaries increase with the quenching temperature by calculating to the multi-level microstructure size with the mathematical model established by myself. In addition, the relationship between the packet/block and strength follows the classical formula of Hall–Petch, and the size of d{sub b} is far lower than the size of d{sub p}, d{sub b} is the effective control unit of the strength. Meanwhile, d{sub l} is the effective control unit of toughness because it strongly impacts the crack initiation and propagation and follows also the Hall-Petch with toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel.

  2. High temperature homogenization improves impact toughness of vitamin E-diffused, irradiated UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru; O'Brien, Caitlin; Doshi, Brinda; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion of vitamin E into radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is used to increase stability against oxidation of total joint implant components. The dispersion of vitamin E throughout implant preforms has been optimized by a two-step process of doping and homogenization. Both of these steps are performed below the peak melting point of the cross-linked polymer (homogenization of antioxidant-doped, radiation cross-linked UHMWPE could improve its toughness. We found that homogenization at 300°C for 8 h resulted in an increase in the impact toughness (74 kJ/m 2 compared to 67 kJ/m 2 ), the ultimate tensile strength (50 MPa compared to 43 MPa) and elongation at break (271% compared to 236%). The high temperature treatment did not compromise the wear resistance or the oxidative stability as measured by oxidation induction time. In addition, the desired homogeneity was achieved at a much shorter duration (8 h compared to >240 h) by using high temperature homogenization. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1343-1347, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of a high strength, hydrogen-resistant austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.M.; Klahn, D.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Research toward high-strength, high toughness nonmagnetic steels for use in the retaining rings of large electrical generators led to the development of a Ta-modified iron-based superalloy (Fe-36 Ni-3 Ti-3 Ta-0.5 Al-1.3 Mo-0.3 V-0.01 B) which combines high strength with good toughness after suitable aging. The alloy did, however, show some degradation in fatigue resistance in gaseous hydrogen. This sensitivity was associated with a deformation-induced martensitic transformation near the fracture surface. The addition of a small amount of chromium to the alloy suppressed the martensite transformation and led to a marked improvement in hydrogen resistance

  4. High-temperature fracture toughness of duplex microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.D.; Chan, H.M.; Harmer, M.P.; Miller, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the fracture toughness of ceramics exhibiting duplex microstructures was studied relative to their single-phase constituents using two test methods: bend testing of chevron-notched beams, and the indentation-crack-length technique. The two materials systems studied were Al 2 O 3 :c-ZrO 2 (Y) and Al 2 O 3 :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG), and the testing temperature ranged from room temperature to 1,200 C. The study showed that in both systems the duplex materials showed higher toughness values than their single-phase constituents above 800 C. This result was attributed to the contribution of low-energy interphase boundaries to the overall composite toughness. Indentation crack length measurements gave toughness values and trends comparable to those determined by the chevron-notched beam method. By comparing the results of the two test methods it was possible to demonstrate that the indentation calibration constant (ξ) shows no significant temperature or material dependence. For the zirconia-containing materials, however, indentation at elevated temperatures is accompanied by significant localized plasticity, which suppressed the radial cracking. Under such conditions, some caution is warranted, since localized plasticity can lead to an overestimation of the fracture toughness

  5. Use of the strength ratio for pre-cracked Charpy specimens for the measuring, of the dynamic toughness of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.C.; Darwish, F.A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The specimen strength ratio (R sub(sb)) determined for precraked Charpy specimens fractured in dynamic bending was correlated with plane strain fracture toughness (K sub(Id)) obtained through valid measurements of the J-integral at the moment of fracture initiation in various microstructures of the AISI 4140 steel. The results indicate a linear relationship between K sub(Id) and R sub(sb) for the microstructures considered in this work. The range of validity of this linear correlation is presented and discussed in terms of the ASTM E399 specimen size criterion. (Author) [pt

  6. Study on elastic-plastic fracture toughness test in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Structural integrity of internal components in light water reactors is important for the safety of operation and service lifetime. Fracture toughness is important parameter for structural integrity assessment of nuclear power plant. In general, fracture toughness of materials which compose the components in light water reactor is obtained with fracture toughness tests in air although some components are subjected to high temperature water because of the difficulty of fracture toughness test in high temperature water. However, the effects of high temperature water and hydrogen on fracture behavior of the structural materials in nuclear power plant such as low alloy steel, cast austenitic stainless steel, and Ni base alloy are concerned recently. In this study, elastic-plastic fracture toughness test of low alloy steel in simulated BWR water environment was studied. Fracture toughness test in high temperature water with original clip gage and normalization data reduction technique was established. The difference of fracture toughness J_Q tested in air between using elastic unload compliance method and normalization data reduction technique was also discussed. As a result, obtained value with normalization data reduction technique tended to be higher than the value with elastic unload compliance. (author)

  7. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  8. Enhancement of stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of poly(ethylene oxide) using phenoxy-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bingxing; Shi Jiahua; Pramoda, K P; Goh, Suat Hong

    2007-01-01

    Phenoxy (poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol-A), also known as poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin)) was grafted onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by a reactive blending process. Reactions between terminal glycidyl groups of phenoxy and carboxylic acid groups of acidified MWNTs resulted in the grafting of phenoxy chains onto MWNTs. The mechanical properties of composites of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and phenoxy-grafted MWNTs were studied. The miscibility between PEO and phenoxy enabled the good dispersion of nanotubes in the PEO matrix as evidenced by polarized optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The spherulite size of PEO progressively decreased with increasing amount of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs added. At an optimal MWNT content of 1.5 wt%, the addition of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs led to increases of storage modulus, Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, ultimate strain, and toughness of PEO by 113, 228, 166, 442, 1240, and 4080%, respectively. Such simultaneous increases in stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of a polymer by an additive are rather uncommon

  9. Impact toughness of high strength low alloy TMT reinforcement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    R&D Centre for Iron and Steel, Steel Authority of India Limited, Ranchi 834 002, India. †Steel ... of TMT (thermomechanically treated) ribbed bar product, particularly the ... Through this process, the martensitic rim gets self- tempered by the heat ...

  10. Highly tough and transparent layered composites of nanocellulose and synthetic silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Nan; Yang, Quanling; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-12-01

    A highly tough and transparent film material was prepared from synthetic saponite (SPN) nanoplatelets of low aspect ratios and nanofibrillar cellulose. The nanofibrillar cellulose was chemically modified by topological surface oxidation using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst. Both synthetic SPN nanoplatelets and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) have abundant negative charges in high densities on their surfaces and are dispersed in water at the individual nanoelement level. Layered nanocomposite structures of the SPN nanoplatelets and TOCNs were formed through a simple cast-drying process of the mixed aqueous dispersions. The TOCN/SPN composites with 0-50% w/w SPN content were optically transparent. Mechanical properties of the TOCN/SPN composites varied depending on the SPN content. The composite with 10% w/w SPN content (5.6% volume fraction) exhibited characteristic mechanical properties: Young's modulus of 14 GPa, tensile strength of 420 MPa, and strain-to-failure of 10%. The work of fracture of the composites increased from 4 to 30 MJ m-3 - or by more than 700% - as the SPN content was increased from 0 to 10% w/w. This surprising improvement in toughness was interpreted based on a model for fracture of polymer composites reinforced with low-aspect-ratio platelets.A highly tough and transparent film material was prepared from synthetic saponite (SPN) nanoplatelets of low aspect ratios and nanofibrillar cellulose. The nanofibrillar cellulose was chemically modified by topological surface oxidation using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst. Both synthetic SPN nanoplatelets and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) have abundant negative charges in high densities on their surfaces and are dispersed in water at the individual nanoelement level. Layered nanocomposite structures of the SPN nanoplatelets and TOCNs were formed through a simple cast-drying process of the mixed aqueous dispersions. The

  11. Recommended practice for fracture toughness testing of weldments with strength mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornet, P.; Eripret, C.; Wang, Y.Y.; Kirk, M.T.; Gordon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Fracture toughness testing requires relationships between experimentally measured quantities, such as load and displacement, and J and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD).The relationships provided in the presently codified procedures (ASTM E813, E1152, E1290 et BSI 7848:Part 1) were derived under the assumption that the specimens have homogeneous mechanical properties. However, these codified procedures are frequently used for testing of weldments despite their strong mechanical properties variations. As a result, the accuracy of the toughness values (J or CCTOD) is sometimes in question. Systematic finite element studies of mismatched single-edge-notched-bend specimens (SENB) having a crack on the centerline have been conducted to resolve this question. The effect of various parameters on these relationships, such as weld size, degree of mismatch, and crack depth, is investigated. The accuracy of the codified J and CTOD testing procedures when applied to the mismatched SE(B) specimens is examined. This systematic examination is extended to several newly proposed procedures, such as those from Joch et al. and Hornet and Eripret. New J and CTOD estimations procedures are proposed. The expected error in applying the codified and the new procedures are shown are proposed. The expected error in applying the codified and the new procedures are shown in terms of mismatch level and level width. Recommendations are made on the use of those procedures for a variety of weld mismatch and crack depth conditions. (authors)

  12. Mechanism of improvement on strength and toughness of H13 die steel by nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Lai; Huo, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of nitrogen addition to AISI H13 die steel is proposed and supported using thermodynamic calculations in addition to observed changes in precipitate, microstructure, crystal structure, and macroproperties. The results indicate that the average impact toughness ak of the novel nitrogen H13 steel is maximally 17.6 J cm −2 and minimally 13.4 J cm −2 . These values result in die steel that reaches premium grade and approximate the superior grade as specified in NADCA#207-2003, additionally the hardness is improved 3–5HRC. Experimental findings indicate that the residual V(C,N) particles undissolved during nitrogen H13 steel austenitizing by quenching helps to suppress growth of original austenitic crystal grains, this in turn results in finer martensitic structures after quenching. In the subsequent tempering process all N atoms are dissolved in the solid state matrix a result of C atoms displacing N atoms in V(C,N). Solid dissolution of N atoms produces a distorted lattice of Fe matrix which results in an increase in the hardness of the steel. Additionally this displacement reaction is important for slow growth of secondary particles in nitrogen H13 steel during the tempering process which helps to increase impact toughness compared to its nitrogen-free counterpart given the same condition of heat-treatment

  13. Evaluation of essential work of fracture in a dual phase high strength steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, D.; Perez, L. I.; Lara, A.; Casellas, D.; Prado, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness of advanced high strength steels (AHSS), can be used to optimize crash behavior of structural components. However it cannot be readily measured in metal sheet because of the sheet thickness. In this work, the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) methodology is proposed to evaluate the fracture toughness of metal sheets. It has been successfully applied in polymers films and some metal sheets. However, their information about the applicability of this methodology to AHSS is relatively scarce. In the present work the fracture toughness of a Dual Phase (strength of 800 MPa) and drawing steel sheets has been measured by means of the EWF. The results show that the test requirements are met and also show the clear influence of notch radii on the measured values, specially for the AHSS grade. Thus, the EWF is postulated as a methodology to evaluate the fracture toughness in AHSS sheets. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Effects of irradiation on strength and toughness of commercial LWR vessel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for stainless steel cladding to improve the fracture behavior of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel, particularly during certain overcooling transients, may depend greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, weld overlay cladding irradiated at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. The cladding was applied to a pressure vessel steel plate by the three-wire series-arc commercial method. Cladding was applied in three layers to provide adequate thickness for the fabrication of test specimens. The three-wire series-arc procedure, developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc., Chattanooga, Tennessee, produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were irradiated at 288 0 C to fluence levels of 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from -125 to 288 0 C, the yield strength increased by 8 to 30%, ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing, due to the dominance of delta-ferrite failures at low temperatures. On the upper shelf, energy was reduced, due to irradiation exposure, 15 and 20%, while the lateral expansion was reduced 43 and 41%, at 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV), respectively. In addition, radiation damage resulted in 13 and 28 0 C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature at the 41-J level for the low and high fluences, respectively

  15. Characterisation of microstructure and its effect on the strength and toughness of 17-4PH stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, C. R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Albert, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    the formation of a copper-rich phase after ageing for 0.25 h, with the amount of the copper-rich precipitates increasing with the duration of ageing. The coarsening of the copper-rich precipitates on ageing for 2 h led to a sharp decrease in hardness, which was attributable to the transformation of the coherent...... copper-rich body centred cubic (b.c.c.) phase to the incoherent copper rich face centred cubic (f.c.c.) phase. Further ageing for 4 h led to a dip in hardness and strength and an increase in toughness. The dip in hardness upon long-term ageing could be attributed to the formation of coarse copper...

  16. High hardness-high toughness WC-20Co nanocomposites: Effect of VC variation and sintering temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Devender; Singh, K.

    2016-01-01

    WC-Co nanocomposites with variable VC content are synthesized by liquid phase sintering at two different temperatures. The as synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and optical microscope. The mechanical properties are obtained by Vickers indentation method. The high content of VC, lead to high porosity when sintering temperature is increased from 1350 to 1400 °C. The relative density of all the samples is more than 95%. Microstructure reveals that agglomeration of W-Co-C and V-W-C increases at 1400 °C, which generates layered interfaces in radial direction and hence the material inhomogeneity. XRD pattern shows that the formation of η phase increases at 1400 °C, which is responsible to decrease the fracture toughness of the present samples. The average particle size of 102 nm, highest hardness of 1870.6 kgf/mm"2 with fracture toughness of 14.4 MN/mm"3"/"2 is observed in sample having 7.5 wt% VC, sintered at 1350 °C for one minute. This combination shows the highest hardness and reasonably high toughness as compared to conventionally sintered materials reported so far.

  17. Evaluation of tensile strength and fracture toughness of yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystals with fracture surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Manabu; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Noguchi, Kenichi; Masaki, Takaki

    1995-01-01

    The tensile strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZPs) was measured and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with the scanning electron microscope and X-ray microanalyzer. The fracture origins of the pressureless-sintered samples were voids or inclusions such as Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 with SiO 2 , and cubic-ZrO 2 , while the fracture origins of the hot isostatically pressed samples were inclusions; no voids were detected at fracture origins. The higher strengths of the hot isostatically pressed samples versus those of the pressureless-sintered samples were consistent with the change in fracture origins. The fracture toughness of the samples calculate from the tensile strength and analysis of the fracture origins was 3.4 to 3.7 MPa ·√m. These values are lower than those measured with the SEPB method. These discrepancies might be caused by the difference in the state of the fracture origin and its neighborhood, such as the size of the fracture origin and interaction between two surfaces in the precrack

  18. Fracture Toughness and Reliability in High-Temperature Structural Ceramics and Composites: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sunil

    1999-01-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defense and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fiber into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc., essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibers should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000 'C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibers with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are, preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fiber array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fiber degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  19. Recent Niobium Developments for High Strength Steel Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for oil and gas pipelines, offshore platforms, nuclear plants, boilers and alternative energy applications. Recent research and the commercialization of alternative energy applications such as windtower structural supports and power transmission gear components provide enhanced performance. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding energy-related applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the structural design and performance. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are initiating new windtower designs operating at higher energy efficiency, lower cost, and improved overall material design performance.

  20. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  1. A finite element study on the effects of toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation on post-impact compressive strength

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Daniel; Spearing, Simon; Sinclair, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study applies mechanisms observed from previous work (the undamaged cone, toughness and extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation) to parametrically study their effects on residual compression after impact (CAI) strength using finite element models. Based on previous experimental work, tougher material systems exhibited up to 30% greater CAI strength for a given damage area. Based on this, it is necessary to understand what other parameters, beyond damage area, contribute to a loss in...

  2. Dramatic Enhancement of Graphene Oxide/Silk Nanocomposite Membranes: Increasing Toughness, Strength, and Young's modulus via Annealing of Interfacial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxian; Ma, Ruilong; Hu, Kesong; Kim, Sunghan; Fang, Guangqiang; Shao, Zhengzhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate that stronger and more robust nacre-like laminated GO (graphene oxide)/SF (silk fibroin) nanocomposite membranes can be obtained by selectively tailoring the interfacial interactions between "bricks"-GO sheets and "mortar"-silk interlayers via controlled water vapor annealing. This facial annealing process relaxes the secondary structure of silk backbones confined between flexible GO sheets. The increased mobility leads to a significant increase in ultimate strength (by up to 41%), Young's modulus (up to 75%) and toughness (up to 45%). We suggest that local silk recrystallization is initiated in the proximity to GO surface by the hydrophobic surface regions serving as nucleation sites for β-sheet domains formation and followed by SF assembly into nanofibrils. Strong hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between GO layers with SF nanofibrils result in enhanced shear strength of layered packing. This work presented here not only gives a better understanding of SF and GO interfacial interactions, but also provides insight on how to enhance the mechanical properties for the nacre-mimic nanocomposites by focusing on adjusting the delicate interactions between heterogeneous "brick" and adaptive "mortar" components with water/temperature annealing routines.

  3. Architected Lattices with High Stiffness and Toughness via Multicore-Shell 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen; Raney, Jordan R; Shea, Kristina; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-01

    The ability to create architected materials that possess both high stiffness and toughness remains an elusive goal, since these properties are often mutually exclusive. Natural materials, such as bone, overcome such limitations by combining different toughening mechanisms across multiple length scales. Here, a new method for creating architected lattices composed of core-shell struts that are both stiff and tough is reported. Specifically, these lattices contain orthotropic struts with flexible epoxy core-brittle epoxy shell motifs in the absence and presence of an elastomeric silicone interfacial layer, which are fabricated by a multicore-shell, 3D printing technique. It is found that architected lattices produced with a flexible core-elastomeric interface-brittle shell motif exhibit both high stiffness and toughness. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hybrid Welding of 45 mm High Strength Steel Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F.

    Thick section welding has significant importance for oil and gas industry in low temperature regions. Arc welding is usually employed providing suitable quality joints with acceptable toughness at low temperatures with very limited productivity compared to modern high power laser systems. Laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW) can enhance the productivity by several times due to higher penetration depth from laser beam and combined advantages of both heat sources. LAHW was applied to join 45 mm high strength steel with double-sided technique and application of metal cored wire. The process was captured by high speed camera, allowing process observation in order to identify the relation of the process stability on weld imperfections and efficiency. Among the results, it was found that both arc power and presence of a gap increased penetration depth, and that higher welding speeds cause unstable processing and limits penetration depth. Over a wide range of heat inputs, the welds where found to consist of large amounts of fine-grained acicular ferrite in the upper 60-75% part of welds. At the root filler wire mixing was less and cooling faster, and thus found to have bainitic transformation. Toughness of deposited welds provided acceptable toughness at -50 °C with some scattering.

  5. C.O.D. toughness testing of medium strength steel as a preliminary development for single specimen J integral toughness tests of SA533-B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, P.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to set up a test facility and to develop the necessary expertise to enable reliable elasto-plastic fracture toughness tests to be performed. Initially, tests are to be conducted on material similar to that used in the Koeberg pressure vessel walls, with the ultimate goal of performing single specimen J integral tests on the pressure vessel steel itself to determine through-thickness toughness variations. The project will comprise a number of stages, each one necessary for the development of the techniques used in J integral testing. These include: (i) development of an appropriate specimen design, of suitable size and shape that is applicable to both crack opening displacement (C.O.D.) and J integral tests; (ii) development, testing and calibration of the necessary associated mechanical and electrical equipment (e.g. clip gauge, amplifiers, interface unit, etc.), with (iii) an estimation of the probable errors and noise levels with a view to their elimantion, leading to (iv) perfection of the sensitivity and reproducibility of, firstly, the multiple specimen C.O.D. technique and, secondly, the multiple specimen J integral techniques. (v) Based on the above techniques, development of the single specimen J integral test method incorporating development of a computerised testing procedure. All the above procedure is to be conducted on similar, but non-Koeberg pressure vessel material ('ROQ Tough'). (vi) Finally, development and testing of both multiple specimen and single specimen J integral tests on actual SA533B material and an investigation of the through thickness toughness and fatigue crack propagation behaviour

  6. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  7. Fracture toughness measurements on a glass bonded sodalite high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel produces two high-level waste streams; cladding hulls and chloride salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream. The waste form consists of 75 Vol.% crystalline sodalite (containing the salt) with 25 Vol.% of an ''intergranular'' glassy phase. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on representative samples of this material using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confirmed by post-indentation polishing of a test sample. Young's modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and Young's modulus values are reported, along with results from scanning electron microscopy studies

  8. Weldability prediction of high strength steel S960QL after weld thermal cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dunđer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents weld thermal cycle simulation of high strength steel S960QL, and describes influence of cooling time t8/5 on hardness and impact toughness of weld thermal cycle simulated specimens. Furthermore, it presents analysis of characteristic fractions done by electron scanning microscope which can contribute to determination of welding parameters for S960QL steel.

  9. Characterization on strength and toughness of welded joint for Q550 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rea- sonable economy and high allowable design stresses, they ... Experimental. The steel ... welding machine and were carried out by means of multi- layer and .... wire consists of interpenetrating AF, and a spot of PF and bainite as ...

  10. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  11. Study of local-zone microstructure, strength and fracture toughness of hybrid laser-metal-inert-gas-welded A7N01 aluminum alloy joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Li, Mingxing; Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2017-03-14

    Mechanical properties of hybrid laser-metal-inert-gas-welded A7N01-T5 aluminum alloy joints were studied by using local samples that were extracted from the base metal (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and fusion zone (FZ) of the joint to investigate the triangular relationship of microstructure, strength and fracture toughness of the local zones. The BM had the highest yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and lowest elongation, which contrasts with the FZ. The yield strength of the HAZ is lower than that of the BM, whereas its UTS is very close to that of the BM, and its elongation is higher than that of the BM. The fracture toughness of the three local zones decreased as HAZ>BM>FZ. To analyze differences in local mechanical behavior, the detailed microstructure of the three local zones was studied by optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction, whereas the fracture surface and precipitation were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The variation of grain size, especially the morphology and distribution of strengthening phase in HAZ in welding process is the key factor that leads to its different mechanical properties from that of BM, which can be elucidated by different dislocation mechanism, sheared mechanism or Orowan mechanism. The as-cast microstructure and second-phase particles that segregate between dendritic branches provide the FZ with the lowest yield strength and UTS. The factors including area fraction of the precipitates, the difference of strength between the matrix and the grain boundaries, the precipitate-free zone along grain boundaries, as well as the grain boundaries angle are taken into account to explain the difference of fracture toughness among BM, HAZ and FZ, and their fracture modes.

  12. Nondestructive characterization of materials (ultrasonic and micromagnetic techniques) for strength and toughness prediction and the detection of early creep damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobmann, G.; Kroening, M.; Theiner, W.; Willems, H.; Fiedler, U.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, nondestructive testing techniques for materials characterization have been developed in Germany under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Research and Development, as part of the Reactor Safety Research Programme, in order to provide techniques for PSI and ISI that are sensitive and reliable, in particular with respect to the prediction of strength and toughness. As ferritic steels (pressure vessels and pipelines in the primary circuit) are of special interest, R and D was concentrated on micromagnetic techniques which are sensitive to the microstructure and its changes under service and/or repair conditions. In order to characterize microstructural states superimposed by residual stresses in an unambiguous way, numerical modelling was applied using advanced tools of mathematical approximation theory, i.e. multiregression algorithms and neural networks.For the detection of early creep damage in fossil power plant applications, i.e. micropores and their subsequent development to linked pores and microcracks, besides the micromagnetic techniques an ultrasonic technique was also applied and optimized for in situ applications on components such as pipe bends. Whereas the ultrasonic technique is sensitive to pore concentrations as small as about 0.2%, the parameters of the micromagnetic techniques are mainly influenced by temperature- and load-induced microstructural changes occurring in service, dependent on the steel quality. The techniques are applied at two pipe bends (steel grades 14MoV63 and X20CrMoV121) loaded under near practical conditions during seven inspection intervals between 2048h and 21000h to evaluate the progress of damage. (orig.)

  13. Plane strain fracture toughness tests on 2.4 and 3.9-inch-thick maraging steel specimens at various yield strength levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. M.; Repko, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of bend and compact specimens were conducted according to ASTM Tentative Method E 399-70T on a 200 grade maraging steel over a range of yield strengths from 123 to 234 ksi. The toughness of any given yield strength level was greater for the overaged condition than for the underaged. Some results which met the specimen size requirements of the method were distinctly lower than corresponding results from larger specimens. Inconsistencies in both validation and invalidation of results by the requirement for linearity of the test record were also noted.

  14. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-01-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25–1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load–strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load–strain curves were carried out. PMID:28773391

  15. Strong, tough and stiff bioinspired ceramics from brittle constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Florian; Maire, Eric; Meille, Sylvain; van de Moortèle, Bertrand; Stevenson, Adam J.; Deville, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    High strength and high toughness are usually mutually exclusive in engineering materials. In ceramics, improving toughness usually relies on the introduction of a metallic or polymeric ductile phase, but this decreases the material’s strength and stiffness as well as its high-temperature stability. Although natural materials that are both strong and tough rely on a combination of mechanisms operating at different length scales, the relevant structures have been extremely difficult to replicate. Here, we report a bioinspired approach based on widespread ceramic processing techniques for the fabrication of bulk ceramics without a ductile phase and with a unique combination of high strength (470 MPa), high toughness (22 MPa m1/2), and high stiffness (290 GPa). Because only mineral constituents are needed, these ceramics retain their mechanical properties at high temperatures (600 °C). Our bioinspired, material-independent approach should find uses in the design and processing of materials for structural, transportation and energy-related applications.

  16. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  17. Highly Flexible, Multipixelated Thermosensitive Smart Windows Made of Tough Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Li, Xinda; Kumar, Amit; Fu, Yiyang; Yang, Shu; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2017-09-27

    In a cold night, a clear window that will become opaque while retaining the indoor heat is highly desirable for both privacy and energy efficiency. A thermally responsive material that controls both the transmittance of solar radiance (predominantly in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths) and blackbody radiation (mainly in the mid-infrared) can realize such windows with minimal energy consumption. Here, we report a smart coating made from polyampholyte hydrogel (PAH) that transforms from a transparency state to opacity to visible radiation and strengthens opacity to mid-infrared when lowering the temperature as a result of phase separation between the water-rich and polymer-rich phases. To match a typical temperature fluctuation during the day, we fine-tune the phase transition temperature between 25 and 55 °C by introducing a small amount of relatively hydrophobic monomers (0.1 to 0.5 wt % to PAH). To further demonstrate an actively controlled, highly flexible, and high-contrast smart window, we build in an array of electric heaters made of printed elastomeric composite. The multipixelated window offers rapid switching, ∼70 s per cycle, whereas the device can withstand high strain (up to 80%) during operations.

  18. Tailoring the toughness and CTE of high temperature bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thunga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to enhancing the toughness and minimizing the CTE of a special class of bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin by blending it with a thermoplastic toughening agent. Poly(ether sulfone was chosen as a high temperature resistant thermoplastic resin to enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of BECy. The influence of poly(ether sulfone/BECy blend composition on the morphology and phase behavior was studied using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical properties of the blends were evaluated by flexural tests, which demonstrated significant enhancement in the material’s toughness with an increase in PES concentration from 0 to 15 wt%. The coefficient of thermal expansion of pure BECy was reduced from 61 to 48 ppm/°C in the blends with PES, emphasizing the multi-functional benefits of PES as a toughening agent in BECy.

  19. Variations of fracture toughness and stress-strain curve of cold worked stainless steel and their influence on failure strength of cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess failure probability of cracked components, it is important to know the variations of the material properties and their influence on the failure load assessment. In this study, variations of the fracture toughness and stress-strain curve were investigated for cold worked stainless steel. The variations of the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths obtained using 8 specimens of 20% cold worked stainless steel (CW20) were 77 MPa and 81 MPa, respectively. The respective variations were decreased to 13 and 21 MPa for 40% cold worked material (CW40). Namely, the variation in the tensile strength was decreased by hardening. The COVs (coefficients of variation) of fracture toughness were 7.3% and 16.7% for CW20 and CW40, respectively. Namely, the variation in the fracture toughness was increased by hardening. Then, in order to investigate the influence of the variations in the material properties on failure load of a cracked pipe, flaw assessments were performed for a cracked pipe subjected to a global bending load. Using the obtained material properties led to variation in the failure load. The variation in the failure load of the cracked pipe caused by the variation in the stress-strain curve was less than 1.5% for the COV. The variation in the failure load caused by fracture toughness variation was relatively large for CW40, although it was less than 2.0% for the maximum case. It was concluded that the hardening induced by cold working does not cause significant variation in the failure load of cracked stainless steel pipe. (author)

  20. Application of high strength steel to nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Sato, M.; Takano, G.; Uebayashi, T.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reactor containment vessels are becoming larger in size with the increase in the power generating capacity of nuclear power plants. For example, a containment vessel for a PWR power plant with an output of 1,000 MWe becomes an extremely large one if it is made of the conventional JIS SGV 49 (ASTM A 516 Gr. 70) steel plates less than 38 mm in thickness. In order to design the steel containment vessel within the conventional dimensional range, therefore, it is necessary to use a high strength steel having a higher tensile strength than SGV 49 steel, good weldability and a higher fracture toughness and moreover, possessing satisfactory properties without undergoing post-weld heat treatment. The authors conducted a series of verification tests on high strength steel developed by modifying the ASTM A 543 Grade B Class 1 steel with a view to adopting it as a material for the nuclear reactor containment vessels. As the result of evaluation of the test results from various angles, we confirmed that the high strength steel is quite suitable for the manufacture of nuclear reactor containment vessels. (auth.)

  1. Tensile toughness test and high temperature fracture analysis of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, G.; Nakamura, T.; Berndt, C.C.; Leigh, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an effective fracture toughness test which uses interface fracture mechanics theory is introduced. This method is ideally suited for determining fracture resistance of multilayered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) consisting of ceramic and bond layers and, unlike other fracture experiments, requires minimal set-up over a simple tensile adhesion test. Furthermore, while other test methods usually use edge cracked specimens, the present test models a crack embedded within the coatings, which is more consistent with actual TBCs where failure initiates from internal voids or defects. The results of combined computational and experimental analysis show that any defects located within the ceramic coating can significantly weaken a TBC, whereas the debonding resistances of the bond coating and its interfaces are found to be much higher. In a separate analysis, the authors have studied fracture behavior of TBCs subjected to thermal loading in a high temperature environment. The computed fracture parameters reveal that when the embedded crack size is on order of the coating thickness, the fracture driving force is comparable to the fracture resistance of the coating found in the toughness test. In addition, the major driving force for fracture derives from the thermal insulating effect across the crack faces rather than the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion. The authors have also investigated the effects of functionally graded material (FGM) within TBCs and found its influences on the fracture parameters to be small. This result implies that the FGM may not contribute toward enhancing the fracture toughness of the TBCs considered here

  2. Applicability of newly developed 610MPa class heavy thickness high strength steel to boiler pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Norihiko; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Ishii, Jun [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Kajigaya, Ichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Totsuka, Takehiro; Miyazaki, Takashi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Aioi (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Construction of a 350 MW Class PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler plant is under planning in Japan. Design temperature and pressure of the vessel are maximum 350 C and 1.69 MPa, respectively. As the plate thickness of the vessel exceeds over 100 mm, high strength steel plate of good weldability and less susceptible to reheat cracking was required and developed. The steel was aimed to satisfy the tensile strength over 610 MPa at 350 C after postweld heat treatment (PWHT), with good notch toughness. The authors investigated the welding performances of the newly developed steel by using 150 mm-thick plate welded by pulsed-MAG and SAW methods. It was confirmed that the newly developed steel and its welds possess sufficient strength and toughness after PWHT, and applicable to the actual pressure vessel.

  3. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength......In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... from Ø 324-610 mm tubes, and the joints were loaded in in-plane bending. Both fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading and tests with a stochastic loading that is realistic in relation to offshore structures, are included in the investigation.A comparison between constant amplitude and variable...

  4. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, S. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)]. E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength ({approx}60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale ({approx}5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel.

  5. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, S.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength (∼60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale (∼5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel

  6. Recent trends in steel fibered high-strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Abid A.; Ribakov, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recent studies on steel fibred high strength concrete (SFHSC) are reviewed. → Different design provisions for SFHSC are compared. → Applications of SFHSC in new and existing structures and elements are discussed. → Using non-destructive techniques for quality control of SFHSC are reviewed. -- Abstract: Steel fibered high-strength concrete (SFHSC) became in the recent decades a very popular material in structural engineering. High strength attracts designers and architects as it allows improving the durability as well as the esthetics of a construction. As a result of increased application of SFHSC, many experimental studies are conducted to investigate its properties and to develop new rules for proper design. One of the trends in SFHSC structures is to provide their ductile behavior that is desired for proper structural response to dynamic loadings. An additional goal is to limit development and propagation of macro-cracks in the body of SFHSC elements. SFHSC is tough and demonstrates high residual strengths after appearance of the first crack. Experimental studies were carried out to select effective fiber contents as well as suitable fiber types, to study most efficient combination of fiber and regular steel bar reinforcement. Proper selection of other materials like silica fume, fly ash and super plasticizer has also high importance because of the influence on the fresh and hardened concrete properties. Combination of normal-strength concrete with SFHSC composite two-layer beams leads to effective and low cost solutions that may be used in new structures as well as well as for retrofitting existing ones. Using modern nondestructive testing techniques like acoustic emission and nonlinear ultrasound allows verification of most design parameters and control of SFHSC properties during casting and after hardening. This paper presents recent experimental results, obtained in the field SFHSC and non-destructive testing. It reviews the

  7. Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of As-Cast High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Li, Dongyue; Yong, Zhang; Liaw, Peter K.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2015-08-01

    The fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of two as-vacuum arc cast high-entropy alloys (HEAs) (Al0.2CrFeNiTi0.2 and AlCrFeNi2Cu) were determined. A microstructure examination of both HEA alloys revealed a two-phase structure consisting of body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) phases. The notched and fatigue precracked toughness values were in the range of those reported in the literature for two-phase alloys but significantly less than recent reports on a single phase fcc-HEA that was deformation processed. Fatigue crack growth experiments revealed high fatigue thresholds that decreased significantly with an increase in load ratio, while Paris law slopes exhibited metallic-like behavior at low R with significant increases at high R. Fracture surface examinations revealed combinations of brittle and ductile/dimpled regions at overload, with some evidence of fatigue striations in the Paris law regime.

  8. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide: From green plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgio eKfoury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide (PLA is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, high impact poly(styrene (HIPS and poly(propylene (PP, PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application.This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive blending PLA-based systems.

  9. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): From ``green'' plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)), PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  10. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  11. On high temperature strength of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Manabu; Kanero, Takahiro; Ihara, Yoshihito

    1977-01-01

    In the steels for high temperature use, the oxidation resistance is regarded as important, but carbon steels show enough oxidation resistance to be used continuously at the temperature up to 500 deg. C if the strength is left out of consideration, and up to 450 deg. C even when the strength is taken into account. Moreover, the production is easy, the workability and weldability are good, and the price is cheap in carbon steels as compared with alloy steels. In the boilers for large thermal power stations, 0.15-0.30% C steels are used for reheater tubes, main feed water tubes, steam headers, wall water tubes, economizer tubes, bypass pipings and others, and they account for 70% of all steel materials used for the boilers of 350 MW class and 30% in 1000 MW class. The JIS standard for the carbon steels for high temperature use and the related standards in foreign countries are shown. The high temperature strength of carbon steels changes according to the trace elements, melting and heat treatment as well as the main compositions of C, Si and Mn. Al and N affect the high temperature strength largely. The characteristics of carbon steels after the heating for hours, the factors controlling the microstructure and high temperature strength, and the measures to improve the high temperature strength of carbon steels are explained. (Kako, I.)

  12. Metallurgical/Alloy Optimization of High Strength and Wear Resistant Structural Quench and Tempered Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalheim, Douglas G.; Peimao, Fu; Linhao, Gu; Yongqing, Zhang

    Structural steels with yield strength requirements greater or equal to 690 MPa can be produced through controlled recrystallization hot rolling coupled with precipitation strengthening or purposeful heat treatment through quench and tempering (Q&T). High strength structural steel and wear/abrasion resistant requirements greater or equal to 360 Brinell hardness (BHN) are produced by the development of microstructures of tempered lower bainite and/or martensite through the Q&T process. While these Q&T microstructures can produce very high strengths and hardness levels making them ideal for 690 MPa plus yield strength or wear/abrasion resistant applications, they lack toughness/ductility and hence are very brittle and prone to cracking. While tempering the microstructures helps in improving the toughness/ductility and reducing the brittleness, strength and hardness can be sacrificed. In addition, these steels typically consist of alloy designs containing boron with carbon equivalents (CE) greater than 0.50 to achieve the desired microstructures. The higher CE has a negative influence on weldability.

  13. Formation of tough composite joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si 3 N 4 -coated fibers had a 0/90 degree architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses

  14. Fracture toughness of manet II steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gboneim, M.M.; Munz, D.

    1997-01-01

    High fracture toughness was evaluated according to the astm and chromium (9-12) martensitic steels combine high strength and toughness with good corrosion and oxidation resistance in a range of environments, and also show relatively high creep strength at intermediate temperatures. They therefore find applications in, for example, the offshore oil and gas production and chemical industries i pipe work and reaction vessels, and in high temperature steam plant in power generation systems. Recently, the use of these materials in the nuclear field was considered. They are candidates as tubing materials for breeder reactor steam generators and as structural materials for the first wall and blanket in fusion reactors. The effect of ageing on the tensile properties and fracture toughness of a 12 Cr-1 Mo-Nb-v steel, MANET II, was investigated in the present work. Tensile specimens and compact tension (CT) specimens were aged at 550 degree C for 1000 h. The japanese standards. Both microstructure and fracture surface were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ageing did not affect the tensile properties. However, the fracture toughness K Ic and the tearing modules T were reduced due to the ageing treatment. The results were discussed in the light of the chemical composition and the fracture surface morphology. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  15. On the determining role of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels with differences in impact toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anumolu, R.; Kumar, B. Ravi; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between microstructure and impact toughness was investigated for niobium-microalloyed steels with similar yield strength. The nominal steel composition was similar and any variation in processing history was unintentional. The general microstructure of the investigated steel was similar and consisted of 85% polygonal ferrite and 15% pearlite. Despite these similarities, they exhibited variation in toughness and were classified as high- and low-toughness steels. Detailed microstructural investigation including stereological analysis and electron microscopy implied that toughness is strongly influenced by mean intercept length of polygonal ferrite and pearlite colony, and their distribution, interlamellar spacing, and degenerated pearlite

  16. On the determining role of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels with differences in impact toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anumolu, R. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Kumar, B. Ravi [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)], E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T.; Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The relationship between microstructure and impact toughness was investigated for niobium-microalloyed steels with similar yield strength. The nominal steel composition was similar and any variation in processing history was unintentional. The general microstructure of the investigated steel was similar and consisted of 85% polygonal ferrite and 15% pearlite. Despite these similarities, they exhibited variation in toughness and were classified as high- and low-toughness steels. Detailed microstructural investigation including stereological analysis and electron microscopy implied that toughness is strongly influenced by mean intercept length of polygonal ferrite and pearlite colony, and their distribution, interlamellar spacing, and degenerated pearlite.

  17. Fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Uebayashi, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Fracture toughness and weldability tests have been performed on a high strength steel which is a modification of ASTM A543 Grade B Class 1 steel, with a view to using it for nuclear reactor containment vessels. The results showed that fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 modified high strength steel is superior and the steel is suitable for manufacturing the containment vessels

  18. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  19. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, J.; Samek, L.; Verleysen, P.; Verbeken, K.; Houbert, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the car body has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties. (Author) 48 refs.

  20. Characterization of weld strength and impact toughness in the multi-pass welding of super-duplex stainless steel UNS 32750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Thiruvengatam, G.; Sudharsan, S.P.; Mishra, Debidutta; Arivazhagan, N.; Sridhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of filler metals on the weldability of super-duplex stainless steel plates. • Contemplative explanations on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the weldments. • Enhanced mechanical properties of the welds at ambient room temperature. - Abstract: This paper investigates the weldability, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the UNS 32750 super-duplex stainless steels joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) employing ER2553 and ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals. Impact and tensile studies envisaged that the weldments employing ER2553 exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to ERNiCrMo-4 weldments. Microstructure studies performed using optical and SEM analysis clearly exhibited the different forms of austenite including widmanstatten austenite on the weld zone employing ER2553 filler. Also the presented results clearly reported the effect of filler metals on strength and toughness during the multi-pass welding. This research article addressed the improvement of tensile and impact strength using appropriate filler wire without obtaining any deleterious phases

  1. Fracture toughness and failure mechanism of high performance concrete incorporating carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khitab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement and concrete composites are inherently brittle and exhibit very less tensile/flexural strength capacity as compared to their compressive strength. Use of thoroughly dispersed carbon nanotubes in the concrete matrix is one of the possible solution for enhancing mechanical properties in tension/flexure. In the present research work, small fractions of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs i.e. 0.05 and 0.10 wt% of cement have been integrated into the cement concrete to study their effect on the mechanical properties of the resultant concrete mixtures. The enhanced performance of the whole mix lies on a single point that MWCNTs must be thoroughly disperse in the mixture. Hence, special arrangement through usage of high energy sonication along with amended acrylic based polymer (performing as a surfactant was made to have a uniform dispersion of MWCNTs in the concrete mix. The testing of concrete samples includes i.e., flexure, splitting tensile and compressive strengths after 3, 7, 28 and 56 days of curing. After having comparison with the control mix cured for 28 days, it was observed that the addition of 0.05 wt% MWCNTs increased the splitting tensile strength by 20.58%, flexural strength by 26.29% and compressive strength by 15.60%. Through above results, which verify the increase in concrete mix strength after adding MWCNTs, these MWCNTs may be incorporated in the treatment of Nano/micro cracks completed through process of connecting, branching and pinning. Similarly, as proved in threepoint bending tests, MWCNTs also enhances the breaking strains as well as the fracture energy of the concrete mixes, besides, imparting increase to the strength. The investigations have shown that incorporating lesser amounts of MWCNTs i.e., 0.05 and 0.10 wt% of cement to the concrete mixes after insuring there complete dispersion, unusually improve their properties like mechanical strengths and fracture behavior

  2. TOUGH2 software qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM (open-quotes MULti-KOMponentclose quotes) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2

  3. TOUGH2 software qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM ({open_quotes}MULti-KOMponent{close_quotes}) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2.

  4. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  5. Investigation of impact toughness of a Ni-based superalloy at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.H.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, X.F.; Jin, T.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The samples show highest impact toughness at 600 °C. ► The impact toughness of samples impact at 760 °C drops sharply. ► The voids nucleation and growth are fracture mechanism at elevated temperature. ► The decrease in strength of grain boundaries causes reduction in impact toughness. -- Abstract: The impact toughness of M951 alloy is investigated in temperature range between 20 °C and 800 °C. The results show that the impact toughness of samples impacted at 600 °C shows highest impact toughness value, the impact toughness value drops sharply when the samples impacted at 760 °C. In addition samples impacted at 800 °C show the higher impact toughness than that of samples impact at 760 °C. The scanning electron microscope observations show that cracks initiate at carbides particles due to high stress concentration, which leads to low impact toughness value at 20 °C. The dimples which can absorb more energy are formed during the impact at 600 °C. The samples impacted at 760 °C show lowest impact toughness. Additionally, the dimples nucleation, growth and coalescence are the major fracture mechanism at elevated temperature.

  6. Optimizing Wear Resistance and Impact Toughness in High Chromium Iron Mo-Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Verma, R. S.; Murty, G. M. D.

    2009-06-01

    An alloy with carbon and chromium in the range of 2.0 to 2.5% and 20 to 25%, respectively, with the addition of Mo and Ni in the range of 1.0 to 1.5% each when heat-treated at a quenching temperature of 1010 °C and tempering temperature of 550 °C produces a hardness in the range of 54 to 56 HRC and a microstructure that consists of discontinuous bands of high volume (35-40%) of wear resistant primary (eutectic) carbides in a tempered martensitic matrix with uniformly dispersed secondary precipitates. This alloy has been found to possess adequate impact toughness (5-6 J/cm2) with a wear resistance of the order of 3-4 times superior to Mn steel and 1.25 times superior to martensitic stainless steel with a reduction in cost-to-life ratio by a factor of 1.25 in both the cases.

  7. Multiscale deformations lead to high toughness and circularly polarized emission in helical nacre-like fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Feng, Wenchun; Zhang, Huangxi; Wang, Zhenlong; Calcaterra, Heather A; Yeom, Bongjun; Hu, Ping An; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-24

    Nacre-like composites have been investigated typically in the form of coatings or free-standing sheets. They demonstrated remarkable mechanical properties and are used as ultrastrong materials but macroscale fibres with nacre-like organization can improve mechanical properties even further. The fiber form or nacre can, simplify manufacturing and offer new functional properties unknown yet for other forms of biomimetic materials. Here we demonstrate that nacre-like fibres can be produced by shear-induced self-assembly of nanoplatelets. The synergy between two structural motifs--nanoscale brick-and-mortar stacking of platelets and microscale twisting of the fibres--gives rise to high stretchability (>400%) and gravimetric toughness (640 J g(-1)). These unique mechanical properties originate from the multiscale deformation regime involving solid-state self-organization processes that lead to efficient energy dissipation. Incorporating luminescent CdTe nanowires into these fibres imparts the new property of mechanically tunable circularly polarized luminescence. The nacre-like fibres open a novel technological space for optomechanics of biomimetic composites, while their continuous spinning methodology makes scalable production realistic.

  8. Fracture toughness shifts in high-copper weldments (series 5 and 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The specific activities to be performed in this task are the: (1) continuation of Phase 2 of the Fifth Irradiation Series, and (2) completion of the Sixth Irradiation Series, including testing nine irradiated Italian crack-arrest specimens. The test results of the Italian crack-arrest specimens are being analyzed, and full details will be published in a NUREG report currently in preparation. The crack-mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was measured at a distance greater than that prescribed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) open-quotes Test for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K la , of Ferritic Steelsclose quotes (E 1221-88). A method for adjusting the CMOD to account for this has been developed and is presented. The correction was ∼4% for small specimens and ∼2% for the larger ones. As part of this task, irradiation of HSSI weld 73W to a high fluence [5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 ( > 1 MeV)] will be performed to determine whether the K Jc curve shape change observed in the Fifth HSSI Series is exacerbated. The design and fabrication of the temperature and dosimetry verification capsules are performed under this task, but for purposes of continuity, their progress will be reported under Task 6, where the design of the new irradiation facilities and capsules is performed

  9. Numerical Model of High Strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. Z.; Wang, C. Y.; Lin, Y. L.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the concept of equivalent uniaxial strain. closed Menetrey-Willam (CMW) failure surfaces which combined with Menetrey-Willam meridian and the cap model are introduced in this paper. Saenz stress-strain model is applied and adjusted by the ultimate strength parameters from CMW failure surface to reflect the latest stress or strain condition. The high strength concrete (HSC) under tri-axial non-proportional loading is considered and the model in this paper performed a good prediction.

  10. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jun, E-mail: hujunral@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Lin-Xiu [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Jun [Institute of Materials Research, School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory.

  11. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jun; Du, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory

  12. Structure–property relationship in a 960 MPa grade ultrahigh strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel: The significance of high frequency induction tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.J.; Fang, Y.P.; Han, G.; Guo, H.; Misra, R.D.K.; Shang, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the microstructure and precipitation behavior in an ultra-high strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel that was processed by quenching and high frequency induction tempering. Ultrahigh yield strength of ∼1000 MPa with high elongation of ∼15% and high low temperature toughness of 55 J (half thickness) at −40 °C was obtained after quenching from austenitization at 900 °C for 30 min, and tempering at 600 °C for 15 min by induction reheating with a reheating rate of ∼50 °C/s. While the yield strength increase on tempering was similar for both induction reheating and conventional reheating (electrical resistance reheating), there was ∼100% increase in low temperature toughness in induction reheated steel compared to the conventional reheating process. The underlying reason for the increase in toughness was attributed to the transformation of cementite film observed in conventional reheating and tempering to nanoscale cementite in induction reheating and tempering. The precipitation of nanoscale carbides is believed to significantly contribute to ultra-high strength, good ductility, and high toughness in the high frequency induction reheating and tempering process

  13. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  14. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  15. Heat-treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of experimental high strength Fe--4Cr--0.4C steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, B.V.; Miller, R.W.; Thomas, G.

    1975-12-01

    The treatments involve high temperature (1100 0 C) austenitizing during the first solution treatment followed by either interrupted quenching (Ms-Mf range) or isothermal transformation to produce lower bainite. Finally, the steels are given a 900 0 C grain refinement treatment. Lower bainite was obtained by isothermally transforming austenite just above the Ms temperature. Tempering after the martensitic and bainitic treatments was also done in an attempt to improve the toughness of the material. The strength and toughness properties of as-quenched martensitic structures are somewhat superior while these properties of lower bainitic structures are comparable to those of a plain 0.4C steel. The properties of the nearly 100 percent bainite structure were unaffected by the cooling rate from the transformation temperature. Elimination of intergranular cracking produced toughness properties in quenched and tempered martensites which are far superior to those of lower bainite at the same strength level. It has also been shown that the toughness properties of as-quenched double-treated steels are superior to single treated steels. The chromium appeared to have a strong influence on the nature and morphology of carbides, as the bainitic as well as the martensitic structures showed marked temper resistance in the tempering range 200 to 500 0 C

  16. Microcracking and durability of high strength concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yssorche, M.P.

    1995-07-01

    Durability of 28 days compressive strength concrete of 20 to 120 MPa has been studied. The ability of concrete to transport aggressive agents has been determined for four properties: the air permeability, the chloride diffusivity, the water absorption and the carbonation. A chloride migration test for high and very high strength concrete (HSC and VHSC) has been built. The relationship between transport properties and the compressive strength after one and 28 days of humid curing has always the same shape: transport decreases when strength increases. However, transport properties often vary in the ordinary concrete field. Beyond, the domain is much more limited. The relationship between transport properties and strength valid for ordinary concrete can not be simply extrapolated for HSC and VHSC. To determine the part of microcracking of HSC and VHSC, concrete behaviour stored in two mediums has been studied: the ones shaming the storing condition of concrete in auto-desiccation, the others reproducing the storing conditions of concrete in desiccation. Auto-desiccation (measuring relative humidity at balance) and desiccation (measuring mass losses) have been showed. Microcracks and shrinkage strains have been measured. It has been showed that auto-desiccation microcracks proving in HSC or VHSC don't question the durability. Microcracks, as for permeability, do not develop between 28 days and one year. On the contrary, desiccation microcracks observed in HSC and VHSC, increase with transport properties between 28 days and 1.5 year. Thus, a bulk concrete is always more durable than a cover concrete. At last, the good influence of increase of curing of 1 to 28 days on the transport of all concretes has been emphasized. (author)

  17. Fracture Toughness and Shear Strength of the Bonded Interface Between an Aluminium Alloy Skin and a FRP Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Shinde, Prakash Sonyabapu; Bhoyar, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    The existing techniques to determine the fracture properties such as critical energy release rate in mode I (GIc) and mode II (GIIc) of an interface between two sheets of same material were modified to determine these properties between the sheets of dissimilar materials and thickness. In addition, the interface shear strength (ISS) was also determined. Experiments were carried out on the specimens made of a pre-cracked thin aluminium alloy skin and a Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) patch. Two kinds of surface preparation of the aluminium skin were employed; (i) emery-paper roughened surface (ERS) and (ii) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) treated surface (NTS). GIc of ERS specimen was found to be 36.1 J/m2, while it was found to be much higher for NTS specimens, that is, 87.3 J/m2. GIIc was found to be 282.4 J/m2 for ERS specimens and much higher as 734.5 J/m2 for NTS specimens. ISS was determined as 32.6 MPa for ERS specimen and significantly higher for NTS specimen, that is, 44.5 MPa. The micrographs obtained from a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness test showed that the NTS was significantly rougher than the ERS, explaining the higher values of all the three kinds of NTS specimens.

  18. Precipitation Strengthening by Induction Treatment in High Strength Low Carbon Microalloyed Hot-Rolled Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzabal, G.; Isasti, N.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J. M.; Uranga, P.

    2018-03-01

    The use of microalloyed steels in the production of thick plates is expanding due to the possibility of achieving attractive combinations of strength and toughness. As market requirements for high strength plates are increasing and new applications require reduced weight and innovative designs, novel approaches to attaining cost-effective grades are being developed. The mechanism of precipitation strengthening has been widely used in thin strip products, since the optimization of the coiling strategy offers interesting combinations in terms of final properties and microalloying additions. Precipitation strengthening in thick plates, however, is less widespread due to the limitation of interphase precipitation during continuous cooling after hot rolling. With the main objective of exploring the limits of this strengthening mechanism, laboratory thermomechanical simulations that reproduced plate hot rolling mill conditions were performed using low carbon steels microalloyed with Nb, NbMo, and TiMo additions. After continuous cooling to room temperature, a set of heat treatments using fast heating rates were applied simulating the conditions of induction heat treatments. An important increase of both yield and tensile strengths was measured after induction treatment without any important impairment in toughness properties. A significant precipitation hardening is observed in Mo-containing grades under specific heat treatment parameters.

  19. High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandt, Ryan J; Smith, Jennifer L; Nguyen-Ta, Kim; McDonald, Lucas; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-02-01

    To determine which suture design, high-tensile strength tape or high-tensile strength suture, performed better at securing human tissue across 4 selected suture techniques commonly used in tendinous repair, by comparing the total load at failure measured during a fixed-rate longitudinal single load to failure using a biomechanical testing machine. Matched sets of tendon specimens with bony attachments were dissected from 15 human cadaveric lower extremities in a manner allowing for direct comparison testing. With the use of selected techniques (simple Mason-Allen in the patellar tendon specimens, whip stitch in the quadriceps tendon specimens, and Krackow stitch in the Achilles tendon specimens), 1 sample of each set was sutured with a 2-mm braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength tape and the other with a No. 2 braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength suture. A total of 120 specimens were tested. Each model was loaded to failure at a fixed longitudinal traction rate of 100 mm/min. The maximum load and failure method were recorded. In the whip stitch and the Krackow-stitch models, the high-tensile strength tape had a significantly greater mean load at failure with a difference of 181 N (P = .001) and 94 N (P = .015) respectively. No significant difference was found in the Mason-Allen and simple stitch models. Pull-through remained the most common method of failure at an overall rate of 56.7% (suture = 55%; tape = 58.3%). In biomechanical testing during a single load to failure, high-tensile strength tape performs more favorably than high-tensile strength suture, with a greater mean load to failure, in both the whip- and Krackow-stitch models. Although suture pull-through remains the most common method of failure, high-tensile strength tape requires a significantly greater load to pull-through in a whip-stitch and Krakow-stitch model. The biomechanical data obtained in the current study indicates that high-tensile strength tape may provide better repair

  20. Gradient twinned 304 stainless steels for high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: jianlu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Y. Morris, E-mail: ymwang@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Gradient materials often have attractive mechanical properties that outperform uniform microstructure counterparts. It remains a difficult task to investigate and compare the performance of various gradient microstructures due to the difficulty of fabrication, the wide range of length scales involved, and their respective volume percentage variations. We have investigated four types of gradient microstructures in 304 stainless steels that utilize submicrotwins, nanotwins, nanocrystalline-, ultrafine- and coarse-grains as building blocks. Tensile tests reveal that the gradient microstructure consisting of submicrotwins and nanotwins has a persistent and stable work hardening rate and yields an impressive combination of high strength and high ductility, leading to a toughness that is nearly 50% higher than that of the coarse-grained counterpart. Ex- and in-situ transmission electron microscopy indicates that nanoscale and submicroscale twins help to suppress and limit martensitic phase transformation via the confinement of martensite within the twin lamellar. Twinning and detwinning remain active during tensile deformation and contribute to the work hardening behavior. We discuss the advantageous properties of using submicrotwins as the main load carrier and nanotwins as the strengthening layers over those coarse and nanocrystalline grains. Our work uncovers a new gradient design strategy to help metals and alloys achieve high strength and high ductility.

  1. Irradiation effects on fracture toughness of two high-copper submerged-arc welds, HSSI Series 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Bowman, K.O.; Menke, B.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Fifth Irradiation Series in the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program obtained a statistically significant fracture toughness data base on two high-copper (0.23 and 0.31 wt %) submerged-arc welds to determine the shift and shape of the K Ic curve as a consequence of irradiation. Compact specimens with thicknesses to 101.6 mm (4 in) in the irradiated condition and 203.2 mm (8 in) in the unirradiated condition were tested, in addition to Charpy impact, tensile, and drop-weight specimens. Irradiations were conducted at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C and an average fluence of 1.5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>l MeV). The Charpy 41-J temperature shifts are about the same as the corresponding drop-weight NDT temperature shifts. The irradiated welds exhibited substantial numbers of cleavage pop-ins. Mean curve fits using two-parameter (with fixed intercept) nonlinear and linearized exponential regression analysis revealed that the fracture toughness 100 MPa lg-bullet √m shifts exceeded the Charpy 41-J shifts for both welds. Analyses of curve shape changes indicated decreases in the slopes of the fracture toughness curves, especially for the higher copper weld. Weibull analyses were performed to investigate development of lower bound curves to the data, including the use of a variable K min parameter which affects the curve shape

  2. Toughness testing and high-temperature oxidation evaluations of advanced alloys for core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Chen, Xiang [ORNL

    2016-09-16

    Alloy X-750 was procured from Carpenter Technology and Bodycote in this year. An appropriate TMT was developed on Alloy 439 to obtain materials with refined grain size for property screening tests. Charpy V-notch impact tests were completed for the three ferritic steels Grade 92, Alloy 439, and 14YWT. Fracture toughness tests at elevated temperatures were completed for 14YWT. The tests will be completed for the other alloys in next fiscal year. Steam oxidation tests of the three ferritic steels, 316L, and Zr–2.5Nb have been completed. The steam tests of the Ni-based superalloys and the other austenitic stainless steels will be continued and finished in next fiscal year. Performance ranking in terms of steam oxidation resistance and impact/fracture toughness of the alloys will be deduced.

  3. Near-surface modifications for improved crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys: trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettche, L.R.; Rath, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine the potential of surface modifications in improving the crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys. Provides a critique of two of the most promising and versatile techniques: ion implantation and laser beam surface processing. Discusses crack tolerant properties; engineering characterization; publication trends and Department of Defense interests; and emergent surface modification techniques. Finds that the efficiency with which high strength alloys can be incorporated into a structure or component is dependent on the following crack tolerant properties: fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, sustained loading cracking resistance, fretting fatigue resistance, and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Concludes that ion implantation and laser surface processing coupled with other advanced metallurgical procedures and fracture mechanic analyses provide the means to optimize both the bulk and surface controlled crack tolerant properties

  4. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  5. Comparison of Thermal Stability of Dry High-strength Concrete and Wet High-strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musorina, Tatiana; Katcay, Aleksandr; Selezneva, Anna; Kamskov, Victor

    2018-03-01

    High-strength concrete is a modern material, which occupies it`s own niche on the construction material market. It is applicable in a large-scale high-rise construction, particularly an underground construction is a frequently used solution for a space saving. Usually underground structure is related to a wet usage environment. Though not all properties of the high-strength concrete are investigated to the full extent. Under adverse climatic conditions of the Russian Federation one of the most important properties for constructional materials is a thermal capacity. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is to compare a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in humid conditions and a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in dry operational condition. During the study dependency between thermal capacity and design wall thickness and ambient humidity has to be proven with two experiments. As a result the theoretical relation between thermal capacity characteristic - thermal inertia and wall thickness and ambient humidity was confirmed by the experimental data. The thermal capacity of a building is in direct ratio to the construction thickness. It follows from the experiments and calculations that wet high-strength concrete has less thermal stability.

  6. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.

  7. High strength bimetallic composite material fabricated by electroslag casting and characteristics of its composite interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-shun Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel was produced with electroslag casting process, and element distribution of its composite interface was investigated by theoretical calculation and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. Results show that the tensile strength (1,450 MPa, hardness (HRC 41-47 and impact toughness (94.7J·cm-2 of bainitic steel were comparatively high, while its elongation was slightly low (4.0%. Tensile strength (1,100 MPa, hardness (>HRC 31 and elongation (7.72% of the interface were also relatively high, but its impact toughness was low at 20.4 J·cm-2. Results of theoretical calculation of the element distribution in the interface region were basically consistent with that of EDS. Therefore, electroslag casting is a practical process to produce bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel, and theoretical calculation also is a feasible method to study element distribution of their interface.

  8. Heat treatments and low temperature fracture toughness of a Ti-6A1-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, K.; Hiraga, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Ogata, T.

    1984-01-01

    Titanium alloy is one of the reliable structural materials for cryogenic use owing to its high strength, high specific strength and low thermal conductivity. Heat treatment is one method of controlling the normally poor fracture toughness of this alloy at ambient temperature. However, there have been few attempts to improve the low temperature fracture toughness by heat treatment. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of heat treatments on the low temperature fracture toughness in a Ti-6A1-4V alloy. The effects of the heat treatments were as follows: the beta treatment was a very feasible method to improve the low temperature fracture properties; the alpha+beta treatment was favorable for the increment in the low temperature ductility but did not largely improve the fracture toughness; the double treatment yielded good ductility but was not useful for improving the fracture toughness

  9. Effect on High-Intensity Fields of a Tough Hydrophone With Hydrothermal PZT Thick-Film Vibrator and Titanium Front Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Nagaya; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2017-07-01

    A novel tough hydrophone was fabricated by depositing hydrothermally synthesized lead zirconate titanate polycrystalline film on the back-side surface of a titanium plate. Our developed tough hydrophone resisted damage in a high-pressure field (15 MPa) at a focal point of a sinusoidal continuous wave driven by a concave high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer with up to 50 W of power input to the sound source. The hydrophone was suitable for the HIFU field, even though the hydrophone has a flat-shape tip of 3.5 mm diameter, which is slightly larger than the wavelength of a few megahertz. In this paper, experiments are performed to assess the effect on the HIFU field of changing the shape of the tough hydrophone, with the aim of developing a tough hydrophone. The spatial distribution of the acoustic bubbles around the focal point was visualized by using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with the tough hydrophone located at the focal point of the HIFU transducer. From the visualization, the trapped acoustic bubbles were seen to arise from the standing wave, which implies that the acoustic pressure is reduced by this cloud of acoustic bubbles that appeared during hydrophone measurement. Although cavitation and acoustic bubbles may be unavoidable when using high-intensity ultrasound, the estimated result of evaluating acoustic fields without misunderstanding by acoustic bubbles can be obtained by the aid of visualizing bubbles around the tough hydrophone.

  10. Fracture toughness properties of similar and dissimilar electron beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

    1994-01-01

    The weldability aspects, tensile and Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) toughness properties of 9Cr1MoNbV (P91) martensitic steel with austenitic 316L steel were evaluated for electron beam (EB) welds on 35 mm thick pates. The effects of mechanical heterogeneity (mis-matching) at the vicinity of the crack tip of dissimilar three point bend specimens on the CTOD fracture toughness values was also discussed. The CTOD tests were performed on similar and dissimilar EB welds of austenitic and tempered martensitic P91 steels at room temperature. Dilution of austenitic with martensitic steel resulted in predominantly martensitic EB weld metal, exhibiting rather high yield strength and hardness. Nevertheless, the weld metal produced high CTOD toughness values due to the beneficial effect of the lower strength austenitic steel part of the specimen in which crack deviation occured (mis-match effect). The coarse grained HAZ of the P91 steel side exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in the as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained are believed to be representing the intrinsic property of this zone since the distance of the crack tip to the weaker austenitic steel part of the SENB specimens was too large to cause an effective stress relaxation at the crack tip. Further post weld heat treatment at 750 C for two hours improved the CTOD toughness marginally. (orig.)

  11. Weld Design, Testing, and Assessment Procedures for High Strength Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    Long-distance high-strength pipelines are increasingly being constructed for the efficient transportation of energy products. While the high-strength linepipe steels and high productivity welding processes are being applied, the procedures employed f...

  12. The weak interfaces within tough natural composites: experiments on three types of nacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayer Dastjerdi, Ahmad; Rabiei, Reza; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-03-01

    Mineralization is a typical strategy used in natural materials to achieve high stiffness and hardness for structural functions such as skeletal support, protection or predation. High mineral content generally leads to brittleness, yet natural materials such as bone, mollusk shells or glass sponge achieve relatively high toughness considering the weakness of their constituents through intricate microstructures. In particular, nanometers thick organic interfaces organized in micro-architectures play a key role in providing toughness by various processes including crack deflection, crack bridging or energy dissipation. While these interfaces are critical in these materials, their composition, structure and mechanics is often poorly understood. In this work we focus on nacre, one of the most impressive hard biological materials in terms of toughness. We performed interfacial fracture tests on chevron notched nacre samples from three different species: red abalone, top shell and pearl oyster. We found that the intrinsic toughness of the interfaces is indeed found to be extremely low, in the order of the toughness of the mineral inclusions themselves. Such low toughness is required for the cracks to follow the interfaces, and to deflect and circumvent the mineral tablets. This result highlights the efficacy of toughening mechanisms in natural materials, turning low-toughness inclusions and interfaces into high-performance composites. We found that top shell nacre displayed the highest interfacial toughness, because of higher surface roughness and a more resilient organic material, and also through extrinsic toughening mechanisms including crack deflection, crack bridging and process zone. In the context of biomimetics, the main implication of this finding is that the interface in nacre-like composite does not need to be tough; the extensibility or ductility of the interfaces may be more important than their strength and toughness to produce toughness at the macroscale

  13. Friction stir weld assisted diffusion bonding of 5754 aluminum alloy to coated high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghshenas, M.; Abdel-Gwad, A.; Omran, A.M.; Gökçe, B.; Sahraeinejad, S.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful lap joints of Al 5754 sheet to coated DP600 and 22MnB5 steels. • Negligible effect of welding speed on mechanical properties of Al 5754/22MnB5 joints. • Lower strength of Al 5754/22MnB5 joints compared with Al 5754/DP600 joints. - Abstract: In the present paper friction stir-induced diffusion bonding is used for joining sheets of 5754 aluminum alloy to coated high strength steels (DP600 and 22MnB5) by promoting diffusion bonding in an overlap configuration. Mechanical performance and microstructures of joints were analyzed by overlap shear testing, metallography, and X-ray diffraction. Our results show that the strength of joint is dependent upon tool travel speed and the depth of the tool pin relative to the steel surface. The thickness and types of intermetallic compounds formed at the interface play a significant role in achieving a joint with optimum performance. That is, the formation of high aluminum composition intermetallic compounds (i.e. Al 5 Fe 2 ) at the interface of the friction stir lap joint appeared to have a more negative effect on joint strength compared to the presence of high iron composition intermetallic phases (i.e. FeAl). This is in agreement with previously reported findings that FeAl intermetallic can improve the fracture toughness and interface strength in Al/St joints

  14. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of MA957: implications to the development of nanocomposited ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, M.J.; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    A study to explore approaches to optimizing nanocomposited ferritic alloys was carried out on dispersion strengthened mechanically alloyed (MA) MA957, in the form of extruded bar stock. Previous studies had indicated that this alloy manifested superior high temperature strength and radiation stability, but was extremely brittle in notch impact tests. Thus our objective was to develop a combination of tensile, fracture toughness and microstructural data to clarify the basis for this brittle behavior. To this end, tensile properties and fracture toughness were characterized as a function of temperature in various orientations relative to the grain and inclusion structures. This database along with extensive fractography suggests that brittleness is due to the presence of a large volume fraction of impurity alumina stringers. In orientations where the effects of the stringers are reduced, much higher toughness was observed. These results provide a path for alloy development approach to achieve high strength and toughness

  15. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of MA957: implications to the development of nanocomposited ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinger, M. J.; Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    A study to explore approaches to optimizing nanocomposited ferritic alloys was carried out on dispersion strengthened mechanically alloyed (MA) MA957, in the form of extruded bar stock. Previous studies had indicated that this alloy manifested superior high temperature strength and radiation stability, but was extremely brittle in notch impact tests. Thus our objective was to develop a combination of tensile, fracture toughness and microstructural data to clarify the basis for this brittle behavior. To this end, tensile properties and fracture toughness were characterized as a function of temperature in various orientations relative to the grain and inclusion structures. This database along with extensive fractography suggests that brittleness is due to the presence of a large volume fraction of impurity alumina stringers. In orientations where the effects of the stringers are reduced, much higher toughness was observed. These results provide a path for alloy development approach to achieve high strength and toughness.

  16. Aqueous stress-corrosion cracking of high-toughness D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Adamson, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of D6AC steel as a function of stress intensity, stress and corrosion history, and test technique, under sustained load in filtered natural seawater, 3.3 per cent sodium chloride solution, and distilled water, was investigated. Reported investigations of D6AC were considered in terms of the present study with emphasis on thermal treatment, specimen configuration, fracture toughness, crack-growth rates, initiation period, and threshold. Both threshold and growth kinetics were found to be relatively insensitive to these test parameters. The apparent incubation period was dependent on technique, both detection sensitivity and precracking stress intensity level.

  17. The Effect of Nitrogen and Titanium on the Toughness of High Strength Saw Weld Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-12

    2.3 CCT diagram for typical SAW steel welds [8]. 26 Figure 2.4 Oxygen and nitrogen levels expected from several arc 31 welding processes [10]. Figure...alloyed ferritic weld metal such formation is achieved if the CCT diagram is displaced towards longer times. However, it is worth noting that too large...dilution and cooling rate [5]. In this context, the CCT diagram is often used to denote the transformations that occur in weld metal samples which

  18. Development of high-strength heavy-wall sour-service seamless line pipe for deep water by applying inline heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y.; Kondo, K.; Hamada, M.; Hisamune, N.; Murao, N.; Murase, T.; Osako, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a new high-strength heavy-wall sour service seamless line pipe developed for use in deep water applications. Pig iron was processed in a blast furnace and refined. Molten steel was degassed to reduce impurities and poured into a continuous caster with a round mold. Billets were then heated in a walking-beam furnace and then pierced to form a hollow shell. The shell was then rolled to a specific thickness in a compact mandrel mill and rolled to a specified outer diameter by an extracting sizer. A heating furnace was used to improve the uniformity of the pipes. The heated pipes were then moved to a cooling zone, then rotated quickly while a high-pressured jet flow was injected inside the pipe at the same time as a slit laminar flow was applied to the outside of the pipe. Higher strength was achieved by using the high performance quenching device. It was noted that while pipes manufactured using the inline heat treatment process were able to achieve higher strengths, toughness was reduced. Metallurgical tests were conducted to improve the toughness value of the seamless pipe. Both the microstructure and the fracture surface of test specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results of the tests showed that lowering sulphur (S) and titanium (Ti) content improved the toughness properties of the pipes. It was concluded that control of microalloys is important to secure improved toughness for pipes manufactured using inline heat treatments. 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  20. Low velocity impact behaviour of ultra high strength concrete panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high strength concrete; panel; drop weight test; impact analysis;. ABAQUS. 1. Introduction. Ultra high strength concrete ... Knight (2012) investigated the dynamic behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete plates under impact loading with ...

  1. Influence of PWHT on Toughness of High Chromium and Nickel Containing Martensitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, M.; Das, Chitta Ranjan; Mahadevan, S.; Albert, S. K.; Pandian, R.; Kar, Sujoy Kumar; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used 12.5Cr-5Ni consumable specified for welding of martensitic stainless steels is compared with newly designed 14.5Cr-5Ni consumable in terms of their suitability for repair welding of 410 and 414 stainless steels by gas tungsten arc welding process. Changes in microstructure and austenite evolution were investigated using optical, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction techniques and Thermo-Calc studies. Microstructure of as-welded 12.5Cr-5Ni weld metal revealed only lath martensite, whereas as-welded 14.5Cr-5Ni weld metal revealed delta-ferrite, retained austenite, and lath martensite. Toughness value of as-welded 12.5Cr-5Ni weld metal is found to be significantly higher (216 J) than that of the 14.5Cr-5Ni weld metal (15 J). The welds were subjected to different PWHTs: one at 923 K (650 °C) for 1, 2, 4 hours (single-stage PWHT) and another one at 923 K (650 °C)/4 h followed by 873 K (600 °C)/2 h or 873 K (600 °C)/4 h (two-stage heat treatment). Hardness and impact toughness of the weld metals were measured for these weld metals and correlated with the microstructure. The study demonstrates the importance of avoiding formation of delta-ferrite in the weld metal.

  2. Irradiation effects on fracture toughness of two high-copper submerged-arc welds, HSSI series 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Bowman, K.O.; Menke, B.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Fifth Irradiation Series in the Heavy-Section Steel irradiation (HSSI) Program was aimed at obtaining a statistically significant fracture toughness data base on two weldments with high-copper contents to determine the shift and shape of the K lc curve as a consequence of irradiation. The program included irradiated Charpy V-notch impact, tensile, and drop-weight specimens in addition to compact fracture toughness specimens. Compact specimens with thicknesses of 25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm [1T C(T), 2T C(T), and 4T C(T), respectively] were irradiated. Additionally, unirradiated 6T C(T) and 8T C(T) specimens with the same K lc measuring capacity as the irradiated specimens were tested. The materials for this irradiation series were two weldments fabricated from special heats of weld wire with copper added to the melt. One lot of Linde 0124 flux was used for all the welds. Copper levels for the two welds are 0.23 and 0.31 wt %, while the nickel contents for both welds are 0.60 wt %. Twelve capsules of specimens were irradiated in the pool-side facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C and an average fluence of about 1.5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV). This volume, Appendices E and F, contains the load-displacement curves and photographs of the fracture toughness specimens from the 72W weld (0.23 wt % Cu) and the 73 W weld (0.31 wt % Cu), respectively

  3. Combined effect of rapid nitriding and plastic deformation on the surface strength, toughness and wear resistance of steel 38CrMoAlA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.; Lv, Z.A.; Zhou, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those of the conven......The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those...

  4. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  5. Fracture toughness evaluation of elastic-plastic J-integral for high temperature components of gas turbine in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Nam Yong; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Woo

    1999-01-01

    In the study, the analysis of elastic-plastic J-integral was performed in high temperature components for gas turbine based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. It had been operated on the range of about 700 deg C and degraded by high temperature. It was tested for material properties of used component because of material properties changing at high temperature condition. The elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter, J is obtained with finite element method. A method is suggested which determines J Ic applying analysis of elastic-plastic finite element method and results of experimental load-displacements with CT specimen. It is also investigated that J-integral is applied for the elastic-plastic analysis in high temperature components. The elastic-plastic fracture toughness. J Ic determined by finite element was obtained with high accuracy using the experimental method.=20

  6. Microstructure-property relationship in microalloyed high-strength steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    High-strength steels are favoured materials in the industry for production of safe and sustainable structures. The main technology used for joining the components of such steel is fusion welding. Steel alloy design concepts combined with advanced processing technologies have been extensively investigated during the development of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels. However, very few studies have addressed the issue of how various alloy designs, even with limited microalloy addition, can influence the properties of high-strength steel welds. In high-strength steel welding practices, the challenges regarding microstructure evolution and the resulting mechanical properties variation, are of great interest. The main focus is the debate regarding the role of microalloy elements on phase transformation and weld performance. Limited Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) softening and limited austenite grain coarsening are significant design essentials, but the primary goal is to ensure excellent toughness and tensile properties in the steel weld. To achieve this purpose, microalloy elements such as Ti, Nb, or V were intentionally added to modern high-strength steels. The focus of this work was to understand the mechanical properties of HSLA steels resulting from differences in alloy design after joining by modern welding processes. To begin, three microalloyed S690QL steels (Nb, Ti, and Ti+V addition) were investigated. Optical microscopy confirmed that similar mixtures of tempered bainite and martensite predominated the parent microstructure in the three steels, different types of coarse microalloy precipitates were also visible. These precipitates were analysed by using a thermodynamic-based software and then identified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results of mechanical testing revealed that all three steels performed above the standard toughness and tensile strength values, but with varied yielding phenomena. During the welding operation, each of the three steels

  7. Microstructure-property relationship in microalloyed high-strength steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    High-strength steels are favoured materials in the industry for production of safe and sustainable structures. The main technology used for joining the components of such steel is fusion welding. Steel alloy design concepts combined with advanced processing technologies have been extensively investigated during the development of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels. However, very few studies have addressed the issue of how various alloy designs, even with limited microalloy addition, can influence the properties of high-strength steel welds. In high-strength steel welding practices, the challenges regarding microstructure evolution and the resulting mechanical properties variation, are of great interest. The main focus is the debate regarding the role of microalloy elements on phase transformation and weld performance. Limited Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) softening and limited austenite grain coarsening are significant design essentials, but the primary goal is to ensure excellent toughness and tensile properties in the steel weld. To achieve this purpose, microalloy elements such as Ti, Nb, or V were intentionally added to modern high-strength steels. The focus of this work was to understand the mechanical properties of HSLA steels resulting from differences in alloy design after joining by modern welding processes. To begin, three microalloyed S690QL steels (Nb, Ti, and Ti+V addition) were investigated. Optical microscopy confirmed that similar mixtures of tempered bainite and martensite predominated the parent microstructure in the three steels, different types of coarse microalloy precipitates were also visible. These precipitates were analysed by using a thermodynamic-based software and then identified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results of mechanical testing revealed that all three steels performed above the standard toughness and tensile strength values, but with varied yielding phenomena. During the welding operation, each of the three steels

  8. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from “green” plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems. PMID:24790960

  9. Comparison and Analysis of Steel Frame Based on High Strength Column and Normal Strength Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taiyu; An, Yuwei

    2018-01-01

    The anti-seismic performance of high strength steel has restricted its industrialization in civil buildings. In order to study the influence of high strength steel column on frame structure, three models are designed through MIDAS/GEN finite element software. By comparing the seismic performance and economic performance of the three models, the three different structures are comprehensively evaluated to provide some references for the development of high strength steel in steel structure.

  10. Development of Dynamic Compaction Technology for Ultra High Strength Powder Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, M. K.; Uhm, Y. R.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Ivanov, V. V.; Hong, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    A synthesis of ultra fine powder and its compaction have been considered as a new generation and high value added technology in various industrial fields such as automobile, machine tool, electronic chip, sensor and catalyst because of its special characteristics of high toughness, strength and wear resistance which are not shown in conventional process. In this study, ultra hard and fine powders, such as Fe-Si, CuNi and Al 2 O 3 , have been fabricated by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method and mechanical alloying (MA) method. In addition, with ultra hard and fine powders, the magnetic core, diamond tool and water jet nozzle with high density were made by a uniaxial dynamic compaction for the purpose of the real industrial application

  11. Effects of incorporation of 2.5 and 5 wt% TiO2 nanotubes on fracture toughness, flexural strength, and microhardness of denture base poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq Naji, Sahar; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Eslami, Hossein; Masaeli, Reza; Mahgoli, Hosseinali; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Ghavvami Lahiji, Mehrsima; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate, for the first time, the effects of addition of titania nanotubes (n-TiO 2 ) to poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) on mechanical properties of PMMA denture base. TiO 2 nanotubes were prepared using alkaline hydrothermal process. Obtained nanotubes were assessed using FESEM-EDX, XRD, and FT-IR. For 3 experiments of this study (fracture toughness, three-point bending flexural strength, and Vickers microhardness), 135 specimens were prepared according to ISO 20795-1:2013 (n of each experiment=45). For each experiment, PMMA was mixed with 0% (control), 2.5 wt%, and 5 wt% nanotubes. From each TiO 2 :PMMA ratio, 15 specimens were fabricated for each experiment. Effects of n-TiO 2 addition on 3 mechanical properties were assessed using Pearson, ANOVA, and Tukey tests. SEM images of n-TiO 2 exhibited the presence of elongated tubular structures. The XRD pattern of synthesized n-TiO 2 represented the anatase crystal phase of TiO 2 . Moderate to very strong significant positive correlations were observed between the concentration of n-TiO 2 and each of the 3 physicomechanical properties of PMMA (Pearson's P value ≤.001, correlation coefficient ranging between 0.5 and 0.9). Flexural strength and hardness values of specimens modified with both 2.5 and 5 wt% n-TiO 2 were significantly higher than those of control ( P ≤.001). Fracture toughness of samples reinforced with 5 wt% n-TiO 2 (but not those of 2.5% n-TiO 2 ) was higher than control ( P =.002). Titania nanotubes were successfully introduced for the first time as a means of enhancing the hardness, flexural strength, and fracture toughness of denture base PMMA.

  12. Effect of steel fibres on mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holschemacher, K.; Mueller, T.; Ribakov, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) became in the recent decades a very popular and attractive material in structural engineering because of its good mechanical performance. The most important advantages are hindrance of macrocracks' development, delay in microcracks' propagation to macroscopic level and the improved ductility after microcracks' formation. SFRC is also tough and demonstrates high residual strengths after appearing of the first crack. This paper deals with a role of steel fibres having different configuration in combination with steel bar reinforcement. It reports on results of an experimental research program that was focused on the influence of steel fibre types and amounts on flexural tensile strength, fracture behaviour and workability of steel bar reinforced high-strength concrete beams. In the frame of the research different bar reinforcements (2o6 mm and 2o12 mm) and three types of fibres' configurations (two straight with end hooks with different ultimate tensile strength and one corrugated) were used. Three different fibre contents were applied. Experiments show that for all selected fibre contents a more ductile behaviour and higher load levels in the post-cracking range were obtained. The study forms a basis for selection of suitable fibre types and contents for their most efficient combination with regular steel bar reinforcement.

  13. Microstructure of high-strength foam concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Middendorf, B.

    2009-01-01

    Foam concretes are divided into two groups: on the one hand the physically foamed concrete is mixed in fast rotating pug mill mixers by using foaming agents. This concrete cures under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand the autoclaved aerated concrete is chemically foamed by adding aluminium powder. Afterwards it is cured in a saturated steam atmosphere. New alternatives for the application of foam concretes arise from the combination of chemical foaming and air curing in manufacturing processes. These foam concretes are new and innovative building materials with interesting properties: low mass density and high strength. Responsible for these properties are the macro-, meso- and microporosity. Macropores are created by adding aluminium powder in different volumes and with different particle size distributions. However, the microstructure of the cement matrix is affected by meso- and micropores. In addition, the matrix of the hardened cement paste can be optimized by the specific use of chemical additives for concrete. The influence of aluminium powder and chemical additives on the properties of the microstructure of the hardened cement matrices were investigated by using petrographic microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Slippage of steel in high and normal strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Siddiqi, Z.A.; Yousaf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Composite action of any reinforced concrete member is only possible if sufficient bond strength exists between steel reinforcing bars and concrete, which can adequately transfer shear stress between them. Bond strength is a function of compressive strength of concrete and hence high strength concrete has higher bond strength (1-2). Therefore required development length can be reduced. In order to investigate the effect of development length on bond stress and slip relationships, experimental investigation was carried out. In this experimentation 24 pull-out samples of high strength concrete and normal strength concrete were casted and tested. The results of this investigation revealed that by increasing the development length from 5db to 10db bond strength increases for both high and normal strength concrete as shown in Figure 11, 12 and 13. However in case of normal strength concrete increase in bond strength is more compared to that in high strength concrete as it is clear from Figure 11 and Figure 13. The increase in bond strength is observed even at 10db development length but the extent is less for 19 mm than 16 mm bars as shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13. This is in agreement with the earlier findings of Chen et al (3) and Harajli et al (1). However in case of HSC the total slippage at 10db is 50% greater than at 5db. This may be due to the fact that more no of concrete keys participate in resisting the slippage. (author)

  15. Nanoscale co-precipitation and mechanical properties of a high-strength low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulholland, Michael D.; Seidman, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale co-precipitation in a novel high-strength low-carbon steel is studied in detail after isothermal aging. Atom-probe tomography is utilized to quantify the co-precipitation of co-located Cu precipitates and M 2 C (M is any combination of Cr, Mo, Fe, or Ti) carbide strengthening precipitates. Coarsening of Cu precipitates is offset by the nucleation and growth of M 2 C carbide precipitate, resulting in the maintenance of a yield strength of 1047 ± 7 MPa (152 ± 1 ksi) for as long as 320 h of aging time at 450 deg. C. Impact energies of 153 J (113 ± 6 ft-lb) and 144 J (106 ± 2 ft-lb) are measured at -30 deg. C and -60 deg. C, respectively. The co-location of Cu and M 2 C carbide precipitates results in non-stationary-state coarsening of the Cu precipitates. Synchrotron-source X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the measured 33% increase in impact toughness after aging for 80 h at 450 deg. C is due to dissolution of cementite, Fe 3 C, which is the source of carbon for the nucleation and growth of M 2 C carbide precipitates. Less than 1 vol.% austenite is observed for aging treatments at temperatures less than 600 deg. C, suggesting that transformation-induced plasticity does not play a significant role in the toughness of specimens aged at temperatures less than 600 deg. C. Aging treatments at temperatures greater than 600 deg. C produce more austenite, in the range 2-7%, but at the expense of yield strength.

  16. The Science of Cost-Effective Materials Design - A Study in the Development of a High Strength, Impact Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Intermediate alloy steels are widely used in applications where both high strength and toughness are required for extreme/dynamic loading environments. Steels containing greater than 10% Ni-Co-Mo are amongst the highest strength martensitic steels, due to their high levels of solution strengthening, and preservation of toughness through nano-scaled secondary hardening, semi-coherent hcp-M2 C carbides. While these steels have high yield strengths (σy 0.2 % >1200 MPa) with high impact toughness values (CVN@-40 >30J), they are often cost-prohibitive due to the material and processing cost of nickel and cobalt. Early stage-I steels such as ES-1 (Eglin Steel) were developed in response to the high cost of nickel-cobalt steels and performed well in extreme shock environments due to the presence of analogous nano-scaled hcp-Fe2.4 C epsilon carbides. Unfortunately, the persistence of W-bearing carbides limited the use of ES-1 to relatively thin sections. In this study, we discuss the background and accelerated development cycle of AF96, an alternative Cr-Mo-Ni-Si stage-I temper steel using low-cost heuristic and Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME)-assisted methods. The microstructure of AF96 was tailored to mimic that of ES-1, while reducing stability of detrimental phases and improving ease of processing in industrial environments. AF96 is amenable to casting and forging, deeply hardenable, and scalable to 100,000 kg melt quantities. When produced at the industrial scale, it was found that AF96 exhibits near-statistically identical mechanical properties to ES-1 at 50% of the cost.

  17. Restrained Shrinkage Cracking of Fiber-Reinforced High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Saradar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete shrinkage and volume reduction happens due to the loss of moisture, which eventually results in cracks and more concrete deformation. In this study, the effect of polypropylene (PP, steel, glass, basalt, and polyolefin fibers on compressive and flexural strength, drying shrinkage, and cracking potential, using the ring test at early ages of high-strength concrete mixtures, was investigated. The restrained shrinkage test was performed on concrete ring specimens according to the ASTM C1581 standard. The crack width and age of restrained shrinkage cracking were the main parameters studied in this research. The results indicated that the addition of fiber increases the compressive strength by 16%, 20%, and 3% at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days, respectively, and increases the flexural toughness index up to 7.7 times. Steel and glass fibers had a better performance in flexural strength, but relatively poor action in the velocity reduction and cracking time of the restrained shrinkage. Additionally, cracks in all concrete ring specimens except for the polypropylene-containing mixture, was developed to a full depth crack. The mixture with polypropylene fiber indicated a reduction in crack width up to 62% and an increasing age cracking up to 84%.

  18. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior of thermomechanically controlled processed high strength ordnance steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.S.; Ghosh, S.K.; Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2013-01-01

    A new low carbon titanium and niobium microalloyed steel has been thermomechanically processed in a pilot plant unit. Phase transformation phenomenon of the above steel during continuous cooling has been assessed. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties has also been studied at different finish rolling temperatures. A mixture of intragranular ferrite with granular bainite and bainitic ferrite along with inter-lath and intra-lath precipitation of (Ti, Nb)CN particles are the characteristic microstructural feature of air cooled steel. However, mixture of lower bainite and lath martensitic structure along with similar type (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is observed in water quenched steel. High yield strength (896–948 MPa) with high tensile strength (974–1013 MPa) has been achieved with moderate ductility (16–17%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature for air cooled steel. However, the water quenched steel yields higher yield strength (1240–1260 MPa) as well as higher tensile strength (1270–1285 MPa) but with lower ductility (13–14%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature. Fairly good impact toughness values in the range of 50–89 J are obtained for the air cooled steel which are marginally higher than those of water quenched steel (42–81 J). - Highlights: ► New high strength steel has been processed in a pilot plant scale. ► Primarily granular bainite and bainitic ferrite are obtained in air cooled steel. ► Mixture of lower bainite and lath martensite is obtained in water quenched steel. ► (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is obtained for both air cooled and water quenched steels. ► Highest strength with reasonable ductility has been achieved after water quenching

  19. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior of thermomechanically controlled processed high strength ordnance steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.S. [Ordnance Development Centre, Metal and Steel Factory, Ishapore 743 144 (India); Ghosh, S.K., E-mail: skghosh@metal.becs.ac.in [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India); Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2013-02-15

    A new low carbon titanium and niobium microalloyed steel has been thermomechanically processed in a pilot plant unit. Phase transformation phenomenon of the above steel during continuous cooling has been assessed. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties has also been studied at different finish rolling temperatures. A mixture of intragranular ferrite with granular bainite and bainitic ferrite along with inter-lath and intra-lath precipitation of (Ti, Nb)CN particles are the characteristic microstructural feature of air cooled steel. However, mixture of lower bainite and lath martensitic structure along with similar type (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is observed in water quenched steel. High yield strength (896–948 MPa) with high tensile strength (974–1013 MPa) has been achieved with moderate ductility (16–17%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature for air cooled steel. However, the water quenched steel yields higher yield strength (1240–1260 MPa) as well as higher tensile strength (1270–1285 MPa) but with lower ductility (13–14%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature. Fairly good impact toughness values in the range of 50–89 J are obtained for the air cooled steel which are marginally higher than those of water quenched steel (42–81 J). - Highlights: ► New high strength steel has been processed in a pilot plant scale. ► Primarily granular bainite and bainitic ferrite are obtained in air cooled steel. ► Mixture of lower bainite and lath martensite is obtained in water quenched steel. ► (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is obtained for both air cooled and water quenched steels. ► Highest strength with reasonable ductility has been achieved after water quenching.

  20. Effects of irradiation on crack-arrest toughness of two high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). A preliminary evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves, (for the range of test temperatures covered), compared to those of the ASME K Ia -curve did not seem to have been altered by irradiation. 10 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Statistical analyses of fracture toughness results for two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Haggag, F.M.; Bowman, K.O.; Downing, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Fifth Irradiation Series were to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the transition temperature shift and the shape of the K Ic curve described in Sect. 6 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31% were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plates. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact, tensile, drop-weight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick [1T, 2T, 4T, 6T, and 8T C(T)] were tested to provide a large data base for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 4T were irradiated at about 288 degrees C to a mean fluence of about 1.5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods were used to analyze all cleavage fracture results and local cleavage instabilities (pop-ins). Evaluation of the results showed that the cleavage fracture toughness values determined at initial pop-ins fall within the same scatter band as the values from failed specimens; thus, they were included in the data base for analysis (all data are designated K Jc )

  2. High-Strength Aluminium Alloys and Their Use in Foundry Industry of Nickel Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysz S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Of great importance in the selection of materials for cast structures is keeping a proper balance between the mechanical and plastic properties, while preserving the relevant casting properties. This study has been devoted to an analysis of the choice and application of high-strength aluminium-based alloys maintaining sufficient level of casting properties. The high level of tensile strength (Rm > 500 MPa matched with satisfactory elongation (A > 3% is important because materials of this type are used for cast parts operating in the aerospace, automotive, and military industries. These beneficial relationships between the high tensile strength and toughness are relatively easy to obtain in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys subjected to plastic forming and proper heat treatment. In gravity cast products, on the other hand, whether poured into sand moulds or metal moulds (dies, obtaining this favourable combination of properties poses a number of research problems (mostly resulting from the alloy chemical composition as well as technical and technological difficulties.

  3. High strength films from oriented, hydrogen-bonded "graphamid" 2D polymer molecular ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz-Rosado, Emil; Beaudet, Todd D; Andzelm, Jan W; Wetzel, Eric D

    2018-02-27

    The linear polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), better known by its tradename Kevlar, is an icon of modern materials science due to its remarkable strength, stiffness, and environmental resistance. Here, we propose a new two-dimensional (2D) polymer, "graphamid", that closely resembles Kevlar in chemical structure, but is mechanically advantaged by virtue of its 2D structure. Using atomistic calculations, we show that graphamid comprises covalently-bonded sheets bridged by a high population of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Molecular and micromechanical calculations predict that these strong intermolecular interactions allow stiff, high strength (6-8 GPa), and tough films from ensembles of finite graphamid molecules. In contrast, traditional 2D materials like graphene have weak intermolecular interactions, leading to ensembles of low strength (0.1-0.5 GPa) and brittle fracture behavior. These results suggest that hydrogen-bonded 2D polymers like graphamid would be transformative in enabling scalable, lightweight, high performance polymer films of unprecedented mechanical performance.

  4. Influence of silica fume on the strength of high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, T.; Memon, S.A.; Khan, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    HSC (High Strength Concrete) does not become evident by a sudden change in the behavior of 'ordinary strength' concrete. There is a gradual effect that becomes more noticeable when the strength level exceeds about 40-45 MPa. There cannot be a precise level of strength which defines this change in effect. The effects are on strength and workability, requiring us to take into account in our mix proportioning, the ramifications of fineness of cement on workability and of type of aggregate and aggregate/cement ratio on strength. In fact, the selection of materials becomes more critical as the concrete strength increases and that if very high strength is required (100 MPa and higher), relatively few materials may be suitable. An experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of producing HSC using locally available materials and to study the influence of silica fume on the strength of HSC. The main variables in this research is amount of silica fume. The parameters that are kept constant are the amount of cement equal to 580 kg/m3, dosage of HRWRA (High Range Water Reducing Admictures) equal to 4 % by weight of cementitious materials and the ratio of fine aggregate to coarse aggregate (1:2.3). Test results revealed that it is feasible to produce HSC using locally available materials. The optimum percentage of silica fume was found to be 15 % by weight of cement. (author)

  5. Use of Synergistic Interactions to Fabricate Strong, Tough, and Conductive Artificial Nacre Based on Graphene Oxide and Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Hu, Han; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is the strongest and stiffest material, leading to the development of promising applications in many fields. However, the assembly of graphene nanosheets into macrosized nanocomposites for practical applications remains a challenge. Nacre in its natural form sets the "gold standard" for toughness and strength, which serves as a guide to the assembly of graphene nanosheets into high-performance nanocomposites. Here we show the strong, tough, conductive artificial nacre based on graphene oxide through synergistic interactions of hydrogen and covalent bonding. Tensile strength and toughness was 4 and 10 times higher, respectively, than that of natural nacre. The exceptional integrated strong and tough artificial nacre has promising applications in aerospace, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering, especially for flexible supercapacitor electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity. The use of synergistic interactions is a strategy for the development of high-performance nanocomposites.

  6. Fracture toughness of irradiated stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The postirradiation fracture toughness responses of Types 316 and 304 stainless steel (SS) wrought products, cast CF8 SS and Type 308 SS weld deposit were characterized at 427 0 C using J/sub R/-curve techniques. Fast-neutron irradiation of these alloys caused an order of magnitude reduction in J/sub c/ and two orders of magnitude reduction in tearing modulus at neutron exposures above 10 dpa, where radiation-induced losses in toughness appeared to saturate. Saturation J/sub c/ values for the wrought materials ranged from 28 to 31 kJ/m 2 ; the weld exhibited a saturation level of 11 kJ/m 2 . Maximum allowable flaw sizes for highly irradiated stainless steel components stressed to 90% of the unirradiated yield strength are on the order of 3 cm for the wrought material and 1 cm for the weld. Electron fractographic examination revealed that irradiation displacement damage brought about a transition from ductile microvoid coalescence to channel fracture, associated with local separation along planar deformation bands. The lower saturation toughness value for the weld relative to that for the wrought products was attributed to local failure of ferrite particles ahead of the advancing crack which prematurely initiated channel fracture

  7. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  8. Study on creep of fiber reinforced ultra-high strength concrete based on strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjun; Wang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    To complement the creep performance of ultra-high strength concrete, the long creep process of fiber reinforced concrete was studied in this paper. The long-term creep process and regularity of ultra-high strength concrete with 0.5% PVA fiber under the same axial compression were analyzed by using concrete strength (C80/C100/C120) as a variable. The results show that the creep coefficient of ultra-high strength concrete decreases with the increase of concrete strength. Compared with ACI209R (92), GL2000 models, it is found that the predicted value of ACI209R (92) are close to the experimental value, and the creep prediction model suitable for this experiment is proposed based on ACI209R (92).

  9. Fatigue strength of repaired cracks in welded connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyel, A.

    2017-01-01

    For cyclically loaded structures, fatigue design becomes one of the important design criteria. The state of art shows that with modification of the conventional structural design methodology, the use of very high strength steels may have a positive effect on fatigue strength of welded connections.

  10. Mechanical behavior of high strength ceramic fibers at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R. E.; Pysher, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of commercially available and developmental ceramic fibers, both oxide and nonoxide, has been experimentally studied at expected use temperatures. In addition, these properties have been compared to results from the literature. Tensile strengths were measured for three SiC-based and three oxide ceramic fibers for temperatures from 25 C to 1400 C. The SiC-based fibers were stronger but less stiff than the oxide fibers at room temperature and retained more of both strength and stiffness to high temperatures. Extensive creep and creep-rupture experiments have been performed on those fibers from this group which had the best strengths above 1200 C in both single filament tests and tests of fiber bundles. The creep rates for the oxides are on the order of two orders of magnitude faster than the polymer derived nonoxide fibers. The most creep resistant filaments available are single crystal c-axis sapphire filaments. Large diameter CVD fabricated SiC fibers are the most creep and rupture resistant nonoxide polycrystalline fibers tested to date.

  11. Isolation of aramid nanofibers for high strength multiscale fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiajun; Patterson, Brendan A.; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2018-03-01

    Aramid fibers are famous for their high specific strength and energy absorption properties and have been intensively used for soft body armor and ballistic protection. However, the use of aramid fiber reinforced composites is barely observed in structural applications. Aramid fibers have smooth and inert surfaces that are unable to form robust adhesion to polymeric matrices due to their high crystallinity. Here, a novel method to effectively integrate aramid fibers into composites is developed through utilization of aramid nanofibers. Aramid nanofibers are prepared from macroscale aramid fibers (such as Kevlar®) and isolated through a simple and scalable dissolution method. Prepared aramid nanofibers are dispersible in many polymers due to their improved surface reactivity, meanwhile preserve the conjugated structure and likely the strength of their macroscale counterparts. Simultaneously improved elastic modulus, strength and fracture toughness are observed in aramid nanofiber reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. When integrated in continuous fiber reinforced composites, aramid nanofibers can also enhance interfacial properties by forming hydrogen bonds and π-π coordination to bridge matrix and macroscale fibers. Such multiscale reinforcement by aramid nanofibers and continuous fibers results in strong polymeric composites with robust mechanical properties that are necessary and long desired for structural applications.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride bonded silicon carbide composite. J Rakshit P K Das. Composites Volume ... The effect of these parameters on room temperature and high temperature strength of the composite up to 1300°C in ambient condition were studied. The high temperature flexural ...

  13. submitter Physical Properties of a High-Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Precompression Structure of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Arauzo, Ana; Roussel, Pascal; Libeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ITER central solenoid (CS) consists of six independent coils kept together by a precompression support structure that must react vertical tensile loads and provide sufficient preload to maintain coil-to-coil contact when the solenoid is energized. The CS precompression system includes tie plates, lower and upper key blocks, load distribution and isolation plates and other attachment, support and insulating hardware. The tie plates operating at 4 K are manufactured starting from forgings in a high-strength austenitic stainless steel (FXM-19) with a stringent specification. Moreover, forged components for the lower and upper key blocks have to be provided in the same FXM-19 grade with comparably strict requirements. FXM-19 is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, featuring high strength and toughness, ready weldability, and forgeability. It features as well higher integral thermal contraction down to 4 K compared with the very high Mn steel grade selected for the CS coil jackets, hence providing an ad...

  14. Development of high-strength aluminum alloys for basket in transport and storage cask for high burn-up spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeguchi, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kamiwaki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has developed high-strength borated aluminum alloys (high-strength B-Al alloys), suitable for application to baskets in transport and storage casks for high burn-up spent fuels. Aluminum is a suitable base material for the baskets due to its low density and high thermal conductivity. The aluminum basket would reduce weight of the cask, and effectively release heat generated by spent fuels. MHI had already developed borated aluminum alloys (high-toughness B-Al alloy), and registered them as ASME Code Case ''N-673''. However, there has been a strong demand for basket materials with higher strength in the case of MSF (Mitsubishi Spent Fuel) casks for high-burn up spent fuels, since the basket is required to stand up to higher stress at higher temperature. The high-strength basket material enables the design of a compact cask under a limitation of total size and weight. MHI has developed novel high-strength B-Al alloys which meet these requirements, based on a new manufacturing process. The outline of mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the high-strength B-Al alloys is described in this paper

  15. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Behavior for a High Specific Strength Steel: From Quasi-Static to Intermediate Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate effect on the tensile behaviors of a high specific strength steel (HSSS with dual-phase microstructure has been investigated. The yield strength, the ultimate strength and the tensile toughness were all observed to increase with increasing strain rates at the range of 0.0006 to 56/s, rendering this HSSS as an excellent candidate for an energy absorber in the automobile industry, since vehicle crushing often happens at intermediate strain rates. Back stress hardening has been found to play an important role for this HSSS due to load transfer and strain partitioning between two phases, and a higher strain rate could cause even higher strain partitioning in the softer austenite grains, delaying the deformation instability. Deformation twins are observed in the austenite grains at all strain rates to facilitate the uniform tensile deformation. The B2 phase (FeAl intermetallic compound is less deformable at higher strain rates, resulting in easier brittle fracture in B2 particles, smaller dimple size and a higher density of phase interfaces in final fracture surfaces. Thus, more energy need be consumed during the final fracture for the experiments conducted at higher strain rates, resulting in better tensile toughness.

  16. Large-deformation and high-strength amorphous porous carbon nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhu; Mao, Shimin; Yang, Jia; Shang, Tao; Song, Hongguang; Mabon, James; Swiech, Wacek; Vance, John R.; Yue, Zhufeng; Dillon, Shen J.; Xu, Hangxun; Xu, Baoxing

    2016-04-01

    Carbon is one of the most important materials extensively used in industry and our daily life. Crystalline carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene possess ultrahigh strength and toughness. In contrast, amorphous carbon is known to be very brittle and can sustain little compressive deformation. Inspired by biological shells and honeycomb-like cellular structures in nature, we introduce a class of hybrid structural designs and demonstrate that amorphous porous carbon nanospheres with a thin outer shell can simultaneously achieve high strength and sustain large deformation. The amorphous carbon nanospheres were synthesized via a low-cost, scalable and structure-controllable ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach using energetic carbon precursors. In situ compression experiments on individual nanospheres show that the amorphous carbon nanospheres with an optimized structure can sustain beyond 50% compressive strain. Both experiments and finite element analyses reveal that the buckling deformation of the outer spherical shell dominates the improvement of strength while the collapse of inner nanoscale pores driven by twisting, rotation, buckling and bending of pore walls contributes to the large deformation.

  17. The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Parker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief. Responses were analyzed via correlations and moderation analyses. Results revealed that mental toughness correlated negatively with perception of risk and paranormal belief, whereas paranormal belief correlated positively with perception of risk. For the moderation effects, simple slopes analyses indicated that high levels of MT and subfactors of commitment and confidence reduced the strength of association between paranormal belief and perceived risk. Therefore, MT potentially acts as a protective factor among individuals who believe in the paranormal, reducing the tendency to perceive elevated levels of risk.

  18. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  19. The assessment of bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M. Z. A. Mohd; Muhamad, K.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC). Firstly, this paper presents the various steps taken to prepare the HPFRC with self-compacting property. The minimum targeted slump flow is 600 mm and minimum targeted compressive strength is 80 MPa. The key mix variables considered are such as type of superplasticizer, water cement ratio and silica fume content. Then, the bond strength between the heat damaged concrete with HPFRC was examined. The experimental parameters are heating temperature, surface treatment technique and curing method and the results show that, all experimental parameters are significantly affected the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and HPFRC.

  20. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  1. Strength Gain Properties up to five-year age of high-strength mass concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, Y.; Shigenobu, M.; Hiramine, T.; Inoue, K.; Nakane, S.; Ohike, T.

    1991-01-01

    Genkai No.3 plant of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. presently under construction is a PWR type nuclear power plant with 1180 MW power output, and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was adopted for the reactor. The concrete used for the construction of the PCCV is the mass concrete with the wall thickness of 1.3 m in the general parts of the cylinder, and about 2 m at buttresses. It is the high strength concrete of the specified strength 420 kgf/cm 2 . As the preliminary study for the construction using such high strength mass concrete, the examination was carried out on the strength gain property of structural concrete using full scale simulated members. The various problems in the quality control were contemplated based on the results of the examination, and were reflected to actual construction, designating 13 weeks as the age for strength control, in order to build the concrete structures with high reliability. In this report, the outline of the study on the strength gain up to 5 year age carried out in the preliminary study is discussed. The experimental method, the method of evaluating structural strength, the mixing proportion of concrete and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Joanna S; Zeiger, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female). Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT), moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT) and low mental toughness (Low MT). ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; Pathletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; Pathletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  3. Development of LTCC Materials with High Mechanical Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shinya; Nishiura, Sousuke; Terashi, Yoshitake; Furuse, Tatsuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed LTCC materials suitable for substrates of RF modules used in mobile phone. LTCC can provide excellent solutions to requirements of RF modules, such as down-sizing, embedded elements and high performance. It is also important that LTCC material has high mechanical strength to reduce risk of fracture by mechanical impact. We have established a method of material design for high mechanical strength. There are two successive steps in the concept to achieve high mechanical strength. The first step is to improve mechanical strength by increasing the Young's modulus, and the second step is either further improvement through the Young's modulus or enhancement of the fracture energy. The developed material, so called high-strength LTCC, thus possesses mechanical strength of 400MPa, which is twice as strong as conventional material whose mechanical strength is approximately 200MPa in typical. As a result, high-strength LTCC shows an excellent mechanical reliability, against the drop impact test for example. The paper presents material design and properties of LTCC materials.

  4. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  5. Latest Development and Application of Nb-Bearing High Strength Pipeline Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqing; Shang, Chengjia; Guo, Aimin; Zheng, Lei; Niu, Tao; Han, Xiulin

    In order to solve the pollution problem emerging in China recently, China's central government is making great efforts to raise the percentage of natural gas consumption in the China's primary energy mix, which needs to construct big pipelines to transport natural gas from the nation's resource-rich western regions to the energy-starved east, as well as import from the Central Asia and Russia. With this mainstream trend, high strength, high toughness, heavy gauge, and large diameter pipeline steels are needed to improve the transportation efficiency. This paper describes the latest progresses in Nb-bearing high strength pipeline steels with regard to metallurgical design, development and application, including X80 coil with a thickness up to 22.0mm, X80 plate with a diameter as much as 1422mm, X80 plate with low-temperature requirements and low-Mn sour service X65 for harsh sour service environments. Moreover, based on widely accepted TMCP and HTP practices with low carbon and Nb micro-alloying design, this paper also investigated some new metallurgical phenomena based on powerful rolling mills and heavy ACC equipment.

  6. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  7. Fracture toughness testing of pipeline girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, G.; Gianetto, J.A.; Bouchard, R.; Bowker, J.T.; Tyson, W.R.

    2005-06-01

    This paper reviewed the fracture toughness test standards for pipeline girth welds outlined in CSA Z662-03, Annex K as well as the referenced testing standards BS 7448 and ASTM Standard E 1290. The requirements outlined in API 1104, appendix A were also reviewed given its application throughout the world. Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests were conducted on a manual shielded-metal-arc weld (SMAW) that was prepared in a high strength X80 pipeline steel. Another girth weld test consisted of a mechanized gas metal arc weld (GMAW), but only the results for the SMAW were presented in this paper. Two tensile specimens were machined parallel to the pipe axis from the base metal of the X80 pipe used in preparing the pipeline girth welds. The tensile specimens from the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested at 20 degrees C. The yield strength at the CTOD test temperature was estimated by using the yield strength-temperature relationship given in BS 7448. The experimental results obtained by applying the two testing standards were compared. The intent was to identify the differences between these two standards and their influence on test results. The authors discussed critical issues for the fracture toughness tests, such as weld position and notch orientation, circumferential sampling location, residual stress and its modification, crack length measurement and the equations used to evaluate CTOD. The variation of strength and toughness with clock position around the circumference of the girth welds was also discussed. It was concluded that for a high-strength material, local compression may be needed to create a uniform fatigue crack front. For deep-cracked specimens, the maximum allowable difference of the measured fatigue crack length varies significantly between ASTM E 1290-02 and BS 7448 by a factor of about 1 to 3 for ASTM E 1290 and 3 to 15 for BS 7448. The CTOD calculated according to ASTM E 1290-02 and according to BS 7448 can also differ substantially

  8. Fracture Toughness of Ceramics Fired at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter SIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The fracture toughness test was performed at room temperature on sets of 5 ceramic samples made from material for high voltage insulators (kaolin 36 wt. %, Al2O3 30 wt. %, clay 12 wt. % and feldspar 22 wt. % fired at temperatures 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1250, 1300, 1400, 1500 °C at heating and cooling rate of 5 °C/min. The precrack was made to each sample by indentation under the loads 10 N – 200 N, the dwell time was 45 s and the loading rate was 10 N/s. Results of the fracture toughness tests were in accordance with changes of structure of the samples after the partial firings. Fracture toughness from 20 °C to 500 °C is almost constant and it varies between 0.1 MPa·m0.5and 0.2 MPa·m0.5. Dehydroxylation (420 °C – 600 °C does not influence the value of fracture toughness. At temperature interval where we assume sintering (700 °C – 1250 °C we observe exponential dependence of fracture toughness up to 1.5 MPa·m0.5. From comparison of the fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and flexural strength follows a correlation and proporcionality of these mechanical properties.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1349

  9. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue strength of high manganese steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, I.; Shibata, H.; Lee, J.H.; Nishida, Shin-ichi

    1991-01-01

    Six series of high manganese austenitic steel, which contain different inclusion quantity, were prepared. Fatigue experiments, tensile tests and Charpy tests were carried out. Influence of non-metallic inclusion and of temperature on the stress intensity threshold, fatigue crack propagation behavior, elastic-plastic fracture toughness and Charpy value were studied at room temperature and low temperature. In general, strength of this high manganese steel was reduced with increase of inclusion content. Influences of the direction of elongated inclusion with regard to the rolling direction on their strengths were also discussed based on SEM observation and numerical analysis for the stress concentration at a crack tip when an inclusion was near by the tip. According to these results, an inclusion acted as an obstacle to crack propagation for LT specimen. The roughness of fracture surface of ST specimen was larger than that of SL specimen, and the crack growth rate of the former was less than that of the latter. Fatigue life was increased with decrease of temperature, and mechanical parameters such as ΔK th and J 1c were decreased with increase of temperature. The Charpy value decreased clearly with decrease of temperature

  10. [Compressive and bend strength of experimental admixed high copper alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourai, P; Paximada, H; Lagouvardos, P; Douvitsas, G

    1988-01-01

    Mixed alloys for dental amalgams have been used mainly in the form of admixed alloys, where eutectic spheres are blend with conventional flakes. In the present study the compressive strength, bend strength and microstructure of two high-copper alloys (Tytin, Ana-2000) is compared with three experimental alloys prepared of the two high copper by mixing them in proportions of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 by weight. The results revealed that experimental alloys inherited high early and final strength values without any significant change in their microstructure.

  11. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Nobuaki

    1991-01-01

    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  12. Engineering Performance of High Strength Concrete Containing Steel Fibre Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and utilization of the high strength concrete in the construction industry have been increasing rapidly. Fiber reinforced concrete is introduced to overcome the weakness of the conventional concrete because concrete normally can crack under a low tensile force and it is known to be brittle. Steel fibre is proved to be the popular and best combination in the high strength concrete to result the best in the mechanical and durability properties of high strength concrete with consideration of curing time, steel fibre geometry, concrete grade and else more. The incorporation of steel fibre in the mortar mixture is known as steel fibre reinforced concrete have the potential to produce improvement in the workability, strength, ductility and the deformation of high strength concrete. Besides that, steel fibre also increases the tensile strength of concrete and improves the mechanical properties of the steel fibre reinforced concrete. The range for any high strength concrete is between 60MPa-100MPa. Steel fibre reinforced concrete which contains straight fibres has poorer physical properties than that containing hooked end stainless steel fibre due to the length and the hooked steel fibre provide a better effective aspects ratio. Normally, steel fibre tensile strength is in the range of 1100MPa-1700MPa. Addition of less steel fibre volumes in the range of 0.5% to 1.0% can produce better increase in the flexural fatigue strength. The strength can be increased with addition of steel fibre up to certain percentage. This paper will review and present some basic properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete such as mechanical, workability and durability properties.

  13. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  14. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  15. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  16. Effect of Al and N on the toughness of heavy section steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutake, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Yoshikuni; Nakao, Hitoji; Ito, Kametaro; Takaishi, Shogo.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Al and N on the notch toughness and tensile strength of heavy section pressure vessel steel plates is investigated. Notch toughness of steel A533B (Mn-Mo-Ni), which has mixed microstructure of ferrite and bainite, is drastically changed by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al. With metallurgical observations, it is revealed that AlN morphology is influenced by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al through the level of solute Al(C Al ). At the heat treatment of heavy section steel plate, AlN shows OSTWALD ripening and its speed depends upon C Al . When Al is added (Al ≥ 0.010%) in steel and sol.N/sol.Al ≤ 0.5, C Al remains low. This prevents AlN ripening, and brings fine austenite grain size and high toughness. On the other hand, when sol.N/sol.Al Al becomes high and this gives poor toughness through coarse AlN precipitates and coarse austenite grain. Therefore, controll of sol.N/sol.Al over 0.5 is favorable to keep high toughness in A533B steel. In steel A387-22 (Cr-Mo) which has full bainitic microstructure, too fine austenite grain brings about poor hardenability, and polygonal ferrite, which brings about both poor strength and tughness, appears in microstructure. Then sol.N/sol.Al < 0.5 is better to give high hardenability in steel A387-22. (author)

  17. Assessment of high-strength stainless steel weldments for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary design considerations for the Compact Ignition Tokomak fusion reactor magnet cases are yield strength and toughness in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to room temperature (77 to 300K). Type 21-6-9 stainless steel, also known as Nitronic 40, is the proposed alloy for this application. This study documented the mechanical properties, including tensile yield strength and Charpy V-notch impact toughness, at 77K and room temperature, of weldments made using seven different filler metals. Six welds were made with filler metal added as cold filler wire using the argon-shielded gas tungsten arc welding process. Filler metals included Nitronic 35W and 40W, 21-6-9, ERNiCr-3 (Inconel 82), ERNiCrMo-3 (Inconel 625), and Inconel 625 PLUS. All welds were prepared with a double-groove butt-weld geometry. At room temperature, all of the filler metals had yield strengths which exceeded the base metal. However, at 77K only the Nitronics and the 21-6-9 filler metals exceeded the base metals, and the Inconel filler metals were significantly weaker. The impact properties of the weld metals were very good at room temperature, with the exception of Inconel 625. At 77K, impact toughness was greatly reduced for all of the filler metals with the exception of Inconel 82. This alloy had excellent toughness at both temperatures. The severe drop in the impact toughness of the Nitronic and 21-6-9 filler metals was attributed to the amount of ferrite present in these welds. At 77K, fracture occurred by a cleavage mechanism in the ferrite regions which allowed the crack to grow readily. The fully austenitic Inconel 82 material fractured by a microvoid coalescence mode at either test temperature. These results indicate that the Inconel 82 filler metal is the preferred material for welding 21-6-o stainless steel for this application

  18. In situ ultrasonic examination of high-strength steam generator support bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently employed high-strength steam generator support bolting material (designed prior to ASME Section III Part NF or Component Supports), 38.1 mm in diameter, in combination with high preloads are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking because of the relatively low stress corrosion resistance (K/sub ISCC/) properties. These bolts are part of the pressurized water reactor steam generator supports at the integral support pads (three per steam generator, with each pad housing six, eight, or ten bolts depending on the design). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerns for high-strength bolting were identified in NUREG-0577, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Laminar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports,'' which was issued for comment on unresolved safety issue A-12. Subsequently, the bolting issues were addressed in generic issue B29. One of the issues deals specifically with high-strength bolting materials, which are vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking. A Westinghouse Owners Group funded program was established to develop in situ ultrasonic examination techniques to determine steam generator support bolting integrity at the head-to-shank and first-thread locations. This program was established in order to determine bolting integrity in place. Ultrasonic techniques were developed for both socket-head and flat-head bolt configurations. As a result of this program, in situ ultrasonic examination techniques were developed for examination of PWR steam generator support bolts. By employing these techniques utilities will be able to ensure the integrity of this in-place bolting without incurring the costs previously experienced during removal for surface examinations

  19. Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High strength concrete; confined concrete; stress–strain models; ... One of its advantages is the lessening column cross-sectional areas. It was ..... Ahmad S H, Shah S P 1982 Stress–strain curves of concrete confined by spiral reinforcement.

  20. A calculation method of cracking moment for the high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mal stress and crack width for the tensional behaviour of concrete and has been proposed by ... stresses. To calculate concrete stress in a cross section of high strength concrete beams, failure strain is ..... American Concrete. Institute, Detroit.

  1. In tropical lowland rain forests monocots have tougher leaves than dicots, and include a new kind of tough leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Grubb, Peter J; Jackson, Robyn V; Lucas, Peter W; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Turner, Ian M

    2008-06-01

    There has been little previous work on the toughness of the laminae of monocots in tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) despite the potential importance of greater toughness in inhibiting herbivory by invertebrates. Of 15 monocot families with >100 species in TLRF, eight have notably high densities of fibres in the lamina so that high values for toughness are expected. In north-eastern Australia punch strength was determined with a penetrometer for both immature leaves (approx. 30 % final area on average) and fully expanded, fully toughened leaves. In Singapore and Panama, fracture toughness was determined with an automated scissors apparatus using fully toughened leaves only. In Australia punch strength was, on average, 7x greater in shade-tolerant monocots than in neighbouring dicots at the immature stage, and 3x greater at the mature stage. In Singapore, shade-tolerant monocots had, on average, 1.3x higher values for fracture toughness than neighbouring dicots. In Panama, both shade-tolerant and gap-demanding monocots were tested; they did not differ in fracture toughness. The monocots had markedly higher values than the dicots whether shade-tolerant or gap-demanding species were considered. It is predicted that monocots will be found to experience lower rates of herbivory by invertebrates than dicots. The tough monocot leaves include both stiff leaves containing relatively little water at saturation (e.g. palms), and leaves which lack stiffness, are rich in water at saturation and roll readily during dry weather or even in bright sun around midday (e.g. gingers, heliconias and marants). Monocot leaves also show that it is possible for leaves to be notably tough throughout the expansion phase of development, something never recorded for dicots. The need to broaden the botanist's mental picture of a 'tough leaf' is emphasized.

  2. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  3. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  4. A comparative assessment of the fracture toughness behavior of ferritic-martensitic steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang, E-mail: thaksang.byun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Jeoung Han [Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The Fe-Cr alloys with ultrafine microstructures are primary candidate materials for advanced nuclear reactor components because of their excellent high temperature strength and high resistance to radiation-induced damage such as embrittlement and swelling. Mainly two types of Fe-Cr alloys have been developed for the high temperature reactor applications: the quenched and tempered ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels hardened primarily by ultrafine laths and carbonitrides and the powder metallurgy-based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) by nanograin structure and nanoclusters. This study aims at elucidating the differences and similarities in the temperature and strength dependences of fracture toughness in the Fe-Cr alloys to provide a comparative assessment of their high-temperature structural performance. The K{sub JQ} versus yield stress plots confirmed that the fracture toughness was inversely proportional to yield strength. It was found, however, that the toughness data for some NFAs were outside the band of the integrated dataset at given strength level, which indicates either a significant improvement or deterioration in mechanical properties due to fundamental changes in deformation and fracture mechanisms. When compared to the behavior of NFAs, the FM steels have shown much less strength dependence and formed narrow fracture toughness data bands at a significantly lower strength region. It appeared that at high temperatures ≥600 °C the NFAs cannot retain the nanostructure advantage of high strength and high toughness either by high-temperature embrittlement or by excessive loss of strength. Irradiation studies have revealed, however, that the NFAs have much stronger radiation resistance than tempered martensitic steels, such as lower radiation-induced swelling, finer helium bubble formation, lower irradiation creep rate and reduced low temperature embrittlement.

  5. Equipment and Protocols for Quasi-Static and Dynamic Tests of Very-High-Strength Concrete (VHSC) and High-Strength High-Ductility Concrete (HSHDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Concrete (VHSC) and High-Strength High-Ductility Concrete (HSHDC) En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el op m en t Ce nt er Brett A...Very-High-Strength Concrete (VHSC) and High-Strength High-Ductility Concrete (HSHDC) Brett A. Williams, Robert D. Moser, William F. Heard, Carol F...equipment and protocols for tests of both very-high-strength concrete (VHSC) and high- strength high-ductility concrete (HSHDC) to predict blast

  6. Rapid Thermal Processing to Enhance Steel Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, V K; Speer, J G; Clarke, K D; Findley, K O; Clarke, A J

    2018-01-11

    Quenching and Tempering (Q&T) has been utilized for decades to alter steel mechanical properties, particularly strength and toughness. While tempering typically increases toughness, a well-established phenomenon called tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) is known to occur during conventional Q&T. Here we show that short-time, rapid tempering can overcome TME to produce unprecedented property combinations that cannot be attained by conventional Q&T. Toughness is enhanced over 43% at a strength level of 1.7 GPa and strength is improved over 0.5 GPa at an impact toughness of 30 J. We also show that hardness and the tempering parameter (TP), developed by Holloman and Jaffe in 1945 and ubiquitous within the field, is insufficient for characterizing measured strengths, toughnesses, and microstructural conditions after rapid processing. Rapid tempering by energy-saving manufacturing processes like induction heating creates the opportunity for new Q&T steels for energy, defense, and transportation applications.

  7. Research and Development of Ultra-High Strength X100 Welded Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanguo, Zhang; Lei, Zheng; Ping, Hu; Bei, Zhang; Kougen, Wu; Weifeng, Huang

    Ultra-high strength X100 welded pipe can be used in the construction of long distance oil and gas pipeline to improve transmission capacity and reduce operation cost. By using the way of thermo-simulation and pilot rolling, the CCT (Continuous Cooling Transformation) diagram and the relationship between ACC (Accelerated Cooling) parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties were studied for the designed X100 pipeline steel with low carbon, high manganese and niobium micro-alloyed composition in lab. The analysis of CCT diagram indicates that the suitable hardness and microstructure can be obtained in the cooling rate of 20 80°C/sec. The pilot rolling results show that the ACC cooling start temperature below Ar3 phase transformation point is beneficial to increase uniform elongation, and the cooling stop temperature of 150 350°C is helpful to obtain high strength and toughness combination. Based on the research conclusions, the X100 plate and UOE pipe with dimension in O.D.1219×W.T.14.8mm, O.D.1219×W.T.17.8mm, designed for the natural gas transmission pipeline, were trial produced. The manufactured pipe body impact absorbed energy at -10°C is over 250J. The DWTT shear area ratio at 0°C is over 85%. The transverse strength meets the X100 grade requirement, and uniform elongation is over 4%. The X100 plate and UOE pipe with dimension in O.D.711×W.T.20.0mm, O.D.711×W.T.12.5mm, designed for an offshore engineering, were also trial produced. The average impact absorbed energy of pipe body at -30°C is over 200J. The average impact absorbed energy of HAZ (Heat-affected zone) and WM (Welded Seam) at -30°C is over 100J. And the good pipe shapes were obtained

  8. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna S Zeiger

    Full Text Available Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female. Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ, Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A, and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT, moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT and low mental toughness (Low MT. ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; P<0.001, athletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; P<0.01, high sports satisfaction (OR = 8.17; 95% CI, 5.63, 11.87; P<0.001, and high division placement (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.46,3.26; P<0.001. The data showed that mental toughness latent profiles exist in endurance athletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  9. Corrosion fatigue of high strength fastener materials in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, D. G.

    1983-12-01

    Environmental effects which significantly reduce the fatigue life of metals are discussed. Corrosion fatigue is a major concern in the engineering application of high strength fasteners in marine environments. The corrosion fatigue failure of an AISI 41L4O high strength steel blade to hub attachment bolt at the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator was investigated. The reduction of fatigue strength of AISI 41L4O in marine environments and to obtain similar corrosion fatigue data for candidate replacement materials was studied. The AISI 4140, PH 13-8Mo stainless steel, alloy 718 and alloy MP-35N were tested in axial fatigue at a frequency of 20 Hz in dry air and natural seawater. The fatigue data are fitted by regression equations to allow determination of fatigue strength for a given number of cycles to failure.

  10. Microchip Electrophoresis at Elevated Temperatures and High Separation Field Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Indranil; Marczak, Steven P.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We report free-solution microchip electrophoresis performed at elevated temperatures and high separation field strengths. We used microfluidic devices with 11-cm long separation channels to conduct separations at temperatures between 22 (ambient) and 45 °C and field strengths from 100 to 1000 V/cm. To evaluate separation performance, N-glycans were used as a model system and labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to impart charge for electrophoresis and render them fluorescent. Typically, increased diffusivity at higher temperatures leads to increased axial dispersion and poor separation performance; however, we demonstrate that sufficiently high separation field strengths can be used to offset the impact of increased diffusivity in order to maintain separation efficiency. Efficiencies for these free-solution separations are the same at temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 °C with separation field strengths ≥500 V/cm. PMID:24114979

  11. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  12. Improving Strength-Ductility Balance of High Strength Dual-Phase Steels by Addition of Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Hua, M.; Uusitalo, J.; DeArdo, A. J.

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance, especially after cold forming. For good corrosion resistance, the coating must have sufficient coverage, be of uniform thickness, and most importantly, the coating must survive the cold stamping or forming operation. The purpose of this paper is to present research aiming at improving the steel substrate, such that high strength can be obtained while maintaining good global formability (tensile ductility), local formability (sheared-edge ductility), and good spot weldability. It is well-known that the strength of DP steels is controlled by several factors, including the amount of martensite found in the final microstructure. Recent research has revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). Current experiments have explored the combination of pre-annealing conditions and four annealing practices to help define the best practice to optimize the strength-formability balance in these higher strength DP steels. The steels used in these experiments contained (i) low carbon content for good spot weldability, (ii) the hardenability additions Mo and Cr for strength, and (iii) V for grain refinement, precipitation hardening and temper resistance. When processed correctly, these steels exhibited UTS levels up to 1000MPa, total elongation to 25%, reduction in area to 45%, and Hole Expansion Ratios to 50%. The results of this program will be presented and discussed.

  13. Friction weld ductility and toughness as influenced by inclusion morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, B.J.; Schaaf, B.W. Jr.; Wilson, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Friction welding consistently provides high strength, freedom from fusion defects, and high productivity. However, friction welds in carbon steel exhibit impact toughness and bend ductility that are significantly lower than that of the base metal. The inclusion content and morphology were suspected to be major contributors to the reduction in weld ductility. For this reason, four electric furnace steels - three types of ASTM A516 Grade 70, and an ASTM A737 Grade B steel - were investigated. Friction welds were made by both the inertia and direct drive process variations and the welds evaluated. It was shown that friction welds of inclusion-controlled steels exhibited much improved toughness and bend ductility were demonstrated. Upper shelf impact energy was equivalent to or greater than that of the base metal in the short transverse direction. The transition temperature range for all four materials was shifted to higher temperatures for both types of friction welds. Under the conditions of this test, the direct drive friction welds showed a greater shift than the inertia friction welds. The ductility and toughness of welds in A737 Grade B steel were superior to welds in A516 Grade 70 steels, reflecting the superior properties of the base metal. Welds of the A737 material had usable Charpy V-notch impact toughness of 20 to 30 ft-lb (27 to 41 J) at temperatures as low as -40 0 F (-40 0 C). All the welds had an acicular structure. The differences in properties between the inertia and direct drive friction welds appear associated with microstructural variations. These variations resulted from the different heat inputs and cooling rates of the two process variations were demonstrated. The beneficial effects of inclusion control on toughness and ductility. In addition, it also indicates that additional improvements may be attainable through control of the as-welded microstructure by process manipulation

  14. A numerical study on the mechanical properties and the processing behaviour of composite high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenstermann, Sebastian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy; Vajragupta, Napat [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Materials Mechanics Group; Weisgerber, Bernadette [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG (Germany). Patent Dept.; Kern, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG (Germany). Dept. of Quality Affairs

    2013-06-01

    The demand for lightweight construction in mechanical and civil engineering has strongly promoted the development of high strength steels with excellent damage tolerance. Nowadays, the requirements from mechanical and civil engineering are even more challenging, as gradients in mechanical properties are demanded increasingly often for components that are utilized close to the limit state of load bearing capacity. A metallurgical solution to this demand is given by composite rolling processes. In this process components with different chemical compositions were jointed, which develop after heat treatment special properties. These are actually evaluated in order to verify that structural steels with the desired gradients in mechanical properties can be processed. A numerical study was performed aiming to numerically predict strenght and toughness properties, as well as the procesing behaviour using Finite Element (FE) simulations with damage mechanics approaches. For determination of mechanical properties, simulations of tensile specimen, SENB sample, and a mobile crane have been carried out for different configurations of composite rolled materias out of high strebght structural steels. As a parameter study, both the geometrical and the metallurgical configurations of the composite rolled steels were modified. Thickness of each steel layer and materials configuration have been varied. Like this, a numerical procedure to define optimum tailored configurations of high strenght steels could be established.

  15. Precipitation behavior during thin slab thermomechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength structural steels: The effect on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Jia, Z. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); O' Malley, R. [Nucor Steel Decatur, LLC Sheet Mill, 4301, Iverson Blvd., Trinity, AL 35673 (United States); Jansto, S.J. [CBMM-Reference Metals Company, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Copper does not significantly influence toughness. {yields} Copper precipitation during aging occurs at dislocations. {yields} Precipitation of copper and carbides is mutually exclusive. - Abstract: We describe here the precipitation behavior of copper and fine-scale carbides during thermo-mechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength steels. During thermo-mechanical processing, precipitation of {epsilon}-copper occurs in polygonal ferrite and at the austenite-ferrite interface. In contrast, during isothermal aging, nucleation of {epsilon}-copper precipitation occurs at dislocations. In the three different chemistries investigated, the increase in strength associated with copper during aging results only in a small decrease in impact toughness, implying that copper precipitates do not seriously impair toughness, and can be considered as a viable strengthening element in microalloyed steels. Precipitation of fine-scale niobium carbides occurs extensively at dislocations and within ferrite matrix together with vanadium carbides. In the presence of titanium, titanium carbides act as a nucleus for niobium carbide formation. Irrespective of the nature of carbides, copper precipitates and carbides are mutually exclusive.

  16. Precipitation behavior during thin slab thermomechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength structural steels: The effect on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Jia, Z.; O'Malley, R.; Jansto, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Copper does not significantly influence toughness. → Copper precipitation during aging occurs at dislocations. → Precipitation of copper and carbides is mutually exclusive. - Abstract: We describe here the precipitation behavior of copper and fine-scale carbides during thermo-mechanical processing and isothermal aging of copper-bearing niobium-microalloyed high strength steels. During thermo-mechanical processing, precipitation of ε-copper occurs in polygonal ferrite and at the austenite-ferrite interface. In contrast, during isothermal aging, nucleation of ε-copper precipitation occurs at dislocations. In the three different chemistries investigated, the increase in strength associated with copper during aging results only in a small decrease in impact toughness, implying that copper precipitates do not seriously impair toughness, and can be considered as a viable strengthening element in microalloyed steels. Precipitation of fine-scale niobium carbides occurs extensively at dislocations and within ferrite matrix together with vanadium carbides. In the presence of titanium, titanium carbides act as a nucleus for niobium carbide formation. Irrespective of the nature of carbides, copper precipitates and carbides are mutually exclusive.

  17. Tensile strength/yield strength (TS/YS) ratios of high-strength steel (HSS) reinforcing bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavio, Anggraini, Retno; Raka, I. Gede Putu; Agustiar

    2018-05-01

    The building codes such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318M-14 and Standard National Indonesia (SNI) 2847:2013 require that the ratio of tensile strength (TS) and yield strength (YS) should not less than 1.25. The requirement is based on the assumption that a capability of a structural member to develop inelastic rotation capacity is a function of the length of the yield region. This paper reports an investigation on various steel grades, namely Grades 420, 550, 650, and 700 MPa, to examine the impact of different TS/YS ratios if it is less or greater than the required value. Grades 550, 650, and 700 MPa were purposely selected with the intention to examine if these higher grades are still promising to be implemented in special structural systems since they are prohibited by the building codes for longitudinal reinforcement, whereas Grade 420 MPa bars are the maximum limit of yield strength of reinforcing bars that is allowable for longitudinal reinforcement of special structural systems. Tensile tests of these steel samples were conducted under displacement controlled mode to capture the complete stress-strain curves and particularly the post-yield response of the steel bars. From the study, it can be concluded that Grade 420 performed higher TS/YS ratios and they were able to reach up to more than 1.25. However, the High Strength Still (HSS) bars (Grades 550, 600, and 700 MPa) resulted in lower TS/YS ratios (less than 1.25) compared with those of Grade 420 MPa.

  18. Ultra-tough and strong, hybrid thin films based on ionically crosslinked polymers and 2D inorganic platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dong Hwan; Choi, Suji; Kim, Jaeyun; nanobiomaterials lab Team

    Integration of high strength and toughness tend to be mutually exclusive and synthesized hybrid films with superior mechanical properties have been difficult to fabricate controllable shapes and various scales. Although diverse synthesized hybrid films consisting of organic matrix and inorganic materials with brick-and-mortar structure, show improved mechanical properties, these films are still limited in toughness and fabrication methods. Herein, we report ultra-tough and strong hybrid thin films with self-assembled uniform microstructures with controllable shapes and various scale based on hydrogel-mediated process. Ca2+-crosslinking in alginate chains and well-aligned alumina platelets in alginate matrix lead to a synergistic enhancement of strength and toughness in the resulting film. Consequentially, Ca2+-crosslinked Alg/Alu films showed outstanding toughness of 29 MJ m-3 and tensile strength of 160 MPa. Furthermore, modifying Alu surface with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), tensile strength was further improved up to 200 MPa. Our results suggest an alternative approach to design and processing of self-assembled hydrogel-mediated hybrid films with outstanding mechanical properties.

  19. Influence of laser peening on the tensile strength and impact toughness of dissimilar welds of Inconel 625 and UNS S32205

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, K. Devendranath, E-mail: ramdevendranath@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Kumar, P. Siva Goutham; Krishna, V. Radha; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Dev, Sidharth; Abraham, Winston Sunny [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Prabhakaran, S.; Kalainathan, S. [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Sridhar, R. [Saraswathi Velu Engineering College, Sholinghur, Vellore 632501 (India)

    2016-10-31

    The present study addresses the effect of fillers on the microstructure and tensile strength of dissimilar joints of Inconel 625 and UNS S32205 by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) employing ERNiCrMo-10 and ERNiCrMo-14 fillers. This study attested that tensile failure occurred in the fusion zone of the dissimilar joints for both the cases in the as-welded un-peened condition. Double shot laser shock peening (DLSP) was performed on the fusion zone of these PCGTA welds on the cap and root regions of the weldments. It was assimilated that after DLSP on the cap and root regions of the weldments, the yield and tensile strength of the welded joints employing these fillers were improved considerably. Residual stress analysis were carried out on the dissimilar coupons using X-ray Diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that after subjecting to double sided DLSP, the fusion zones were subjected to compressive residual stresses. The present study articulated that shot peening using low energy laser beam resulted in better tensile strength.

  20. Influence of irradiation on high-strength graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.; Grebennik, V.N.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1989-01-01

    To ensure efficiency of the graphite elements of the construction of the masonry of reactors, the graphite must possess high radiation stability, strength, and heat resistance. In this connection, the physical properties of graphites based on uncalcined petroleum coke with a binder - high-temperature hard coal pitch - the amount of which reaches 40% are considered in this paper

  1. El strength function at high spin and excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1983-04-01

    Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed

  2. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  3. Review on fatigue behavior of high-strength concrete after high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Jia, Penghe; Gao, Haijing

    2017-06-01

    The fatigue of high-strength concrete after high temperature has begun to attract attention. But so far the researches work about the fatigue of high-strength concrete after high temperature have not been reported. This article based on a large number of literature. The research work about the fatigue of high-strength concrete after high temperature are reviewed, analysed and expected, which can provide some reference for the experimental study of fatigue damage analysis.

  4. Renewable Pentablock Copolymers Containing Bulky Natural Rosin for Tough Bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Anisur; Ganewatta, Mitra S.; Lokupitiya, Hasala N.; Liang, Yuan; Stefik, Morgan; Tang, Chuanbing

    Renewable polymers have received significant attention due to environmental concerns on petrochemical counterparts. One of the most abundant natural biomass is resin acids. However, most polymers derived from resin acids are low molecular weight and brittle because of the high chain entanglement molecular weight resulted from the bulky hydrophenanthrene pendant group. It is well established that the brittleness can be overcome by synthesizing multi-block copolymers with low entanglement molecular weight components. We investigated the effects of chain architecture and microdomain orientation on mechanical properties of both tri and pentablock copolymers. We synthesized rosin-containing A-B-A-B-A type pentablock and A-B-A type triblock copolymers to improve their mechanical properties. Pentablock copolymers showed higher strength and better toughness as compared to triblock copolymers, both superior to homopolymers. The greater toughness of pentablock copolymers is due to the presence of the rosin based midblock chains that act as bridging chains between two polynorbornene blocks.

  5. On the impact bending test technique for high-strength pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenkin, A. M.; Odesskii, P. D.; Shabalov, I. P.; Likhachev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that the impact toughness (KCV-40 = 250 J/cm2) accepted for pipe steels of strength class K65 (σy ≥ 550 MPa) intended for large-diameter gas line pipes is ineffective to classify steels in fracture strength. The results obtained upon testing of specimens with a fatigue crack and additional sharp lateral grooves seem to be more effective. In energy consumption, a macrorelief with splits is found to be intermediate between ductile fracture and crystalline brittle fracture. A split formation mechanism is considered and a scheme is proposed for split formation.

  6. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....

  7. Shock characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Pontiroli, C.; Buzaud, E.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the design of protective structures may imply ultra-high performance concretes. These materials present a compressive strength 5 times higher than standard concretes. However, few reliable data on the shock response of such materials are available in the literature. Thus, a characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete has been conducted by means of hydrostatic and triaxial tests in the quasi-static regime, and plate impact experiments for shock response. Data have been gathered up to 6 GPa and a simple modelling approach has been applied to get a reliable representation of the shock compression of this concrete. (authors)

  8. High strength tungsten heavy alloys with molybdenum additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Sims, D.M.; German, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are candidates for numerous applications based on the unique combination of high density, high strength, and high ductility coupled with excellent machinability. Though there has been considerable research on heavy alloys, the primary focus has been on the ductility. These alloys are well suited for ballistic uses due to their high densities and it is expected that for superior ballistic performance, a high hardness, high strength and moderate ductility alloy would be ideal. The major goal of this investigation was to obtain heavy alloys with hardness greater than HRA 72. It is evident from the phase diagrams that molybdenum, which goes into solution in tungsten, nickel and iron, could act as a potential strengthening addition. With this in view, tungsten heavy alloys with molybdenum additions were fabricated from mixed elemental powders. A baseline composition of 90W-7Ni-3Fe was chosen to its good elongation and moderate strength. The molybdenum additions were made by replacing the tungsten. Compared to the baseline properties with no molybdenum addition, the strength and hardness showed a continuous increase with molybdenum addition. The ductility of the alloy continued to decrease with increasing molybdenum content, but even with 16% wt. % molybdenum of the elongation was still around 6%. An interesting facet of these alloying additions is the grain refinement that is brought about by adding to molybdenum to the system. The grain refinement is related to the lower solubility of tunbsten in the matrix due to partial displacement by molybdenum

  9. STUDY ON THE USAGE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS FOR HIGH-STRENGTH PARTS USED IN THE MACHINES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBU Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whereas formerly metallic materials were used extensively and for various purposes in the machines manufacturing industry, nowadays new materials are sought that can replace the "conventional" machines manufacturing materials with new ones. This is especially challenging in areas where parts need to be able to withstand very tough conditions, such as high temperatures or large forces applied to them. The current paper intends to analyze some of the most widely used materials for high-strength applications. A special focus in this regard is on the one hand in fiber-reinforced composite materials with the polymer matrix and on the other hand on basalt. The most important properties, processing technologies and applications of these materials are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding their compatibility with the intended purpose.

  10. Behavior and strength of beams cast with ultra high strength concrete containing different types of fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is a special type of concrete with extraordinary potentials in terms of strength and durability performance. Its production and application implement the most up-to-date knowledge and technology of concrete manufacturing. Sophisticated structural designs in bridges and high-rise buildings, repair works and special structures like nuclear facilities are currently the main fields of applications of UHPC. This paper aimed to evaluate the behavior of ultra-high strength concrete beams. This paper also aimed to determine the effect of adding fibers and explore their effect upon the behavior and strength of the reinforced concrete beams. A total of twelve simple concrete beams with and without shear reinforcements were tested in flexure. The main variables taken into consideration in this research were the type of fibers and the percentage of longitudinal reinforcement as well as the existence or absence of the web reinforcement. Two types of fibers were used including steel and polypropylene fibers. The behavior of the tested beams was investigated with special attention to the deflection under different stages of loading, initial cracking, cracking pattern, and ultimate load. Increased number of cracks was observed at the end of loading due to the use of fibers, which led to the reduced width of cracks. This led to increased stiffness and higher values of maximum loads.

  11. Effects of irradiation on initiation and crack-arrest toughness of two high-copper welds and on stainless steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Haggag, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the study on the high-copper welds is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the ASME K Ic and K Ia toughness curves. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Compact specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to fluences from 1.5 to 1.9 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). The fracture toughness test results show that the irradiation-induced shifts at 100 MPa/m were greater than the Charpy 41-J shifts by about 11 and 18 degree C. Mean curve fits indicate mixed results regarding curve shape changes, but curves constructed as lower boundaries to the data do indicate curves of lower slopes. A preliminary evaluation of the crack-arrest results shows that the neutron-irradiation induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered), compared to those of the ASME K Ia curve did not appear to have been altered by the irradiation. Three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding was irradiated at 288 degree C to fluences of 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Charpy 41-J temperature shifts of 13 and 28 degree C were observed, respectively. For the lower fluence only, 12.7-mm thick compact specimens showed decreases in both J Ic and the tearing modulus. Comparison of the fracture toughness results with typical plate and a low upper-shelf weld reveals that the irradiated stainless steel cladding possesses low ductile initiation fracture toughness comparable to the low upper-shelf weld. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Reduction of the Early Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Saje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a laboratory investigation on the early autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete, and the possibilities of its reduction, are presented. Such concrete demonstrates significant autogenous shrinkage, which should, however, be limited in the early stages of its development in order to prevent the occurrence of cracks and/or drop in the load-carrying capacity of concrete structures. The following possibilities for reducing autogenous shrinkage were investigated: the use of low-heat cement, a shrinkage-reducing admixture, steel fibres, premoistened polypropylene fibres, and presoaked lightweight aggregate. In the case of the use of presoaked natural lightweight aggregate, with a fraction from 2 to 4 mm, the early autogenous shrinkage of one-day-old high strength concrete decreased by about 90%, with no change to the concrete's compressive strength in comparison with that of the reference concrete.

  13. Long-term high temperature strength of 316FR steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    As low-carbon medium-nitrogen type 316 stainless steel (316FR) was selected as a primary candidate for main structural material of a next fast reactor plant in Japan, its long-term high-temperature strength gains much interest from many organizations involved in design activities of the plant. Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), as a research organization for electric power industry in Japan, has been conducting a multi-year project under the sponsorship of Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) for studying the long-term high temperature strength of this steel. Data obtained by various strength tests, including short-time tensile, fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue tests for this steel are given in this paper. The results of study on creep-fatigue life prediction methods are also presented. It was found that modified ductility exhaustion method previously proposed by the author has satisfactory accuracy in creep-fatigue life estimation

  14. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  15. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  16. Enhancement of low temperature toughness of nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel by delamination structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Songsong; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China); Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming [Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics and Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang 621999 (China); Zhang, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwzhang@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China)

    2017-04-13

    This study investigated the effects of aging and thermomechanical treatments on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel. The toughness of steel at various temperatures was measured carefully and correlated with microstructural features. Tensile tests show that aging can improve the mechanical strength without scarifying the ductility. With high yield strength of ~1000 MPa, excellent low temperature Charpy impact energy more than 300 J at −80 °C can be obtained. The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is lower than −80 °C. The high strength can be contributed by the nanocluster precipitation as determined by small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent low temperature toughness is attributed to the delamination structure of the steel, which blunts the cracks and restrains the crack propagation.

  17. Modelling of tension stiffening for normal and high strength concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    form the model is extended to apply to biaxial stress fields as well. To determine the biaxial stress field, the theorem of minimum complementary elastic energy is used. The theory has been compared with tests on rods, disks, and beams of both normal and high strength concrete, and very good results...

  18. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  19. Rheology of High-Melt-Strength Polypropylene for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Kamleitner, Florian; Jagenteufel, Ralf

    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a widely used material for additive manufacturing (AM) fused deposition modeling (FDM). The rheological properties of high-melt-strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) were compared to commercially available ABS 250 filament to study the possibility of using...

  20. Anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors for high strength wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersahin, M.E.; Gimenez Garcia, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Tao, Y.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory scale external anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating high strength wastewater was operated to assess the effect of gas sparging velocity and organic loading rate on removal efficiency and dynamic membrane (DM) filtration characteristics. An increase in gas sparging

  1. Performance assessment on high strength steel endplate connections after fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiang, X.; Wu, N.; Jiang, X.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to reveal more information and understanding on performance and failure mechanisms of high strength steel endplate connections after fire. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental and numerical study on seven endplate connections after

  2. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the ...

  3. Study on Fatigue Characteristics of High-Strength Steel Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Suk; Yoo, Seung Won; Park, Jong Chan [Hyundai Motor Group, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    High-strength steel has replaced mild steel as the material of choice for truck decks or frames, owing to the growing demand for lightweight vehicles. Although studies on the weld fatigue characteristics of mild steel are available, studies on high-strength steels have been seldom conducted. In this study, firstly, we surveyed a chosen number of approaches and selected the Radaj method, which uses the notch factor approach, as the one suitable for evaluating the fatigue life of commercial vehicles. Secondly, we obtained the S-N curves of HARDOX and ATOS60 steel welds, and the F-N curves of the T-weld and overlapped-weld structures. Thirdly, we acquired a general S-N curve of welded structures made of high-strength steel from the F-N curve, using the notch factor approach. Fourthly, we extracted the weld fatigue characteristics of high-strength steel and incorporated the results in the database of a commercial fatigue program. Finally, we compared the results of the fatigue test and the CAE prediction of the example case, which demonstrated sufficiently good agreement.

  4. Oxidation Phenomena in Advanced High Strength Steels : Modelling and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, W.

    2018-01-01

    Galvanized advanced high strength steels (AHSS) will be the most competitive structural material for automotive applications in the next decade. Oxidation of AHSS during the recrystalization annealing process in a continuous galvanizing line to a large extent influences the quality of zinc coating

  5. Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The crack path through composite materials such as concrete depends on the mechanical interaction of inclusions with the cement-based matrix. Fracture energy depends on the deviations of a real crack from an idealized crack plane. Fracture energy and strain softening of normal, high strength, and self- ...

  6. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  7. Fracture toughness of fibrous composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Laminates with various proportions of 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg plies were fabricated from T300/5208 and T300/BP-907 graphite/epoxy prepreg tape material. The fracture toughness of each laminate orientation or lay-up was determined by testing center-cracked specimens, and it was also predicted with the general fracture-toughness parameter. The predictions were good except when crack-tip splitting was large, at which time the toughness and strengths tended to be underpredicted. By using predictions, a parametric study was also made of factors that influence fracture toughness. Fiber and matrix properties as well as lay-up were investigated. Without crack-tip splitting, fracture toughness increases in proportion to fiber strength and fiber volume fraction, increases linearly with E(22)/E(11), is largest when the modulus for non-0 deg fibers is greater than that of 0 deg fibers, and is smallest for 0(m)/90(p)(s) lay-ups. (The E(11) and E(22) are Young's moduli of the lamina parallel to and normal to the direction of the fibers, respectively). For a given proportion of 0 deg plies, the most notch-sensitive lay-ups are 0(m)/90(p)(s) and the least sensitive are 0(m)/45(n)(s) and alpha(s). Notch sensitivity increases with the proportion of 0 deg plies and decreases with alpha. Strong, tough matrix materials, which inhibit crack-tip splitting, generally lead to minimum fracture toughness.

  8. Improving the casting properties of high-strength aluminium alloys:

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrt, Ondřej; Šerák, Jan; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2004-01-01

    Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are examples of high-strength alloys. After age-hardening they often possess tensile strengths of more than 500 MPa. However, their casting properties are relatively poor as a result of solidification intervals that are too wide. Therefore, they often require an extrusion, rolling, or forging treatment, and the production of small series of special parts can, as a consequence, be very expensive. In this study, an improvement in the castability and a reduction of the hot-tea...

  9. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    is essential for understanding the fracture mechanism of concrete in compression. In this paper a series of tests is reported, carried out for the purpose of studying the fracture mechanical properties of concrete in compression. Including the measurement and study of the descending branch, a new experimental...... method has been used to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, loading rate, size effects and the influence of the strength on the fracture energy of high-strength concrete over the range 70 MPa to 150 MPa, expressed in nominal values....

  10. Theoretical design and advanced microstructure in super high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, F.G.; Santofimia, M.J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Chao, J.; Garcia de Andres, C.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical design procedure based on phase transformation theory alone has been successfully applied to design steels with a microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Using thermodynamics and kinetics models, a set of four carbide free bainitic steels with a 0.3 wt.% carbon content were designed and manufactured following a thermomechanical treatment consisting of hot rolling and two-step cooling. The designed steels present significant combinations of strength and ductility, with tensile strengths ranging from 1500 to 1800 MPa and total elongations over 15%. However, a carbon content of 0.3 wt.% is still high for in-use properties such as weldability. In this sense, a reduction in the average carbon content of advanced bainitic steels was proposed. Improved bainitic steels with a carbon content of 0.2 wt.% reached combinations of strength and ductility comparable to those in TRIP assisted steels.

  11. Effect of Welding Thermal Cycles on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone for a Weldox 1300 Ultra-High Strength Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węglowski M. St.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the investigation of weldability of ultra-high strength steel has been presented. The thermal simulated samples were used to investigate the effect of welding cooling time t8/5 on microstructure and mechanical properties of heat affected zone (HAZ for a Weldox 1300 ultra-high strength steel. In the frame of these investigation the microstructure was studied by light and transmission electron microscopies. Mechanical properties of parent material were analysed by tensile, impact and hardness tests. In details the influence of cooling time in the range of 2,5 ÷ 300 sec. on hardness, impact toughness and microstructure of simulated HAZ was studied by using welding thermal simulation test. The microstructure of ultra-high strength steel is mainly composed of tempered martensite. The results show that the impact toughness and hardness decrease with increase of t8/5 under condition of a single thermal cycle in simulated HAZ. The increase of cooling time to 300 s causes that the microstructure consists of ferrite and bainite mixture. Lower hardness, for t8/5 ≥ 60 s indicated that low risk of cold cracking in HAZ for longer cooling time, exists.

  12. Influence of austenization temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a new ultra-high strength low alloyed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ya-Ya; Xu, Chi; Su, Xiang; Sun, Yu-Lin; Pan, Xi; Cao, Yue-De; Chen, Guang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China). Engineering Research Center of Materials Behavior and Design

    2017-07-01

    The effects of austenization temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a newly designed ultra-high strength low alloy martensitic steel were systematically studied. The microstructures of the martensitic steels which were quenched from different temperatures between 860 and 980 C were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and discussed. The results showed that the martensite laths were found to coarsen slowly and the carbide precipitates dissolved gradually with increasing austenization temperature. As the austenization temperature increased from 860 to 980 C, the volume of retained austenite and the numerical ratio of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) were observed to increase while the numerical ratio of low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) decreased. Rockwell C hardness (HRC), tensile strength and yield strength increased at first and then decreased, while impact toughness was greatly improved with increasing austenization temperature. The fracture mechanism was brittle fracture when austenitized at low temperatures, while it was ductile fracture when austenitized at high temperatures. The mechanical properties were significantly influenced by the formation of retained austenite, the dissolution of carbides, and the numerical ratio of HAGBs and LAGBs.

  13. High Ductility and Toughness of a Micro-duplex Medium-Mn Steel in a Large Temperature Range from -196 °C to 200 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si-lian; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2015-01-01

    A medium-Mn steel (0.2C5Mn) was processed by intercritical annealing at different temperatures (625 degrees C and 650 degrees C). An ultrafine-grained micro-duplex structure consisting of alternating austenite and ferrite laths was developed by austenite reverse transformation (ART) during...... intercritical annealing after forging and hot rolling. Ultrahigh ductility with a total elongation higher than 30% was achieved in the temperature range from - 196 degrees C to 200 degrees C and high impact toughness no less than 200 J at - 40 degrees C was obtained. Based on the analysis of microstructure...

  14. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    106. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground granulated blast furnace slag at high-temperature. Comportement à haute température du béton à haute résistance à base de laitier granulé de haut fourneau. Imene Saadi*1 & Abdelaziz Benmarce2. 1Laboratoire Matériaux Géométraux et Environnement, ...

  15. Microcapillary Features in Silicon Alloyed High-Strength Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Hasanli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study explores features of silicon micro capillary in alloyed high-strength cast iron with nodular graphite (ductile iron produced in metal molds. It identified the nature and mechanism of micro liquation of silicon in a ductile iron alloyed with Nickel and copper, and demonstrated significant change of structural-quality characteristics. It was concluded that the matrix of alloyed ductile iron has a heterogeneous structure with cross reinforcement and high-silicon excrement areas.

  16. Bainitic high-strength cast iron with globular graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.; Kamynin, V. V.; Zentsova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    Special features of formation of bainitic structures in grayed cast irons are considered. The influence of the graphite phase and of the special features of chemical composition of the iron on the intermediate transformation in high-carbon alloys is allowed for. The range of application of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure is determined. The paper is the last and unfinished work of G. I. Silman completed by his disciples as a tribute to their teacher.

  17. The effective fracture toughness of structural components obtained with the blend rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, K.

    1998-01-01

    The blend rule for the effective fracture toughness of a layered material was originally derived from the special case of a through crack in a globally elastic material and later extended to accomodate non-linear behaviour. It is now derived from a general case by considering material elements of finite size and of different toughness along and around the tip of a crack. Experimental results obtained with an inhomogeneous ordinary structural steel which support the blend rule are presented. It is shown that the effective fracture toughness governs the load-bearing capacity of a cracked full-scale structure. Some further results found in the literature for the heat-affected zone material of a high-strength microalloyed quenched and tempered structural steel and computational results for a structural steel typical of a nuclear pressure vessel are shown to support the blend rule. (orig.)

  18. Mechanical Properties of Heat Affected Zone of High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcikova, K.; Brtnik, T.; Dolejs, J.; Keltamaki, K.; Topilla, R.

    2015-11-01

    High Strength Steels became more popular as a construction material during last decade because of their increased availability and affordability. On the other hand, even though general use of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) is expanding, the wide utilization is limited because of insufficient information about their behaviour in structures. The most widely used technique for joining steels is fusion welding. The welding process has an influence not only on the welded connection but on the area near this connection, the so-called heat affected zone, as well. For that reason it is very important to be able to determine the properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This area of investigation is being continuously developed in dependence on significant progress in material production, especially regarding new types of steels available. There are currently several types of AHSS on the world market. Two most widely used processes for AHSS production are Thermo-Mechanically Controlled Processing (TMCP) and Quenching in connection with Tempering. In the presented study, TMCP and QC steels grade S960 were investigated. The study is focused on the changes of strength, ductility, hardness and impact strength in heat affected zone based on the used amount of heat input.

  19. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  20. Microstructure and toughness of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipperfield, C.G.; Knott, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of notch acuity, inclusion content, and strength level on the toughness of a variety of ductile steels have been investigated in fully plastic single edge notched bend testpieces. Results for specimens containing fatigue precracks and sharp notches indicate that accurate predictions of a material's resistance to the initiation of fibrous fracture ahead of a fatigue crack may be inferred from tests on notched testpieces and from a knowledge of the microstructure of the material; an experimental procedure has been proposed whereby this may be achieved for quality control and material evaluation purposes. The spacing of optically visible inclusions is found essentially to define both the unit of ductile crack extension and, for low-strength steels, the limiting lateral dimensions of the high-strain field ahead of the crack tip. As a consequence, the notch-tip ductility is found to be invariant with the changes in notch acuity for sharp stress concentrators. The effect of increasing the purity and/or strength level is to alter the mechanism of fibrous fracture from one involving void growth and coalescence to one of predominantly shear character. (author)

  1. Feasibility analysis of ultra high performance concrete for prestressed concrete bridge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    UHPC is an emerging material technology in which concrete develops very high : compressive strengths and exhibits improved tensile strength and toughness. A : comprehensive literature and historical application review was completed to determine the :...

  2. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  3. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  4. High-energy behavior of field-strength interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that spontaneously broken gauge theories are the only renormalizable theories of massive spin-one particles with mass dimension less than or equal to 4. This paper describes a search for renormalizable interactions with higher mass dimension. Specifically, we examine the high-energy behavior of a class of models which involve field-strength interactions. Power counting shows that the high-energy behavior of these models is no worse than the naively estimated high-energy behavior of a gauge theory in the U gauge. Therefore, there may be a ''soft'' symmetry-breaking mechanism (for instance, a soft divergence of an antisymmetric tensor current) which enforces renormalizable high-energy behavior in the same way that spontaneously broken gauge invariance guarantees the renormalizability of gauge theories. This hope is supported by the existence of ''gauge theories'' of strings, which describe analogous interactions of strings and field strengths. Unfortunately, this idea is tarnished by explicit calculations in which renormalizability is imposed in the form of unitarity bounds. These unitarity bounds imply that all possible field-strength couplings must be zero and that the remaining interactions describe a spontaneously broken gauge theory. Thus this result supports an earlier conjecture that gauge theories are the only renormalizable theories of massive vector bosons

  5. High-strength shape memory steels alloyed with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullakko, K.; Jakovenko, P.T.; Gavriljuk, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Since shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si systems was observed, increasing attention has been paid to iron based shape memory alloys due to their great technological potential. Properties of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys have been improved by alloying with Cr, Ni, Co and C. A significant improvement on shape memory, mechanical and corrosion properties is attained by introducing nitrogen in Fe-Mn-Si based systems. By increasing the nitrogen content, strength of the matrix increases and the stacking fault energy decreases, which promote the formation of stress induced martensite and decrease permanent slip. The present authors have shown that nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels exhibit recoverable strains of 2.5--4.2% and recovery stresses of 330 MPa. In some cases, stresses over 700 MPa were attained at room temperature after cooling a constrained sample. Yield strengths of these steels can be as high as 1,100 MPa and tensile strengths over 1,500 MPa with elongations of 30%. In the present study, effect of nitrogen alloying on shape memory and mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni and Fe-Mn-Cr-Ni-V alloys is studied. Nitrogen alloying is shown to exhibit a beneficial effect on shape memory properties and strength of these steels

  6. Creep and Shrinkage of High Strength Concretes: an Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Martins Toralles carbonari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep and shrinkage behaviour of high strength silica fume concretes is significantly different from that of conventional concretes. In order to represent the proper time-dependent response of the material in structural analysis and design, these aspects should be adequately quantified. This paper discusses an experimental setup that is able to determine the creep and shrinkage of concrete from the time of placing. It also compares different gages that can be used for measuring the strains. The method is applied to five different concretes in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. The phenomena that are quantified can be classified as basic shrinkage, drying shrinkage, basic creep and drying creep. The relative importance of these mechanisms in high strength concrete will also be presented.

  7. Fundamental corrosion characterization of high-strength titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, R.W.; Grauman, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Many commercially available and several developmental high-strength titanium alloys were evaluated for application in chloride-containing environments with respect to general, crevice, and stress corrosion resistance. Studies in boiling reducing and oxidizing acid chloride media permitted identification of certain high-strength titanium alloys, containing ≥4 weight % molybdenum, which are significantly more resistant than unalloyed titanium with respect to general and crevice attack. Data regression analysis suggests that molybdenum and vanadium impart a significant positive effect on alloy corrosion resistance under reducing acid chloride conditions, whereas aluminum is detrimental. Little effect of metallurgical condition (that is, annealed versus aged) on corrosion behavior of the higher molybdenum-containing alloys was noted. No obvious susceptibility to chloride and sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was detected utilizing U-bend specimens at 177 0 C

  8. Evaluation of fracture toughness for metal/ceramics composite materials by means of miniaturized specimen technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hideaki; Jeong, Hee-Don; Kawasaki, Akira; Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate fracture strength for Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 , 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (PSZ)/SUS 304 composite materials, Macor as a machinable ceramics and comercially available ceramics (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , PSZ, Al 2 O 3 ), fracture toughness tests were carried out by use of RCT or bending specimens. On the other hand, the fracture strength of these materials was evaluated and inspected the correlation between fracture toughness and fracture stress of small punch (SP) or modified small punch (MSP) test data to predict the fracture toughness value by using miniaturized specimens. Characteristic of the MSP testing method is the ability to evaluate elastic modulus (Young's modulus), fracture strength, yield strength, fracture strain, and fracture energy, etc., with high accuracy and good reproducibility for brittle materials. For a series of metal/ ceramics composites which from ductile to brittle, this paper clarified clear the applicable range for SP and MSP testing methods, which suggested that the simultaneous use of SP and MSP test methods can evaluate the fracture strength of metal/ ceramics composites. (author)

  9. Research on Inhibition for Corrosion Fatigue of High Strength Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-15

    4140 , $740 1225-1275 1600-1675 1525-1575 1100 1000.. 925 850 725 4340 1225-1275 1600-1650 1500-1550 1100 1045 921. 875 72531 0 0 85 7 0 (I43 7-.22...1 0 le -kI Io o CRACK GROWTH RATE PJamOC Figure 24. Factors that Affect the Crack Growth Rate of High- Strength AISI 4340 Steels in Aqueous

  10. Effects of the Microstructure on Segregation behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy RPV Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Wee, Dang Moon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an improved fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be achieved by adding Ni and Cr. So there are several researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and time of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, it requires a resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement resistance. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. In this study, we have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels) were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment(450 .deg. C, 2000hr. Then, the images of the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  11. Fracture toughness of silicon nitride thin films of different thicknesses as measured by bulge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, B.; Goeken, M.

    2011-01-01

    A bulge test setup was used to determine the fracture toughness of amorphous low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) silicon nitride films with various thicknesses in the range 40-108 nm. A crack-like slit was milled in the center of each free-standing film with a focused ion beam, and the membrane was deformed in the bulge test until failure occurred. The fracture toughness K IC was calculated from the pre-crack length and the stress at failure. It is shown that the membrane is in a transition state between pure plane-stress and plane-strain which, however, had a negligible influence on the measurement of the fracture toughness, because of the high brittleness of silicon nitride and its low Young's modulus over yield strength ratio. The fracture toughness K IC was found to be constant at 6.3 ± 0.4 MPa m 1/2 over the whole thickness range studied, which compares well with bulk values. This means that the fracture toughness, like the Young's modulus, is a size-independent quantity for LPCVD silicon nitride. This presumably holds true for all amorphous brittle ceramic materials.

  12. Study on the improvement of toughness of Nb-based super high temperature materials by forming solid solution and composites; Niobuki chokoon zairyo no koyoka to fukugoka ni yoru kyojinsei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    If materials superior to Ni-based and Co-based super alloys could be developed, great progress is expected in the energy source saving, enhancement of aircraft speed, and simplification of member structure. Metals having high fusing point are prospective as well as C/C composites and ceramics among possible materials. Especially, Nb has a similar density to Ni, and its fusing point is 1,000 centigrade higher than Ni. It has also ductility. Furthermore, it is characterized by the formation of solid solution with other various metals having high fusing point. Accordingly, Nb-based composite alloys having excellent high temperature strength as well as excellent ductility and toughness can be developed by enhancing the solid solution formation and the dispersion with composites of compound phases using Nb as a base material. The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental data for the development of Nb-based composite alloys. The optimum matrix materials and their fabrication processes have been investigated, to evaluate their high temperature properties. Consequently, it was found that the enhancement by the deposition of intermetallic compounds or by the dispersion of oxides was an effective method for the formation of composites of Nb-based alloys. 4 refs., 88 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Grinding damage assessment on four high-strength ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canneto, Jean-Jacques; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Durual, Stéphane; Wiskott, Anselm H W; Scherrer, Susanne S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess surface and subsurface damage on 4 CAD-CAM high-strength ceramics after grinding with diamond disks of 75 μm, 54 μm and 18 μm and to estimate strength losses based on damage crack sizes. The materials tested were: 3Y-TZP (Lava), dense Al2O3 (In-Ceram AL), alumina glass-infiltrated (In-Ceram ALUMINA) and alumina-zirconia glass-infiltrated (In-Ceram ZIRCONIA). Rectangular specimens with 2 mirror polished orthogonal sides were bonded pairwise together prior to degrading the top polished surface with diamond disks of either 75 μm, 54 μm or 18 μm. The induced chip damage was evaluated on the bonded interface using SEM for chip depth measurements. Fracture mechanics were used to estimate fracture stresses based on average and maximum chip depths considering these as critical flaws subjected to tension and to calculate possible losses in strength compared to manufacturer's data. 3Y-TZP was hardly affected by grinding chip damage viewed on the bonded interface. Average chip depths were of 12.7±5.2 μm when grinding with 75 μm diamond inducing an estimated loss of 12% in strength compared to manufacturer's reported flexural strength values of 1100 MPa. Dense alumina showed elongated chip cracks and was suffering damage of an average chip depth of 48.2±16.3 μm after 75 μm grinding, representing an estimated loss in strength of 49%. Grinding with 54 μm was creating chips of 32.2±9.1 μm in average, representing a loss in strength of 23%. Alumina glass-infiltrated ceramic was exposed to chipping after 75 μm (mean chip size=62.4±19.3 μm) and 54 μm grinding (mean chip size=42.8±16.6 μm), with respectively 38% and 25% estimated loss in strength. Alumina-zirconia glass-infiltrated ceramic was mainly affected by 75 μm grinding damage with a chip average size of 56.8±15.1 μm, representing an estimated loss in strength of 34%. All four ceramics were not exposed to critical chipping at 18 μm diamond grinding. Reshaping a

  14. Tetraphenylborate Solubility in High Ionic Strength Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Ginn, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1998-04-01

    Solubility of sodium and potassium salts of the tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) in simulated Savannah River Site High Level Waste was investigated. Data generated from this study allow more accurate predictions of TPB solubility at the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility. Because previous research showed large deviations in the observed solubility of TPB salts when compared with model predictions, additional data were generated to better understand the solubility of TPB in more complex systems of high ionic strength and those containing both potassium and sodium. These data allow evaluation of the ability of current models to accurately predict equilibrium TPB concentrations over the range of experimental conditions investigated in this study

  15. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  16. A cohesive zone model to simulate the hydrogen embrittlement effect on a high-strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gobbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to model the fracture mechanical behavior of a high-strength low carbon steel, AISI 4130 operating in hydrogen contaminated environment. The study deals with the development of 2D finite element cohesive zone model (CZM reproducing a toughness test. Along the symmetry plane over the crack path of a C(T specimen a zero thickness layer of cohesive elements are implemented in order to simulate the crack propagation. The main feature of this kind of model is the definition of a traction-separation law (TSL that reproduces the constitutive response of the material inside to the cohesive elements. Starting from a TSL calibrated on hydrogen non-contaminated material, the embrittlement effect is simulated by reducing the cohesive energy according to the total hydrogen content including the lattice sites (NILS and the trapped amount. In this perspective, the proposed model consists of three steps of simulations. First step evaluates the hydrostatic pressure. It drives the initial hydrogen concentration assigned in the second step, a mass diffusion analysis, defining in this way the contribution of hydrogen moving across the interstitial lattice sites. The final stress analysis, allows getting the total hydrogen content, including the trapped amount, and evaluating the new crack initiation and propagation due to the hydrogen presence. The model is implemented in both plane strain and plane stress configurations; results are compared in the discussion. From the analyses, it resulted that hydrogen is located only into lattice sites and not in traps, and that the considered steel experiences a high hydrogen susceptibility. By the proposed procedure, the developed numerical model seems a reliable and quick tool able to estimate the mechanical behavior of steels in presence of hydrogen.

  17. Microstructural characterization of high strength and high conductivity nanocomposite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, F.; Snoeck, E.; Casanove, M.J.; Roucau, C.; Peyrade, J.P.; Askenazy, S.; Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, Toulouse

    1996-01-01

    The generation of high pulsed magnetic fields by non-destructive magnets is a subject of research in several laboratories in the world. Combining copper and niobium seems to be a promising way to develop composites for such application. CuNb nanofilamentary wires with interesting mechanical properties for non-destructive magnets were obtained. For heavily deformed nanofilamentary wires, the fiber size decreases and the TEM studies reveal a strong fiber-matrix orientation relationship. The Cu/Nb interfaces become semi-coherent and almost completely relaxed, with a distance between misfit dislocations in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. As lowering the filament section improves the mechanical properties, one may expect to elaborate wires with larger numbers of dilaments exhibiting enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent reduction of the filament section may lead to the formation of mono-crystalline Nb fibers and to perfect coherency of the Cu/Nb interfaces over larger distances

  18. Systematics of atom-atom collision strengths at high speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Inokuti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The collision strengths for atom-atom collisions at high speeds are calculated in the first Born approximation. We studied four classes of collisions, distinguished depending upon whether each of the collision partners becomes excited or not. The results of numerical calculations of the collision strengths are presented for all neutral atoms with Z< or =18. The calculations are based on atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions found in the literature. The relative contribution of each class of collision processes to the total collision cross section is examined in detail. In general, inelastic processes dominate for low-Z atoms, while elastic scattering is more important for large Z. Other systematics of the collision strengths are comprehensively discussed. The relevant experimental literature has been surveyed and the results of this work for the three collision systems H-He, He-He, and H-Ar are compared with the data for electron-loss processes. Finally, suggestions are made for future work in measurements of atom-atom and ion-atom collision cross sections

  19. Properties of High Strength Concrete Applied on Semarang - Bawen Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyawan, Prabowo; Antonius; Wedyowibowo, R. Hawik Jenny

    2018-04-01

    To fulfill the needs of highway construction then a high quality concrete is expected to be produced by a short time and high workability, therefore the addition of additive chemicals needs to be conducted. The objective of the study was to find out the properties of high quality concrete including slump value, compressive strength, flexural strength, elasticity modulus and stress-strain diagrams with the addition of fly ash and superplasticizer. There were five types of mixtures were made in this study with a fas (cement water factor) was 0,41 and an additional 15% of fly ash and a varied superplasticizer of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% towards the weight/volume and cement/water. Test samples of cylinders and prisms or beams were tested in the laboratory at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The test results were then compared with the test results made without additional additives. Based on the result of this research, it can be concluded that the increase of slump value due to the addition of 15% fly ash is 0,53 cm of the base slump value. The use of superplasticizer causes the weight of the type to be greater. The optimum dose of superplasticizer is 1,2%, it is still in the usage level according to the F-type admixture brochure (water reducing, high-range admixture) such as 0,6 % -1,5 %. All mixture types which use addition materials for flexural strength (fr'=45kg/cm2) can be achieved at 3 days.

  20. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  1. Determination of slip systems and their relation to the high ductility and fracture toughness of the B2 DyCu intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, G.H.; Shechtman, D.; Wu, D.M.; Becker, A.T.; Chumbley, L.S.; Lograsso, T.A.; Russell, A.M.; Gschneidner, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    DyCu single crystals with CsCl-type B2 structure were tensile tested at room temperature. Slip trace analysis shows that the primary slip system in DyCu with a tensile axis orientation of is {1 1 0} and the critical resolved shear stress for {1 1 0} slip is 18 MPa. Slip traces were also observed from a secondary slip system, {1 1 0} , and this slip system appears to be a key contributor to the previously reported high ductility and high fracture toughness of polycrystalline DyCu. Transmission electron microscopy determinations of the Burgers vectors of dislocations in tensile tested specimens revealed and dislocations, with -type dislocations being more abundant. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the mechanical properties of DyCu and the large family of ductile rare earth B2 intermetallics are discussed

  2. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  3. PM alloy 625M for high strength corrosion resistant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, F.J.; Floreen, S.

    1997-06-01

    In applications where the combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance are required, there have been only a few alloys of choice. A new powder metallurgy alloy has been developed, PM 625M, a niobium modification of Alloy 625, as a material to fill this need. One area of particular interest is the nuclear power industry, where many problems have been encountered with bolts, springs, and guidepins. Mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking data of PM 625M are presented in this paper

  4. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  5. The fracture toughness and DBTT of MoB particle-reinforced MoSi2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhi; Wang Gang; Jiang Wan

    2005-01-01

    The room temperature fracture toughness and the high temperature DBTT of MoB particle-reinforced MoSi 2 composites were investigated using Vickers indentation technique and MSP testing method, respectively. Modified small punch (MSP) test is a method for evaluation of mechanical properties using very small specimens, and it's appropriate for the determination of strength and DBTT. It was found that the approximate fracture toughness of the composite is 1.3 times that of monolithic MoSi 2 , and its DBTT is 100 C higher than that of monolithic MoSi 2 materials. Cracks deflection is a probable mechanism responsible for this behavior. (orig.)

  6. Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet across an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Halszka; McFarlin, Shannon C; Vogel, Erin R; Stoinski, Tara S; Ndagijimana, Felix; Tuyisingize, Deo; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Schwartz, Gary T

    2017-08-01

    The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600-3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    constant (except for the material with the lowest oxide content). The high temperature values of the modulus-corrected yield stresses are approximately two-thirds of the low temperature value. During high temperature creep, there is a definite indication of a threshold stress. This threshold stress......The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573......–873 K. The modulus-corrected yield stress (0.01 offset) is found to be temperature independent at low temperature (195–472 K). Between 473 and 573 K, the yield stress starts to decrease with increasing temperature. At high temperatures (573–873 K), the modulus-corrected yield stress is approximately...

  8. TOUGH User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1987-08-01

    This document contains a technical description of the TOUGH computer program, which was developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in porous and fractured media. The physical processes taken into account in TOUGH are discussed, and the governing equations actually solved by the simulator are stated in full detail. A brief overview is given of the mathematical and numerical methods, and the code architecture. The report provides detailed instructions for preparing input decks. Code applications are illustrated by means of six sample problems

  9. High-mechanical-strength single-pulse draw tower gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Manfred W.; Chojetzki, Christoph; Mueller, Hans Rainer

    2004-11-01

    The inscription of fiber Bragg gratings during the drawing process is a very useful method to realize sensor arrays with high numbers of gratings and excellent mechanical strength and also type II gratings with high temperature stability. Results of single pulse grating arrays with numbers up to 100 and definite wavelengths and positions for sensor applications were achieved at 1550 nm and 830 nm using new photosensitive fibers developed in IPHT. Single pulse type I gratings at 1550 nm with more than 30% reflectivity were shown first time to our knowledge. The mechanical strength of this fiber with an Ormocer coating with those single pulse gratings is the same like standard telecom fibers. Weibull plots of fiber tests will be shown. At 830 nm we reached more than 10% reflectivity with single pulse writing during the fiber drawing in photosensitive fibers with less than 16 dB/km transmission loss. These gratings are useful for stress and vibration sensing applications. Type II gratings with reflectivity near 100% and smooth spectral shape and spectral width of about 1 nm are temperature stable up to 1200 K for short time. They are also realized in the fiber drawing process. These gratings are useful for temperature sensor applications.

  10. High strength fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouard, Yves; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Bado, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Flexures are mechanical elements used in micro- and precision-engineering to precisely guide the motion of micro-parts. They consist of slender bodies that deform elastically upon the application of a force. Although counter-intuitive at first, fused silica is an attractive material for flexure. Pending that the machining process does not introduce surface flaws that would lead to catastrophic failure, the material has a theoretically high ultimate tensile strength of several GPa. We report on high-aspect ratio fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser combined with chemical etching. Notch-hinges with thickness as small as twenty microns and aspect ratios comparable to aspect ratios obtained by Deep- Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) were fabricated and tested under different loading conditions. Multiple fracture tests were performed for various loading conditions and the cracks morphologies were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The manufactured elements show outstanding mechanical properties with flexural strengths largely exceeding those obtained with other technologies and materials. Fused silica flexures offer a mean to combine integrated optics with micro-mechanics in a single monolithic substrate. Waveguides and mechanical elements can be combined in a monolithic devices opening new opportunities for integrated opto-mechatronics devices.

  11. Local buckling failure analysis of high-strength pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Jian Shuai; Zhong-Li Jin; Ya-Tong Zhao; Kui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines in geological disaster regions typically suffer the risk of local buckling failure because of slender structure and complex load.This paper is meant to reveal the local buckling behavior of buried pipelines with a large diameter and high strength,which are under different conditions,including pure bending and bending combined with internal pressure.Finite element analysis was built according to previous data to study local buckling behavior of pressurized and unpressurized pipes under bending conditions and their differences in local buckling failure modes.In parametric analysis,a series of parameters,including pipe geometrical dimension,pipe material properties and internal pressure,were selected to study their influences on the critical bending moment,critical compressive stress and critical compressive strain of pipes.Especially the hardening exponent of pipe material was introduced to the parameter analysis by using the Ramberg-Osgood constitutive model.Results showed that geometrical dimensions,material and internal pressure can exert similar effects on the critical bending moment and critical compressive stress,which have different,even reverse effects on the critical compressive strain.Based on these analyses,more accurate design models of critical bending moment and critical compressive stress have been proposed for high-strength pipelines under bending conditions,which provide theoretical methods for highstrength pipeline engineering.

  12. Determination of high-strength materials diamond grinding rational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, P. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Rychkov, D. A.; Yanyushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of methods of high-strength materials abrasive processing is carried out. This method made it possible to determine the necessary directions and prospects for the development of shaping combined methods. The need to use metal bonded diamond abrasive tools in combination with a different kind of energy is noted to improve the processing efficiency and reduce the complexity of operations. The complex of experimental research on revealing the importance of mechanical and electrical components of cutting regimes, on the cutting ability of diamond tools, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of an abrasive wheel as one of the important economic indicators of the processing process is performed. It is established that combined diamond grinding with simultaneous continuous correction of the abrasive wheel contributes to an increase in the cutting ability of metal bonded diamond abrasive tools when processing high-strength materials by an average of 30% compared to diamond grinding. Particular recommendations on the designation of technological factors are developed depending on specific production problems.

  13. Development of fracture toughness test method for nuclear grade graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, J. S.; Cho, H. C.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, D. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Because of its high strength and stability at very high temperature, as well as very low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, graphite has been widely used as a structural material in Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR). Recently, many countries are developing the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) because of the potentials of hydrogen production, as well as its safety and viable economics. In VHTR, helium gas serves as the primary coolant. Graphite will be used as a reflector, moderator and core structural materials. The life time of graphite is determined from dimensional changes due to neutron irradiation, which closely relates to the changes of crystal structure. The changes of both lattice parameter and crystallite size can be easily measured by X-ray diffraction method. However, due to high cost and long time of neutron irradiation test, ion irradiation test is being performed instead in KAERI. Therefore, it is essential to develop the technique for measurement of ion irradiation damage of nuclear graphite. Fracture toughness of nuclear grade graphite is one of the key properties in the design and development of VHTR. It is important not only to evaluate the various properties of candidate graphite but also to assess the integrity of nuclear grade graphite during operation. Although fracture toughness tests on graphite have been performed in many laboratories, there have been wide variations in values of the calculated fracture toughness, due to the differences in the geometry of specimens and test conditions. Hence, standard test method for nuclear graphite is required to obtain the reliable fracture toughness values. Crack growth behavior of nuclear grade graphite shows rising R-curve which means the increase in crack growth resistance as the crack length increases. Crack bridging and microcracking have been proposed to be the dominant mechanisms of rising R-curve behavior. In this paper, the technique to measure the changes of crystallite size and

  14. Transforming Anaerobic Adhesives into Highly Durable and Abrasion Resistant Superhydrophobic Organoclay Nanocomposite Films: A New Hybrid Spray Adhesive for Tough Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Brown, Andrea; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The authors report fabrication of tough nanostructured self-cleaning superhydrophobic polymer-organoclay films from anaerobic acrylic adhesives displaying strong adhesion to metal surfaces. Both industrial and bio-grade anaerobic adhesives such as bone cements could be used. Montmorillonite clay filled anaerobic adhesives were modified by blending with a water dispersed fluoro-methacrylic latex in solution to form abrasion resistant interpenetrating polymer network films upon spray casting. The adhesive films could cure by thermosetting in oxygen-rich environments. Very high contact angles with low hysteresis were also measured for acidic (pH 2) and basic (pH 11) aqueous buffer solutions indicating resistance to acidic and basic media.

  15. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  16. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS

  17. Thermal Stir Welding of High Strength and High Temperature Alloys for Aerospace Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Keystone and MSU team propose to demonstrate the feasibility of solid-state joining high strength and temperature alloys utilizing the Thermal Stir Welding...

  18. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  19. Advanced High Strength Steel in Auto Industry: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baluch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most common alloy, steel, is the material of choice when it comes to making products as diverse as oil rigs to cars and planes to skyscrapers, simply because of its functionality, adaptability, machine-ability and strength. Newly developed grades of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS significantly outperform competing materials for current and future automotive applications. This is a direct result of steel’s performance flexibility, as well as of its many benefits including low cost, weight reduction capability, safety attributes, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and superior recyclability. To improve crash worthiness and fuel economy, the automotive industry is, increasingly, using AHSS. Today, and in the future, automotive manufacturers must reduce the overall weight of their cars. The most cost-efficient way to do this is with AHSS. However, there are several parameters that decide which of the AHSS types to be used; the most important parameters are derived from the geometrical form of the component and the selection of forming and blanking methods. This paper describes the different types of AHSS, highlights their advantages for use in auto metal stampings, and discusses about the new challenges faced by stampers, particularly those serving the automotive industry.

  20. Characteristics of shock propagation in high-strength cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjiang; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Ruoqi

    2001-06-01

    Planar impact experiments have been performed on high-strength cement mortar to determine characteristics of shock propagation.The experiments were conducted on a light-gas gun,and permanent-magnet particle velocity gages were used to obtain the sand of 0.5 3.5mm size.A bulk density of 2.31g/cm^3,and a compressive and tensile strength of 82MPa and 7.8MPa,respectively,were determined.Three kinds of experimental techniques were used,including the reverse ballistic configuration.These techniques effectively averaged the measured dynamic compression state over a sensibly large volume of the test sample.The impact velocities were controlled over a range of approximately 80m/s to 0.83km/s.Hugoniot equation of state data were obtained for the material over a pressure range of approximately 0.2 2.0GPa,and its nonlinear constitutive relation were analyzed.The experiment results show that,in higher pressure range provided in the experiment,the shock wave in the material splits into two components of an elastic and a plastic,with the Hugoniot elastic limit 0.4 0.5GPa and the precursor velocity about 4.7km/s,and the material presents a very strong nonlinear dynamic response,and its shock amplitude will greatly decrease in propagation.

  1. Accelerated Creep Testing of High Strength Aramid Webbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Stnfield, Clarence E.; Valverde, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A series of preliminary accelerated creep tests were performed on four variants of 12K and 24K lbf rated Vectran webbing to help develop an accelerated creep test methodology and analysis capability for high strength aramid webbings. The variants included pristine, aged, folded and stitched samples. This class of webbings is used in the restraint layer of habitable, inflatable space structures, for which the lifetime properties are currently not well characterized. The Stepped Isothermal Method was used to accelerate the creep life of the webbings and a novel stereo photogrammetry system was used to measure the full-field strains. A custom MATLAB code is described, and used to reduce the strain data to produce master creep curves for the test samples. Initial results show good correlation between replicates; however, it is clear that a larger number of samples are needed to build confidence in the consistency of the results. It is noted that local fiber breaks affect the creep response in a similar manner to increasing the load, thus raising the creep rate and reducing the time to creep failure. The stitched webbings produced the highest variance between replicates, due to the combination of higher local stresses and thread-on-fiber damage. Large variability in the strength of the webbings is also shown to have an impact on the range of predicted creep life.

  2. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun-Jin [Oh-Sung Co. Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  3. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min; Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  4. Tough by name, tough by nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Few beds, one would imagine, could withstand three-quarters of a ton landing on them, but this was the challenge successfully met by a box bed from a furniture manufacturer for challenging behaviour environments, Tough Furniture, when, to reassure a customer that the bed could accommodate 30-stone patients, 13 of the company's staff jumped repeatedly on it to ensure that it would survive intact in a real-world setting. Such testing may seem extreme, but is vital, since much of the company's furniture is destined for environments where patients will abuse, and indeed attempt to destroy, components. As MD David Vesty explained to HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, when he visited the company's Shropshire headquarters, it is through manufacturing premium quality cabinet furniture that is both attractive and distinctly non-institutional, but will equally withstand the harshest use, that the company has ensured that its products can live up to the brand name.

  5. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2002-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth of a hardened and tempered high speed steel was investigated. The evolution of fatigue cracks was followed in four point bending at room temperature. It was found that a carbide damage zone exists above a threshold load...... value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...... microns in front of the fatigue crack tip, which is comparable with the relevant mean free carbide spacing....

  6. Thermal Transport in High-Strength Polymethacrylimide (PMI) Foam Insulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Yang, S. Y.; Hu, A. J.; Wang, L. L.; Li, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal transport in high-strength polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam insulations is described, with special emphasis on the density and temperature effects on the thermal transport performance. Measurements of the effective thermal conductivity are performed by a freestanding sensor-based 3ω method. A linear relationship between the density and the effective thermal conductivity is observed. Based on the analysis of the foam insulation morphological structures and the corresponding geometrical cell model, the quantitative contribution of the solid conductivity and the gas conductivity as well as the radiative conductivity to the total effective thermal conductivity as a function of the density and temperature is calculated. The agreement between the curves of the results from the developed model and experimental data indicate the model can be used for PMI foam insulating performance optimization.

  7. Corrosion fatigue behavior of high strength brass in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S.; Kassem, M.A.; Ramadan, R.M.; El-Zeky, M.A. [Suez Canal Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of British Standard high strength brass, CZ 127 has been studied in various environments, 3.5%NaC1 solution and 3.5%NaC1 containing 1000ppm ammonia by applying the reverse bending technique, strain-controlled cyclic, at 67 cycles/min. Characteristics of the produced alloy were studied using differential thermal analysis with applying its results in heat treating of the alloy; metallographic examinations; hardness measurements; X-ray; and electrochemical behavior of the unstressed alloy. CZ 127 was fatigued at three different conditions, solution treated, peak aged, and over aged at a fixed strain amplitude, 0.03 5. Solution treated alloy gave the best fatigue properties in all environments tested among the other materials. Results of the alloy studied were compared with that obtained of 70/30 {alpha}-brass. Fracture surface of the fatigued alloy was examined using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX. (author)

  8. Corrosion fatigue behavior of high strength brass in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, A.S.; Kassem, M.A.; Ramadan, R.M.; El-Zeky, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of British Standard high strength brass, CZ 127 has been studied in various environments, 3.5%NaC1 solution and 3.5%NaC1 containing 1000ppm ammonia by applying the reverse bending technique, strain-controlled cyclic, at 67 cycles/min. Characteristics of the produced alloy were studied using differential thermal analysis with applying its results in heat treating of the alloy; metallographic examinations; hardness measurements; X-ray; and electrochemical behavior of the unstressed alloy. CZ 127 was fatigued at three different conditions, solution treated, peak aged, and over aged at a fixed strain amplitude, 0.03 5. Solution treated alloy gave the best fatigue properties in all environments tested among the other materials. Results of the alloy studied were compared with that obtained of 70/30 α-brass. Fracture surface of the fatigued alloy was examined using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX. (author)

  9. CO2 laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamikiz, A.; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de; Sanchez, J.A.; Pozo, D. del; Etayo, J.M.; Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet

  10. Advanced Gear Alloys for Ultra High Strength Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tony; Krantz, Timothy; Sebastian, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Single tooth bending fatigue (STBF) test data of UHS Ferrium C61 and C64 alloys are presented in comparison with historical test data of conventional gear steels (9310 and Pyrowear 53) with comparable statistical analysis methods. Pitting and scoring tests of C61 and C64 are works in progress. Boeing statistical analysis of STBF test data for the four gear steels (C61, C64, 9310 and Pyrowear 53) indicates that the UHS grades exhibit increases in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime. In the high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime, the UHS steels exhibit better mean fatigue strength endurance limit behavior (particularly as compared to Pyrowear 53). However, due to considerable scatter in the UHS test data, the anticipated overall benefits of the UHS grades in bending fatigue have not been fully demonstrated. Based on all the test data and on Boeing s analysis, C61 has been selected by Boeing as the gear steel for the final ERDS demonstrator test gearboxes. In terms of potential follow-up work, detailed physics-based, micromechanical analysis and modeling of the fatigue data would allow for a better understanding of the causes of the experimental scatter, and of the transition from high-stress LCF (surface-dominated) to low-stress HCF (subsurface-dominated) fatigue failure. Additional STBF test data and failure analysis work, particularly in the HCF regime and around the endurance limit stress, could allow for better statistical confidence and could reduce the observed effects of experimental test scatter. Finally, the need for further optimization of the residual compressive stress profiles of the UHS steels (resulting from carburization and peening) is noted, particularly for the case of the higher hardness C64 material.

  11. 2016 Accomplishments. Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Forging process effects on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-precharged stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Forged austenitic stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed to contain tritium at high pressure. These steels are highly resistant to tritium-assisted fracture but their resistance can depend on the details of the forging microstructure. During FY16, the effects of forging strain rate and deformation temperature on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-exposed-and-aged Type 304L stainless steel were studied. Forgings were produced from a single heat of steel using four types of production forging equipment – hydraulic press, mechanical press, screw press, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). Each machine imparted a different nominal strain rate during the deformation. The objective of the study was to characterize the J-Integral fracture toughness properties as a function of the industrial strain rate and temperature. The second objective was to measure the effects of tritium and decay helium on toughness. Tritium and decay helium effects were measured by thermally precharging the as-forged specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for up to five years at -80°C to build-in decay helium prior to testing. The results of this study show that the fracture toughness properties of the as-forged steels vary with forging strain rate and forging temperature. The effect is largely due to yield strength as the higher-strength forgings had the lower toughness values. For non-charged specimens, fracture toughness properties were improved by forging at 871°C versus 816°C and Screw-Press forgings tended to have lower fracture toughness values than the other forgings. Tritium exposures reduced the fracture toughness values remarkably to fracture toughness values averaging 10-20% of as-forged values. However, forging strain rate and temperature had little or no effect on the fracture toughness after tritium precharging and aging. The result was confirmed by fractography which indicated that fracture modes

  12. High Early-Age Strength Concrete for Rapid Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maler, Matthew O.

    The aim of this research was to identify High Early-Age Strength (HES) concrete batch designs, and evaluate their suitability for use in the rapid repair of highways and bridge decks. To this end, two criteria needed to be met; a minimum compressive strength of 20.68 MPa (3000 psi) in no later than 12 hours, and a drying shrinkage of less than 0.06 % at 28 days after curing. The evaluations included both air-entrained, and non-air-entrained concretes. The cement types chosen for this study included Type III and Type V Portland cement and "Rapid Set"--a Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement. In addition, two blended concretes containing different ratios of Type V Portland cement and CSA cement were investigated. The evaluation of the studied concretes included mechanical properties and transport properties. Additionally, dimensional stability and durability were investigated. Evaluations were conducted based on cement type and common cement factor. Fresh property tests showed that in order to provide a comparable workability, and still remain within manufactures guideline for plasticizer, the water-to-cement ratio was adjusted for each type of cement utilized. This resulted in the need to increase the water-to-cement ratio as the Blaine Fineness of the cement type increased (0.275 for Type V Portland cement, 0.35 for Type III Portland cement, and 0.4 for Rapid Set cement). It was also observed that negligible changes in setting time occurred with increasing cement content, whereas changes in cement type produced notable differences. The addition of air-entrainment had beneficial effect on workability for the lower cement factors. Increasing trends for peak hydration heat were seen with increases in cement factor, cement Blaine Fineness, and accelerator dosage. Evaluation of hardened properties revealed opening times as low as 5 hours for Type V Portland cement with 2.0 % accelerator per cement weight and further reduction in opening time by an hour when accelerator

  13. Behaviour of High Strength Steel Endplate Connections in Fire and after Fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiang, X.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal more information and understanding on behaviour and failure mechanisms of high strength steel endplate connections (combining high strength steel endplates with either mild steel or high strength steel beams and columns in endplate connections) in fire and after

  14. High-strength structural steels; their properties, and the problems encountered during the welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwer, D.

    1978-01-01

    High-strength structural steels, manufacture, properties. Requirements to be met by the welded joints of high-strength structural steels. Influence of the welding conditions on the mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone. Cold-cracking behaviour of welded joints. Economic efficiency of high-strength structural steels. Applications. (orig.) [de

  15. High carbon microalloyed martensitic steel with ultrahigh strength-ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Ying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 200245 (China); Chen, Nailu, E-mail: nlchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Based on the idea of rising the mechanical stability of retained austenite by the addition of Si in Fe-Mn based steels, an Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb was designed, then its hot rolled plate was successively tread by normalization process as pretreatment of novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process. Product of tensile and elongation (PSE) of 53.94 GPa% were obtained for this high carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel, and the PSE (40.18 GPa%) obtained by the conversion of tensile sample size using Oliver formula still is more excellent PSE than those of other microalloyed advanced high strength steels reported. The microstructural characterization reveals origin of ultrahigh PSE resulting from both the increase of considerable and dispersed carbon enriched retained austenite with relative high mechanical stability in volume fraction and the decrease of brittle twin-type martensite with the sensitivity of notch.

  16. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John H; Yahata, Brennan D; Hundley, Jacob M; Mayer, Justin A; Schaedler, Tobias A; Pollock, Tresa M

    2017-09-20

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  17. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John H.; Yahata, Brennan D.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Mayer, Justin A.; Schaedler, Tobias A.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2017-09-01

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  18. Investigation on fracture toughness of laser beam welded steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekehr, S.; Cam, G.; Santos, J.F. dos; Kocak, M.; Klein, R.M.; Fischer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Laser beam welding is currently used in the welding of a variety of structural materials including hot and cold rolled steels, high strength low alloy and stainless steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, refractory and high temperature alloys and dissimilar materials. This high power density welding process has unique advantages of cost effectiveness, low distortion, high welding speed, easy automation, deep penetration, narrow bead width, and narrow HAZ compared to the conventional fusion welding processes. However, there is a need to understand the deformation and fracture properties of laser beam weld joints in order to use this cost effective process for fabrication of structural components fully. In the present study, an austenitic stainless steel, X5CrNi18 10 (1.4301) and a ferritic structural steel, RSt37-2 (1.0038), with a thickness of 4 mm were welded by 5 kW CO 2 laser process. Microhardness measurements were conducted to determine the hardness profiles of the joints. Flat micro-tensile specimens were extracted from the base metal, fusion zone, and heat affected zone of ferritic joint to determine the mechanical property variation across the joint and the strength mismatch ratio between the base metal and the fusion zone. Moreover, fracture mechanics specimens were extracted from the joints and tested at room temperature to determine fracture toughness, Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD), of the laser beam welded specimens. The effect of the weld region strength mis-matching on the fracture toughness of the joints have been evaluated. Crack initiation, crack growth and crack deviation processes have also been examined. These results were used to explain the influence of mechanical heterogeneity of the weld region on fracture behaviour. This work is a part of the ongoing Brite-Euram project Assessment of Quality of Power Beam Weld Joints (ASPOW). (orig.)

  19. Fracture toughness measurements on zirconia toughened ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sayed Ali, M.; Toft Soerensen, O.

    1986-12-01

    Three techniques for fracture toughness measurements on zirconia toughened ceramics were evaluated: the notched beam (NB) technique, the indentation fracture (IF) technique and the indentation strength in bending (ISB) technique. Using these techniques comparative measurements were performed on samples prepared by pressing (uniaxial) and sintering of four commercially available powder types. These were: Toya Soda (Japan) powders with the designations TZ3Y (2.86 mole% Y 2 O 3 ), TZ3YA (2.77 mole% Y 2 O 3 , 0.1 wt% Al 2 O 3 ) and TZ3Y20A (2.88 mole% Y 2 O 3 , 20 wt.% Al 2 O 3 ) and a powder supplied by Viking Chemicals (Denmark) designated as YP5Z-2.5 (2.5 mole% Y 2 O 3 ). The measurements showed that similar K Ic values were obtained with the IF- and ISB-techniques, which therefore are recommended for K Ic measurements. Too high values were, however, obtained with the NB-technique which therefore cannot be recommended. Finally, the measurements showed that a high temperature annealing is recommended prior to testing for the IF-technique. (author)

  20. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness and temper embrittlement of SA508Gr.4N steel for advanced pressure vessel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhengdong; He, Xikou; Qiao, Shibin; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-01-09

    The effect of microstructure on the impact toughness and the temper embrittlement of a SA508Gr.4N steel was investigated. Martensitic and bainitic structures formed in this material were examined via scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis. The martensitic structure had a positive effect on both the strength and toughness. Compared with the bainitic structure, this structure consisted of smaller blocks and more high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). Changes in the ultimate tensile strength and toughness of the martensitic structure were attributed to an increase in the crack propagation path. This increase resulted from an increased number of HAGBs and refinement of the sub-structure (block). The AES results revealed that sulfur segregation is higher in the martensitic structure than in the bainitic structure. Therefore, the martensitic structure is more susceptible to temper embrittlement than the bainitic structure.

  1. Technical Note: Filler and superplasticizer usage on high strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümer, M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of filler (rock-dust usage on high strength concrete have been investigated through lab experiments and some results have been obtained. The experiments involved three series of concrete with different cement proportions of 375 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, and 425 kg/m3. For each series of concrete, three different groups of samples have been prepared, the first one being the reference concrete which contained 0% chemical admixture and 0% filler, the second one contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 0% filler and finally the last group contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 5% filler to the weight of cement used. The chemical admixture used was a type of Super plasticizer with a brand name of “DARACEM 190”, and the cement used was Ordinary Portland Cement of target compressive strength 42.5 N/mm2, obtained from Nuh Cement Plant. For each batch, Slump Tests and Unit Weight Tests were performed. For each stage and group, two 15 cm cubic samples have been tested for Compressive Strength after being cured in water at 20 ± 2 °C for ages of 3 days, 7 days, 28 and 60 days. The total number of samples was 72. As a result, filler usage was found to reduce the porosity of Concrete, increase the Unit Weight of Concrete, increase the need for water and improve the Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la utilización de un “filler” (polvo mineral en el comportamiento del hormigón de altas prestaciones. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de laboratorio en los que se emplean tres series de hormigón, cada una con una dosificación de cemento distinta, de 375, 400 y 425 kg/m3. Se preparan tres grupos de probetas de cada serie, el primero o de referencia con 0% de aditivo químico y 0% de “filler”, el segundo con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y 0% de “filler” y el tercero con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y un 5% de “filler” en peso del cemento. Como aditivo se

  2. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonghua; Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-22

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint.

  3. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-01

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint. PMID:29361743

  4. Assessment of fracture toughness of structural steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Junyor, José Onésimo; Faria, Stéfanno Bruno; Rocha, Nirlando Antônio; Reis, Emil; Vilela, Jefferson José, E-mail: ze_onezo@hotmail.com, E-mail: sbrunofaria@gmail.com, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: emilr@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte (UNIBH), MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The fracture toughness parameters are applied to estimate the lifetime of mechanical components and define the criteria of safe failure and tolerable damages. This information allows equipment to be used longer with a high degree of safety. These techniques are applied in the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept that is accepted for designing the piping system of the primary circuit of the pressurized water reactor (PWR). In this work, fracture toughness tests such as J{sub IC} and CTOD were performed on some structural steels. The fracture toughness parameters were determined using SE(B) and C(T) test specimens. The fracture toughness values for the same material varied according to the type specimen. The parameter δ{sub 1c} showed different values when it was calculated using the ASTM E1820 standard and using the BS 7448: Part 1 standard. These results indicate that procedures of these standards need to be improved. Two systems with different sensitivity in the force measurement were used that showed similar results for toughness fracture but the dispersion was different. (author)

  5. New classes of tough composite materials-Lessons from natural rigid biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Box 352120, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)]. E-mail: gmayer@u.washington.edu

    2006-09-15

    The structures and properties of a new class of composite materials, containing a predominantly high volume fraction ceramic or glass phase, combined with minor organic (adhesive) phases, have been studied. These composites have unusual combinations of mechanical properties, such as stiffness, strength, and toughness. They are based on the architecture of a rigid natural material, the nacre structure, such as those found in the shells of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, and those of other mollusk shells. The mechanisms underlying these properties have also been studied. Analogs (utilizing high-performance engineering materials), that mimic many of the mechanisms underlying those superior combinations of properties, have been built. The results of the foregoing investigations are discussed. It was found that the toughness of segmented composite beams which have high volume fractions of ceramic (89 v / o) exceeded those of continuous layered beams, as well as the monolithic ceramic (alumina) on which they are based.

  6. New classes of tough composite materials-Lessons from natural rigid biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and properties of a new class of composite materials, containing a predominantly high volume fraction ceramic or glass phase, combined with minor organic (adhesive) phases, have been studied. These composites have unusual combinations of mechanical properties, such as stiffness, strength, and toughness. They are based on the architecture of a rigid natural material, the nacre structure, such as those found in the shells of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, and those of other mollusk shells. The mechanisms underlying these properties have also been studied. Analogs (utilizing high-performance engineering materials), that mimic many of the mechanisms underlying those superior combinations of properties, have been built. The results of the foregoing investigations are discussed. It was found that the toughness of segmented composite beams which have high volume fractions of ceramic (89 v / o) exceeded those of continuous layered beams, as well as the monolithic ceramic (alumina) on which they are based

  7. Characteristics in Paintability of Advanced High Strength Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ha Sun

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that advanced high strength steels (AHSS) would be widely used for vehicles with better performance in automotive industries. One of distinctive features of AHSS is the high value of carbon equivalent (Ceq), which results in the different properties in formability, weldability and paintability from those of common grade of steel sheets. There is an exponential relation between Ceq and electric resistance, which seems also to have correlation with the thickness of electric deposition (ED) coat. higher value of Ceq of AHSS lower the thickness of ED coat of AHSS. Some elements of AHSS such as silicon, if it is concentrated on the surface, affect negatively the formation of phosphates. In this case, silicon itself doesn't affect the phosphate, but its oxide does. This phenomenon is shown dramatically in the welding area. Arc welding or laser welding melts the base material. In the process of cooling of AHSS melt, the oxides of Si and Mn are easily concentrated on the surface of boundary between welded and non welded area because Si and Mn cold be oxidized easier than Fe. More oxide on surface results in poor phosphating and ED coating. This is more distinctive in AHSS than in mild steel. General results on paintability of AHSS would be reported, being compared to those of mild steel

  8. Fracture toughness of A533B. Part 2. Review of data pertinent to upper shelf temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.G.; Eyre, B.L.; Belcher, W.P.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report is the second in a series of three examining the state of the art of elastoplastic fracture mechanics as applied to A533B pressure vessel steel in the upper shelf temperature regime. Part II presents a review of fracture toughness data for A533B Class 1 plate tested in the longitudinal (RW) orientation. Data from USA, UK and Scandinavian sources published prior to September 1976 has been included. It is concluded that previous studies using a maximum load criterion have over-estimated the initiation toughness in the upper shelf regime. Results derived from J integral tests now show the mean toughness at 275 0 C to vary between 141 ksi sq. root in and 154 ksi sq. root in depending on the exact analytical procedure used. Limited statistical analysis of the results obtained using several heats of material suggest that standard deviation of the scatter of results is approximately 11% of the mean value. Recommendations for future work to improve our understanding of the fracture properties of A533B and similar medium strength high toughness materials, and their application to large structures, are presented. (author)

  9. The effect of electric discharge machined notches on the fracture toughness of several structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Recent computational studies of the stress and strain fields at the tip of very sharp notches have shown that the stress and strain fields are very weakly dependent on the initial geometry of the notch once the notch has been blunted to a radius that is 6 to 10 times the initial root radius. It follows that if the fracture toughness of a material is sufficiently high so that fracture initiation does not occur in a specimen until the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) reaches a value from 6 to 10 times the size of the initial notch tip diameter, then the fracture toughness will be independent of whether a fatigue crack or a machined notch served as the initial crack. In this experimental program the fracture toughness (J Ic and J resistance (J-R) curve, and CTOD) for several structure alloys was measured using specimens with conventional fatigue cracks and with EDM machined notches. The results of this program have shown, in fact, that most structural materials do not achieve initiation CTOD values on the order of 6 to 10 times the radius of even the smallest EDM notch tip presently achievable. It is found furthermore that tougher materials do not seem to be less dependent on the type of notch tip present. Some materials are shown to be much more dependent on the type of notch tip used, but no simple pattern is found that relates this observed dependence to the material strength toughness, or strain hardening rate

  10. Effect of copper precipitates on the toughness of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Willer, D.; Katerbau, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    The ferritic bainitic steel 15NiCuMoNb5 (WB 36)is widely used for pressure boundary components. Due to the high copper content which leads to precipitation hardening high strength and toughness are characteristic for this type of steel. However, in the initial state, there is still a high amount of dissolved copper in an oversaturated state which makes the steel susceptible to thermal ageing. Ageing and annealing experiments were performed, and the change in microstructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), measurements of the residual electric resistance and hardness measurements. A correlation between micro structural changes and changes in mechanical properties could be established. It could clearly be shown that significant effects on strength and toughness have to be considered when the size of the copper rich precipitates vary in the range from 1.2 to 2.2 nm in radius. The changes in microstructure affect both, the Carpy impact transition temperature and the fracture toughness qualitatively and quantitatively in a similar way. The investigations have contributed to a better understanding of precipitation hardening by copper not only for this type of steel but also for copper containing steels and weld subjected to neutron irradiation. (orig.)

  11. Next generation self-shielded flux cored electrode with improved toughness for off shore oil well platform structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Daya; Soltis, Patrick; Narayanan, Badri; Quintana, Marie; Fox, Jeff [The Lincoln Electric Company (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Self-shielded flux cored arc welding electrodes (FCAW-S) are ideal for outdoor applications, particularly open fabrication yards where high winds are a possibility. Development work was carried out on a FCAW-S electrode for welding 70 and 80 ksi yield strength base materials with a required minimum average Charpy V-Notch (CVN) absorbed energy value of 35 ft-lb at -40 deg F in the weld metal. The effect of Al, Mg, Ti, and Zr on CVN toughness was evaluated by running a Design of Experiments approach to systematically vary the levels of these components in the electrode fill and, in turn, the weld metal. These electrodes were used to weld simulated pipe joints. Over the range of compositions tested, 0.05% Ti in the weld metal was found to be optimum for CVN toughness. Ti also had a beneficial effect on the usable voltage range. Simulated offshore joints were welded to evaluate the effect of base metal dilution, heat input, and welding procedure on the toughness of weld metal. CVN toughness was again measured at -40 deg F on samples taken from the root and the cap pass regions. The root pass impact toughness showed strong dependence on the base metal dilution and the heat input used to weld the root and fill passes. (author)

  12. Fracture toughness of dentin/resin-composite adhesive interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; Pilliar, R M

    1993-05-01

    The reliability and validity of tensile and shear bond strength determinations of dentin-bonded interfaces have been questioned. The fracture toughness value (KIC) reflects the ability of a material to resist crack initiation and unstable propagation. When applied to an adhesive interface, it should account for both interfacial bond strength and inherent defects at or near the interface, and should therefore be more appropriate for characterization of interface fracture resistance. This study introduced a fracture toughness test for the assessment of dentin/resin-composite bonded interfaces. The miniature short-rod specimen geometry was used for fracture toughness testing. Each specimen contained a tooth slice, sectioned from a bovine incisor, to form the bonded interface. The fracture toughness of an enamel-bonded interface was assessed in addition to the dentin-bonded interfaces. Tensile bond strength specimens were also prepared from the dentin surfaces of the cut bovine incisors. A minimum of ten specimens was fabricated for each group of materials tested. After the specimens were aged for 24 h in distilled water at 37 degrees C, the specimens were loaded to failure in an Instron universal testing machine. There were significant differences (p adhesives tested. Generally, both the fracture toughness and tensile bond strength measurements were highest for AllBond 2, intermediate for 3M MultiPurpose, and lowest for Scotchbond 2. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured specimen halves confirmed that crack propagation occurred along the bond interface during the fracture toughness test. It was therefore concluded that the mini-short-rod fracture toughness test provided a valid method for characterization of the fracture resistance of the dentin-resin composite interface.

  13. Effective longitudinal strength of high temperature metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, J.N.; Savvides, I.

    1991-01-01

    Several models for predicting the longitudinal strength of fiber composites are presented, ranging from a simple netting analysis to a model incorporating curvilinear strain hardening for all the components. Results from these models are presented for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloys, FeCrAlY and MARM200. It is shown that a simple elastic limit micromechanical model does not always adequately describe the useful strength of the composites. The methods proposed here are shown to be more appropriate for predicting the effective composite strength. 2 refs

  14. A new generation of ultra high strength steel pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozda, J.; Zeman, M.; Weglowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    For many years an increased demand for natural gas can be observed. Ultra high-strength pipelines with higher operating pressures and/or reduced wall thickness are a means to reduce transmission costs. Motivated by reduced investment costs (overcharge a few billion of dollars), tend towards the development of a new grade of pipeline steel with microalloying element for example Nb, that potentially lowers the total cost of long-distance gas pipelines by 5 - 15%. New long distance pipelines have budgets in excess of several billion dollars. This paper describes mechanical properties of new generation of pipelines steel with higher content of niobium and the influence the welding thermal cycles on the microstructure and brittle fracture resistance. The resistance to cold cracking has also been determined. It was found that the new steel has close properties to API X70 grade steels, but is cheaper in manufacturing and installation. The steel has been covered by the amended EN 10028-5 standard and proper modifications will also be made in other European standards. (author)

  15. Fatigue crack retardation of high strength steel in saltwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokaji, K.; Ando, Z.; Imai, T.; Kojima, T.

    1983-01-01

    A high strength steel was studied in 3 percent saltwater to investigate the effects of a corrosive environment and sheer thickness on fatigue crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload. Experiments were carried out under sinusoidally varying loads at a load ratio of 0 and frequency of 10 H /SUB z/ . A single tensile overload was found to cause delayed retardation, and the crack propagation rate at first increased, followed by fairly rapid decrease to a minimum value and then increased gradually to its steady-state value, just as it did in air. The overload affected zone size and the retardation cycles increased with decreasing sheet thickness, just as they did in air. However, the zone size and the cycles were larger in 3 percent saltwater than in air. Since the crack propagation rates through the overload affected zone were not affected by the test environment, the longer retardation cycles in 3 percent saltwater were attributed to an enlargement of the overload affected zone size. The crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload in 3 percent saltwater was well explained by the crack closure concept

  16. ON THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BENDING STRENGTH OF CASTABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ HAMÁČEK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hot moduli of rupture (HMOR measurements have been performed for the low-cement castable (LCC, the ultra-low cement castable (ULCC, and the no-cement castable (NCC. All castables contained SiO2-Al2O3 based aggregates (burned fireclay and kaolin. The experimental data points have been described using the model based on the Varshni approach within the temperature region 1000-1200°C and by the model based on the Adam-Gibbs theory above 1400°C. A smooth but distinct transition between both temperature regions has been observed. The limits and applicability of the models have been analyzed. At lower temperature the loss of strength of castables was attributed to weakening of bonds most probably in the frontal process zone of cracking. At higher temperature, the liquid phase causes slowing down of the crack propagation by formation of the viscous bridging in the following wake region. And finally, at very high temperatures, the castable behaves as very viscous suspension which can be described using models originally developed for molten glasses.

  17. High-strength concrete and the design of power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttonen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the literature, the design of high-strength concrete structures and the suitability of high-strength concrete for the power plant structures have been studied. Concerning the behavior of structures, a basic difference between the high-strength concrete and the traditional one is that the ductility of the high-strength concrete is smaller. In the design, the non-linear stress-strain relationship of the high-strength concrete has to be taken into account. The use of the high-strength concrete is economical if the strength of the material can be utilized. In the long term, the good durability and wear resistance of the high-strength concrete increases the economy of the material. Because of the low permeability of the high-strength concrete, it is a potential material in the safety-related structures of nuclear power plants. The study discovered no particular power plant structure which would always be economical to design of high-strength concrete. However, the high-strength concrete was found to be a competitive material in general

  18. Application of local approach to quantitative prediction of degradation in fracture toughness of steels due to pre-straining and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, T.; Tagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of cleavage fracture toughness for low carbon steels due to pre-straining and irradiation was investigated on the basis of the local fracture criterion approach. Formulation of cleavage fracture toughness through the statistical modelling proposed by BEREMIN has been simplified by the present authors to the expression involving yield stress and cleavage fracture stress of materials. A few percent pre-strain induced by cold rolling deteriorates significantly the cleavage fracture toughness. Ductile-brittle transition temperature is increased to more than 70 C higher by 8% straining in 500 MPa class high strength steel. Quantitative prediction of degradation has been successfully examined through the formulation of the cleavage fracture toughness. Analytical and experimental results indicate that degradation in toughness is caused by the increase of flow stress in pre-strained materials. Quantitative prediction of degradation of toughness due to irradiation has been also examined for the past experiments on the basis of the local fracture criterion approach. Analytical prediction from variance of yield stress by irradiation is well consistent with the experimental results. (orig.)

  19. A study on the fracture toughness of heavy section steel plates and forgings for nuclear pressure vessels produced in Japan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yuzuru; Ogura, Nobukazu; Takahashi, Isao; Miya, Kenzo; Ando, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the main results of a series of tests carried out by the Atomic Energy Research Committee, the Japan Welding Engineering Society, for six years for the purpose of evaluating the fracture toughness and strength of superthick steel materials for nuclear reactors made in Japan are reported. In this research, as the fracture toughness test, three kinds of static, dynamic and crack propagation stop tests were carried out. Not only parent metals but also welded parts were evaluated, and numerous data have been accumulated. The fracture toughness of structural materials generally depends on test temperature, and forms three regions of lower shelf, transition and upper shelf from low temperature side toward high temperature side. It is desired to establish the effective method to determine fracture toughness over wide temperature range with small test pieces, and as its promising method, J(IC) fracture toughness test based on elasto-plastic fracture mechanics is carried out. The toughness in lower shelf and transition regions was clarified by K(IC) test, and that in upper shelf region was evaluated by J(IC) test. The methods of test and analysis, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  1. Differentiation of molecular chain entanglement structure through laser Raman spectrum measurement of High strength PET fibers under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, D.; Takarada, W.; Kikutani, T.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for the improvement of mechanical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers based on the concept of controlling the state of molecular entanglement. For this purpose, five different PET fibers were prepared through either the conventional melt spinning and drawing/annealing process or the high-speed melt spinning process. In both cases, the melt spinning process was designed so as to realize different Deborah number conditions. The prepared fibers were subjected to the laser Raman spectroscopy measurement and the characteristics of the scattering peak at around 1616 cm-1, which corresponds to the C-C/C=C stretching mode of the aromatic ring in the main chain, were investigated in detail. It was revealed that the fibers drawn and annealed after the melt spinning process of lower Deborah number showed higher tensile strength as well as lower value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the laser Raman spectrum. Narrow FWHM was considered to represent the homogeneous state of entanglement structure, which may lead to the higher strength and toughness of fibers because individual molecular chains tend to bare similar level of tensile stress when the fiber is stretched. In case of high-speed spun fibers prepared with a high Deborah number condition, the FWHM was narrow presumably because much lower tensile stress in comparison with the drawing/annealing process was applied when the fiber structure was developed, however the value increased significantly upon applying tensile load to the fibers during the laser Raman spectrum measurement. From these results, it was concluded that the Laser Raman spectroscopy could differentiate molecular chain entanglement structure of various fiber samples, in that low FWHM, which corresponds to either homogeneous state of molecular entanglement or lower level of mean residual stress, and small increase of FWTH upon applying tensile stress are considered to be the key

  2. Strength and Mechanical Properties of High Strength Cement Mortar with Silica Fume

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 英男; 谷, 康博

    1993-01-01

    Two series of tests were carried out to clarify the effects of silica fume on the strength and mechanical properties of cement mortar. The test specimens of cement mortar were prepared within the flow values between 180 mm and 240 mm which qualifies better workability of the concrete. The fiow values were attained by using superplasticizer. The specimens were tested at the age of 4 weeks. Main results of the experiments are as follows. 1. At a given cement water ratio,the larger volume of sil...

  3. Effect of step-aging on the fracture toughness of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Naotake

    1993-01-01

    Development and an application of a new high-low step-aging to improve the fracture toughness-strength balance of a Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al alloy are studied. The high-low step-aging of aging at higher temperatures followed by aging at lower temperatures produces bi-modal microstructure composed of coarse and fine alpha precipitates in beta matrix. It greatly improves fracture toughness-strength balance compared with aging at a single temperature. Homogeneous distribution of coarse alpha precipitates produced by adding pre-aging at 573K before the high-low step-aging tends to reduce the superiority of the bi-modal microstructure in fracture toughness. The improvement is provided by the formation of microcracks and voids in the coarse alpha precipitates and rugged crack propagation due to the uneven microstructure. The high-low step-aging is applied to a TIG weldment of the alloy to improve the mechanical properties of the weldment. In the TIG weldment, strength of a fusion zone becomes much higher than that of a base metal after aging at a single temperature because of different aging response. In the first high temperature aging of the high low step-aging, coarse alpha particles that strengthen little and suppress strengthening by fine alpha precipitation in low temperature re-aging, precipitate more in fusion zone than in base metal because of the enhancement of aging in fusion zone. Therefore, strengthening of fusion zone in re-aging is less than in the base metal, resulting in comparable strength between the fusion zone and the base metal after re-aging. The bi-modal microstructure produced by the step-aging also improves, the, fracture toughness of the fusion zone of the weldment

  4. Fabrication of tough epoxy with shape memory effects by UV-assisted direct-ink write printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaijuan; Kuang, Xiao; Li, Vincent; Kang, Guozheng; Qi, H Jerry

    2018-03-07

    3D printing of epoxy-based shape memory polymers with high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability and chemical resistance is highly desirable for practical applications. However, thermally cured epoxy in general is difficult to print directly. There have been limited numbers of successes in printing epoxy but they suffer from relatively poor mechanical properties. Here, we present an ultraviolet (UV)-assisted 3D printing of thermally cured epoxy composites with high tensile toughness via a two-stage curing approach. The ink containing UV curable resin and epoxy oligomer is used for UV-assisted direct-ink write (DIW)-based 3D printing followed by thermal curing of the part containing the epoxy oligomer. The UV curable resin forms a network by photo polymerization after the 1st stage of UV curing, which can maintain the printed architecture at an elevated temperature. The 2nd stage thermal curing of the epoxy oligomer yields an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composite with highly enhanced mechanical properties. It is found that the printed IPN epoxy composites enabled by the two-stage curing show isotropic mechanical properties and high tensile toughness. We demonstrated that the 3D-printed high-toughness epoxy composites show good shape memory properties. This UV-assisted DIW 3D printing via a two-stage curing method can broaden the application of 3D printing to fabricate thermoset materials with enhanced tensile toughness and tunable properties for high-performance and functional applications.

  5. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wubo; Zhao, Zongbin; Hu, Han; Gogotsi, Yury; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded

  6. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  7. Analysis of microstructural variation and mechanical behaviors in submerged arc welded joint of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Liangyun, E-mail: lly.liangyun@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen; Gao, Xiuhua; Du, Linxiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Microstructural variation in high strength low carbon bainitic steel weldment was investigated in detail by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed that the welded joint has various microstructures such as acicular ferrite, coarse granular ferrite and fine polygonal ferrite. The martensite-austenite (MA) constituent has a variable structure in each sub-zone, which includes fully martensite and fully retained austenite. Meanwhile, the fine grained heat affected zone has higher content of retained austenite than the welded metal (WM) and coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ). The orientation relationship between retained austenite and product phases in the WM and CGHAZ is close to Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. However, the polygonal ferrite in the fine grained HAZ has no specific orientation relationship with the neighboring retained austenite. The toughness of the coarse grained region is much lower than that of the WM because the coarse bainite contains many large MA constituents to assist the nucleation of microcracks and coarse cleavage facet lowers the ability to inhibit the crack propagation.

  8. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  9. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A.; Krotz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 μm Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain (η> 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains (η>3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct (η ≅2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( η>10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet

  10. Influence of the welding process on martensitic high strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hanus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is martensitic 22MnB5 steels, which are used in the automotive industry. The main purpose of the performed analyses is a study of strength differences in heat affected zones of the spot welding. For the needs of the strength decrease assessment, the critical layer of the heat affected area was experimentally simulated. The aim of the work is to determine the most suitable methodology for evaluating the local changes of the elastic-plastic material response. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal methods for the determination of the yield strength and to find a firming trend in these zones.

  11. Ultrafine Structure and High Strength in Cold-Rolled Martensite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu; Morito, S.; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Structural refinement by cold rolling (10 to 80 pct reductions) of interstitial free (IF) steel containing Mn and B has been investigated from samples with different initial structures: (a) lath martensite, (b) coarse ferrite (grain size 150 mu m), and (c) fine ferrite (22 mu m). Unalloyed IF steel....... At low to medium strains, lath martensite transforms into a cell block structure composed of cell block boundaries and cell boundaries with only a negligible change in strength. At medium to large strains, cell block structures in all samples refine with increasing strain and the hardening rate...... is constant (stage IV). A strong effect of the initial structure is observed on both the structural refinement and the strength increase. This effect is largest in lath martensite and smallest in unalloyed ferrite. No saturation in structural refinement and strength is observed. The discussion covers...

  12. Heavyweight cement concrete with high stability of strength parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, Konstantin; Nevsky, Andrey; Danke, Ilia; Kudyakov, Aleksandr; Kudyakov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The present paper establishes regularities of basalt fibers distribution in movable cement concrete mixes under different conditions of their preparation and their selective introduction into mixer during the mixing process. The optimum content of basalt fibers was defined as 0.5% of the cement weight, which provides a uniform distribution of fibers in the concrete volume. It allows increasing compressive strength up to 51.2% and increasing tensile strength up to 28.8%. Micro-structural analysis identified new formations on the surface of basalt fibers, which indicates the good adhesion of hardened cement paste to the fibers. Stability of concrete strength parameters has significantly increased with introduction of basalt fibers into concrete mix.

  13. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (1.25 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Specimens of European type 316L austenitic stainless steel were irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250 C and tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250 C. Results show that irradiation to this dose level at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250 C is more damaging than at 90 C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The testing shows that it is possible to generate useful fracture toughness data with a small disk compact specimens

  14. Understanding Toughness in Bioinspired Cellulose Nanofibril/Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alejandro J; Lossada, Francisco; Zhu, Baolei; Rudolph, Tobias; Walther, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are considered next generation, renewable reinforcements for sustainable, high-performance bioinspired nanocomposites uniting high stiffness, strength and toughness. However, the challenges associated with making well-defined CNF/polymer nanopaper hybrid structures with well-controlled polymer properties have so far hampered to deduce a quantitative picture of the mechanical properties space and deformation mechanisms, and limits the ability to tune and control the mechanical properties by rational design criteria. Here, we discuss detailed insights on how the thermo-mechanical properties of tailor-made copolymers govern the tensile properties in bioinspired CNF/polymer settings, hence at high fractions of reinforcements and under nanoconfinement conditions for the polymers. To this end, we synthesize a series of fully water-soluble and nonionic copolymers, whose glass transition temperatures (Tg) are varied from -60 to 130 °C. We demonstrate that well-defined polymer-coated core/shell nanofibrils form at intermediate stages and that well-defined nanopaper structures with tunable nanostructure arise. The systematic correlation between the thermal transitions in the (co)polymers, as well as its fraction, on the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of the nanocomposites is underscored by tensile tests, SEM imaging of fracture surfaces and dynamic mechanical analysis. An optimum toughness is obtained for copolymers with a Tg close to the testing temperature, where the soft phase possesses the best combination of high molecular mobility and cohesive strength. New deformation modes are activated for the toughest compositions. Our study establishes quantitative structure/property relationships in CNF/(co)polymer nanopapers and opens the design space for future, rational molecular engineering using reversible supramolecular bonds or covalent cross-linking.

  15. User's Guide for TOUGH2-MP - A Massively Parallel Version of the TOUGH2 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earth Sciences Division; Zhang, Keni; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    TOUGH2-MP is a massively parallel (MP) version of the TOUGH2 code, designed for computationally efficient parallel simulation of isothermal and nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. In recent years, computational requirements have become increasingly intensive in large or highly nonlinear problems for applications in areas such as radioactive waste disposal, CO2 geological sequestration, environmental assessment and remediation, reservoir engineering, and groundwater hydrology. The primary objective of developing the parallel-simulation capability is to significantly improve the computational performance of the TOUGH2 family of codes. The particular goal for the parallel simulator is to achieve orders-of-magnitude improvement in computational time for models with ever-increasing complexity. TOUGH2-MP is designed to perform parallel simulation on multi-CPU computational platforms. An earlier version of TOUGH2-MP (V1.0) was based on the TOUGH2 Version 1.4 with EOS3, EOS9, and T2R3D modules, a software previously qualified for applications in the Yucca Mountain project, and was designed for execution on CRAY T3E and IBM SP supercomputers. The current version of TOUGH2-MP (V2.0) includes all fluid property modules of the standard version TOUGH2 V2.0. It provides computationally efficient capabilities using supercomputers, Linux clusters, or multi-core PCs, and also offers many user-friendly features. The parallel simulator inherits all process capabilities from V2.0 together with additional capabilities for handling fractured media from V1.4. This report provides a quick starting guide on how to set up and run the TOUGH2-MP program for users with a basic knowledge of running the (standard) version TOUGH2 code. The report also gives a brief technical description of the code, including a discussion of parallel methodology, code structure, as well as mathematical and numerical methods used

  16. Geckolike high shear strength by carbon nanotube fiber adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Y.; Nakayama, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube adhesives can adhere strongly to surfaces as a gecko does. The number of carbon nanotube layers is an important determinant of the contact area for adhesion. Balancing the catalyst ratio and buffer layer used for chemical vapor deposition processing controls the number of carbon nanotube layers and their distribution. The features of carbon nanotubes determine the shear strength of adhesion. Carbon nanotubes with a broad distribution of layers exhibit enhanced shear strength with equivalent adhesive capability to that of a natural Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko)

  17. Toughness and other mechanical properties of the duplex stainless steel 2205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieurin, H.; Sandstroem, R.

    2003-01-01

    The use and range of potential applications of duplex stainless steel continuously increase. An overview of the mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel 2205 is presented with focus on toughness properties. Impact and fracture toughness as well as strength results from the European research project, EcoPress, are presented. (orig.)

  18. Tough nanocomposite ionogel-based actuator exhibits robust performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; He, Bin; Wang, Zhipeng; Tang, Haifeng; Su, Teng; Wang, Qigang

    2014-10-20

    Ionogel electrolytes can be fabricated for electrochemical actuators with many desirable advantages, including direct low-voltage control in air, high electrochemical and thermal stability, and complete silence during actuation. However, the demands for active actuators with above features and load-driving ability remain a challenge; much work is necessary to enhance the mechanical strength of electrolyte materials. Herein, we describe a cross-linked supramolecular approach to prepare tough nanocomposite gel electrolytes from HEMA, BMIMBF4, and TiO2 via self-initiated UV polymerization. The tough and stable ionogels are emerging to fabricate electric double-layer capacitor-like soft actuators, which can be driven by electrically induced ion migration. The ionogel-based actuator shows a displacement response of 5.6 mm to the driving voltage of 3.5 V. After adding the additional mass weight of the same as the actuator, it still shows a large displacement response of 3.9 mm. Furthermore, the actuator can not only work in harsh temperature environments (100°C and -10°C) but also realize the goal of grabbing an object by adjusting the applied voltage.

  19. Experimental determination of dynamic fracture toughness by J integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandel, B.; Phelippeau, G.; Sanz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fracture toughness tests are conducted on fatigue precracked compact tension specimens (IT - CT) loaded at K rates of about 2 x 10 4 MPa square root of m/s on a servo-hydraulic machine using a damped set-up. A high frequency alternating current system (10 kHz) is used for the detection of subcritical crack growth during loading. The analog signals from the clip gage, load cell, ram travel and potential drop system are fed into a magnetic tape recorder, filtered and converted to digital data. Load-time and load-displacement-potential curves are plotted and analysed automatically by two different methods, according to the fracture mode: in the lower part of the transition curve, Ksub(ID) is calculated from the maximum load at failure in the linear elastic range (ASTM E399); in the transition and upper shelf regions, Ksub(JD) is calculated from Jsub(ID) at initiation of ductile crack growth in the elastic plastic range. The experimental method described here is applied, as an example, to the study of a low-alloy, medium strength pressure vessel steel (A 508 Cl.3). A comparison is established between the toughness transition curves obtained under quasi-static (Ksub(Jc)) and dynamic (Ksub(JD)) conditions. (author)

  20. Yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten at high strain rates and very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škoro, G.P.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Edgecock, T.R.; Booth, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New experimental data on the yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten. ► High strain rate effects at record high temperatures (up to 2700 K). ► Test of the consistency of the Zerilli–Armstrong model at very high temperatures. - Abstract: Recently reported results of the high strain rate, high temperature measurements of the yield strength of tantalum and tungsten have been analyzed along with new experimental results on the yield strength of molybdenum. Thin wires are subjected to high stress by passing a short, fast, high current pulse through a thin wire; the amplitude of the current governs the stress and the repetition rate of the pulses determines the temperature of the wire. The highest temperatures reached in the experiments were 2100 °C (for molybdenum), 2250 °C (for tantalum) and 2450 °C (for tungsten). The strain-rates in the tests were in the range from 500 to 1500 s −1 . The parameters for the constitutive equation developed by Zerilli and Armstrong have been determined from the experimental data and the results have been compared with the data obtained at lower temperatures. An exceptionally good fit is obtained for the deformation of tungsten.

  1. Weld Metallurgy and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Ultra-high Strength Steel Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Lindner, Stefan; Monfort, Damien; Petring, Dirk

    The increasing demand for ultra-high strength steels in vehicle manufacturing leads to the application of new alloys. This poses a challenge on joining especially by fusion welding. A stainless high manganese steel sheet with excellent strength and deformation properties stands in the centre of the development. Similar and dissimilar welds with a metastable austenitic steel and a hot formed martensitic stainless steel were performed. An investigation of the mixing effects on the local microstructure and the hardness delivers the metallurgical features of the welds. Despite of carbon contents above 0.4 wt.% none of the welds have shown cracks. Mechanical properties drawn from tensile tests deliver high breaking forces enabling a high stiffness of the joints. The results show the potential for the application of laser beam welding for joining in assembly of structural parts.

  2. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tests were carried out on concrete incorporating Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) of “Mittal ... mechanical properties by using the existing materials on the local market and HSC ..... general shape of the curves whether at 28 days ... Figure.7. Residual compressive strength as a function of temperature.

  3. Shear in high strength concrete bridge girders : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Prestressed Concrete (PC) I-girders are used extensively as the primary superstructure components in Texas highway bridges. : A simple semi-empirical equation was developed at the University of Houston (UH) to predict the shear strength of PC I-girde...

  4. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  5. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, John D.; Spitzig, William A.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  6. Correlations between fracture toughness and microstructure in 4140 steel. MRL E-113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegaard, T K

    1979-06-01

    Correlations between the microstructure of an ultra-high strength steel and material resistance to fracture, as measured by blunt notch Charpy impact tests and sharp crack K/sub IC/ tests, were investigated for a standard 870/sup 0/C/oil and an experimental 1175/sup 0/C/oil austenitizing treatment. The increase in sharp crack toughness with higher temperature austenitizing treatments, for the as-quenched and 200/sup 0/C/oil temper conditions, was rationalized by a fracture criterion based on the notion that for fracture to occur, a critical strain, epsilon/sub f/, must be achieved over some critical distance, delta. The lath colonies were identified as the fracture controlling microstructural unit, and hence, their size was considered to be the critical distance, delta. Toughness in the 300/sup 0/C/l hour and 400/sup 0/C/l hour temper conditions, for which the mechanical data indicated an embrittlement, was clearly controlled by the cementite morphology in conjunction with the prior austenite grain size. Attempts to rationalize toughness in these temper conditions, using a stress-controlled fracture criterion, were unsuccessful and led to physically unreasonable results. In the 500/sup 0/C/l hour temper condition, stable crack growth and periodic ridge patterns were observed. Fracture toughness differences between the 870/sup 0/C and 1175/sup 0/C austenitizing treatments were qualitatively rationalized by the nature of the respective fracture morphologies. Good correspondence between J/sub IC/ and the so-called tearing modulus, T, as indicators of sharp crack fracture toughness, was observed.

  7. Correlations between fracture toughness and microstructure in 4140 steel. MRL E-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegaard, T.K.

    1979-06-01

    Correlations between the microstructure of an ultra-high strength steel and material resistance to fracture, as measured by blunt notch Charpy impact tests and sharp crack K/sub IC/ tests, were investigated for a standard 870 0 C/oil and an experimental 1175 0 C/oil austenitizing treatment. The increase in sharp crack toughness with higher temperature austenitizing treatments, for the as-quenched and 200 0 C/oil temper conditions, was rationalized by a fracture criterion based on the notion that for fracture to occur, a critical strain, epsilon/sub f/, must be achieved over some critical distance, delta. The lath colonies were identified as the fracture controlling microstructural unit, and hence, their size was considered to be the critical distance, delta. Toughness in the 300 0 C/l hour and 400 0 C/l hour temper conditions, for which the mechanical data indicated an embrittlement, was clearly controlled by the cementite morphology in conjunction with the prior austenite grain size. Attempts to rationalize toughness in these temper conditions, using a stress-controlled fracture criterion, were unsuccessful and led to physically unreasonable results. In the 500 0 C/l hour temper condition, stable crack growth and periodic ridge patterns were observed. Fracture toughness differences between the 870 0 C and 1175 0 C austenitizing treatments were qualitatively rationalized by the nature of the respective fracture morphologies. Good correspondence between J/sub IC/ and the so-called tearing modulus, T, as indicators of sharp crack fracture toughness, was observed

  8. Dependence of Fracture Toughness on Crystallographic Orientation in Single-Crystalline Cubic (β) Silicon Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharr, M.; Katoh, Y.; Bei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Along with other desirable properties, the ability of silicon carbide (SiC) to retain high strength after elevated temperature exposures to neutron irradiation renders it potentially applicable in fusion and advanced fission reactors. However, properties of the material such as room temperature fracture toughness must be thoroughly characterized prior to such practical applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the dependence of fracture toughness on crystallographic orientation for single-crystalline β-SiC. X-ray diffraction was first performed on the samples to determine the orientation of the crystal. Nanoindentation was used to determine a hardness of 39.1 and 35.2 GPa and elastic modulus of 474 and 446 GPa for the single-crystalline and polycrystalline samples, respectively. Additionally, crack lengths and indentation diagonals were measured via a Vickers micro-hardness indenter under a load of 100 gf for different crystallographic orientations with indentation diagonals aligned along fundamental cleavage planes. Upon examination of propagation direction of cracks, the cracks usually did not initiate and propagate from the corners of the indentation where the stresses are concentrated but instead from the indentation sides. Such cracks clearly moved along the {1 1 0} family of planes (previously determined to be preferred cleavage plane), demonstrating that the fracture toughness of SiC is comparatively so much lower along this set of planes that the lower energy required to cleave along this plane overpowers the stress-concentration at indentation corners. Additionally, fracture toughness in the <1 1 0> direction was 1.84 MPa·m1/2, lower than the 3.46 MPa·m1/2 measured for polycrystalline SiC (which can serve as an average of a spectrum of orientations), further demonstrating that single-crystalline β-SiC has a strong fracture toughness anisotropy.

  9. Interfacial (Fiber-matrix) Properties of High-strength Mortar (150 MPa) from Fiber Pullout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannag, M.J.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Will

    1996-01-01

     The steel fiber-matrix properties of high-strength mortar (150 MPa), such as DSP (densified small particle), are obtained and compared to an ordinary strength mortar (40 MPa) using a specially designed fiber pullout apparatus. A new method for estimating the debonding energy of the interfacial z......-strength DSP mortar has significantly improved interfacial properties compared to ordinary strength mortar. These results are important in the understanding of the role of steel fibers in improving the tensile properties of high-strength, brittle, cement-matrix composites....... The steel fiber-matrix properties of high-strength mortar (150 MPa), such as DSP (densified small particle), are obtained and compared to an ordinary strength mortar (40 MPa) using a specially designed fiber pullout apparatus. A new method for estimating the debonding energy of the interfacial...

  10. A Comparative Study of Fracture Toughness at Cryogenic Temperature of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles Santillana, I.; Boyer, C.; Fernandez Pison, P.; Foussat, A.; Langeslag, S. A. E.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Ruiz Navas, E. M.; Sgobba, S.

    2018-03-01

    The ITER magnet system is based on the "cable-in-conduit" conductor (CICC) concept, which consists of stainless steel jackets filled with superconducting strands. The jackets provide high strength, limited fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness properties to counteract the high stress imposed by, among others, electromagnetic loads at cryogenic temperature. Austenitic nitrogen-strengthened stainless steels have been chosen as base material for the jackets of the central solenoid and the toroidal field system, for which an extensive set of cryogenic mechanical property data are readily available. However, little is published for their welded joints, and their specific performance when considering different combinations of parent and filler metals. Moreover, the impact of post-weld heat treatments that are required for Nb3Sn formation is not extensively treated. Welds are frequently responsible for cracks initiated and propagated by fatigue during service, causing structural failure. It becomes thus essential to select the most suitable combination of parent and filler material and to assess their performance in terms of strength and crack propagation at operation conditions. An extensive test campaign has been conducted at 7 K comparing tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds using two fillers adapted to cryogenic service, EN 1.4453 and JK2LB, applied to two different base metals, AISI 316L and 316LN. A large set of fracture toughness data are presented, and the detrimental effect on fracture toughness of post-weld heat treatments (unavoidable for some of the components) is demonstrated. In this study, austenitic stainless steel TIG welds with various filler metals have undergone a comprehensive fracture mechanics characterization at 7 K. These results are directly exploitable and contribute to the cryogenic fracture mechanics properties database of the ITER magnet system. Additionally, a correlation between the impact in fracture toughness and microstructure

  11. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness at Elevated Temperatures With Application to the New Generation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  12. Evaluation of creep rupture property of high strength ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehira, Akihiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ukai, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-04-01

    High Strength Ferritic/Martensitic Steel (PNC-FMS : 11Cr-0.5Mo-2W,Nb,V), developed by JNC, is one of the candidate materials for the long-life core of large-scale fast breeder reactor. The material design base standard (tentative) of PNC-FMS was established and the creep rupture strength reduction factor in the standard was determined in 1992. This factor was based on only evaluation of decarburization effect on tensile strength after sodium exposure. In this study, creep rupture properties of PNC-FMS under out of pile sodium exposure and in pile were evaluated, using recent test results as well as previous ones. The evaluation results are summarized as follows : a. Decarburization rate constant of pressurized tubes under sodium exposure is identical with stress free specimens. b. In case of the same decarburization content under out of pile sodium exposure, creep strength tends to decrease more significantly than tensile strength. c. Creep strength under out of pile sodium exposure showed significant decrease in high temperature and long exposure time, but in pile (MOTA) creep strength showed little decrease. A new creep rupture strength reduction factor, which is the ratio of creep rupture strength under sodium exposure or in pile to in air, was made by correlating the creep rupture strength. This new method directly using the ratio of creep rupture strength was evaluated and discussed from the viewpoint of design applicability, compared with the conventional method based on decarburization effect on tensile strength. (author)

  13. High-strength and high-RRR Al-Ni alloy for aluminum-stabilized superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, K; Sakamoto, H; Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y

    2000-01-01

    The precipitation type aluminum alloys have excellent performance as the increasing rate in electric resistivity with additives in the precipitation state is considerably low, compared to that of the aluminum alloy with additives in the solid-solution state. It is possible to enhance the mechanical strength without remarkable degradation in residual resistivity ratio (RRR) by increasing content of selected additive elements. Nickel is the suitable additive element because it has very low solubility in aluminum and low increasing rate in electric resistivity, and furthermore, nickel and aluminum form intermetallic compounds which effectively resist the motion of dislocations. First, Al-0.1wt%Ni alloy was developed for the ATLAS thin superconducting solenoid. This alloy achieved high yield strength of 79 MPa (R.T.) and 117 MPa (4.2 K) with high RRR of 490 after cold working of 21% in area reduction. These highly balanced properties could not be achieved with previously developed solid-solution aluminum alloys. ...

  14. Modern high strength QT, TM and duplex-stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, P.; Luxenburger, G.; Porter, D.; Ericsson, C.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure vessels are commonly manufactured with normalised steel grades with a yield strength up to 355 MPa or with austenitic stainless steels when corrosion as to be considered. From three decades, modern steels with higher mechanical properties - up to yield strength of 960 Mpa - are available and largely used for other applications where weight saving is of major importance as per off-shore, bridges, cranes, shipbuilding, line pipes.. The paper presents these modern steel's families - TMCP (Thermo Mechanically Controlled Process), QT (Quenched and Tempered) and Duplex (austeno-ferritic) stainless - in comparison with the normalised and austenitic steel grades. The following aspects are presented: the main mechanical properties (tensile and Charpy) as per the requirements of the standards for pressure equipment; some examples of use of these modern steels in the industry are given; the limitations of the forming conditions are considered; the weldability aspects and welds properties are developed; the interest of the PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Thermal cyclic strength of molybdenum monocrystal at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizhalo, V.A.; Uskov, E.I.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the thermocyclic creep and low-cycle fatigue of a molybdenum single crystal are discussed. The strength of a molybdenum single crystal under nonisothermal stressing has been investigated by using two different regimes of temperature and load variation. The temperature limits of the cycle were the same for the two testing regimes, the maximum temperature being 1700degC and the minimum 350degC. At higher temperatures (above 1500degC) the short-term strength of single-crystal molybdenum is comparable with that of commercial molybdenum and the refractory alloys, while the ductility is considerably higher. It should be noted that the failure of single-crystal molybdenum under rigid alternating loading is preceded by intensive distortion of the specimen, owing to directional cyclic creep of the metal in zones of bulging and thinning

  16. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  17. Fracture toughness of stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J/sub R/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were found to be dependent on temperature and weld process but not on filler material. Gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welds exhibited the highest fracture toughness, a shielded metal-arc (SMA) weld exhibited an intermediate toughness and submerged-arc (SA) welds yielded the lowest toughness. Minimum-expected fracture properties were defined from lower-bound J/sub c/ and tearing modulus values generated here and in previous studies. Fractographic examination revealed that microvoid coalescence was the operative fracture mechanism for all welds. Second phase particles of manganese silicide were found to be detrimental to the ductile fracture behavior because they separated from the matrix during the initial stages of plastic straining. In SA welds, the high density of inclusions resulting from silicon pickup from the flux promoted premature dimple rupture. The weld produced by the SMA process contained substantially less manganese silicide, while GTA welds contained no silicide inclusions. Delta ferrite particles present in all welds were substantially more resistant to local failure than the silicide phase. In welds containing little or no manganese silicide, delta ferrite particles initiated microvoid coalescence but only after extensive plastic straining

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Copper HSLA-100 Steel in 2-inch Plate Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    CCT diagram . Increasing copper in HSLA-100 steel also increases the toughness as well as the strength, though the dynamics of this process are not clear. Steel, High Copper HSLA-100 Steel, mechanical property, microstructure.

  19. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon

    2014-01-01

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar

  20. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar.

  1. Cyclic fatigue of a high-strength corrosion-resistant sheet TRIP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'ev, V. F.; Alekseeva, L. E.; Korableva, S. A.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Pankova, M. N.; Filippov, G. A.

    2014-04-01

    The mechanical properties of 0.3- and 0.8-mm-thick high-strength corrosion-resistant TRIP steel having various levels of strength properties are studied during static and cyclic loading in the high-cycle fatigue range. The fatigue fracture surface is analyzed by fractography, and the obtained results demonstrate ductile and quasi-brittle fracture mechanisms of this steel depending on the strength properties of the steel and the content of deformation martensite in it.

  2. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  3. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  4. Irradiation and inhomogeneity effects on ductility and toughness of (ODS)-7 -13Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The superimposed effect of irradiation defect and structural inhomogeneity formation on tensile ductility and dynamic toughness of ferritic-martensitic 7-13CrW(Mo)VTa(Nb) and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS)-7-13CrWVTa(Ti)- RAFM steels has been examined by work hardening and local stress/strain-induced ductile fracture models. Structural inhomogeneities which strongly promoting plastic instability and localized flow might be formed by the applied fabrication process, high dose irradiation and additionally further during deformation by enhanced local dislocation generation around fine particles or due to slip band formation with localized heating at high impact strain rates ε'. The work hardening model takes into account superimposed dislocation multiplication from stored dislocations, dispersions and also grain boundaries as well as annihilation by cross-slip. Analytical relations have been deduced from the model describing uniform ductility and ductile upper shelf energy (USE) observed from Charpy-impact testes. Especially, the influence of different irradiation defects like atomic clusters, dislocation loops and coherent chromium-rich α'- precipitates have been considered together with effects from strain rate as well as irradiation (TI) and test temperature TT. Strengthening by clusters and more pronounced by dislocation loops formed at higher TI>250 deg. C reduces uniform ductility and also distinctly stronger dynamic toughness USE. A superimposed hardening by the α'- formation in higher Cr containing 9-13Cr steels strongly reduces toughness assisted by a combined grain-boundary embrittlement with reduction of the ductile fracture stress. But that improves work hardening and uniform ductility as observed particularly due to nano-scale Y 2 O 3 - dispersions in ODS-RAFM steels. For ODS- steels additionally the strength-induced reduction of toughness is diminished by a combined microstructural-induced increase of the ductile

  5. Comparison of the segregation behavior between tempered martensite and tempered bainite in Ni-Cr-Mo high strength low alloy RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an superior fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be obtained by adding Ni and Cr. So several were performed on researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and term of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, the resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement is required. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. We have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment. Then, the the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  6. Aspects of the Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Modified Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, Vahid

    Epoxy resins used in fibre reinforced composites exhibit a brittle fracture behaviour, because they show no sign of damage prior to a catastrophic failure. Rubbery materials and micro-particles have been added to epoxy resins to improve their fracture toughness, which reduces strength and elastic properties. In this research, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated as a potential toughening agent for epoxy resins and carbon fibre reinforced composites, which can also enhance strength and elastic properties. More specifically, the toughening mechanisms of CNTs are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effect of aligned and randomly oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the fracture toughness of polymers was modelled using Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics. Toughening from CNT pull-out and rupture were considered, depending on the CNTs critical length. The model was used to identify the effect of CNTs geometrical and mechanical properties on the fracture toughness of CNT-modified epoxies. The modelling results showed that a uniform dispersion and alignment of a high volume fraction of CNTs normal to the crack growth plane would lead to the maximum fracture toughness enhancement. To achieve a uniform dispersion, the effect of processing on the dispersion of single walled and multi walled CNTs in epoxy resins was investigated. An instrumented optical microscope with a hot stage was used to quantify the evolution of the CNT dispersion during cure. The results showed that the reduction of the resin viscosity at temperatures greater than 100 °C caused an irreversible re-agglomeration of the CNTs in the matrix. The dispersion quality was then directly correlated to the fracture toughness of the modified resin. It was shown that the fine tuning of the ratio of epoxy resin, curing agent and CNT content was paramount to the improvement of the base resin fracture toughness. For the epoxy resin (MY0510 from Hexcel), an improvement of 38% was achieved with 0.3 wt

  7. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  8. Stress corrosion in high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes results of stress-corrosion tests on aluminum alloys 7075, 7475, 7050, and 7049. Tests compare performance of original stress-corrosion-resistant (SCR) aluminum, 7075, with newer, higher-strength SCR alloys. Alloys 7050 and 7049 are found superior in short-transverse cross-corrosion resistance to older 7075 alloy; all alloys are subject to self-loading effect caused by wedging of corrosion products in cracks. Effect causes cracks to continue to grow, even at very-low externally applied loads.

  9. Processing of Cu-Cr alloy for combined high strength and high conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O Olofinjanaa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High strength and high conductivity (HSHC are two intrinsic properties difficult to combine in metallic alloy design because; almost all strengthening mechanisms also lead to reduced conductivity. Precipitation hardening by nano-sized precipitates had proven to be the most adequate way to achieve the optimum combination of strength and conductivity in copper based alloys. However, established precipitation strengthened Cu- alloys are limited to very dilute concentration of solutes thereby limiting the volume proportion hardening precipitates. In this work, we report the investigation of the reprocessing of higher Cr concentration Cu- based alloys via rapid solidification. It is found that the rapid solidification in the as-cast ribbon imposed combined solution extension and ultra-refinement of Cr rich phases. X-ray diffraction evidences suggest that the solid solution extension was up to 6wt%Cr. Lattice parameters determined confirmed the many folds extension of solid solution of Cr in Cu.  Thermal aging studies of the cast ribbons indicated that peak aging treatments occurred in about twenty minutes. Peak aged hardness ranged from about 200 to well over 300Hv. The maximum peak aged hardness of 380Hv was obtained for alloy containing 6wt.%Cr but with conductivity of about 50%IACS. The best combined strength/conductivity was obtained for 4wt.%Cr  alloy with hardness of 350HV and conductivity of 80% IACS. The high strengths observed are attributed to the increased volume proportion of semi-coherent Cr rich nano-sized precipitates that evolved from the supersaturated solid solution of Cu-Cr that was achieved from the high cooling rates imposed by the ribbon casting process. The rapid overaging of the high Cr concentration Cu-Cr alloy is still a cause for concern in optimising the process for reaching peak HSHC properties. It is still important to investigate a microstructural design to slow or severely restrict the overaging process. The optimum

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Yedla Venkatesh * & G. Kalyan

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is the most important engineering material and the addition of some other materials may change the properties of concrete. Mineral additions which are also known as mineral admixtures have been used with cements for many years. There are two types of materials crystalline and non crystalline. High performance concrete (HPC) exceeds the properties and constructability of normal concrete. Micro silica or silica fume is very fine non crystalline material. Silica fume is produced in elec...

  11. Alkyl chitosan film-high strength, functional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Xing, Cao; Xin, Shen; Shitao, Yu; Feng, Su; Shiwei, Liu; Fusheng, Liu; Congxia, Xie

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm with strong tensile strength is a topic item in the area of tissue engineering, medicine engineering, and so forth. Here we introduced an alkyl chitosan film with strong tensile strength and its possibility for an absorbable anticoagulation material in vivo was tested in the series of blood test, such as dynamic coagulation time, plasma recalcification time and hemolysis. Alkyl chitosan film was a better biomaterial than traditional chitosan film in the anticoagulation, tissue compatibility and cell compatibility. The unique trait of alkyl chitosan film may be for its greater contact angle and hydrophobicity ability to reduce the adsorption capacity for the blood component and the activity of fibrinolytic enzymes, enhance the antibacterial capacity than chitosan film. Moreover, none of chitosan film or butyl chitosan film exhibited quick inflammation or other disadvantage and degraded quickly by implanted test. Therefore, Alkyl chitosan film is of prospective properties as an implantable, absorbable agent for tissue heals, and this material need further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3034-3041, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modern high strength QT, TM and duplex-stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P. [Industeel (France); Luxenburger, G. [Aktiengesellschaft der Dillinger Huettenwerke, Dillingen/Saar (Germany); Porter, D. [Rautaruukki (Finland); Ericsson, C. [Avesta Polarit (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Pressure vessels are commonly manufactured with normalised steel grades with a yield strength up to 355 MPa or with austenitic stainless steels when corrosion as to be considered. From three decades, modern steels with higher mechanical properties - up to yield strength of 960 Mpa - are available and largely used for other applications where weight saving is of major importance as per off-shore, bridges, cranes, shipbuilding, line pipes.. The paper presents these modern steel's families - TMCP (Thermo Mechanically Controlled Process), QT (Quenched and Tempered) and Duplex (austeno-ferritic) stainless - in comparison with the normalised and austenitic steel grades. The following aspects are presented: the main mechanical properties (tensile and Charpy) as per the requirements of the standards for pressure equipment; some examples of use of these modern steels in the industry are given; the limitations of the forming conditions are considered; the weldability aspects and welds properties are developed; the interest of the PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Hybrid Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid H. Hussein, Saeed K. Rejeb Hayder T. Abd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high strength concrete of 75 MPa compressive strength was investigated. The experimental program was designed to study the effect of fibers and hybrid fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers on the fresh (workability and wet density and hardened properties (compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and dry density of high strength concrete. Results show that decreases in slump flow of all concrete mixtures containing steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers compared with control mix (0% fiber. Hybrid high strength concrete with steel and polypropylene fibers showed superior compressive, splitting, flexural strengths over the others concrete without or with single fibers content. The test results indicate that the maximum increase in compressive and flexural strengths are obtains with the hybridization ratio (70%steel + 30% polypropylene and were equal to 14.54% and 23.34% respectively, compared with the control mix. While, the maximum increase in splitting tensile strength with (100% steel fiber + 0 polypropylene is 21.19%. 

  14. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Capt Todd D. Church APPROVED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials C~t) Kraig/[ Vandewalle Date...copyrighted material in the thesis/dissertation manuscript entitled: "Translucency arid Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  15. Internal and External Oxidation of Manganese in Advanced High Strength Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghaei Lashgari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been used extensively in the automotive industries. The main characteristic of these steels is combination of high strength and enhanced formability that makes them very attractive for automotive application. However, the major drawback of these steels is

  16. Continuous, flexible, and high-strength superconducting Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Heffernan, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of continuous, flexible, and high-strength (1600 MN/m 2 ) composite filaments of Nb 3 Ge (T/subc/ 18 0 K) and Nb 3 Sn is reported, involving chemical vapor deposition of these compounds on Nb-coated high-strength W--1% ThO 2 filaments

  17. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ryan N; Stoner, Brian R; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Scattergood, Ronald O; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Bars (2mm×2mm×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25°C, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Data support surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigations on the tensile strength of high performance concrete incorporating silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanu Bhanja; Bratish Sengupta

    2005-01-01

    Though the literature is rich in reporting on silica fume concrete the technical data on tensile strength is quite limited. The present paper is directed towards developing a better understanding on the isolated contribution of silica fume on the tensile strengths of High Performance Concrete. Extensive experimentation was carried out over water-binder ratios ranging from 0.26 to 0.42 and silica fume binder ratios from 0.0 to 0.3. For all the mixes compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths were determined at 28 days. The results of the present investigation indicate that silica fume incorporation results in significant improvements in the tensile strengths of concrete. It is also observed that the optimum replacement percentage, which led to maximization of strength, is not a constant one but depends on the water- cementitious material ratio of the mix. Compared to split tensile strengths, flexural strengths have exhibited greater percentage gains in strength. Increase in split tensile strength beyond 15% silica fume replacement is almost insignificant whereas sizeable gains in flexural tensile strength have occurred even up to 25% replacements. For the present investigation transgranular failure of concrete was observed which indicate that silica fume incorporation results in significant improvements in the strength of both paste and transition zone. (authors)

  19. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  20. Improvement in ductility of high strength polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy produced by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.Y.; Pei, Y.L.; Li, S.S.; Zhang, H.; Gong, S.K., E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • High strength and high ductility of polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy sheets were produced. • The elongation could be enhanced from ∼0.5% to ∼14.6% by microstructural control. • The fracture strength (∼820 MPa) was enhanced by the precipitation strengthening. • This work provides a general processing for repairing the worn single crystal blades. - Abstract: A 300 μm Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al sheet was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and followed by different heat treatments to obtain fine γ′/γ two-phase structures with large elongation. Tensile testing was performed at room-temperature, and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the as-deposited Ni{sub 3}Al alloy exhibited non-equilibrium directional columnar crystal, and transited to equiaxed crystal with uniformly distributed tough γ phase after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the fracture mechanism transited from brittleness to a mixture of ductility and brittleness modes. With an appropriate heat treatment, high strength (ultimate tensile strength obtained 828 MPa) and high ductility (elongation obtained 14.6%) Ni{sub 3}Al alloy has been achieved, which was due to the mesh network microstructure. A series of transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations confirmed that the increasing flow stress of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy was attributed to the cubical secondary γ′ phase precipitates (25–50 nm) within the γ phase. This work provides a potential strategy for repairing the worn tip of single crystal engine blades using Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy by EB-PVD.

  1. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  2. Evaluation of a highway bridge constructed using high strength lightweight concrete bridge girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The use of high performance concretes to provide longer bridge spans has been limited due to the capacity of existing infrastructure to handle the load of the girders during transportation. The use of High Strength Lightweight Concrete (HSLW) can pro...

  3. Phase instability and toughness change during high temperature exposure of various steels for the first wall structural materials of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, K.; Shimoide, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to clarify the phase instability, particularly, the precipitation behavior of carbide and nitride during the long term aging in the non-irradiation state of the materials proposed for the first wall structural component of fusion reactors, such as a type 316 austenitic steel, its modified steels, ferritic heat resisting steels and reduced radio-activation materials. The effect of the precipitation behavior on the toughness is also investigated. It is noticed that the toughness was much deteriorated by the formation of large amounts of coarse carbides within grains and on grain boundaries during 2.88x10 4 ks (8000 h) aging at 873 K and that intergranular fracture occurred by the impact test at room temperature even in the type 316 steel. (orig.)

  4. Failure analysis of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Juan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study failure of high strength pipelines with single corrosion. • We give regression equations for failure pressure prediction. • We propose assessment procedure for pipelines with multiple corrosions. - Abstract: Corrosion will compromise safety operation of oil and gas pipelines, accurate determination of failure pressure finds importance in residual strength assessment and corrosion allowance design of onshore and offshore pipelines. This paper investigates failure pressure of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions using nonlinear finite element analysis. On the basis of developed regression equations for failure pressure prediction of high strength pipeline with single corrosion, the paper proposes an assessment procedure for predicting failure pressure of high strength pipeline with multiple corrosions. Furthermore, failure pressures predicted by proposed solutions are compared with experimental results and various assessment methods available in literature, where accuracy and versatility are demonstrated

  5. Three-Sheet Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry has introduced the three-layer weld configuration, which represents new challenges compared to normal two-sheet lap welds. The process is further complicated by introducing high-strength steels in the joint. The present article investigates the weldability of thin, low....... The weld mechanisms are analyzed numerically and compared with metallographic analyses showing how the primary bonding mechanism between the thin, low-carbon steel sheet and the thicker sheet of high-strength steel is solid-state bonding, whereas the two high-strength steels are joined by melting, forming...... a weld nugget at their mutual interface. Despite the absence of the typical fusion nugget through the interface between the low-carbon steel and high-strength steel, the weld strengths obtained are acceptable. The failure mechanism in destructive testing is ductile fracture with plug failure....

  6. The evaluation on clamping force of high strength bolts by length parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang-Seok; Nah, Hwan-Seon; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Kang-Min

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that the length parameter of high strength bolts results in the variance in tension loads. The required turn for each length is specified in AISC RCSC specification. This study was focused on evaluating any influence on the clamping torque subjected to length parameter of high strength bolts. The two kinds of high strength bolts of specimen are as follows; High Strength Hexagon bolt defined on ASTM A490 and Torque Shear Bolt on KS B 2819. The length parameter ranged from 60mm(3d) to 140mm(7d). The torque, turn of nut and the clamping force were analyzed to review whether length parameter can be affected on the required tension load. To test whether the length parameter has an impact on the torque and turn of nut for the required strength and clamping force, statistical analysis is carried out. (author)

  7. The toughness of split graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

  8. The Effect of High Concentration and Small Size of Nanodiamonds on the Strength of Interface and Fracture Properties in Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A. Haleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and small size of nanodiamonds (NDs plays a crucial role in the mechanical performance of epoxy-based nanocomposites by modifying the interface strength. Herein, we systemically analyzed the relation between the high concentration and small size of ND and the fracture properties of its epoxy-based nanocomposites. It was observed that there is a two-fold increase in fracture toughness and a three-fold increase in fracture energy. Rationally, functionalized-NDs (F-NDs showed a much better performance for the nanocomposite than pristine NDs (P-NDs because of additional functional groups on its surface. The F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited rougher surface in contrast with the P-ND/epoxy, indicating the presence of a strong interface. We found that the interfaces in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites at high concentrations of NDs overlap by making a web, which can efficiently hinder further crack propagation. In addition, the de-bonding in P-ND/epoxy nanocomposites occurred at the interface with the appearance of plastic voids or semi-naked particles, whereas the de-bonding for F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites happened within the epoxy molecular network instead of the interface. Because of the strong interface in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites, at high concentrations the de-bonding within the epoxy molecular network may lead to subsequent cracks, parallel to the parent crack, via crack splitting which results in a fiber-like structure on the fracture surface. The plastic void growth, crack deflection and subsequent crack growth were correlated to higher values of fracture toughness and fracture energy in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites.

  9. Novel boride base cermets with very high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichi Takagi; Mari Yonetsu; Yuji Yamasaki

    2001-01-01

    Mo 2 NiB 2 boride base cermets consist of a Mo 2 NiB 2 type complex boride as a hard phase and a Ni base binder. The addition of Cr and V to the cermets changed the boride structure from orthorhombic to tetragonal and resulted in the improvement of mechanical properties and microstructural refinement. The tetragonal Mo 2 NiB 2 was formed through the orthorhombic Mo 2 NiB 2 by the solid state reaction during sintering and not formed directly from the raw material powders. Ni-4.5B-46.9Mo-12.5V-xMn (wt.%) model cermets with five levels of Mn content from 0 to 10 wt.% were prepared to investigate the effects of Mn on the mechanical properties and microstructure Of Mo 2 NiB 2 base cermets. The transverse rupture strength (TRS) of the cermets depended strongly on the microstructure, which varied significantly with Mn content. The maximum TRS obtained at 2.5 wt.%Mn were 3.5 Gpa with hardness of 87 R A . (author)

  10. Effects of cathodic protection on cracking of high-strength pipeline steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elboujdaini, M.; Revie, R. W.; Attard, M. [CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, Ottawa, ON(Canada)], email: melboujd@nrcan.gc.ca

    2010-07-01

    Four strength levels of pipeline steels, ranging from X-70 to X-120, were compared to determine whether higher strength materials are more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under cathodic protection. Ductility was measured in a solution at four protection levels, going from no cathodic protection to 500 mV of overprotection. All four steels showed loss of ductility under cathodic protection. Under cathodic polarization, the loss of ductility increased with the strength of the steel and the activity of the potential. After slow-strain-rate experiments conducted in air and examination of fracture surfaces, it is concluded that application of cathodic potentials, cathodic overprotection, higher strength of steel, and exposure to aqueous solution are factors that decrease the ductility of steel. Hydrogen reduction seems to be an important factor in ductility reduction and fractures. Observations suggest that high-strength pipelines need better control of cathodic protection than lower-strength pipelines.

  11. Microstructure Characterization of Fiber Laser Welds of S690QL High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoming; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui; Gong, Hongying; Cui, Haichao; Liu, Chuangen

    2018-02-01

    The use of fiber laser welding to join S690QL steels has attracted interest in the field of construction and assembly. Herein, 13-mm-thick S690QL welded joints were obtained without filler materials using the fiber laser. The as-welded microstructures and the impact energies of the joints were characterized and measured using electron microscopy in conjunction with high-resolution transmission electron images, X-ray diffraction, and impact tests. The results indicated that a single-sided welding technique could be used to join S690QL steels up to a thickness of 12 mm (fail to fuse the joint in the root) when the laser power is equal to 12 kW (scan speed 1 m/min). Double-side welding technique allows better weld penetration and better control of heat distribution. Observation of the samples showed that the fusion zone exhibited bainitic and martensitic microstructures with increased amounts of martensites (Ms) compared with the base materials. Also, the grains in the fusion zone increased in coarseness as the heat input was increased. The fusion zone exhibited increased hardness (397 HV0.2) while exhibiting a simultaneous decrease in the impact toughness. The maximum impact energy value of 26 J was obtained from the single-side-welded sample, which is greater than those obtained from the double-side-welded samples (maximum of 18 J). Many more dislocations and plastic deformations were found in the fusion zone than the heat-affected zone in the joint, which hardened the joints and lowered the impact toughness. The microstructures characterized by FTEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer also exhibited laths of M, as well as stacking faults and dislocations featuring high-density, interfacial structure ledges that occur between the high-angle grain boundaries and the M and bainite.

  12. Production of small diameter high-temperature-strength refractory metal wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Signorelli, R. A.; King, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Special thermomechanical techniques (schedules) have been developed to produce small diameter wire from three refractory metal alloys: colombian base alloy, tantalum base alloy, and tungsten base alloy. High strengths of these wires indicate their potential for contributing increased strength to metallic composites.

  13. Pressure vessels fabricated with high-strength wire and electroformed nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B.

    1966-01-01

    Metal pressure vessels of various shapes having high strength-to-weight ratios are fabricated by using known techniques of filament winding and electroforming. This eliminates nonuniform wall thickness and unequal wall strength which resulted from welding formed vessel segments together.

  14. Design of high-temperature high-strength Al-Ti-V-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that it seems plausible to develop high-strength Al-base alloys useful up to 698K in view of the behavior of nickel base superalloys which resist degradation of mechanical properties to 75 pct of their absolute melting temperature. For high temperature Al alloys, the dispersed hardening phase must not undergo phase transformation to an undesirable phase during long time exposure at the temperature of interest. An additional factor to be considered is the stability of the hardening phase with respect to Ostwald ripening. This coarsening resistance is necessary so that the required strength level can be maintained after the long-time service at high temperatures. The equilibrium crystal structures of Al 3 Ti, Al 3 V and Al 3 Zr are tetragonal D0 22 , D0 22 and D0 23 , respectively. At the temperatures of interest, around 698K, vanadium and titanium are mutually substitutable in the form of Al 3 (Ti, V). Much of titanium and vanadium can be substituted for zirconium in the D0 23 - type Al 3 Zr compound, creating Al 3 (Ti, Zr) and Al 3 (V, Zr), respectively. In particular, it has been reported that fcc L1 2 -structured Al 3 M dispersoids form in the rapidly solidified Al-V-Zr and Al-Ti-Zr systems and both L1 2 and D0 23 -structured Al 3 M phases showed slow coarsening kinetics

  15. High-lying neutron hole strengths observed in pick-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron-hole states in orbits well below the Fermi surface have been observed in a number of medium-heavy nuclei from A=90 to 209 using one nucleon pick-up reactions. The excitation energies, angular distributions of such broad and enhanced structures will be discussed. The fragmentation of the neutron-hole strengths as well as the spreading of such simple mode of excitations into more complex states are compared to recent calculations within the quasiparticle-phonon or the single particle-vibration coupling nuclear models. We report on recent measurements of J for inner-hole states in 89 Zr and 115 Sn 119 Sn using the analyzing power of the (p,d) and (d,t) reactions. Large enhancement of cross-sections are observed at high excitation energy in the study of the (p,t) reactions on Zr, Cd, Sn, Te and Sm isotopes. The systematic features of such high-lying excitation are related to the ones observed in one neutron pick-up experiments. The origin of such concentration of two neutron-hole strengths in Cd and Sn isotopes will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained in the study of the (α, 6 He) reaction at 218 MeV incident energy on 90 Zr, 118 Sn and 208 Pb targets are presented and compared to the (p,t) results. Finally the properties of hole-analog states populated in neutron pick-up reactions (from 90 Zr to 208 Pb) will be presented

  16. A feasibility study of high-strength Bi-2223 conductor for high-field solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A.; Abraimov, D. V.; Arroyo, E.; Barret, N.; Bird, M. D.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Kurteva, D. V.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Marks, E. L.; Marshall, W. S.; McRae, D. M.; Noyes, P. D.; Pereira, R. C. P.; Viouchkov, Y. L.; Walsh, R. P.; White, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    We performed a feasibility study on a high-strength Bi{}2-xPb x Sr2Ca2Cu3O{}10-x(Bi-2223) tape conductor for high-field solenoid applications. The investigated conductor, DI-BSCCO Type HT-XX, is a pre-production version of Type HT-NX, which has recently become available from Sumitomo Electric Industries. It is based on their DI-BSCCO Type H tape, but laminated with a high-strength Ni-alloy. We used stress-strain characterizations, single- and double-bend tests, easy- and hard-way bent coil-turns at various radii, straight and helical samples in up to 31.2 T background field, and small 20-turn coils in up to 17 T background field to systematically determine the electro-mechanical limits in magnet-relevant conditions. In longitudinal tensile tests at 77 K, we found critical stress- and strain-levels of 516 MPa and 0.57%, respectively. In three decidedly different experiments we detected an amplification of the allowable strain with a combination of pure bending and Lorentz loading to ≥slant 0.92 % (calculated elastically at the outer tape edge). This significant strain level, and the fact that it is multi-filamentary conductor and available in the reacted and insulated state, makes DI-BSCCO HT-NX highly suitable for very high-field solenoids, for which high current densities and therefore high loads are required to retain manageable magnet dimensions.

  17. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  18. Unitarity corrections and high field strengths in high energy hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Y.V.; Mueller, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Unitarity corrections to the BFKL description of high energy hard scattering are viewed in large N c QCD in light-cone quantization. In a center of mass frame unitarity corrections to high energy hard scattering are manifestly perturbatively calculable and unrelated to questions of parton saturation. In a frame where one of the hadrons is initially at rest unitarity corrections are related to parton saturation effects and involve potential strengths A μ ∝1/g. In such a frame we describe the high energy scattering in terms of the expectation value of a Wilson loop. The large potentials A μ ∝1/g are shown to be pure gauge terms allowing perturbation theory to again describe unitarity corrections and parton saturation effects. Genuine nonperturbative effects only come in at energies well beyond those energies where unitarity constraints first become important. (orig.)

  19. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting t...

  20. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high-strength concrete adds new dimensions to the design of concrete structures. It is a brittle material but introducing fibres into the matrix changes the material into a highly ductile material. Furthermore, the fibre reinforcement increases the anchorage of traditional reinforcement bar...... and the fire resistance. Such a fibre reinforced ultra high-strength material has been used to develop a simple joint solution between slab elements in a column - slab building system....

  1. Corrosion Assessment Guidance for High Strength Steels (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The continuing worldwide demand for natural gas presents major challenges to pipeline operators. There is increasing need to construct long distance, high capacity transmission pipelines, particularly in the more remote areas of Arctic North America,...

  2. Optimization design of strong and tough nacreous nanocomposites through tuning characteristic lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yong; Song, Zhaoqiang; Jiang, Hongyuan; Yu, Shu-Hong; He, Linghui

    2015-08-01

    How nacreous nanocomposites with optimal combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness depend on constituent property and microstructure parameters is studied using a nonlinear shear-lag model. We show that the interfacial elasto-plasticity and the overlapping length between bricks dependent on the brick size and brick staggering mode significantly affect the nonuniformity of the shear stress, the stress-transfer efficiency and thus the failure path. There are two characteristic lengths at which the strength and toughness are optimized respectively. Simultaneous optimization of the strength and toughness is achieved by matching these lengths as close as possible in the nacreous nanocomposite with regularly staggered brick-and-mortar (BM) structure where simultaneous uniform failures of the brick and interface occur. In the randomly staggered BM structure, as the overlapping length is distributed, the nacreous nanocomposite turns the simultaneous uniform failure into progressive interface or brick failure with moderate decrease of the strength and toughness. Specifically there is a parametric range at which the strength and toughness are insensitive to the brick staggering randomness. The obtained results propose a parametric selection guideline based on the length matching for rational design of nacreous nanocomposites. Such guideline explains why nacre is strong and tough while most artificial nacreous nanocomposites aere not.

  3. Mental Toughness Moderates Social Loafing in Cycle Time-Trial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J; Peters, Derek M; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Twenty-seven men (Mage = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual performance identified, and once in a group with individual performance not identified. Using a median split of the mental toughness index, participants were divided into high and low mental toughness groups. Cycling distance was compared using a 2 (trial) × 2 (high-low mental toughness) analysis of variance. We hypothesized that mentally tough participants would perform equally well under both conditions (i.e., no indication of social loafing) compared with low mentally tough participants, who would perform less well when their individual performance was not identifiable (i.e., demonstrating the anticipated social loafing effect). The high mental toughness group demonstrated consistent performance across both conditions, while the low mental toughness group reduced their effort in the non-individually identifiable team condition. The results confirm that (a) clearly identifying individual effort/performance is an important situational variable that may impact team performance and (b) higher perceived mental toughness has the ability to negate the tendency to loaf.

  4. Experimental Investigation into Corrosion Effect on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Bars under Dynamic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviors of corroded steel bars are important in the capacity evaluation of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The present paper studies the mechanical behavior of the corroded high strength reinforcing steel bars under static and dynamic loading. High strength reinforcing steel bars were corroded by using accelerated corrosion methods and the tensile tests were carried out under different strain rates. The results showed that the mechanical properties of corroded high strength steel bars were strain rate dependent, and the strain rate effect decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. The decreased nominal yield and ultimate strengths were mainly caused by the reduction of cross-sectional areas, and the decreased ultimate deformation and the shortened yield plateau resulted from the intensified stress concentration at the nonuniform reduction. Based on the test results, reduction factors were proposed to relate the tensile behaviors with the corrosion degree and strain rate for corroded bars. A modified Johnson-Cook strength model of corroded high strength steel bars under dynamic loading was proposed by taking into account the influence of corrosion degree. Comparison between the model and test results showed that proposed model properly describes the dynamic response of the corroded high strength rebars.

  5. Fracture toughness determination in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant M; Yawny, A; Perez Ipina, J

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural integrity of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants deserved increasing attention in the last years due to the negative impact related to their failures. In this context, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) methodology appears as a potential tool for the analysis. The application of EPFM requires, necessarily, knowledge of two aspects, i.e., the driving force estimation in terms of an elastic plastic toughness parameter (e.g., J) and the experimental measurement of the fracture toughness of the material (e.g., the material J-resistance curve). The present work describes the development of a non standardized experimental technique aimed to determine J-resistance curves for steam generator tubes with circumferential through wall cracks. The tubes were made of Incoloy 800 (Ni: 30.0-35.0; Cr: 19.0-23.0; Fe: 35.5 min, % in weight). Due to its austenitic microstructure, this alloy shows very high toughness and is widely used in applications where a good corrosion resistance in aqueous environment or an excellent oxidation resistance in high temperature environment is required. Finally, a procedure for the structural integrity analysis of steam generator tubes with crack-like defects, based on a FAD diagram (Failure Assessment Diagram), is briefly described (author)

  6. Developing Mental Toughness: Lessons from Paralympians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Powell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental toughness (MT is a key psychological variable related to perseverance and success in performance domains. MT and its development has been explored across a range of contexts and across different sports, but no research to date has examined MT in relation to Paralympic athletes. We sought to understand the lived-experiences of mentally tough Paralympians, aiming to conceptualize MT in a Paralympic context and investigate its development. Ten Paralympic athletes were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The verbatim transcripts of the interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three broad themes and several subthemes emerged in conceptualizing Paralympian MT: characteristics (determination, defiance, pragmatic, optimistic, resilient, self-belief and independence and autonomy, cognitions (normalization, sense of escape, non-acceptance of constraints, influence perception and connection and cognitive strategies (rational thinking, goal setting, pain management and control. In understanding MT development, two broad themes and several subthemes emerged: formative experiences (challenge, classification, setbacks, critical incident, trauma and recovery, sustained commitment, development of mind-set and perspective during challenge, failure, and acceptance, and support and coping resources (social support and significant others, external shaping, social support, overcoming problems, social comparison and reflective practice. The findings suggest that Paralympians benefited from exposure to highly demanding situations in a supportive environment and this helped develop mentally tough characteristics and behaviors and individualized cognitive coping strategies. Our findings highlight the association between the adaptive development of personal characteristics by overcoming physical and mental setbacks over a sustained time period. Overall, the findings suggest that to develop mentally tough

  7. Developing Mental Toughness: Lessons from Paralympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Alexander J; Myers, Tony D

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is a key psychological variable related to perseverance and success in performance domains. MT and its development has been explored across a range of contexts and across different sports, but no research to date has examined MT in relation to Paralympic athletes. We sought to understand the lived-experiences of mentally tough Paralympians, aiming to conceptualize MT in a Paralympic context and investigate its development. Ten Paralympic athletes were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The verbatim transcripts of the interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three broad themes and several subthemes emerged in conceptualizing Paralympian MT: characteristics (determination, defiance, pragmatic, optimistic, resilient, self-belief and independence and autonomy), cognitions (normalization, sense of escape, non-acceptance of constraints, influence perception and connection) and cognitive strategies (rational thinking, goal setting, pain management and control). In understanding MT development, two broad themes and several subthemes emerged: formative experiences (challenge, classification, setbacks, critical incident, trauma and recovery, sustained commitment, development of mind-set and perspective during challenge, failure, and acceptance), and support and coping resources (social support and significant others, external shaping, social support, overcoming problems, social comparison and reflective practice). The findings suggest that Paralympians benefited from exposure to highly demanding situations in a supportive environment and this helped develop mentally tough characteristics and behaviors and individualized cognitive coping strategies. Our findings highlight the association between the adaptive development of personal characteristics by overcoming physical and mental setbacks over a sustained time period. Overall, the findings suggest that to develop mentally tough characteristics

  8. A study of high-strength bolts after dephosphoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fasteners are produced, including those for the automobile industry, household electrical appliances industry, architectural engineering, and even the aviation industry. The effects of the high-tensile bolt dephosphoring process on the entire fastener manufacturing process and its organizational characteristics and mechanical properties are analyzed and discussed in this study. Our experimental results reveal that the bolt dephosphoring process must be completed before heat treatment, which can be confirmed with a dephosphoring reagent or metallographic observation. Once bolt heat treatment is completed, bolts without dephosphoring appear to be coated with δ ferrite (delta ferrite composed of a phosphate coating and a phosphatizing coating, which are not easily removed. Heat treatment with phosphorus results in grain boundary segregation, causing embrittlement and a reduction in lattice bonding forces and resulting in a high risk of fracturing when bolts are used in high-temperature environments or undergo multiaxial stresses.

  9. Low upper-shelf toughness, high transition temperature test insert in HSST [Heavy Section Steel Technology] PTSE-2 [Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2] vessel and wide plate test specimens: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    A piece of A387, Grade 22 Class 2 (2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo) steel plate specially heat treated to produce low upper-shelf (LUS) toughness and high transition temperature was installed in the side wall of Heavy Section Steel Technology (HHST) vessel V-8. This vessel is to be tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2 (PTSE-2) project of the HSST program. Comparable pieces of the plate were made into six wide plate specimens and other samples. These samples underwent tensile tests, Charpy tests, and J-integral tests. The results of these tests are given in this report

  10. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Loss of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) Reduces Bone Toughness and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Waader, Sandra A.; Whitehead, Jack M.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of the seimportant factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4−/− littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4−/− mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4−/− mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1 Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. PMID:24509412

  12. Synergistic methods for the production of high-strength and low-cost boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Charles Schenck

    2011-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a non-oxide ceramic in the same class of nonmetallic hard materials as silicon carbide and diamond. The high hardness, high elastic modulus and low density of B4C make it a nearly ideal material for personnel and vehicular armor. B4C plates formed via hot-pressing are currently issued to U.S. soldiers and have exhibited excellent performance; however, hot-pressed articles contain inherent processing defects and are limited to simple geometries such as low-curvature plates. Recent advances in the pressureless sintering of B4C have produced theoretically-dense and complex-shape articles that also exhibit superior ballistic performance. However, the cost of this material is currently high due to the powder shape, size, and size distribution that are required, which limits the economic feasibility of producing such a product. Additionally, the low fracture toughness of pure boron carbide may have resulted in historically lower transition velocities (the projectile velocity range at which armor begins to fail) than competing silicon carbide ceramics in high-velocity long-rod tungsten penetrator tests. Lower fracture toughness also limits multi-hit protection capability. Consequently, these requirements motivated research into methods for improving the densification and fracture toughness of inexpensive boron carbide composites that could result in the development of a superior armor material that would also be cost-competitive with other high-performance ceramics. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of titanium and carbon additives on the sintering and mechanical properties of inexpensive B4C powders. The boron carbide powder examined in this study was a sub-micron (0.6 mum median particle size) boron carbide powder produced by H.C. Starck GmbH via a jet milling process. A carbon source in the form of phenolic resin, and titanium additives in the form of 32 nm and 0.9 mum TiO2 powders were selected. Parametric studies of

  13. Tough-coated hard powders for hardmetals of novel properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, R.E.; Smid, I.; Kladler, G.; Korb, G.; Sherman, A.; Ettmayer, P.

    2001-01-01

    The properties and performance of conventional materials and composites are constrained by solubility limits, diffusion coefficients, and compatibility of physical and chemical constituent properties in their phase equilibria. To escape these limits, ingenious ways of combining strength, toughness, and wear resistance by way of various coatings and laminations have been devised. These coated tools are systematically discarded after only about 10 % of their wear tolerance has been used. Tough-coated hard powders (TCHP), patented by EnDurAloy (USA), are hard refractory particles CVD coated with nanolayers of WC and Co. Consolidation of TCHP creates an engineered homogeneous cellular structure whose interconnected tough WC-Co 'shells' each contain a wear-resistant core (e.g., TiN). In TCHP's, the coating is throughout the tool, not only on the surface, combining the strength, heat resistance, and toughness of cemented carbides with the chemical and abrasion wear resistance of harder materials. As wear progresses, new wear-resistant material continuously replaces the working surfaces and edges of the tool until its geometry reaches its maximum limits. TCHP tools are then reusable many times. Specific coating and consolidation processes, characterization of compacts, and test comparisons with conventional materials are discussed. (author)

  14. Fracture toughness of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture toughness of nuclear grade hot-pressed beryllium upon irradiation to fluences of 3.5 to 5.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 , E greater than 1 MeV, was determined. Procedures and data relating to a round-robin test contributing to a standard ASTM method for unirradiated beryllium are discussed in connection with the testing of irradiated specimens. A porous grade of beryllium was also irradiated and tested, thereby enabling some discrimination between the models for describing the fracture toughness behavior of porous beryllium. The fracture toughness of unirradiated 2 percent BeO nuclear grade beryllium was 12.0 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 60 percent upon irradiation at 339 K and testing at 295 K. The fracture toughness of a porous grade of beryllium was 13.1 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 68 percent upon irradiation and testing at the same conditions. Reasons for the reduction in fracture toughness upon irradiation are discussed

  15. A toughness and defect size assessment of welded stainless steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipperfield, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the effect of test temperature, stress relieving temperature and weld profile on the initiation toughness of 316 type steels are described. The data indicate that little improvement in weld metal toughness is obtained by stress relieving at temperatures of up to 850 0 C and the magnitude of the toughness is significantly below that of wrought 316 steel. The observed trends in toughness with test temperature or stress relieving temperature have been explained in terms of the effect of these variables on yield strength and work hardening rate. A defect size assessment of a particular component has been made for stress relieved and non-stress relieved conditions. Simple addition of residual to applied stress values indicated that the defect size is in many cases essentially controlled by the magnitude of the residual stress. The possible conservatism of this assessment and the use of initiation toughness values are discussed. (author)

  16. On the performance of circular concrete-filled high strength steel columns under axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study to investigate the performance of circular high-strength steel tubes filled with concrete (CFT under monotonic axial loading. A model is developed to implement the material constitutive relationships and non-linearity. Calibration against previous experimental data shows good agreement. A parametric study is then conducted using the model and compared with codes provisions. Strength and ductility of confined concrete are of primary concern. Variables considered are yield stress of steel tube and column diameter. The assessment of column performance is based on axial load carrying capacities and enhancements of both strength and ductility due to confinement. Two parameters namely strength enhancement factor (Kf and ductility index (μ are clearly defined and introduced for assessment. Results indicate that both concrete strength and ductility of CFT columns are enhanced but to different extents. The ductile behaviors are significantly evident. The increase in yield stress of steel tube has a minimal effect on concrete strength but pronounced effect on concrete ductility. However, reduction in ductility is associated with using high-tensile steel of Grade 70. The overall findings indicate that the use of high-strength tube in CFT columns is not promising. This finding may seriously be considered in seismic design.

  17. Self-concept organisation and mental toughness in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, Jennifer; Ditzfeld, Christopher; Golby, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between individual differences in evaluative self-organisation and mental toughness in sport, proposing that motivation and emotional resiliency (facets of mental toughness) stem from differences in core self. A cross-sectional assessment of 105 athletes competing at a range of performance levels took part in an online study including measures of self-reported mental toughness (Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire; Sheard, M., Golby, J., & van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress towards construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 186-193. doi:10.1027/1015-5759.25.3.186) and self-organisation (self-descriptive attribute task; Showers, C. J. (2002). Integration and compartmentalisation: A model of self-structure and self-change. In D. Cervone & W. Mischel (Eds.), Advances in personality science (pp. 271-291). New York, NY: Guilford Press). As predicted, global mental toughness was associated with self-concept positivity, which was particularly high in individuals with positive-integrative self-organisation (individuals who distribute positive and negative self-attributes evenly across multiple selves). Specifically, positive integration was associated with constancy (commitment to goal achievement despite obstacles and the potential for failure), which extends presumably from positive integratives' emotional stability and drive to resolve negative self-beliefs.

  18. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chih-Yuan, Chen; Chien-Chon, Chen; Jer-Ren, Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  19. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih-Yuan, Chen, E-mail: chen6563@gmail.com [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chien-Chon, Chen [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Jer-Ren, Yang, E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-25

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  20. Material Fracture Characterization and Toughness Improving Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study are the assurance of integrity assessment technique for RPV and primary piping, the accumulation of radiation embrittlement data for RPV steels and development of high toughness/strength radiation-resistant reactor structural materials. The present work is categorized into 4 parts. The contents are as follows. 1. Development of technical guideline for application of fracture master curve to domestic nuclear power plant, 2. Development of radiation embrittlement DB and assessment model for domestic RPV steels, 3. characterzation of crack growth properties for piping and their welds, 4. Improvement of material specification for RPV and piping Since the demand of the citizens for safety insurance of operating NPP is increasing, the results of quantitative evaluation of safety margin related to radiation embrittlement by using advanced techniques can be effectively used for public acceptance. It can provide a technical basis of safety inspection for the regulatory body. Furthermore, it is expected that the techniques and the results would be used for effectiveness of the aging management and periodic safety review programs for domestic NPPs. The results of the study for enhancement of material properties of type 347 for surge line is planed to be involved in special specification for the next KSNP construction. The results for improving strength of RPV material will be an important technical basis of an R and D program for the design and construction of a next generation NPP, such as SCWR

  1. Evaluating Strengthening and Impact Toughness Mechanisms for Ferritic and Bainitic Microstructures in Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Larzabal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon microalloyed steels show interesting commercial possibilities by combining different “micro”-alloying elements when high strength and low temperature toughness properties are required. Depending on the elements chosen for the chemistry design, the mechanisms controlling the strengths and toughness may differ. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the microstructural features of three different microalloyed steels, Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo, is described using mainly the electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The contribution of different strengthening mechanisms to yield strength and impact toughness is evaluated, and its relative weight is computed for different coiling temperatures. Grain refinement is shown to be the most effective mechanism for controlling both mechanical properties. As yield strength increases, the relative contribution of precipitation strengthening increases, and this factor is especially important in the Ti-Mo microalloyed steel where different combinations of interphase and random precipitation are detected depending on the coiling temperature. In addition to average grain size values, microstructural heterogeneity is considered in order to propose a new equation for predicting ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT. This equation considers the wide range of microstructures analyzed as well as the increase in the transition temperature related to precipitation strengthening.

  2. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  3. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  4. Synergic Adsorption–Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities

  5. High-impact strength acrylic denture base material processed by autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Salwan Sami

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclave processing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of high-impact strength acrylic denture base material. High Impact Acryl was the heat-cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of 120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: control groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by conventional water-bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 h then boil for 30 min) and experimental groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C, 210 kPa .The experimental groups were divided into (fast) groups for 15 min, and (slow) groups for 30 min. To study the effect of the autoclave processing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine), impact strength (Charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVA and LSD test. In ANOVA test, there were highly significant differences between the results of the processing techniques in transverse, impact, hardness, and porosity test. The LSD test showed a significant difference between control and fast groups in transverse and hardness tests and a non-significant difference in impact test and a highly significant difference in porosity test; while, there were a highly significant differences between control and slow groups in all examined tests; finally, there were a non-significant difference between fast and slow groups in transverse and porosity tests and a highly significant difference in impact and hardness tests. In the autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle improved the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short) curing cycle. The autoclave processing technique improved the tested physical and mechanical properties of High Impact Acryl. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society

  6. The rupture strength of dissimilar joints in high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenwall, B.

    1992-05-01

    In dissimilar joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels the heat affected zone in the ferritic steel always is the weakest link. Two different joints where the ferritic steel has been 10CrMo910 (2.25Cr1Mo) and X20CrMoV121 respectively (162Cr1Mo0.3V) has been investigated through thermal cycling and isothermal creep testing. In this case the purpose has been to investigate the weakest link and therefore both 10CrMo910 and X20CrMoV121 have been welded to themselves using the TIG-method with Inconel 82 (70Cr20Cr3Mn2). 5Nb as filler wire. Crossweld specimens have been taken from the joints. To accelerate the testing the tip temperature at thermal cycling and the temperature at isothermal creep testing has been in the region 600-650 degrees C. Low ductile fracture, which is typical for failures in practice, has been obtained by using a moderate tensile stress, 63 N/mm 2 . In the high temperature range, 650 degrees C, the thermal cycling compared to the isothermal testing had no influence but in lower temperatures the cycling caused decreased time to rupture. The time to rupture in thermal cycling as well as in isothermal testing as a function of testing temperature can be fitted to exponential curve of type t = a x e bT (where t and T are time and temperature respectively). Through extrapolation of the measured data it has been found that 10CrMo910 in hard conditions that is thermal cycling has a life time at 500 degrees C of about 100 000 h. If the operational temperature is constant the life time will be about four times longer. The X20CrMoV121 on the other hand has a life time at thermal cycling at 500 degrees C and moderate tensile stress of about 3 000 000 h. This means that the tensile stress can be increased considerably. The cracks appear in 10CrMo910 closely to the fusion line but in the X20CrMoV121 steel cracking and fracture arise in the heat affected zone some millimeters from the fusion line. (au)

  7. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  8. Development of strength evaluation method for high-pressure ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Hiroaki, E-mail: takegami.hiroaki@jaea.go.jp; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting R and D on nuclear hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. Since highly corrosive materials such as sulfuric and hydriodic acids are used in the IS process, it is very important to develop components made of corrosion resistant materials. Therefore, we have been developing a sulfuric acid decomposer made of a ceramic material, that is, silicon carbide (SiC), which shows excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid. One of the key technological challenges for the practical use of a ceramic sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC is to be licensed in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act for high-pressure operations of the IS process. Since the strength of a ceramic material depends on its geometric form, etc., the strength evaluation method required for a pressure design is not established. Therefore, we propose a novel strength evaluation method for SiC structures based on the effective volume theory in order to extend the range of application of the effective volume. We also developed a design method for ceramic apparatus with the strength evaluation method in order to obtain a license in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act. In this paper, the minimum strength of SiC components was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the minimum strength evaluation method of SiC components was developed by using the results of simulation. The method was confirmed by fracture test of tube model and reference data.

  9. Visible Light Photoinitiator for 3D-Printing of Tough Methacrylate Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Steyrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithography-based additive manufacturing was introduced in the 1980s, and is still the method of choice for printing accurate plastic parts with high surface quality. Recent progress in this field has made tough photopolymer resins and cheap LED light engines available. This study presents the influence of photoinitiator selection and post-processing on the thermomechanical properties of various tough photopolymers. The influence of three photoinitiators (Ivocerin, BAPO, and TPO-L on the double-bond conversion and mechanical properties was investigated by mid infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. It was found that 1.18 wt % TPO-L would provide the best overall results in terms of double-bond conversion and mechanical properties. A correlation between double-bond conversion, yield strength, and glass transition temperature was found. Elongation at break remained high after post-curing at about 80–100%, and was not influenced by higher photoinitiator concentration. Finally, functional parts with 41 MPa tensile strength, 82% elongation at break, and 112 °C glass transition temperature were printed on a 405 nm DLP (digital light processing printer.

  10. Fracture toughness evaluation of select advanced replacement alloys for LWR core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Life extension of the existing nuclear reactors imposes irradiation of high fluences to structural materials, resulting in significant challenges to the traditional reactor materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Advanced alloys with superior radiation resistance will increase safety margins, design flexibility, and economics for not only the life extension of the existing fleet but also new builds with advanced reactor designs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) teamed up with Department of Energy (DOE) to initiate the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program, aiming to develop and test degradation resistant alloys from current commercial alloy specifications by 2021 to a new advanced alloy with superior degradation resistance in light water reactor (LWR)-relevant environments by 2024. Fracture toughness is one of the key engineering properties required for core internal materials. Together with other properties, which are being examined such as high-temperature steam oxidation resistance, radiation hardening, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking resistance, the alloys will be down-selected for neutron irradiation study and comprehensive post-irradiation examinations. According to the candidate alloys selected under the ARRM program, ductile fracture toughness of eight alloys was evaluated at room temperature and the LWR-relevant temperatures. The tested alloys include two ferritic alloys (Grade 92 and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy 14YWT), two austenitic stainless steels (316L and 310), four Ni-base superalloys (718A, 725, 690, and X750). Alloy 316L and X750 are included as reference alloys for low- and high-strength alloys, respectively. Compact tension specimens in 0.25T and 0.2T were machined from the alloys in the T-L and R-L orientations according to the product forms of the alloys. This report summarizes the final results of the specimens tested and analyzed per ASTM Standard E1820. Unlike the

  11. Fracture toughness and stress relief response of irradiated Type 347/348 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    A test program has experimentally determined: (1) The fracture toughness of Type 347/348 stainless steel (SS) specimens with high values of irradiation fluence (2.3 to 4.8 x 10 22 n/cm 2 , E > 1.0 MeV) and experiencing different levels of irradiation creep (0.0, 0.6, 1.1, 1.8%), (2) the effect of thermal stress relief on fracture toughness recovery for the highly irradiated material, and (3) the mechanisms associated with fracture toughness recovery due to thermal stress relief. The postirradiation fracture toughness tests and tensile tests were conducted at 427 0 C

  12. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at temperatures of either 60 or 250 degrees C. Preliminary results have been obtained for several of these materials irradiated at 60 degrees C. The results show that irradiation at this temperature reduces the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The unloading compliance technique developed for the subsize disk compact specimens works quite well, particularly for materials with lower toughness. Specimens of materials with very high toughness deform excessively, and this results in experimental difficulties

  13. Evolution of Durable High-Strength Flowable Mortar Reinforced with Hybrid Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, Eethar Thanon; Ramli, Mahyuddin

    2012-01-01

    The production and use of durable materials in construction are considered as one of the most challenging things for the professional engineers. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the mechanical properties and the durability by using of different percentages of steel fiber with high-strength flowable mortar (HSFM) and also the use of the hybridization of steel fibers, palm fibers, and synthetic fiber (Barchip). Different experimental tests (compressive strength, splitting t...

  14. Mindfulness and mental toughness among provincial adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    psychological basis of mental toughness from within existing, evidence-based ... development of mental toughness among athletes. The existing studies have ... that advocated by cognitive-behavioural interventions and traditional mental skills ...

  15. Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, A; Chen, X; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2013-11-01

    Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm(2)) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (pglass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a High Strength, Refractory High Entropy Alloy, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a relatively new class of materials that have garnered significant interest over the last decade due to their intriguing balance of properties including high strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. In contrast to conventional alloy systems, HEAs are based on four or more principal elements with near equimolar concentrations and tend to have simple microstructures due to the preferential formation of solid solution phases. HEAs appear to offer new pathways to lightweighting in structural applications, new alloys for elevated temperature components, and new magnetic materials, but more thorough characterization studies are needed to assess the viability of the recently developed multicomponent materials. One such HEA, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr, was selected to be the basis for this characterization study in part due to its strength at elevated temperatures (sigma0.2 = 1600 MPa at T = 800 °C) and low density compared with commercially available Ni-based superalloys. The refractory element containing HEA composition was developed in order to balance the high temperature strength of the refractory elements with the desirable properties achieved by the high entropy alloying design approach for potential use in aerospace thermal protection and structural applications. Ingots of AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr were cast by vacuum arc melting followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization at 1400 °C for 24 hrs with a furnace cool of 10 °C/min. The resulting microstructure was characterized at multiple length scales using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM), and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The microstructure was found to consist of a periodic, coherent two phase mixture, where a disordered bcc phase is aligned orthogonally in an ordered B2 phase. Through microstructural evolution heat treatment studies, the

  17. 46 CFR 154.605 - Toughness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toughness test. 154.605 Section 154.605 Shipping COAST....605 Toughness test. (a) Each toughness test under §§ 154.610 through 154.625 must meet Subpart 54.05 of this chapter. (b) If subsize test specimens are used for the Charpy V-notch toughness test, the...

  18. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Strengthened by Multiply Nanoscale Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. F.; Zuo, L.

    Recently, we have being focused on improving the strength without sacrificing ductility of High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels by designing nanostructures. Several developments have been obtained, summarized as the following three parts: (a) Depressively nanoscale precipitates: A ferritic steel with finely dispersed precipitates reveals a yield strength of 760 MPa, approximately three times higher than that of conventional Ti-bearing high strength hot-rolled sheet steels, and its ultimate tensile strength reaches 850 MPa with an elongation-to-failure value of 18%. The finely dispersed TiC precipitates in the matrix provide matrix strengthening. The estimated magnitude of precipitation strengthening is around 458 MPa. The effects of the particle size, particle distribution and intrinsic particle strength have been investigated through dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The DD results show that strengthening is not only a function of the density of the nano-scale precipitates but also of their size. (b) Ultrafinely ferritic plate: An interstitial-free (IF) steel sheet with a cold-rolling reduction of 75% shows a high tensile strength (710MPa) while preserving a considerable plastic strain (13%). The ductility recovery with increasing the rolling reduction up to 75% is related with the decreasing both in lamellar spacings and cell blocks sizes. (c) Parallel nano-laminated austenite: A composite microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainitic ferrite (BF) laths and retained austenite (RA) platelets has been found for the steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (in mass fraction), processed with annealing and bainitic holding. The sample annealed at 820oC (for 120s) and partitioned at 400oC (for 300s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, 682 MPa) and elongation to failure ( 70%) with about 26% of BF plates 16% RA in its microstructure.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2011-01-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.