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Sample records for total sugar medium

  1. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  2. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  3. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  4. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Erickson; Joanne Slavin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  5. Production of DagA and ethanol by sequential utilization of sugars in a mixed-sugar medium simulating microalgal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyi; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-09-01

    A novel two-step fermentation process using a mixed-sugar medium mimicking microalgal hydrolysate has been proposed to avoid glucose repression and thus to maximize substrate utilization efficiency. When DagA, a β-agarase was produced in one step in the mixed-sugar medium by using a recombinant Streptomyces lividans, glucose was found to have negative effects on the consumption of the other sugars and DagA biosynthesis causing low substrate utilization efficiency and low DagA productivity. To overcome such difficulties, a new strategy of sequential substrate utilization was developed. In the first step, glucose was consumed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae together with galactose and mannose producing ethanol, after which DagA was produced from the remaining sugars of xylose, rhamnose and ribose. Fucose was not consumed. By adopting this two-step process, the overall substrate utilization efficiency was increased approximately 3-fold with a nearly 2-fold improvement of DagA production, let alone the additional benefit of ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

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    Mauro Fisberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS, a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals.

  7. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  8. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  9. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of sugar yeast consumption by measuring electrical medium resistance

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    Martin Lucas Zamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The real-time monitoring of alcoholic fermentation (sugar consumption is very important in industrial processes. Several techniques (i.e., using a biosensor have been proposed to realize this goal. In this work, we propose a new method to follow sugar yeast consumption. This novel method is based on the changes in the medium resistance (Rm that are induced by the CO2 bubbles produced during a fermentative process. We applied a 50-mV and 700-Hz signal to 75 ml of a yeast suspension in a tripolar cell. A gold electrode was used as the working electrode, whereas an Ag/AgCl electrode and a stainless-steel electrode served as the reference and counter electrodes, respectively. We then added glucose to the yeast suspension and obtained a 700% increase in the Rm after 8 minutes. The addition of sucrose instead of glucose as the carbon source resulted in a 1200% increase in the Rm. To confirm that these changes are the result of CO2 bubbles in the fermentation medium, we designed a tetrapolar cell in which CO2 gas was insufflated at the bottom of the cell and concluded that the changes were due to CO2 bubbles produced during the fermentation. Consequently, this new method is a low-cost and rapid technology to follow the sugar consumption in yeast.

  11. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  12. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Given its potential effect on nutrient and energy density, the sugar content of the diet is a subject of controversy. The aim of this review was to examine the cross-sectional or prospective evidence for associations between the intake of total sugar or added sugar (high vs low intakes) and diet quality or nutrient intakes in the general population. The following databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1972 and 2012: CINAHL Plus, EBM Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The search identified studies that examined the association between intake of total sugar and/or added sugar and diet quality (n = 22) or nutrient intakes (n = 30). The following data were extracted: sample size and population, dietary assessment method, source of added sugar data, source of funding, comparator, association between total sugar or added sugar and diet quality, and the direction and magnitude of the association. Of 22 studies, all except 1 found a higher intake of added sugar to be associated with poorer diet quality, and the exceptional study did not adjust for total energy intake. Twenty-one of 30 studies found a negative association between added sugar and micronutrient intakes. The same association was not found for total sugar intake. Any negative association between dietary sugar and diet quality is better exposed by referring to added sugar rather than total sugar. There was substantial variation in features of study quality, including sample size, so the magnitude of the observed effect was generally small and may not be of clinical significance. Furthermore, the positive influence that core foods such as fruit and milk exert on total sugar values may bias the association between total sugar and diet quality. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Variation in total sugars and reductive sugars in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (hylocomiaceae) under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos; Melgarejo Munoz, Luz Marina.

    2012-01-01

    The structural simplicity of the bryophytes exposed them easily to water stress, forcing them to have physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable them to survive. This study evaluated the variation of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in relation to relative water content, in Pleurozium schreberi when faced with low water content in the Paramo de Chingaza (Colombia) and under simulated conditions of water deficit in the laboratory. we found that total sugars increase when the plant is dehydrated and returned to their normal content when re-hydrated moss, this could be interpreted as a possible mechanism of osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection of the cell content and cellular structure. Reducing sugars showed no significant variation, showing that monosaccharides do not have a protective role during dehydration.

  14. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  15. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  16. Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, David J; Woolner, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-01

    There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for "free" sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on "added" sugars, and globally most food labeling states "total" sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations.

  17. Total dietary sugar consumption does not influence sleep or behaviour in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Banks, Siobhan; Kohler, Mark

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to compare sugar intake in Australian children with current guidelines and determine if total sugar consumption as a percentage of energy (sugar %E) exacerbates the relationship between sleep and behaviour. A sample of 287 children aged 8-12 years (boys 48.8%, age: 10.7 ± 1.3 years), and their parents/guardians completed a battery of questionnaires. Children completed a food frequency questionnaire, and parents completed demographic, sleep, and behaviour questionnaires. Average sugar intake was 134.9 ± 71.7 g per day (sugar %E 26.0 ± 7.0%), and only 55 (19%) participants did not exceed the recommended sugar intake limit. Correlations and logistical regressions indicated that sugar %E was not associated with sleep or behavioural domains (r range = -0.07-0.08; p range = .173-.979) nor contributed to the prediction of sleep behaviour problems (p range = .16-.80). Whilst a high proportion of children consumed above the recommended amount of daily total sugar, total sugar consumption was not related to behavioural or sleep problems, nor affected the relationship between these variables.

  18. Study on the Varying Patterns of Total Phospholipids, Selenium, Phosphorus, Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar, Hydrolyzed Amino Acids in the Velvet Antler of Northeast Sika Deer in Growth Period

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    Wang Shu-li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the varying patterns of total phospholipids, selenium, phosphorus, reducing sugar and total sugar, hydrolyzed amino acids in the velvet antler of Northeast sika deer in growth period were evaluated. Eighteen Northeast sika deer were allocated into 6 groups according to the antler shedding time. Results indicated that there was significant difference of the selenium content between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 1 and Group 2 or Group 5 and Group 6. About the phosphorus there was significant difference between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 4 and Group 5 or Group 2 and Group 3 or Group 1 and Group 2. Group 6 had the lowest total Phospholipids content. Both of the reducing sugar and total sugar showed an increasing pattern initially and then decrease gradually.

  19. Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, David J; Woolner, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for “free” sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on “added” sugars, and globally most food labeling states “total” sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations. PMID:29659689

  20. Quantitative monitoring of sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar dynamics for phenotyping of water-deficit stress tolerance in rice through spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bappa; Sahoo, Rabi N.; Pargal, Sourabh; Krishna, Gopal; Verma, Rakesh; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Sehgal, Vinay K.; Gupta, Vinod K.; Dash, Sushanta K.; Swain, Padmini

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, the changes in sucrose, reducing and total sugar content due to water-deficit stress in rice leaves were modeled using visible, near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. The objectives of the study were to identify the best vegetation indices and suitable multivariate technique based on precise analysis of hyperspectral data (350 to 2500 nm) and sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content measured at different stress levels from 16 different rice genotypes. Spectral data analysis was done to identify suitable spectral indices and models for sucrose estimation. Novel spectral indices in near infrared (NIR) range viz. ratio spectral index (RSI) and normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) sensitive to sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content were identified which were subsequently calibrated and validated. The RSI and NDSI models had R2 values of 0.65, 0.71 and 0.67; RPD values of 1.68, 1.95 and 1.66 for sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar, respectively for validation dataset. Different multivariate spectral models such as artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLSR), random forest regression (RFR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR) were also evaluated. The best performing multivariate models for sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars were found to be, MARS, ANN and MARS, respectively with respect to RPD values of 2.08, 2.44, and 1.93. Results indicated that VNIR and SWIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration can be used as a reliable alternative to conventional methods for measurement of sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars of rice under water-deficit stress as this technique is fast, economic, and noninvasive.

  1. Use of Added Sugars Instead of Total Sugars May Improve the Capacity of the Health Star Rating System to Discriminate between Core and Discretionary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menday, Hannah; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Baines, Surinder; Petersen, Kristina S

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610). The product categories included in the analyses were breakfast cereals (n=513), fruit (n=571), milk (n=309), non-alcoholic beverages (n=1,040), vegetables (n=787), and yogurt (n=390). Added sugar values were estimated for each product using a validated method. HSRs were then estimated for every product according to the established method using total sugar, and then by substituting added sugar for total sugar. The scoring system was not modified when added sugar was used in place of total sugar in the HSR calculation. Products were classified as core or discretionary based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. To investigate whether use of added sugar in the HSR algorithm improved the distinction between core and discretionary products as defined by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, the proportion of core products that received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and the proportion of discretionary products that received an HSR of added sugars were determined. There were 2,263 core and 1,347 discretionary foods; 1,684 of 3,610 (47%) products contained added sugar (median 8.4 g/100 g, interquartile range=5.0 to 12.2 g). When the HSR was calculated with added sugar instead of total sugar, an additional 166 (7.3%) core products received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and 103 (7.6%) discretionary products received a rating of ≥3.5 stars. The odds of correctly identifying a product as core vs discretionary were increased by 61% (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.06; Padded compared to total sugars. In the six

  2. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all Padded sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  3. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  4. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data a...

  5. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-28

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  6. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  7. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  8. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  9. Medium properties and total energy coupling in underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological model is presented that allows the direct calculation of the effects of variations in medium properties on the total energy coupling between the medium and an underground explosion. The model presented is based upon the assumption that the shock wave generated in the medium can be described as a spherical blast wave at early times. The total energy coupled to the medium is then simply the sum of the kinetic and internal energies of this blast wave. Results obtained by use of this model indicate that the energy coupling is more strongly affected by the medium's porosity than by its water content. These results agree well with those obtained by summing the energy deposited by the blast wave as a function of range

  10. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  11. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diewertje Sluik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE, free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years, 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  12. Adequacy of the dietary intake of total and added sugars in the Spanish diet to the recommendations: ANIBES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-10-15

    The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 17% Total TE: 7.3% for added, and 9.6% for the intrinsic sugar intake. Differences were observed for added sugar which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. A 58.2% of children fullfill WHO recommndations (sugar were milk and dairy products (23.2%), non-alcoholic beverages (18.6%), fruits (16.8%) and sugars and sweets (15.1%) and grains (12.0%). The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4.94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%). As for free sugars, sources were sugars and sweets (34.1%), non-alcoholic beverages (30.8%, mainly as sugar soft drinks, 25.5%) and grains (19.1%, principally as bakery and pastry, 15.2%). The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total and added sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations.

  13. Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zupanič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g, jellies (62.9 g/100 g, chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g, jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g, and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g. Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations.

  14. Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between γ-carboxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this property, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The transglutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverticillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar cane molasses is a viscous liquid rich in noncrystallized carbohydrates (saccharose, glucose and fructose. In this work, the feasibility of using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source for the production of microbial transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL 3191 has been studied. Carbon sources including sugar cane molasses (60 g of total sugars per L, glycerol (60 g/L and their mixture in a ratio of 1:1 (30 g/L of each were evaluated. Time course of microbial growth, transglutaminase activity and carbon source consumption were determined every 24 h during 120 h of fermentations at three agitation speeds (200, 300 or 400 rpm. The results showed that with the increase in agitation speed, the biomass concentration increased up to 8.39 g/L in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone or the mixture of molasses and glycerol. The highest transglutaminase activity was obtained at 400 rpm in the medium containing a mixture of molasses and glycerol, reaching 0.460 U/mL, while in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone, the activity was 0.240 U/mL, and using glycerol alone it was 0.250 U/mL. These results show that sugar cane molasses is a suitable medium for transglutaminase production when it is combined with glycerol.

  15. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  16. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  17. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M C; Koyratty, B N S; Wang, D; Jacquier, E F; Lê, K-A

    2018-04-01

    Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d -1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d -1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d -1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar-sweetened beverages and milk-based beverages among Mexican and US children. These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country-specific public health recommendations on sugars. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  18. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  19. Two-Step Hot-Compressed Water Treatment of Douglas Fir for Efficient Total Sugar Recovery by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Inoue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The non-catalytic hydrothermal pretreatment of softwood is generally less effective for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, the efficacy of hot-compressed water (HCW treatment of Douglas fir was investigated between 180 °C and 260 °C, allowing solubilization of the cellulose components. The enzymatic digestibility of cellulosic residues increased significantly under HCW conditions > 250 °C, and the enhanced glucan digestibility was closely related to the decomposition of the cellulose component. Combination of the first-stage HCW treatment (220 °C, 5 min to recover hemicellulosic sugars with the second-stage HCW treatment (260 °C, 5 min to improve cellulose digestibility gave a total sugar recovery of 56.2% based on the dried raw materials. This yield was 1.4 times higher than that from the one-step HCW-treated sample (260 °C, 5 min. Additionally, an enzymatic hydrolysate from the two-step HCW-treated sample exceeded 90% of the ethanol fermentation yield based on the total sugars present in the hydrolysates. These results suggest the potential of the two-step HCW treatment of softwood as a pretreatment technology for efficient total sugar recovery and ethanol production.

  20. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M. C.; Koyratty, B. N. S.; Wang, D.; Jacquier, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Results Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d−1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d−1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d−1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar‐sweetened beverages and milk‐based beverages among Mexican and US children. Conclusions These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country‐specific public health recommendations on sugars. PMID:28960843

  1. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  2. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the...

  3. The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Luís A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the growth of Micrococcus varians were carried out in BHI culture medium (control as well as in a culture medium with 2% diluted sugar cane blackstrap molasses, enriched with 0.1% yeast extract. The experiment was conducted with three samples of the experimental and control media in a 5 liter fermentor with working volume of 3.5 liters, continuous agitation (150 rpm, 35 ± 0.1°C temperature, 0.7 L air. l-1 medium. min -1, initial pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 24 hour fermentation period, and approximate inoculum of 6.0 log10 CFU/ml. Samples were collected at 2-hour intervals. Micrococcus varians grew in the two culture media studied, which confirms the experimental medium viability for the growth of this species. The final average concentration of biomass was higher in the control medium than in the experimental medium: 0.99 g.l-1 and 0.78 g.l-1, respectively. The final number of viable cells at the end of fermentation was 20.65 log10 CFU/ml for the control medium (BHI, while in the experimental medium the number of viable cells was 19.43 log10 CFU/ml. The consumption of total sugars was higher for the biomass in the control medium (79.78%, while only 50.53% was consumed for the experimental medium.

  4. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  5. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  6. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  9. Relationships between soluble sugar concentrations in roots and ecosystem stress for first-year sugar maple seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.W.; Reed, D.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Mroz, G.D.; Bagley, S.T. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products

    1996-03-01

    Accumulation of reducing sugars (i.e. glucose and fructose) in plant roots has been consistently correlated with forest dieback and decline and, therefore, has potential as a biological indicator of ecosystem stress. In this study, the relationships between acidic deposition and `natural` (temperature, mycorrhizae, and nutrition) factors with first-year sugar maple seedling root sugar concentrations and growth were assessed in two sugar maple dominated forests in Michigan. Seedlings at the southern site (Wellston) had greater root growth, phosphorus, total sugar, and sucrose concentrations in roots, but lower reducing sugar concentration in roots. In addition, percent root length colonized by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was less than that found for seedlings growing at the northern site (Alberta). Throughfall deposition of nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ions was not significantly correlated with seedling total or reducing sugar concentration. Total sugar concentration in seedling roots was positively correlated with air and soil temperatures at the southern site, but not at the northern site. Seedling tissue phosphorus concentration was correlated with total sugars at both sites, with sucrose at the southern site, and reducing sugars at the northern site. Mycorrhizal colonization rates at the Alberta site were positively correlated with reducing sugar concentration in seedling roots and negatively correlated with sucrose concentration. The results suggest that differences in seedling root sugar concentrations in these two forests are related to seedling root growth and are most likely due to ecological variables, such as available soil phosphorus, temperature, and growing season length through some complex interaction with mycorrhizae rather than acidic deposition stress. 56 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Development and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Intakes of Total and Free Sugars in Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, Gemma; Mukhtar, Aqif; Begley, Andrea; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2017-11-08

    Background : Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods : The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report. Ninety-five parents of Australian toddlers completed the questionnaire online before and after providing three 24-h recalls (24HR), collected on non-consecutive days using the multipass method. Total and free sugars were compared between the two SMILE-FFQ administrations and between each SMILE-FFQ and the 24HR using multiple statistical tests and standardised validity criteria. Correlation (Pearson), mean difference (Wilcoxon rank test) and Bland Altman analyses were conducted to compare absolute values, with cross-classification (Chi-Square and Weighted Kappa) used to compare agreement across tertiles. Results : All reproducibility tests showed good agreement except weighted kappa, which showed acceptable agreement. Relative validity tests revealed a mix of good and acceptable agreement, with total sugars performing better at the individual level than free sugars. Compared to the 24HR, the SMILE-FFQ tended to underestimate absolute values at lower levels and overestimate them at higher levels. Conclusions : The combined findings of the various tests indicate that the SMILE-FFQ performs comparably to the 24HR for assessing both total and free sugars among individuals, is most effective for ranking participants rather than determining absolute intakes, and is therefore suitable for use in observational studies of Australian toddlers.

  11. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  12. New Conditions for a Total Neutrino Conversion in a Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhov, M. V.; Petcov, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    A new effect of total neutrino conversion is possible when neutrino propagates through multi-layer medium of nonperiodic constant density layers. The effect can take place in the oscillations in the Earth of the Earth-core-crossing solar and atmospheric neutrinos.

  13. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Methods Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian...

  15. Bistable enhanced total reflection in Kretschmann configuration containing a saturable gain medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haichun; Guo, Jie; Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Tang, Junqi; Man, Shiqing

    2018-03-05

    The reflection of a TM-polarized light beam from a Kretschmann configuration with a saturable gain medium is investigated theoretically. Here, the dielectric constant of the gain medium is described by a classical Lorentzian oscillator model. When surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in this structure, it is demonstrated that the curves of enhanced total reflection (ETR) show different shaped hysteresis loops associated with optical bistability owing to gain saturation effect. The effects of the angle of incidence, the thickness of metal film, and the value of small-signal gain on bistable ETR are discussed in detail in a homogeneously broadened (HB) gain medium at line center. Analogous results can also be obtained in an inhomogeneously broadened (inHB) gain medium, while the two switch thresholds and the width of optical bistability hysteresis in an inHB gain medium are significantly different from those in a HB gain medium.

  16. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  17. The Truth about Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  18. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  19. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  20. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes

  1. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having ...

  3. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  4. Integrated Bioethanol Fermentation/Anaerobic Digestion for Valorization of Sugar Beet Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste biomass are generated in sugar factories from the processing of sugar beets. After diffusion with hot water to draw the sugar from the beet pieces, a wet material remains called pulp. In this study, waste sugar beet pulp biomass was enzymatically depolymerized, and the obtained hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation processes. Bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen were produced directly from the substrate or in combined mode. Stillage, a distillery by-product, was used as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion. During biosynthesis of ethanol, most of the carbohydrates released from the sugar beet pulp were utilized by a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, and Scheffersomyces stipitis LOCK0047 giving 12.6 g/L of ethanol. Stillage containing unfermented sugars (mainly arabinose, galactose and raffinose was found to be a good substrate for methane production (444 dm3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS. Better results were achieved with this medium than with enzymatic saccharified biomass. Thermal pre-treatment and adjusting the pH of the inoculum resulted in higher hydrogen production. The largest (p < 0.05 hydrogen yield (252 dm3 H2/kg VS was achieved with sugar beet stillage (SBS. In contrast, without pre-treatment the same medium yielded 35 dm3 H2/kg VS. However, dark fermentation of biohydrogen was more efficient when sugar beet pulp hydrolyzate was used.

  5. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2018-03-01

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  6. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  7. Urinary sugars biomarker relates better to extrinsic than to intrinsic sugars intake in a metabolic study with volunteers consuming their normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, N; Runswick, S A; Welch, A A; McTaggart, A; Bingham, S A

    2009-05-01

    Sugars in diet are very difficult to measure because of the unreliability of self-reported dietary intake. Sucrose and fructose excreted in urine have been recently suggested as a biomarker for total sugars intake. To further characterize the use of this biomarker, we investigated whether urinary sugars correlated better to extrinsic compared to intrinsic sugars in the diet. Seven male and six female healthy participants were living for 30 days in a metabolic suite under strictly controlled conditions consuming their usual diet as assessed beforehand from four consecutive 7-day food diaries kept at home. During the 30-day study, all 24 h urine specimens were collected, validated for their completeness and analysed for sucrose and fructose. The mean total sugars intake in the group was 202+/-69 g day(-1). Daily intake of extrinsic, intrinsic and milk sugars contributed 60.1, 34.4 and 5.5%, to the total sugars intake, respectively. The individuals' 30-day mean sugars excretion levels were significantly correlated with the 30-day means of extrinsic sugars (r=0.84; Psugars intake (r=0.43; P=0.144). In the regression, only extrinsic sugars intake explained a significant proportion of the variability in sugars excretion (adjusted R(2)=0.64; P=0.001); daily excretion of 100 mg sucrose and fructose in urine predicted 124 g of extrinsic total sugars in the diet. Using fewer urinary and dietary measurements in the analysis did not change the overall trend of the findings. In this group of volunteers, sucrose and fructose in urine better correlated to extrinsic than to intrinsic sugars intake.

  8. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L. at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70% for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB. in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of incubation. The byproducts of Moringa had the highest degradability, and castor presented the lowest values at all evaluated levels of replacement. Castor bean byproduct showed the highest total gas production, cotton showed the lowest production, and the byproduct of Moringa at the 70% level showed the best ruminal fermentation results. These results demonstrate that the use of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Helianthus annuus L. and Ricinus communis can replace cane sugar in ruminant feed.

  9. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children th...

  10. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  11. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Ustjanauskas, Amy; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    To test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk. Using an experimental design, we randomly assigned children (n = 91) who were attending summer day camp to receive a breakfast that included either the choice of 1 of 3 high-sugar cereals (high-sugar condition) or low-sugar cereals (low-sugar condition), as well as low-fat milk, orange juice, bananas, strawberries, and sugar packets. Participants served themselves and completed a background questionnaire after eating. Researchers measured the amount and calories consumed of each food. In both conditions, children reported "liking" or "loving" the cereal they chose. Children in the low-sugar cereal condition consumed, on average, slightly more than 1 serving of cereal (35 g), whereas children in the high-sugar condition consumed significantly more (61 g) and almost twice the amount of refined sugar in total (24.4 vs 12.5 g). Milk and total calories consumed did not differ significantly between conditions, but children in the low-sugar condition were more likely to put fruit on their cereal (54% vs 8%) and consumed a greater portion of total calories from fresh fruit (20% vs 13%). Compared with serving low-sugar cereals, high-sugar cereals increase children's total sugar consumption and reduce the overall nutritional quality of their breakfast. Children will consume low-sugar cereals when offered, and they provide a superior breakfast option.

  12. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  14. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-08

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  15. Citric acid fermentation medium from sugar waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Yarita, K.; Uchio, R.; Kikuchi, K.

    1977-11-02

    Wastes from a sugar refinery are hydrolyzed to yield fructose and glucose; a part of the fructose is removed from the hydrolyzate by treating with lime and the remaining hydrolyzate is used as a C source for citric acid fermentation. Thus, 1 kg beet molasses was dissolved in 2.5 L water, adjusted to pH 1.5, hydrolyzed at 60/sup 0/ for 4 h, neutralized with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, and the precipitate was removed. The hydrolyzate was cooled to 0/sup 0/, mixed with a solution containing 205 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/, seeded with fructose, and allowed to stand. The precipitate was suspended in cold water, neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and filtered to obtain a solution containing 169 g fructose and 6.3 g glucose. The filtrate from the Ca(OH)/sub 2/ precipitation was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and removal of precipitate yielded a solution containing 87 g fructose and 220 g glucose, which was used as a C source for citric acid fermentation with Aspergillus niger AJ7015.

  16. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  17. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Approximately one-half of U.S. adults consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Men consumed an average 179 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.9% of total daily caloric intake. Women consumed an average 113 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.1% of total caloric intake. •Young adults had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to older adults. •Non-Hispanic Asian men and women consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women. Sugar-sweetened beverages are a major contributor of calories and added sugars to diets of U.S. adults (1). Studies have found that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to weight gain, metabolic syndrome, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes in adults (2-4). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of total calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults aged 20 and over for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  19. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  20. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  1. Study On Ethanol Production From Sugar Cane Molasses By Using Irradiated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.; Armed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to- their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose; two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 KGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168 h). The data showed that the rate of ethanol production reached its maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.

  2. Study on Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane Molasses by Using Irradiated Saccharomyces cervisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.; Ahmed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to its ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168) h. Data showed that rate of ethanol production was maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy. dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, initial ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml erlenmyer flasks.

  3. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  4. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet molasses using an osmotolerant mutant strain of zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.C.; Baratti, J.C. (Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

    1992-01-25

    In conventional alcohol fermentation processes using yeast species, the substrate cost represents a major fraction of the total production cost. Therefore, it may be very attractive to use the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, since it has shown higher ethanol yields than yeasts when grown on a glucose-based medium. A report is made on the use of mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from hydrolyzed sugar beet molasses in a two-stage continuous culture which showed high ethanol yield and an ethanol concentration sufficiently high for economical recovery. A single stage continuous culture was first operated in an attempt to reduce the formation of sorbitol. Further on, a second fermentor was added with additional substrate feeding to increase the effluent ethanol concentration. An ethanol concentration of 59.9g/l was obtained at 97% sugar conversion and at high ethanol yield. The volumetric ethanol productivity was superior to that of batch fermentation but inferior to that of a single-stage continuous system with the same medium. However, the ethanol concentration was increased to a level acceptable for economical recovery. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  6. Free sugar contents in onion bulbs on different cultivars and different production areas, and their changes by storage and gamma-irradiation. Free sugars in onion bulbs, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishibori, Sukie [Tokaigakuen Women' s Coll., Nagoya (Japan); Namiki, Kazuko

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the contents of free sugar in onion bulbs of different cultivars and different production areas were investigated during storage and processing by using gas-chromatography. No significant difference was observed in the total free sugar contents among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas except early season's cultivars which showed a slightly lower content of sugar. The free sugar was mainly composed with glucose (1.7 - 3.2%), fructose (1.1 - 2.5%) and sucrose (0.7 - 2.6%), and the composition was somewhat different among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas. During the storage at 4 - 5/sup 0/C, the total free suger contents gradually decreased during the first few months but more markedly to about 30% after sprouting. The middle part of onion bulbs contained more total free sugar than the other parts (middle part, 5.6 ..-->.. 3.5%, inner part, 5.2 ..-->.. 3.2%, outer part, 4.8 ..-->.. 1.5%), and the total free sugar contents in the outer part decreased markedly during the storage. The changes of the sugar contents after the freeze-drying were almost negligible, but showed significant decrease after the hot-air drying, especially for sucrose. The gamma irradiation with 5 - 50 krad gave no appreciable effects on the total free sugar contents though it seemed to make a slight increase in the sucrose content.

  7. Survival of Glycolaldehyde and Production of Sugar Compounds via Comet Impact Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, N.; McCaffrey, V.; Crake, C.; Butler, J.; Robbins, J.; Fodor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Impact experiments using glycolaldehyde (GLA), a two-carbon sugar precursor that has been detected in regions of the interstellar medium and on comets, have been conducted at the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Samples of GLA and GLA mixed with montmorillonite clays were subjected to the pressure conditions that are found during impact delivery of biomolecules by comets, asteroids, or meteors; pressures ranged from 4.5 GPa to 25 GPa. Results show that large amounts of GLA survived the impacts and moderate amounts of threose, erythrose, and glycolic acid were produced in these impacts. Total amounts are dependent on impact pressure. Ethylene glycol, a reduced variant of GLA that has also been detected in the interstellar medium and on comets, was also produced. The results of these experimental impacts provide evidence that large amounts of GLA, EG, and other biomolecules were available on habitable moons or planets, especially during the era of late heavy bombardment ( 4.2 to 3.7 billion years ago) when life may have been developing on Earth. The presence and availability of these biomolecules, under appropriate conditions, may be important for understanding the origin of life as we know it. Glycolaldehyde in particular, may be an important molecule in the production of ribose, the five-carbon sugar in RNA.

  8. Synthesis of sugars catalysed by microgel conjugated rabbit muscle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural aldehyde acceptors under similar conditions. Reaction was fastest in 1:3 DMSO/ H2O, faster than in aqueous medium the environment in which this enzyme normally operates. Preparation of a non-natural sugar using this system is related.

  9. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Pedraza, Lilia S; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Aburto, Tania C; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096), we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults), medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low), urban area (vs. rural), and North and Center region (vs. South) had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans' diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  10. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Almost two-thirds of boys and girls consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. •Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. •Non-Hispanic Asian boys and girls consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic boys and girls. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children (1). Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children (2-6). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth aged 2-19 years for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Fermentation of sugar to ethyl alcohol in the presence of proteolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, E W; Conde Julio, C

    1963-06-11

    Sugar is fermented to EtOH by yeasts capable of elaborating zymase and proteolytic enzymes, the zymase component comprising exceptionally large amounts of phosphatase. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus was acclimated to 20% EtOH by growing on fresh pineapple juice in a medium consisting of malt sirup 15, sugar sirup 3, and pineapple juice 82%. An aqueous solution of 2000 gallons of sugar cane molasses in H/sub 2/O to give a Brix of 16/sup 0/ was placed in a 48,000-gallon fermentor. S. ellipsoideus with a cell constant of 1 x 10/sup 9/ cells/ml was added, with sufficient H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to adjust the pH to approximately 4.5. Fermentation was carried out at 35/sup 0/ until the Brix dropped to 8/sup 0/, after which it was brought back to 16/sup 0/ by adding 6000 gallons of sirup containing nutrients in H/sub 2/O. This process was repeated with another 6000 and then 2000 gallons of sirup. The total fermentation required 48 h and the EtOH content was 15.25% by volume. Te EtOH was recovered in the usual manner by removal of solids and fractional distillation.

  12. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  13. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  14. High sugar diet disrupts gut homeostasis though JNK and STAT pathways in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Jin, Qiuxia; Jin, Li Hua

    2017-06-10

    The incidence of diseases associated with a high sugar diet has increased in the past years, and numerous studies have focused on the effect of high sugar intake on obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, how a high sugar diet influences gut homeostasis is still poorly understood. In this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism and supplemented a culture medium with 1 M sucrose to create a high sugar condition. Our results indicate that a high sugar diet promoted differentiation of intestinal stem cells through upregulation of the JNK pathway and downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, the number of commensal bacteria decreased in the high sugar group. Our data suggests that the high caloric diet disrupts gut homeostasis and highlights Drosophila as an ideal model system to explore gastrointestinal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Mondini, Lenise; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-03-01

    To describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of consumption of added sugar in Brazil in 2002/03, particularly products, sources of sugar and trends in the past 15 years. The study used data from Household Budget Surveys since the 1980s about the type and quantity of food and beverages bought by Brazilian families. Different indicators were analyzed: % of sugar calories over the total diet energy and caloric % of table sugar fractions and sugar added to processed food/ sugar calories of diet. In 2002/03, of the total energy available for consumption, 16.7% came from added sugar in all regional and socio-economic strata. The table sugar/ sugar added to processed food ratio was inversely proportional to increase in income. Although this proportion fell in the past 15 years, sugar added to processed food doubled, especially in terms of consumption of soft drinks and cookies. Brazilians consume more sugar than the recommended levels determined by the WHO and the sources of consumption of sugar have changed significantly.

  17. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Batis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Materials and methods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096, we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. Results. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults, medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low, urban area (vs. rural, and North and Center region (vs. South had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. Conclusions. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans’ diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  18. Influence of insulin on heat (450) protection by hexose sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandifer, L.; Nagle, W.A.; Henle, K.J.; Moss, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of cultured cells with 100mM D-glucose and D-galactose confers protection against hyperthermia-induced cell death, but the mechanism is not known. The authors measured changes in cell survival and altered levels of intracellular sugar metabolites in Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells. Cells were incubated at 37 0 for 1 or 5 hours prior to a 45 0 heating in balanced salts solution (BSS) with 2mM glutamine and varying concentrations of sugars in the presence and absence of insulin (10 gm/ml). Cells incubated at all sugar concentrations (5-125mM) with insulin showed a more rapid increase in survival: after 17 min. at 45 0 the survival with 125mM sugar plus insulin yielded a 4 fold increase after a 1 or 5 hour incubation. Longer incubation times were required for increased survival in the absence of insulin. The authors also observed increased survival, relative to cells heated in complete medium, for cells incubated in BSS with 2mM glutamine and no sugar. This suggests that glutamine metabolism may lead to an increase in cell heat resistance. These survival results will be related to intracellular changes in sugar metabolites, principally sugar phosphates

  19. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  20. Cost-effective medium for the production of mosquito pupicidal lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, S; Manonmani, A M; Geetha, I

    2015-03-01

    A cyclic lipopeptide (CLP), surfactin produced by a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471) was found to exhibit mosquitocidal activity. The present study was carried out to enhance the surfactin level using low cost material in the production medium. Two carbon sources, glucose and common sugar, and two nitrogen sources, ammonium nitrate and soya were used in the study. Different concentrations of 'C' and 'N' sources were used in the production medium to enhance the production of surfactin. A new medium (SS7) containing 2% sugar, 6% soya and 0.5% common salt with micronutrients was designed which was found to enhance the production of surfactin. The crude mosquitocidal metabolite (CMM) produced in this medium was 3 g/l which was two times higher than that obtained using synthetic medium NYSM. The LC50 dosage of the CMM to the pupal stages of An. stephensi (2.3 μg/ml) was comparable to that obtained with CMM from the conventional medium. The newly designed cost-effective medium designated as sugar soya medium (SSM) enhanced the production of surfactin and the cost of production was estimated as [symbol: see text] 6 per litre, which is six times lesser than that of the conventional medium. Replacement of sodium chloride with cooking salt further reduced the cost of the medium.

  1. Thermal Stability Test of Sugar Alcohols as Phase Change Materials for Medium Temperature Energy Storage Application

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Aran; Neumann, Hannah; Niedermaier, Sophia; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Palomo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Sugar alcohols are potential phase change materials candidates as they present high phase change enthalpy values, are non-toxic and low cost products. Three promising sugar-alcohols were selected: D-mannitol, myo-inositol and dulcitol under high melting enthalpy and temperature criterion. Thermal cycling tests were performed to study its cycling stability which can be determining when selecting the suitable phase change material. D-mannitol and dulcitol present poor thermal stability...

  2. Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-05-01

    Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50-71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  3. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly selected school children from school at south Bangalore, who were meeting the inclusion criteria, were asked to refrain from oral hygiene practices for 24 h till the sample collection. Children were divided into four groups and for each group test drink was given. Plaque and salivary sample were collected at the time of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min and were sent for pH estimation. 7 days of washout time was given for each cross-over and 3 such cross-over was done during the study and the drinks were interchanged. Results: Sweet lassi was found to be having maximum total sugar content of and Coca-Cola had the lowest pH 5.3. Milk showed least sugar content and highest pH (6.7. Study showed a significant drop in pH after consumption of all the test drinks (P = 0. 05. Carbonated beverage, that is, Coca-Cola Showed the maximum drop of pH, followed by Pulpy orange in both the plaque as well as saliva. Coca-Cola showed the drop of plaque pH below the critical level, 5.44 (0.134. Conclusion: Sweet lassi showed the maximum inherent total sugar content, lowest inherent pH and maximum fall in plaque and salivary pH, was found with Coca-Cola.

  4. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  5. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  6. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012... established at 112,718 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined... September 1, 2011, a month earlier than the usual first entry date of October 1. This latter action is in...

  7. Intake of total dietary sugar and fibre is associated with insulin resistance among Danish 8-10- and 14-16-year-old girls but not boys. European Youth Heart Studies I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the dietary intake of total sugar, added sugar, non-added sugar and starch as well as dietary fibre and glycaemic index (GI) and their respective associations with insulin resistance. Design: Mixed linear models were used to study both cross-sectional and prospective...... associations between carbohydrate components and insulin resistance separately in girls and boys. Diet was assessed by a single 24 h recall interview and insulin resistance was calculated using the homoestasis model assessment (HOMA). Setting: The Danish part of the European Youth Heart Studies (EYHS) I and II....... Subjects: Girls and boys at 8–10 and 14–16 years from EYHS I (n 651) and 8–10-year olds from baseline followed up 6 years later in EYHS II (n 233). Results: Among girls, a difference in dietary total sugar of 43 g/MJ was associated with a 1 SD difference of HOMA and a difference in dietary fibre of 28g...

  8. Sugar-Fat Seesaw: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michele Jeanne; McNulty, Helene; Gibson, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar−protein, sugar−alcohol, and sugar−starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar−fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice. PMID:24915391

  9. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Karlsen, Micaela C; Chung, Mei; Jacques, Paul F; Saltzman, Edward; Smith, Caren E; Fox, Caroline S; McKeown, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. RCTs with a minimum of 6 days' duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference = 0.9 [95%CI, 0.6-1.2], n = 6) and muscles (pooled SMD = 0.6 [95%CI, 0.2-1.0], n = 4). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For

  10. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of non-refined sugarcane alternatives to white sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Seguí Gil, Lucía; CALABUIG JIMENEZ, LAURA; Betoret Valls, Noelia; Fito Maupoey, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Antioxidant properties of commercial sugarcane-derived products were analysed to study their suitability for being used as functional ingredients. Cane honey, several jaggeries and several brown sugars were selected from the market and analysed in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant properties, and compared with white refined sugar (twelve products in total). Moisture, water activity, total soluble solids, pH, colour and sugar profile are reported. As for antioxidant...

  11. Improved sugar yields from biomass sorghum feedstocks: comparing low-lignin mutants and pretreatment chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Nagle, Nick; Sattler, Scott; Agneessens, Richard; Delcarte, Jérôme; Wolfrum, Edward

    2016-01-01

    For biofuel production processes to be economically efficient, it is essential to maximize the production of monomeric carbohydrates from the structural carbohydrates of feedstocks. One strategy for maximizing carbohydrate production is to identify less recalcitrant feedstock cultivars by performing some type of experimental screening on a large and diverse set of candidate materials, or by identifying genetic modifications (random or directed mutations or transgenic plants) that provide decreased recalcitrance. Economic efficiency can also be increased using additional pretreatment processes such as deacetylation, which uses dilute NaOH to remove the acetyl groups of hemicellulose prior to dilute acid pretreatment. In this work, we used a laboratory-scale screening tool that mimics relevant thermochemical pretreatment conditions to compare the total sugar yield of three near-isogenic brown midrib ( bmr ) mutant lines and the wild-type (WT) sorghum cultivar. We then compared results obtained from the laboratory-scale screening pretreatment assay to a large-scale pretreatment system. After pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the bmr mutants had higher total sugar yields than the WT sorghum cultivar. Increased pretreatment temperatures increased reactivity for all sorghum samples reducing the differences observed at lower reaction temperatures. Deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment increased the total sugar yield for all four sorghum samples, and reduced the differences in total sugar yields among them, but solubilized a sizable fraction of the non-structural carbohydrates. The general trends of increased total sugar yield in the bmr mutant compared to the WT seen at the laboratory scale were observed at the large-scale system. However, in the larger reactor system, the measured total sugar yields were lower and the difference in total sugar yield between the WT and bmr sorghum was larger. Sorghum bmr mutants, which have a reduced lignin content showed

  12. Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Design: The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50–71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. Results: In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:24552754

  13. MODIFIED BAGASSE, ITS POTENTIAL AS DECOLORANT IN THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian León Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conditions for obtaining an anionic exchanger based on the chemical modification of the fibrous fraction of bagasse by etherification in basic medium are studied. It evaluates the influence parameters concentration of sodium hydroxide, the molar ratio cellulose/diethylaminoethylamine hydrochloride and the reaction time in the substitution. In each case a degree of substitution estimated by determining the nitrogen content was obtained. It has been demostrated that the product removed 40-60 % of color in sugar solutions, therefore can be used in the sugar industry for the removal of ionic compounds.

  14. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-11-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.

  15. The effect of honey compared to sucrose, mixed sugars, and a sugar-free diet on weight gain in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepulis, L M

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether honey, sucrose, and mixed sugars as in honey have different effects on weight gain, 40 6-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a powdered diet that was either sugar free or contained 8% sucrose, 8% mixed sugars as in honey, or 10% honey freely for 6 wk. Weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly, and at completion of the study blood samples were removed for measurement of blood sugar (HbA1c) and a fasting lipid profile. The animals were then minced and total percentage body fat and protein measured. Overall percentage weight gain was significantly lower in honey-fed rats than those fed sucrose or mixed sugars, despite a similar food intake. Weight gains were comparable for rats fed honey and a sugar free diet although food intake was significantly higher in honey-fed rats. HbA1c and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in all sugar treatments compared with rats fed a sugar free diet, but no other differences in lipid profiles were reported. No differences in percentage body fat or protein levels were reported.

  16. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Jha; G Radha; R Rekha; S K Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly ...

  17. Changes in content and composition of sugar in molasses caused by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1980-01-01

    The sugar contents in undiluted molasses were found to be stable on γ-irradiation. The contents of total sugar and direct reducing sugar in cane molasses were completely unaffected by irradiation with doses of less than 3 Mrad. The reduction of total sugar content in beet molasses was 2% at 3 Mrad. On the other hand, in the molasses diluted with water, sugar contents decreased with the dose. Sucrose in molasses was degraded by irradiation, and subsequently glucose and fructose were formed. Raffinose in beet molasses was also degraded by irradiation, but galactose could not be detected. The irradiation temperature ranging from room temperature to 61 0 C, was hardly responsible for the change of sugar contents, but the changes in sugar caused by irradiation were enhanced at pHs of less than 4 and with an excess of oxygen. (author)

  18. Changes in content and composition of sugar in molasses caused by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Sato, T

    1980-01-01

    The sugar contents in undiluted molasses were found to be stable on ..gamma..-irradiation. The contents of total sugar and direct reducing sugar in cane molasses were completely unaffected by irradiation with doses of less than 3 Mrad. The reduction of total sugar content in beet molasses was 2% at 3 Mrad. On the other hand, in the molasses diluted with water, sugar contents decreased with the dose. Sucrose in molasses was degraded by irradiation, and subsequently glucose and fructose were formed. Raffinose in beet molasses was also degraded by irradiation, but galactose could not be detected. The irradiation temperature ranging from room temperature to 61/sup 0/C, was hardly responsible for the change of sugar contents, but the changes in sugar caused by irradiation were enhanced at pHs of less than 4 and with an excess of oxygen.

  19. Changes in content and composition of sugar in molasses caused by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Sato, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1980-08-01

    The sugar contents in undiluted molasses were found to be stable on ..gamma..-irradiation. The contents of total sugar and direct reducing sugar in cane molasses were completely unaffected by irradiation with doses of less than 3 Mrad. The reduction of total sugar content in beet molasses was 2% at 3 Mrad. On the other hand, in the molasses diluted with water, sugar contents decreased with the dose. Sucrose in molasses was degraded by irradiation, and subsequently glucose and fructose were formed. Raffinose in beet molasses was also degraded by irradiation, but galactose could not be detected. The irradiation temperature ranging from room temperature to 61/sup 0/C, was hardly responsible for the change of sugar contents, but the changes in sugar caused by irradiation were enhanced at pHs of less than 4 and with an excess of oxygen.

  20. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  1. Development of a Portable Blood Sugar Apparatus and GOD Enzyme Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Cheng, Chen; Yu-Qian, Zhao; Jing-Tian, Tang; Ling-Yun, Li

    2005-01-01

    A pocket blood sugar apparatus tested by enzyme electrode, which was designed using carbon and silver plasma as conducting materials. Both the work and reference electrodes are applied to the parts of enzyme electrode. The glucose oxidase is taken as the medium of blood sugar measuring. And the range of measuring glucose is about 50mg/dL - 500mgl/dL. It has better linear for the results and fit coefficient arrives at 0.985. Its sensitivity of measurement is higher than current glucose biosensor obviously. A single chip microcomputer, AD mu C812, is used for central control processor of the instrument parts. It measures the output of microampere level currency, which is conduced by blood sugar reacting with the glucose oxidase on the enzyme electrode. And at the same time, the microampere level currency is amplified, processed. Then the results are displayed on LCD. The apparatus are better for measuring blood sugar, and the results are consistent with what the large biochemical instruments get.

  2. Added sugars and ultra-processed foods in Spanish households (1990-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, P; Louzada, M L D C; Martinez Steele, E; Monteiro, C A

    2017-12-26

    To study the association between ultra-processed foods acquisitions and added sugar content of total food purchases in Spanish households in 2010. Changes over time (1990-2000-2010) in ultra-processed food purchases and added sugars content of total food purchases are also compared. We used data from three nationally representative Household Budget Surveys (HBS) conducted in 1990, 2000 and 2010. Number of studied households was 21,012, 33,730 and 22,116, respectively. Purchased foods and drinks were classified according to NOVA food groups as ultra-processed foods, processed foods, unprocessed or minimally processed foods, or processed culinary ingredients. Linear and Poisson regressions were used to estimate the association between quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods and added sugars contents of total food purchases in 2010. Changes over time were assessed using tests of linear trend and Student's t test. In 2010, ultra-processed foods represented 31.7% of daily energy acquisitions and 80.4% of all added sugars. Added sugars content of food purchases raised from 7.3% in the lowest to 18.2% in the highest quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods. The risk of exceeding 10% energy from added sugars quadrupled between the lowest and highest quintiles. The percentage of ultra-processed foods on all food purchases almost tripled between 1990 and 2010 (from 11.0 to 31.7%), paralleling the increase of added sugars content (from 8.4 to 13.0%). Cutting down exceeding added sugars availability in Spain may require a reduction in ultra-processed food purchasing.

  3. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  4. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  5. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  6. Consumption and sources of added sugar in Indonesia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmarita; Imanningsih, Nelis; Jahari, Abas B; Permaesih, Ir Dewi; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia

    2018-01-01

    The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports. A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products. Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.

  7. Sugar composition, total nitrogen and accumulation of C-14 assimilates in floral nectaries of Protea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, R.M.; Mitchell, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Sugar composition of nectar of six species of Protea was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and consisted of sucrose, fructose and glucose in varying proportions. Total nitrogen content of nectar of P. repens and P. neriifolia was very low. Evidence is presented that nectar produced by inflorescences (e.g. P. repens and P. neriifolia) which are bird-pollinated are dominated by fructose and glucose whereas nectar of putatively rodent-pollinated inflorescences (e.g. P. tenax, P. humiflora and P. denticulata) contain mixtures of sucrose, fructose and glucose. By exposing leaves of flowering shoots of P. neriifolia to 14 CO 2 , studies revealed that bracts accumulate C- 14 assimilates and translocation of compounds from the leaves to the floral nectaries was not affected by night and day incubation periods [af

  8. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  9. Radiation sterilization of triple sugar iron agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, G.; Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Triple sugar iron agar (TSI), a medium used for the identification of enteric bacteria, was sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation doses of 750-2000 krad. The radio-sterilized medium, slightly modified by increasing its Phenol Red content, performed well when tested with different enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative bacteria. Growth, change of indicator reaction in slant and butt and formation of gas and H 2 S were equal in irradiated and autoclaved TSI. Slants of irradiated TSI in stoppered plastic tubes kept their diagnostic properties during storage for at least 4 months. Gamma irradiation appears to be an attractive and economical method of sterilising nutrient media in sealed tubes or other containers, avoiding the risk of contamination during processing. (author)

  10. Efficient somatic embryogenesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, C.L.; Chen, D. F.; Kubaláková, Marie; Zhang, J.; Scott, N. W.; Elliott, M. C.; Slater, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2008), s. 209-221 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Sugar beet * somatic embryogenesis * culture medium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008

  11. Conversion of rice husk into fermentable sugar by two stage hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M. N.; Lim, S. E.; Yusoff, A. H. M.; Jamlos, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    Rice husks, a complex lignocellulosic biomass which comprised of high cellulose content (38-50%), hemicellulose (23-32%) and lignin (15-25%) possesses the potential to pursue as low cost feedstock for production of ethanol. Dilute sulfuric acid at concentration of 1, 2, 3 (%, v/v) were used for pretreatments at varied hydrolysis time (15-60 min) and enzymatic saccharification at range of 45-60˚C and pH 4.5-6.0 were evaluated for conversion of rice husk’s cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of fermentable sugars from rice husks by dilute sulfuric acid (2%, 60 minutes) was 0.0751 g/l. Total fermentable sugar was identified using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and expressed in g/l. Enzymatic hydrolysis for conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugar has been studied by applying response surface methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Two independent variables namely initial pH and incubation temperature were considered using Central Composite Design (CCD). The determination coefficient, R2 obtained was 0.9848. This indicates that 98.48% capriciousness in the respond could be clarified by the ANOVA. Based on the data shown by Design Expert software, the optimum condition for total sugar production was at pH 6.0 and temperature 45˚C as it produced 0.5086 g/l of total sugar.

  12. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  13. Insights into the "pair of sugar tongs" surface binding site in barley alpha-amylase isozymes and crystallization of appropriate sugar tongs mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranier, S.; Deville, K.; Robert, X.

    2005-01-01

    of an additional surface binding site called a "pair of sugar tongs" due to the sugar capturing by Tyr380 which is situated in domain C of AMYL For the first time, a biological role for the domain C was suggested as well as a hypothetical explanation of enzymatic differences between the two barley a......-amylase isozymes. However, no sugar was bound at the "sugar tongs" site in the AMY2/acarbose complex. Comparative studies of this domain on the basis of sequence, secondary structure and spatial organization allow to propose factors needed for such a site. One of the most obvious is the replacement of Ser378(AMY1......, surface plasmon resonance sugar binding experiments have proven unambiguously that this residue cannot totally explain the lack of the "pair of sugar tongs" and other tracks must be studied as, for example, the differences in orientation of Asp381 and the critical role of His395, both good candidates...

  14. Closing the Yield Gap of Sugar Beet in the Netherlands-A Joint Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanse, Bram; Tijink, Frans G J; Maassen, Jurgen; van Swaaij, Noud

    2018-01-01

    The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands. On the fields of those farmers, all measures of sugar beet cultivation were investigated, including cost calculation and recording phytopathological, agronomical and soil characteristics in 2006 and 2007. Although there was no significant difference in total variable costs, the "type top" growers yielded significantly 20% more sugar in each year compared to the "type average" growers. Therefore, the most profitable strategy for the growers is maximizing sugar yield and optimizing costs. The difference in sugar yield between growers could be explained by pests and diseases (50%), weed control (30%), soil structure (25%) and sowing date (14%), all interacting with each other. The SUSY-project revealed the effect of the grower's management on sugar yield. As a follow up for the SUSY-project, a growers' guide "Suikerbietsignalen" was published, Best Practice study groups of growers were formed and trainings and workshops were given and field days organized. Further, the benchmarking and feedback on the crop management recordings and the extension on variety choice, sowing performance, foliar fungi control and harvest losses were intensified. On the research part, a resistance breaking strain of the Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV) and a new foliar fungus, Stemphylium beticola , were identified and options for control were

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, A.R.; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  16. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  17. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  18. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin...... and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division......, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus...

  19. Growing sweet sorghum as a source of fermentable sugars for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascho, G.J.; Nichols, R.L.; Powell-Gaines, T.

    1984-08-01

    Studies were undertaken on the southern coastal plain (Georgia) of the USA on sweet sorghum to evaluate its potential as a fuel ethanol feedstock. Field experiments were designed over three years to study several aspects of the production of fermentable sugars from sweet sorghum and these included cultivar types, fertility needs, weed control and growth regulation. Wray was the best cultivar, producing a high sugar per hectare. To justify the operation of an ethanol plant, sweet sorghum should be harvested over a period of months, so cultivars were selected for yearly, medium and late maturity, thus ensuring a constant supply of feedstock over a four month period. The fertility needs of sweet sorghum appear to be relatively low and the yield response to applications of N, P, K are given. The best weed control was achieved by treating with Propazine plus Metolacheor. Application of several growth regulators such as Gibberellin didn't significantly increase the yield of sugars. Finally, a method to measure the fermentable sugars was developd using the Technicon Autoanalyser II.

  20. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  1. Pentose sugars inhibit metabolism and increase expression of an AgrD-type cyclic pentapeptide in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Tobin J; Giannone, Richard J; Klingeman, Dawn M; Engle, Nancy L; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Brown, Steven D; Hettich, Robert L; Elkins, James G

    2017-02-23

    Clostridium thermocellum could potentially be used as a microbial biocatalyst to produce renewable fuels directly from lignocellulosic biomass due to its ability to rapidly solubilize plant cell walls. While the organism readily ferments sugars derived from cellulose, pentose sugars from xylan are not metabolized. Here, we show that non-fermentable pentoses inhibit growth and end-product formation during fermentation of cellulose-derived sugars. Metabolomic experiments confirmed that xylose is transported intracellularly and reduced to the dead-end metabolite xylitol. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of xylose-inhibited cultures revealed several up-regulated genes potentially involved in pentose transport and metabolism, which were targeted for disruption. Deletion of the ATP-dependent transporter, CbpD partially alleviated xylose inhibition. A putative xylitol dehydrogenase, encoded by Clo1313_0076, was also deleted resulting in decreased total xylitol production and yield by 41% and 46%, respectively. Finally, xylose-induced inhibition corresponds with the up-regulation and biogenesis of a cyclical AgrD-type, pentapeptide. Medium supplementation with the mature cyclical pentapeptide also inhibits bacterial growth. Together, these findings provide new foundational insights needed for engineering improved pentose utilizing strains of C. thermocellum and reveal the first functional Agr-type cyclic peptide to be produced by a thermophilic member of the Firmicutes.

  2. Role of sugar in controlling reaction pathways: A study with thymine and thymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Adity [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sarkar, Achintya K. [Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, 86/1 College street, Kolkata 700 073 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2009-10-15

    Magnetic field effect in conjunction with laser flash photolysis have been used for studying interactions of 9,10-anthraquinone and 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione) with a DNA base, thymine (Thy) and its nucleoside, thymidine (dThd). Irrespective of medium Thy has been found to support both electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen abstraction with the quinones while dThd has exhibited a complete reluctance towards ET. This unique behavior of dThd has been attributed to a failure in attaining aromaticity by virtue of keto-enol tautomerism upon addition of a sugar moiety. Electron withdrawing effect of sugar unit is also considered responsible for reduction of ET from dThd. Again both Thy and dThd have exhibited hydrogen abstraction in homogeneous medium, which is normally unexpected. The above behaviors of the bases have been explained on the basis of their chemical structures.

  3. Role of sugar in controlling reaction pathways: A study with thymine and thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Adity; Sarkar, Achintya K.; Basu, Samita

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field effect in conjunction with laser flash photolysis have been used for studying interactions of 9,10-anthraquinone and 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione) with a DNA base, thymine (Thy) and its nucleoside, thymidine (dThd). Irrespective of medium Thy has been found to support both electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen abstraction with the quinones while dThd has exhibited a complete reluctance towards ET. This unique behavior of dThd has been attributed to a failure in attaining aromaticity by virtue of keto-enol tautomerism upon addition of a sugar moiety. Electron withdrawing effect of sugar unit is also considered responsible for reduction of ET from dThd. Again both Thy and dThd have exhibited hydrogen abstraction in homogeneous medium, which is normally unexpected. The above behaviors of the bases have been explained on the basis of their chemical structures.

  4. Added Sugars Intake Across the Distribution of US Children and Adult Consumers: 1977-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elyse S; Smith-Taillie, Lindsey P; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-10-01

    Public health organizations in the United States have recently increased focus on reducing population consumption of added sugars. The objective of this study is to provide in-depth information on national trends in added sugars consumption and to examine both the mean and distribution of added sugars intake from 1977 to 2012. We conducted a descriptive study using six cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of food intake in the United States: the 1977-1978 National Food Consumption Survey (n=29,668), the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (n=14,827), the 1994-1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (n=19,027), the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=8,273), the 2009-2010 NHANES (n=9,042), and the 2011-2012 NHANES (n=16,451). We examined the key dependent variables, calories from added sugars and percentage of total energy intake from added sugars, at the mean and by quintiles of added sugars consumption for children (2 to 18 years) and adults (19 years and older) across the survey years. We also examined trends in added sugars intakes from foods and beverages. We used ordinary least squares regression to examine linear trends between survey years and multinomial logistic regressions to examine sociodemographic characteristics by quintile of added sugars consumption. We adjusted estimates by race, income, sex, and education. The US mean adjusted intake of added sugars remains high. In 2011-2012, children and adults consumed 326 kcal/day and 308 kcal/day, respectively, of added sugars, or 14% and 17%, respectively, of total their energy. For both children and adults, there was a considerable increase in calories from added sugars from 1977 to 2003, followed by a substantial decline from 2003 to 2012. There was no decline in the percentage of total energy intake from added sugars from 2003 to 2012. Changes over time were consistent across each quintile of added sugars consumption. The

  5. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  6. Added sugars intake across the distribution of US children and adult consumers: 1977–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elyse S.; Smith-Taillie, Lindsey P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Public health organizations in the United States (US) have recently increased focus on reducing population consumption of added sugars. Objective The objective of this study is to provide in-depth information on national trends in added sugars consumption and examine both the mean and the distribution of added sugars intake from 1977 to 2012. Design We conducted a descriptive study using 6 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of food intake in the United States: the 1977–1978 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS; n = 29,668), the 1989–1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII; n = 14,827), the 1994–1998 CSFII (n = 19,027), the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 8,273), the 2009–2010 NHANES (n = 9,042), and the 2011–2012 NHANES (n = 16,451). Analysis We examined the key dependent variables calories from added sugars and percentage of total energy intake from added sugars at the mean and by quintiles of added sugars consumption for children (2–18 years) and adults (≥ 19 years) across the survey years. We also examined trends in added sugars intakes from foods and beverages. We used ordinary least squares regression to examine linear trends between survey years and multinomial logistic regressions to examine sociodemographics by quintile of added sugars consumption. We adjusted estimates by gender, race, income, and education. Results The US mean adjusted intake of added sugars remains high. In 2011–2012 children and adults consumed 326 kilocalories/day and 308 kilocalories/day, respectively, of added sugars, or 14% and 17%, respectively, of total their energy. For both children and adults, there was a significant increase in calories from added sugars from 1977 to 2003, followed by a significant decline from 2003 to 2012. There was no decline in the percentage of the total energy intake from added sugars from 2003 to 2012. Changes over time were consistent across each

  7. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus” or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-fermenting yeast strains in tea fungus, lactose is not an adequate alternative source of the C-atom for Kombucha fermentation because it is not possible to obtain Kombucha with an appropriate acidity during a seven-day fermentation. Compared with the traditional medium, fermentation is significantly slower with high differences in acid content. In unsweetened tea inoculated with the beverage obtained from a previous traditional process, Kombucha fermentation processes and produces a beverage without sugar and alcohol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  8. Effect of different levels of sugar on qualitative characteristics of lassi prepared from sour dahi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shah Moazzem

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to develop lassi from sour dahi using different levels of sugar (10, 15, 20 and 25% and 15% water. Lassi quality was assayed through the study of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results revealed that significant difference existed in overall physical score of lassi samples and the highest score was found in 15% sugar lassi whereas, the lowest score was found in 25% sugar lassi. Total solids, carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents differed significantly among various levels of sugar added lassi. From chemical test, it appears that, 15% sugar added lassi possess the highest fat and protein values whereas, the highest total solids and carbohydrate values posses in 25% sugar added lassi. No significant difference (p>0.05 revealed in terms of pH value and acidity percentage among lassi types. Lassi made from 10% sugar was most inferior than other levels of sugar added lassi in respect of microbiological quality- total viable count (×104 cfu/mL content was 95.67±2.08 and coliform (×10 cfu/mL content was 1.00±0.00. Considering above mentioned quality aspects, it might be resolved that lassi could be prepared successfully from sour dahi with 15% sugar keeping water level constant at 15%. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 434-439

  9. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  10. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Rachel B; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall ( p added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  11. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  12. Detoxification and fermentation of pyrolytic sugar for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Livingston, Darrell; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Li, Qi; Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei

    2012-11-01

    The sugars present in bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis can potentially be fermented by microbial organisms to produce cellulosic ethanol. This study shows the potential for microbial digestion of the aqueous fraction of bio-oil in an enrichment medium to consume glucose and produce ethanol. In addition to glucose, inhibitors such as furans and phenols are present in the bio-oil. A pure glucose enrichment medium of 20 g/l was used as a standard to compare with glucose and aqueous fraction mixtures for digestion. Thirty percent by volume of aqueous fraction in media was the maximum additive amount that could be consumed and converted to ethanol. Inhibitors were removed by extraction, activated carbon, air stripping, and microbial methods. After economic analysis, the cost of ethanol using an inexpensive fermentation medium in a large scale plant is approximately $14 per gallon.

  13. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids......, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential...

  14. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeverbeke-Sacre, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars [fr

  15. Comparing sugar type supplementation for cryopreservation of boar semen in egg yolk based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different sugars (lactose, trehalose and glucose) on boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in an egg yolk based extender. Ejaculates were collected from a boar previously selected and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, subsamples of semen were frozen in three different extenders: recommended lactose egg yolk extender (LEY); trehalose egg yolk extender (TEY) and glucose egg yolk extender (GEY). Sperm quality was assessed for motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test response upon collection, after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. Results showed that total motility at 1 and 3h, progressive motility at 3h, positive hypoosmotic response at 2 and 3h and acrosome integrity at all times were significantly improved when trehalose was added to the extender. In experiment 2, sugar influence was also demonstrated in vitro fertilization. A total of 1691 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm at 2000:1 sperm:oocyte ratio and coincubated for 6h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 medium to assess fertilization parameters and embryo development. Both penetration and monospermy rates were significantly higher for trehalose frozen semen. A significant increase was observed in efficiency and blastocyst formation rates from TEY to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that trehalose extender enhances spermatozoa viability and its in vitro fertilization parameters in boar ejaculates with good sperm freezability. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of sugars on the entire population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial neural network approach to modeling of alcoholic fermentation of thick juice from sugar beet processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the bioethanol production in batch culture by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from thick juice as intermediate product of sugar beet processing was examined. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to decrease fermentation time for the cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 5-15 g kg-1. For the fermentation of cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 20 and 25 g kg-1 significant increase in ethanol content was attained during the whole fermentation process, resulting in 12.51 and 10.95 dm3 m-3 ethanol contents after 48 h, respectively. Other goals of this work were to investigate the possibilities for experimental results prediction using artificial neural networks (ANNs and to find its optimal topology. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network was used to test the hypothesis. As input variables fermentation time and starting sugar content were used. Neural networks had one output value, ethanol content, yeast cell number or sugar content. There was one hidden layer and the optimal number of neurons was found to be nine for all selected network outputs. In this study transfer function was tansig and the selected learning rule was Levenberg-Marquardt. Results suggest that artificial neural networks are good prediction tool for selected network outputs. It was found that experimental results are in very good agreement with computed ones. The coefficient of determination (the R-squared was found to be 0.9997, 0.9997 and 0.9999 for ethanol content, yeast cell number and sugar content, respectively.

  17. Distribution and importance of spiders inhabiting a Brazilian sugar cane plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria Piovesan Rinaldi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna (Araneae of a sugar eane plantation was surveyed monthly by hand colteetion and beating vegetation in sugar cane fields across Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Composition and rchness (family and species where identifieation to species was possible microhabitat preferenees were reeorded, and diversity and evenness indices were calculated. A total of 1291 spiders belonging to 73 species and 20 families were collected. The most diverse families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae, and the most abundant ones were Theridiidae, Saltieidae, Anyphaenidae, and Araneidae, Seven species represented 58.6% of the total fauna, with Crysso pulcherrima (Mello-Leitão,1917 (Theridiidae composing 28.2%. About 65% of the spiders occupied the upper part of the plants (above 20 cm. Five spider species were present in the sugar cane throughout crop development. Evidence of spiders feeding on sugar cane pest species was observed.

  18. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  19. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  20. Sugars in atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosi, Christina; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Nouara, Amel; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Nicolaou, Panagiota; Violaki, Kalliopi; Kanakidou, Maria; Sempéré, Richard; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    The role of biomass combustion and primary bio-particles in atmospheric PM10 aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean over a two-year period was estimated by studying sugar tracers. Sugar concentrations ranged from 6 to 334 ng m-3, while their contributions to the organic carbon (OC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) pools were 3 and 11%, respectively. Over the studied period, glucose and levoglucosan were the two most abundant sugars accounting equally about 25% of the total sugar concentration in PM10 aerosols whereas fructose, sucrose, and mannitol represented 18%, 15% and 10%, respectively. Primary saccharides (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) peaked at the beginning of spring (21, 17 and 15 ng m-3, respectively), indicating significant contributions of bioaerosols to the total organic aerosol mass. On the other hand, higher concentrations of anhydrosugars (burning biomass tracers including levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were recorded in winter (19, 1.4 and 0.2 ng m-3, respectively) than in summer (9.1, 1.1 and 0.5 ng m-3, respectively). Levoglucosan was the dominant monosaccharide in winter (37% of total sugars) with less contribution in summer (19%) probably in relation with enhanced photochemical oxidation reactions by hydroxyl (ṡOH) radicals impacting anhydrosugars. We estimate that atmospheric oxidation by ṡOH decreases levoglucosan levels by 54% during summer. Biomass burning, based on levoglucosan observations, was estimated to contribute up to 13% to the annual average OC measured at Finokalia. Annual OC, WSOC, and carbohydrate dry deposition fluxes for the studied period were estimated to 414, 175, and 9 mg C m-2 y-1, respectively. Glucose and levoglucosan accounted for 34% and 2% of the total sugar fluxes. According to our estimations, atmospheric OC and WSOC inputs account for ˜0.70% of the carbon produced by annual primary production (PP) in the Cretan Sea. Considering the entire Mediterranean, dry deposition of OC could provide at

  1. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiak, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  2. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar. Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa. Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories. Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations. Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  3. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Single and combined effects of acetic acid, furfural, and sugars on the growth of the pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Michelle Dos Santos Cordeiro; Bastos, Reinaldo Gaspar; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2018-02-01

    The tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii to the inhibitors released after the biomass hydrolysis, such as acetic acid and furfural, was surveyed. We first verified the effects of acetic acid and cell concentrations and initial pH on the growth of a M. guilliermondii strain in a semi-synthetic medium containing acetic acid as the sole carbon source. Second, the single and combined effects of furfural, acetic acid, and sugars (xylose, arabinose, and glucose) on the sugar uptake, cell growth, and ethanol production were also analysed. Growth inhibition occurred in concentrations higher than 10.5 g l -1 acetic acid and initial pH 3.5. The maximum specific growth rate (µ) was 0.023 h -1 and the saturation constant (ks) was 0.75 g l -1 acetic acid. Initial cell concentration also influenced µ. Acetic acid (initial concentration 5 g l -1 ) was co-consumed with sugars even in the presence of 20 mg l -1 furfural without inhibition to the yeast growth. The yeast grew and fermented sugars in a sugar-based medium with acetic acid and furfural in concentrations much higher than those usually found in hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  5. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  6. Enzyme Enzyme activities in relation to sugar accumulation in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.J.; Rahman, M.H.; Mamun, M.A.; Islam, K.

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme activities in tomato juice of five different varieties viz. Ratan, Marglove, BARI-1, BARI-5 and BARI-6, in relation to sugar accumulation were investigated at different maturity stages. The highest amount of invertase and beta-galactosidase was found in Marglove and the lowest in BARI- 6 at all maturity stages. Total soluble sugar and sucrose contents were highest in BARI-1 and lowest in BARI-6. The activity of amylase was maximum in Ratan and minimum in Marglove. Protease activity was highest in Ratan and lowest in BARI-6. BARI-1 contained the highest cellulase activity and the lowest in BARI-5. The amount of total soluble sugar and sucrose increased moderately from premature to ripe stage. The activities of amylase and cellulase increased up to the mature stage and then decreased drastically in the ripe stage. The activities of invertase and protease increased sharply from the premature to the ripe stage while the beta-galactosidase activity decreased remarkably. No detectable amount of reducing sugar was present in the premature stage in all cultivars of tomato but increased thereafter upto the ripe stage. The highest reducing sugar was present in BARI-5 in all of the maturity stages. (author)

  7. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-09-01

    The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999-2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend added sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits.

  8. Food sources of free sugars in children's diet and identification of lifestyle patterns associated with free sugars intake: the GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajian, Paul; Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis

    2016-09-01

    Excessive free sugars consumption has a possible role in health issues, diet quality and obesity development. The present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the major food sources of free sugars in Greek children's diet and investigate possible associations of dietary patterns with free sugars intake. Anthropometric measurements and information on dietary and physical activity habits were obtained. Energy and free sugars intake coming from foods were estimated and principal components analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. The GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study. Nationwide sample of 3089 children (aged 10-12 years). Adopting WHO criteria, 44·2 % of participants were categorized as having free sugars intake above 10 % of total energy intake. Mean contribution of free sugars to energy intake was 11·2 %, and the major food sources of free sugars differed from those of other childhood populations. Free sugars intake was not associated with overweight/obesity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that two lifestyle and dietary patterns, characterized by higher consumption of sweets, fast foods, fries, sugared drinks, frequently ordering/eating outside home and having meals in front of a screen (pattern 1) and higher consumption of whole fruits, 100 % fruit juices, vegetables, legumes and honey/jam (pattern 2), were positively associated with free sugars intake. A large proportion of children exceeded the recommended cut-off and free sugars intake was associated with lifestyle patterns rather than single foods. Public health programmes aiming to reduce free sugars consumption should be tailored on promoting the correct dietary habits of specific childhood populations.

  9. Adiposity among 132 479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J J; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Iliodromiti, S; Lyall, D M; Sattar, N; Gill, Jmr; Pell, J P

    2017-04-01

    Policy makers are being encouraged to specifically target sugar intake in order to combat obesity. We examined the extent to which sugar, relative to other macronutrients, was associated with adiposity. We used baseline data from UK Biobank to examine the associations between energy intake (total and individual macronutrients) and adiposity [body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat and waist circumference]. Linear regression models were conducted univariately and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and physical activity. Among 132 479 participants, 66.3% of men and 51.8% of women were overweight/obese. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.24) between energy from sugar and fat; 13% of those in the highest quintile for sugar were in the lowest for fat, and vice versa. Compared with normal BMI, obese participants had 11.5% higher total energy intake and 14.6%, 13.8%, 9.5% and 4.7% higher intake from fat, protein, starch and sugar, respectively. Hence, the proportion of energy derived from fat was higher (34.3% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001) but from sugar was lower (22.0% vs 23.4%, P < 0.001). BMI was more strongly associated with total energy [coefficient 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-2.55] and energy from fat (coefficient 1.96, 95% CI 1.91-2.06) than sugar (coefficient 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.55). The latter became negative after adjustment for total energy. Fat is the largest contributor to overall energy. The proportion of energy from fat in the diet, but not sugar, is higher among overweight/obese individuals. Focusing public health messages on sugar may mislead on the need to reduce fat and overall energy consumption. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  10. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids.

  11. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  12. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectroscopy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  13. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  15. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F.; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L.; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement error (ME) in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. Methods We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess ME in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, that includes 450 post-menopausal women aged 60–91. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 4-day food records (4DFR) and three 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Results Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF=0.57), followed by FFQ (AF=0.48), and 4DFR (AF=0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5–6% for absolute sugars; 7–18% for sugars density). Adding participants’ characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16–18% for absolute sugars; 29–40% for sugars density). Conclusions None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Impact Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that, measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. PMID:25234237

  16. Development of a low cost medium for Tetraselmis sp. growth and biochemical profile improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Rosado Correia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, food quality improvement – especially microalgae – is mandatory. Despite having many applications in this industry, few genera of microalgae are actively used and exploited, mainly because of its lack of requirements, such as digestibility, size and lack of toxicity. Tetraselmis sp. is one of the most commonly used microalgae on aquaculture. Despite their nutritional profile, this is a highly demanding industry that requires constant improvement concerning cost production and productivity, and a biochemical profile for end usage. Improvements can be achieved through culture condition manipulation, changing, for instance, culture media’s composition. In order to achieve better biochemical profiles, productivity and lower production costs, three mediums were tested – NutriBloom [NB] (commercial medium used at Necton’s facilities, Simplex [S] (no addition of iron or any micronutrient and Sea Mineral Solution [SMS], and Tetraselmis’s level of protein, carbohydrates, total lipid and PUFA’s profile were controlled at logarithmic and stationary phase, using classical techniques, according to Lowry (1951, Dubois (1956, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Lepage & Roy (1986. SMS revealed better results than the others, achieving higher cell numbers, productivity and less duplication time. In logarithmic phase, this medium also had the higher lipid and PUFAs percentage. S medium showed higher protein content. In stationary phase, NB medium presented more proteins, lipid and sugars. S medium had better PUFAs percentage. Differences between micronutrient concentrations explain the verified variations in microalgae’s biochemical profile, developing a low-cost medium for Tetraselmis sp. culture.

  17. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO ADDED SUGARS RED STRAWBERRY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum Sabine JELLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA NIEMEYER REISSIG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to prepare jellies of conventional type of red strawberry guava (with added sucrose and no added sugar and evaluate the physical and chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds in them. Four jellies formulations were prepared: conventional with addition of sucrose (F1, aspartame (F2, saccharin and cyclamate (F3, acesulfame and sucralose (F4. Physicochemical analysis of pH were carried out, as well as analysis of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ashes, proteins, lipids, moisture, carbohydrates, calories, lightness, color tone, total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, by the capture of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Conventional and no added sugars jellies did not differ for total phenols, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. However, processing exerted significant influence (p=0.05 on total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. It is feasible to use red strawberry guava for the preparation of conventional and no added sugar jellies. The products, however, show a significant difference in carotenoids content, with the highest content of these and higher antioxidant activity in processed jellies without sugars addition.

  18. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  19. Differences in morphology and sugar content of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) with potassium treatment at several altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiani, R.; Rosmayati; Siregar, L. A. M.; Harahap, F.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at three locations in low, medium and high plains. This study was aimed to determine the morphological changes and sugar content of sweet potato caused by potassium dose treatment and climate change. Data was analyzed by factorial randomized block design in time series with two factors. The first factor was Altitude: A1 (50 meter above sea level (MASL)), A2 (750 MASL) and A3 (1450 MASL). The second factor was Potassium: K0 (0 kg/ha), K1 (50 kg/ha), K2 (100 kg/ha) and K3 (150 kg/ha). The data of plant morphology change and sugar content was descriptively analized, while agronomic and harvest component data analysis by F test and continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results of morphological observations showed different types of plant growth, which in the lowlands and medium plant growth types spread, twisted, more branches, wider leaf area. However, the plateau of plant growth was relatively dwarf, erect, no twist, huddled and short rods and small leaf area. The tuber weight per plant, number of tuber yield and tuber weight per plot in high altitude were significantly higher than lowland and medium. Similarly, increased altitude will be increased the sugar content significantly.

  20. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  1. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klurfeld, David M

    2013-03-01

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including research, food safety, nutrition assistance, and labeling; therefore, the interpretation of evidence differs depending on the role of the agency. Some common references for government agency positions are the dietary reference intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which together form the foundation for much of federal nutrition policy. Sugar consumption has increased in proportion to intake of other nutrients since 1980, when obesity began to increase substantially. Median intake of added sugars is ~12% of energy, whereas total sugar intake is ~22% of energy. Although there are differences in the way in which individual monosaccharides are metabolized, they are rarely consumed alone. A key issue related to obesity is likely the increased number of eating occasions and portion size for many indulgent foods; grain-based snacks have become the largest source of energy in the U.S. diet. There are currently insufficient data to justify a decision on regulation or taxation of sugar-containing foods and the like because the approach must be weighed against personal freedoms; the list of foods associated with obesity includes many commonly eaten items, and it is not likely that they are all causally related. Government should consider the totality of the evidence including the strength of the relationship of sugar intake with various health outcomes.

  2. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Thahir Haning

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1 Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2 Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 relevant documents were found. A total of 91 SSB products were selected systematically by randomly selecting 5 beverages per day for 20 days. Beverages chosen were certified Halal by Majelis Ulama Indonesia, having product labeling, and certified by BPOM. Results: Indonesia has no policy related to restriction of sugar use. The contribution of sugar to energy of SSB products is quite high (75.68%. SSB intake may increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: The absence of tax policy and rules for regulating the use of sugar in a product can cause an increase in sugar consumption per day. It could potentially lead to non-communicable diseases and could have enormous consequences in health financing. The government needs to create policies for preventing the widespread impact of sugar consumption. Advocacy efforts to encourage the establishment of SSB taxation should be done.

  3. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  4. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  5. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Rodriguez, Paula; Valero, Teresa; Ávila, José M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  6. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009 carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE, the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE, and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE. Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%, milks (19.6%, juices and nectars (11.1%, vegetables (9.89%, yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%, low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%, bread (2.91%, and sugar soft drinks (2.24%, greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%, sugar (17.8%, bakery and pastry items (15.2%, chocolates (11.4%, yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%, other dairy products (5.99%, jams (3.58%, juices and nectars (2.91%, and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%, summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  7. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-01-01

    Background: The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. Objective: We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. Design: A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999–2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Results: Between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend added sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. PMID:21753067

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  9. Influence of physiological state of inoculum on volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during high sugar fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bely

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach consisting of controlling yeast inoculum to minimize volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of botrytized must was investigated. Direct inoculation of rehydrated active dry yeasts produced the most volatile acidity, while a yeast preparation pre-cultured for 24 hours reduced the final production by up to 23 %. Using yeasts collected from a fermenting wine as a starter must also reduced volatile acidity production. The conditions for preparing the inoculum affected the fermentation capacity of the first generation yeasts: fermentation duration, sugar to ethanol ratio, and wine composition. A pre-culture medium with a low sugar concentration (< 220 g/L is essential to limit volatile acidity production in high sugar fermentations.

  10. Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the very first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020 made a quantitative recommendation that added sugars intake of individuals to not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake. The objective of this article is to define added sugars and to describe the methodology used to estima...

  11. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 yearsand older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husbandheaded households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had highersugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucoselevels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  12. The effect of dietary sugars on triacylglycerol metabolism in subjects at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar diet may increase plasma triacylglycerol (TG) levels and cause dyslipidaemia, resulting in a higher cardiometabolic risk. High sugar intake may also promote the accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver. Objectives: To determine the effect of two isocaloric diets, low and high in extrinsic sugars (6% or 26% total energy respectively corresponding to the lower and upper 2.5th percentile of the intake in men aged 40-65 in the UK) but with the same total carbohydrate co...

  13. Estimating added sugars in US consumer packaged goods: An application to beverages in 2007-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Bricker, Gregory; Li, Kuo-Ping; Yoon, Emily Ford; Kang, Jiyoung; Westrich, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This study developed a method to estimate added sugar content in consumer packaged goods (CPG) that can keep pace with the dynamic food system. A team including registered dietitians, a food scientist and programmers developed a batch-mode ingredient matching and linear programming (LP) approach to estimate the amount of each ingredient needed in a given product to produce a nutrient profile similar to that reported on its nutrition facts label (NFL). Added sugar content was estimated for 7021 products available in 2007-08 that contain sugar from ten beverage categories. Of these, flavored waters had the lowest added sugar amounts (4.3g/100g), while sweetened dairy and dairy alternative beverages had the smallest percentage of added sugars (65.6% of Total Sugars; 33.8% of Calories). Estimation validity was determined by comparing LP estimated values to NFL values, as well as in a small validation study. LP estimates appeared reasonable compared to NFL values for calories, carbohydrates and total sugars, and performed well in the validation test; however, further work is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions on the accuracy of added sugar estimates in CPGs. As nutrition labeling regulations evolve, this approach can be adapted to test for potential product-specific, category-level, and population-level implications.

  14. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molasses is an important by-product of sugar beet or sugar cane refining industry and it was one of the first sweeteners used in human nutrition. Sugar cane molasses has unique characteristics that can make it suitable for application in food industry, especially in confectionery and bakery products. On the other hand, sugar beet molasses has not had greater application in the human diet, primarily because of its strong smell and taste of the beet, which makes it unattractive for consumption. Since recent investigations showed that sugar beet molasses can be used as a hypertonic solution in osmotic dehydration of different materials of plant and animal origin, the objective of this work was to review recently studied sugar beet molasses in terms of its applications in osmotic dehydrations of fruits and vegetables. Previous studies showed that sugar beet molasses is an excellent medium for osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables (apple, carrot, plum, etc. primarily due to a high content of dry matter (80%, w/w and specific nutrient content. An important advantage of using sugar beet molasses as a hypertonic solution is an enrichment of the dehydrated material in minerals and vitamins, which penetrate from molasses into the plant tissue. Concentration of sugar beet molasses solution and immersion time had the biggest influence on the process of osmotic dehydration of fruit and vegetables, while the temperature of the solution was the least influential parameter. The effect of immersion time on the kinetics of osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses increases with an increase in concentration of hypertonic solution. Fruit and vegetables dehydrated in sugar beet molasses had a higher dry matter content compared to samples treated in sucrose solutions. Besides, application of sugar beet molasses in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables had some other advantages such as lower cost of molasses compared to sugar and its liquid aggregate

  15. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  16. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... amended, the sugar beet sector was allotted 5,278,064 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ), and the cane sugar sector was allotted 4,433,186 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ). CCC will distribute the sector allotments... tranches will each be equal to 20,003 MTRV, with the third opening on January 11, 2013; the fourth, on...

  17. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  18. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Camassola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U·mL−1 was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  19. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  20. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  1. A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Newens, K. J.; Walton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Government and health organisations worldwide have recently reviewed the evidence on the role of dietary sugars in relation to health outcomes. Hence, it is timely to review current intakes of dietary sugars with respect to this guidance and as a benchmark for future surveillance. Methods This review collates data from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world and reports estimates of intakes of total and added sugars, and sucrose in different population s...

  2. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  3. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  4. Simultaneous determination of total arsenic and total selenium in Chinese medicinal herbs by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in tartaric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanfeng; Sun Hanwen; Shen Shigang; Li Liqing; Shi Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    By HG-AFS, a new method was proposed for simultaneous determination of total arsenic and total selenium existed in the Chinese medicinal herbs in tartaric acid medium. The effects of analytical conditions and coexisting ions on the fluorescence signal intensity of analytes were investigated. The proposed method was provided with linear response ranges above 22 μg l -1 for As and 44 μg l -1 for Se, and the detection limits of 0.13 and 0.12 μg l -1 were obtained for As and Se respectively. The recoveries of 93.8-96.1% for As and 95.3-99.1% for Se, and the precision of 1.2-3.8% and 2.4-5.3% (R.S.D., n = 8) respectively, were obtained via simultaneous determined four samples of Chinese medicinal herbs and three certified botanic reference materials successfully. The proposed method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity and high efficiency

  5. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...

  6. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Golybin; V. A. Fedoruk; N. A. Voronkova; I. S. Bushmin

    2016-01-01

    Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole stat...

  7. Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues.

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  9. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the problem of thistle detection in sugar beet fields under natural, outdoor conditions. In our experiments, we used a commercial color camera and extracted vegetation indices from the images. A total of 474 field images of sugar beet and thistles were collected....... Stepwise linear regression selected nine out of 14 features and offered the highest accuracy of 97%. The results of LDA and MD were fairly close, making them both equally preferable. Finally, the results were validated by annotating images containing both sugar beet and thistles using the trained...... classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...

  10. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  11. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  12. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, I. de C.

    1992-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m 3 ) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m 3 /year), thus avoiding CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  13. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Reyes, Marcela; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Martinez Steele, Euridice; Monteiro, Carlos A; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    To assess the consumption of ultra-processed foods and analyse its association with the content of added sugars in the Chilean diet. Cross-sectional study of national dietary data obtained through 24 h recalls and classified into food groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing (NOVA classification). Chile. A probabilistic sample of 4920 individuals (aged 2 years or above) studied in 2010 by a national dietary survey (Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario). Ultra-processed foods represented 28·6 (se 0·5) % of total energy intake and 58·6 (se 0·9) % of added sugars intake. The mean percentage of energy from added sugars increased from 7·7 (se 0·3) to 19·7 (se 0·5) % across quintiles of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for several potential sociodemographic confounders, a 5 percentage point increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods determined a 1 percentage point increase in the dietary content of added sugars. Individuals in the highest quintile were three times more likely (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 2·4, 3·4) to exceed the 10 % upper limit for added sugars recommended by the WHO compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. This association was strongest among individuals aged 2-19 years (OR=3·9; 95 % CI 2·7, 5·9). In Chile, ultra-processed foods are important contributors to total energy intake and to the consumption of added sugars. Actions aimed at limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods are being implemented as effective ways to achieve WHO dietary recommendations to limit added sugars and processed foods, especially for children and adolescents.

  14. Efficient sugar release by acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-12-03

    Acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse was performed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of different parameters (including temperature, reaction time, solvent concentration, and acid catalyst dose) on pretreatment prehydrolyzate and subsequent enzymatic digestibility was determined. During the pretreatment process, 11.83 g of xylose based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained. After the ethanol-based pretreatment, the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced and the highest glucose yield of 40.99 g based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained, representing 93.8% of glucose in sugar cane bagasse. The maximum total sugar yields occurred at 190 °C, 45 min, 60:40 ethanol/water, and 5% dosage of acetic acid, reaching 58.36 g (including 17.69 g of xylose and 40.67 g of glucose) based on 100 g of raw material, representing 85.4% of total sugars in raw material. Furthermore, characterization of the pretreated sugar cane bagasse using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses were also developed. The results suggested that ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment could enhance enzymatic digestibilities because of the delignification and removal of xylan.

  15. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  16. Effect of pH and temperature on browning intensity of coconut sugar and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karseno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coconut sugar is produced by heating coconut neera. The brown color of sugar is derived from non-enzymatic browning Maillard reaction. It is strongly influenced by pH and temperature. In this study, the effect of pH and temperature on browning intensity and antioxidant activity of coconut sugar were examined. The pH of coconut neera was adjusted at 6 and 8 and the temperature of its heating was 100ºC, 105 ºC, 110ºC, and 115ºC, respectively. The browning intensity of sugar was determined by spectrophotometrically at 420 nm. Total phenolic content of sugar was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activity was expressed as DPPH scavenging activity. The results showed that browning intensity and antioxidant activity of sugars was increased with increasing pH of coconut neera and temperature. It was found that the effect of pH at 8 and temperature at 115ºC show highest total phenolics (0.48% and browning intensity (0.35 of sugar. The treatment also exhibited good antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity as high as 40%. This result also indicates that there is a significant correlation between browning intensity and antioxidant activity of coconut sugar.

  17. Estimating added sugars in US consumer packaged goods: An application to beverages in 2007–08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Bricker, Gregory; Li, Kuo-ping; Yoon, Emily Ford; Kang, Jiyoung; Westrich, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a method to estimate added sugar content in consumer packaged goods (CPG) that can keep pace with the dynamic food system. A team including registered dietitians, a food scientist and programmers developed a batch-mode ingredient matching and linear programming (LP) approach to estimate the amount of each ingredient needed in a given product to produce a nutrient profile similar to that reported on its nutrition facts label (NFL). Added sugar content was estimated for 7021 products available in 2007–08 that contain sugar from ten beverage categories. Of these, flavored waters had the lowest added sugar amounts (4.3g/100g), while sweetened dairy and dairy alternative beverages had the smallest percentage of added sugars (65.6% of Total Sugars; 33.8% of Calories). Estimation validity was determined by comparing LP estimated values to NFL values, as well as in a small validation study. LP estimates appeared reasonable compared to NFL values for calories, carbohydrates and total sugars, and performed well in the validation test; however, further work is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions on the accuracy of added sugar estimates in CPGs. As nutrition labeling regulations evolve, this approach can be adapted to test for potential product-specific, category-level, and population-level implications. PMID:26273127

  18. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnair...

  19. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOR BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the major causes of decline in the quality of granulated sugar is bacterial contamination of sugar beet. This is due to the fact that the beet-sugar industry is a good object for the development of different groups of microorganisms. The main sources of infection of products of sugar manufacture can be soil, water, air, packaging, packaging materials, vehicles, clothing, equipment. The higher the beet contamination with the microorganisms, the more they decompose sucrose and secrete metabolic byproducts. In this regard, there is a need to reduce the negative impact of various groups of microorganisms and to minimize the loss of sucrose from decomposition. In accordance with the problem given the studies to determine the bacteriostatic properties of chlorinated compounds for sugar production were carried out. We used the cultivated fluid colonized with a pure culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and reagent treated as an object of study. In the experiments, we determined the accumulation of biomass of L. mesenteroides with nephelometric method by measuring the optical density of bacterial suspension. It was found out that after 24 hours of bacterial culturing the level of optical density in the control and active acidity were considerably higher compared with the sample treated with germicide. The number of microorganisms in the nutrient medium was determined by Vinogradsky-Shulgina-Brid’s. According to the study in the control is 1,7*10^16, in experiment with the introduction of the chlorinated compound it is 5,8*10^14. The experimental results show that the investigated chlorinated compound has bacteriostatic action against grampositive cocci saprophytic of L. mesenteroides and can be recommended for use in a sugar beet production.

  1. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gromkovskii; O. I. Sherstyuk

    2015-01-01

    Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive fir...

  3. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 from 10 USA/UK population samples. Associations of SSB, diet beverages, and sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) with BP were assessed by multiple linear regression. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake related directly to BP, P-values 0.005 to Sugar-sweetened beverage intake higher by 1 serving/day (355 ml/24-h) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +1.6/+0.8 mm Hg (both P sugar-sodium interactions: for individuals with above-median 24-h urinary sodium excretion, fructose intake higher by 2 SD (5.6 %kcal) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +3.4/+2.2 mm Hg (both P sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion, lend support to recommendations that intake of SSB, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced. PMID:21357284

  4. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  5. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  6. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Kothari, Ninad; Nunez, Angelica; Liu, Xuan; da Silva Dias, Nildo; Suarez, Donald L; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar "White Fuseau" grown under five salinity levels were evaluated for tuber yield. Results indicated that this cultivar is moderately salt-tolerant if the goal is tuber production. Hydraulic pressings of the tubers produced juice that contained 15% (wet weight) or 55% (dry weight) free sugars, with 70% of these in the form of inulin and the rest as fructose, sucrose, and glucose. Importantly, salinity did not affect the total free sugar or inulin content of the tubers. Tubers were composed of about 12% dry washed bagasse (wet weight) or 44% (dry matter basis) and bagasse retained such high quantities of free sugars after pressing that washing was required for complete sugar recovery. Chemical composition analysis of tuber bagasse suggested that it had low lignin content (11-13 wt%), and its structural sugar composition was similar to chicory root bagasse. Because of the high hemicellulose and pectin content of the bagasse, adding xylanase and pectinase to cellulase substantially improved sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis compared to at the same protein loading as cellulase alone. In addition to the high total sugar yield of tuber, these first findings on the sugar and lignin content and enzymatic hydrolysis of tuber bagasse can lead to low-cost production of ethanol for transportation fuels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  8. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  9. Biochemical characterisation and dietary fibre analysis of sugar beet supplemented cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Jahangir, M.F.; Akhter, S.; Manzoor, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to utilize sugar beet powder as a rich source of dietary fibre in cookies. Purposely, five treatments namely T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% sugar beet powder addition in wheat flour were chosen to estimate fibre, antioxidant profiling and engineering properties of cookies. Results showed an increased content of all above mentioned parameters. With the increment in sugar beet powder addition in treatments, dietary fibre analysis have shown that total dietary fibre (TDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) have depicted increasing trend with maximum for T5 for all dietary fibre types. Significant results were obtained for in vitro antioxidant studies including total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH that showed increasing trend with T1 0.6 mg GAE/g and maximum values for T5 with 2.0 mg GAE/g for TPC and for DPPH with T5 being maximum value of 1.7% and minimum for T1 with 1.3%. T5 treatment with 20% sugar beet gave best physicochemical results but disturbed sensory properties while T3 with 12% sugar beet powder showed good physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Therefore, T3 with 12% level is considered as the best source of dietary fibre in bakery products and can be considered as the prospective choice to address metabolic syndromes. (author)

  10. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  11. Sugar uptake, carbohydrate metabolism and ANA and RNA contents of paecilomyces violacea mats arising from gamma irradiated inocula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, A.Y.; Salama, A.M.; Nadia, M.M.; Abo-El-Khair, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiated inocula of paecilomyces violacea with the lowest doses 0.1 and 0.25 KGy increased the amounts of sugar uptake over control value by 11.43% and 19.17% respectively. promoted sugar uptake at such doses was coupled by a consequent drop in the monosaccharide content of the medium amounting to 30.62% and 58.53% and 58.53% below control value respectively. Higher doses of gamma radiation were associated with decreased rates of sugar uptake by the respective mats. Polysaccharide synthesis was inhibited gradually with increasing the irradiation dose. Irradiated incocula of P. Violacea produced mats which showed a general inconsistent decrease in RNA content and a general limited increase in the DNA content with the increase of irradiation dose

  12. Experimental mixture design as a tool to optimize the growth of various Ganoderma species cultivated on media with different sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit Kheng Goh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different medium components (glucose, sucrose, and fructose on the growth of different Ganoderma isolates and species was investigated using mixture design. Ten sugar combinations based on three simple sugars were generated with two different concentrations, namely 3.3% and 16.7%, which represented low and high sugar levels, respectively. The media were adjusted to either pH 5 or 8. Ganoderma isolates (two G. boninense from oil palm, one Ganoderma species from coconut palm, G. lingzhi, and G. australe from tower tree grew faster at pH 8. Ganoderma lingzhi proliferated at the slowest rate compared to all other tested Ganoderma species in all the media studied. However, G. boninense isolates grew the fastest. Different Ganoderma species were found to have different sugar preferences. This study illustrated that the mixture design can be used to determine the optimal combinations of sugar or other nutrient/chemical components of media for fungal growth.

  13. Racial Disparities in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Change Efficacy Among Male First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-11-01

    Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  15. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  16. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  17. USING MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. AS A SUGAR CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Below

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for homegrown energy has created a market for new feedstocks for the growing biofuel industry. Plants with C4 photosynthesis are particularly suited as biofuel crops because of their high radiation, water, and nitrogen (N use efficiency. C4 species that store high levels of sucrose in their stalks such as sugarcane (Saccharum spp, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., and maize are especially useful. Maize has been repeatedly evaluated as a sugar crop during the last century, and prevention of pollination or ear removal is typically associated with the highest concentrations of stalk sugar. Elimination of the reproductive phase, however, usually results in accelerated leaf senescence, which is expected to limit sugar accumulation. We have developed a series of hybrids that exhibit photoperiod sensitivity as an approach to simultaneously increase biomass and sugar production by crossing seven tropical inbreds with the historic temperate inbred B73. We used a tropical parent to confer photoperiod sensitivity and to greatly delay flowering and increase the anthesis-silking interval, resulting in low seed set. When grown in temperate regions these hybrids produce abundant biomass and do not exhibit accelerated leaf senescence without grain, but rather remain green and accumulate sugars in their stalks. Total biomass (stover and grain, sucrose accumulation, and the response to N of these hybrids was determined and compared to a similar number of locally grown commercial grain hybrids. On average the tropical hybrids produced 20% more total biomass than the commercial hybrids, and they showed a smaller response to the addition of fertilizer N. Total biomass yields of tropical hybrids ranged from 16.3 to 27.5 Mg/ha (average of 23.5 Mg/ha and the stalk contained from 1.7 to 3.2 Mg/ha of sucrose (average of 2.6 Mg/ha. Increasing the N supply from 0 to 225 kg/ha increased the average biomass production of tropical hybrids by only 2.2 Mg

  18. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  19. Respiration-dependent utilization of sugars in yeasts: a determinant role for sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities for these sugars are not sufficient to ensure the high substrate flow that is necessary for fermentative growth. By introducing additional sugar permease genes, we have obtained K. lactis strains that were capable of growing on galactose and raffinose in the absence of respiration. High dosages of both the permease and maltase genes were indeed necessary for K. lactis cells to grow on maltose in the absence of respiration. These results strongly suggest that the sugar uptake step is the major bottleneck in the fermentative assimilation of certain sugars in K. lactis and probably in many other yeasts.

  20. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  1. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  2. Evaluation in Cellulolytic Activity of Stenotrophomonas sp. in Cellulose Nitrogen Free Mineral Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey Thet Paing Htway; San San Yu; Zaw Ko Latt

    2011-12-01

    Three bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soil and their nitrogen fixing activity was determined in nitrogen free mineral medium and broth with glucose and cellulose as carbon sources and they produced ammonium concentration (above 3ppm) in G-NFFMM and (2-3ppm) in C-NFMM. Moreover, their cellulolytic activity was determined by DNS mothod and strain H3 having the cellulolytic activity was selected. Then, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, baggasse, pea haulm, corn stem, rice straw were used as substrates and determined its reducing sugar concentration. After detection of the cellulolytic activity, the bacteria produced the highest concentration of reducing sugar on cellulose substrate at 12 day incubation period with the reducing sugar amount of 0.12mg/ml and 0.298mg/ml on CMC substrates. In the study of argicultral wastes as substrates, the selected strain, H3, produced in the reducing sugar concentration with 0.12, 0.116,0.103 and 0.098mg/ml respectively. The selected strain was identified by biochemical characterists and 16s ribosomal DNA analysis and it was Stenotrophomonas sp.

  3. Amino Sugars Enhance the Competitiveness of Beneficial Commensals with Streptococcus mutans through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    Biochemical and genetic aspects of the metabolism of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) by commensal oral streptococci and the effects of these sugars on interspecies competition with the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans were explored. Multiple S. mutans wild-type isolates displayed long lag phases when transferred from glucose-containing medium to medium with GlcNAc as the primary carbohydrate source, but commensal streptococci did not. Competition in liquid coculture or dual-species biofilms between S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii showed that S. gordonii was particularly dominant when the primary carbohydrate was GlcN or GlcNAc. Transcriptional and enzymatic assays showed that the catabolic pathway for GlcNAc was less highly induced in S. mutans than in S. gordonii Exposure to H2O2, which is produced by S. gordonii and antagonizes the growth of S. mutans, led to reduced mRNA levels of nagA and nagB in S. mutans When the gene for the transcriptional regulatory NagR was deleted in S. gordonii, the strain produced constitutively high levels of nagA (GlcNAc-6-P deacetylase), nagB (GlcN-6-P deaminase), and glmS (GlcN-6-P synthase) mRNA. Similar to NagR of S. mutans (NagRSm), the S. gordonii NagR protein (NagRSg) could bind to consensus binding sites (dre) in the nagA, nagB, and glmS promoter regions of S. gordonii Notably, NagRSg binding was inhibited by GlcN-6-P, but G-6-P had no effect, unlike for NagRSm This study expands the understanding of amino sugar metabolism and NagR-dependent gene regulation in streptococci and highlights the potential for therapeutic applications of amino sugars to prevent dental caries. Amino sugars are abundant in the biosphere, so the relative efficiency of particular bacteria in a given microbiota to metabolize these sources of carbon and nitrogen might have a profound impact on the ecology of the community. Our investigation reveals that several oral commensal bacteria have a much

  4. In Defense of Sugar: A Critique of Diet-Centrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Sugars are foundational to biological life and played essential roles in human evolution and dietary patterns for most of recorded history. The simple sugar glucose is so central to human health that it is one of the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines. Given these facts, it defies both logic and a large body of scientific evidence to claim that sugars and other nutrients that played fundamental roles in the substantial improvements in life- and health-spans over the past century are now suddenly responsible for increments in the prevalence of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a rigorous, evidence-based challenge to 'diet-centrism' and the disease-mongering of dietary sugar. The term 'diet-centrism' describes the naïve tendency of both researchers and the public to attribute a wide-range of negative health outcomes exclusively to dietary factors while neglecting the essential and well-established role of individual differences in nutrient-metabolism. The explicit conflation of dietary intake with both nutritional status and health inherent in 'diet-centrism' contravenes the fact that the human body is a complex biologic system in which the effects of dietary factors are dependent on the current state of that system. Thus, macronutrients cannot have health or metabolic effects independent of the physiologic context of the consuming individual (e.g., physical activity level). Therefore, given the unscientific hyperbole surrounding dietary sugars, I take an adversarial position and present highly-replicated evidence from multiple domains to show that 'diet' is a necessary but trivial factor in metabolic health, and that anti-sugar rhetoric is simply diet-centric disease-mongering engendered by physiologic illiteracy. My position is that dietary sugars are not responsible for obesity or metabolic diseases and that the consumption of simple sugars and sugar-polymers (e.g., starches) up to 75% of

  5. Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.N.M.A.I.; Islam, M.R.; Habib, M.A.B.; Hossain, M.S.; Miah, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

  6. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  7. Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is estimation of regularities and tendencies, characteristic for modern sectoral structure of small and mediumsized business in Russia. The subject of the research is a set of processes of structural changes on the types of economic activities of such enterprises, as well as the differentiation of the number of employees in enterprises. The research methodology included consideration of aggregates of subjects of small and medium-sized business, formed according to sectoral and territorial features. As the initial data used the official statistical information, which was obtain in the course of total observation of the activities of small and medium-sized businesses in 2010 and 2015. The study was conducted on indicators characterizing the full range of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the country. The materiality of structural changes was carried out on the basis of the Ryabtsev index. Modeling the differentiation of the values of the number of employees per enterprise was based on the development of density normal distribution functions. According to the hypothesis it is assumed that the differentiation of the number of employees working in enterprises depend on six main types of economic activity and on the subjects of Russia. Based on the results of the study was proved that there are no significant structural changes for the period from 2010 to 2015, both in terms of the number of enterprises and the number of their employees. Based on the results of the simulation, the average values of the number of employees for the six main types of activity were established, as well as the intervals for changing these indicators for the aggregates of small and medium-sized enterprises located in the majority of the country's subjects. The results of research can be used in the performance of scientific works related to the justification of the expected number and number of employees of enterprises, the formation of

  8. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  9. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  10. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  12. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  14. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-03-09

    To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods could be an effective way of reducing the excessive intake of added sugars in the USA

  15. Flux, rejection and fouling during microfiltration and ultrafiltration of sugar palm sap using a pilot plant scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanichapichart, P.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a pilot plant scale microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF to clarify and reduce number of bacteria, yeast and mould of sugar palm sap was studied. The membrane used was multi channel tubular ceramic membrane (ZrO2-TiO2 with membrane pore size 0.2 and 0.1 μm and molecular weight cut off (MWCO 300 and 50 kDa for microfiltration and ultrafiltration respectively. The experiment was carried out to investigate the rejection of the components in sugar palm sap, permeate flux and fouling characteristics. The results showed that the turbidity, the total solid, the viscosity and the numbers of bacteria, yeast and mould in the permeate obtained by MF and UF were reduced significantly compared to those of fresh sugar palm sap. The total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar and pH were not affected by MF and UF. The permeate fluxes for all membranes were reduced greatly as the volume concentration ratio (VCR increased due to severe fouling. The irreversible fouling on membrane surface and/or inside the membrane tended to increase with increasing membrane pore size or MWCO. The result also suggested that protein and small particle in the sugar palm sap were probably responsible for the internal fouling of large pore size membrane. According to the physical, chemical and microorganism quality results, both MF and UF showed the potential use for improving the quality of sugar palm sap but flux reduction due to fouling was a major problem affecting the process performance.

  16. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... sugar imports, as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane...

  17. Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration using kitchen waste saccharified solution as culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Juan, W.; Qunhui, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Reduced sugar in saccharified solution from kitchen waste was used as the carbon source. Domesticated A. niger AS 3.879C , which can withstand 20% of kitchen waste, was used as the inoculum in the bioleaching process of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The effect of reduced sugar concentration, fly ash concentration, and medium volume on the heavy metal extraction and yield of fly ash as well as the optimum bioleaching conditions; the inoculation amount of AS 3 .879C 1% (v/v), reduced sugar concentration of 80 g/l, fly ash concentration of 20 g/l, medium volume of 200 ml, and the addition of fly ash (20 g/l) after culturing for 4 days at 30 degree C and 140 r/min were obtained. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield of the seven tested heavy metals are in the order of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Fe; the extraction yield of Cd and Zn reached 88.7% and 73.1% respectively. Fly ash satisfied the Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes (GB 18598-2001) after heavy metal extraction. (author)

  18. Intake and sources of added sugars among Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Rangan, Anna M; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Timothy P

    2016-12-01

    To examine the intake and sources of added sugars (AS) of Australian children and adolescents, and compare their intake of free sugars (FS) to the recommended limit set by the World Health Organization (foods was estimated based on a published method. Intakes of AS and FS, as well as food sources of AS, were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between age groups and gender. The mean (SD) AS intake was 58.9 (35.1) g/day, representing 11.9 (5.6) % of daily energy intake and 46.9 (17.5) % of daily total sugars intake. More than 80 % of the subjects had % energy from FS > 10 %. Significant increasing trends for AS intake, % energy from AS, % energy from FS across age groups were observed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (19.6 %), cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (14.3 %), and sugar and sweet spreads (10.5 %) were the top three contributors of AS intake in the whole sample. Higher contribution of AS from sugar-sweetened beverages was observed in adolescents (p trend  foods, interventions which target the reduction in these foods would reduce energy and AS intake with minimal impact to core nutrient intake.

  19. Effect of Azotobacter croococcum on productive traits and microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzevski Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different inoculation methods with selected Azotobacter chroococcum strains on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, as well as on the total number of microorganisms and azotobacter in rhizosphere. The results of this two-year study showed that effectiveness of the tested inoculation methods in increasing root yield and sugar content varies greatly, depending on year and azotobacter strains. Effectiveness of inoculation methods was not largely impacted by year on granulated sugar. Achieved granulated sugar yield was significantly higher by using pre-sowing azotobacter application, than by using seed inoculation. A significantly increased number of microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere was determined, not only by using pre-sowing azotobacter application but also by using sugar beet seed inoculation. Pre-sowing azotobacter application and inter-row cultivation both caused an equal increase in the number of these bacteria in sugar beet rhizosphere (42.2% and 46.9%. Use of sugar beet seed inoculation caused an increase of 33.7% in the number of azotobacter. In order to achieve higher effectiveness in applying azotobacter on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, and considering determined interaction between a certain year, an inoculation method and a strain, it is necessary for future research to focus on determining efficiency of these strains when they are in a mixture.

  20. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Papapostolou, Harris; Alexandri, Maria; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise M G; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2018-04-13

    The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.

  2. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  3. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  4. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  5. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Ethanol Batch Fermentation by Escherichia Coli FBWHR Using Hot-Water Sugar Maple Wood Extract Hydrolyzate as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli FBWHR was used for ethanol fermentation from hot-water sugar maple wood extract hydrolyzate in batch experiments. Kinetic studies of cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production were investigated at different initial total sugar concentrations of wood extract hydrolyzate. The highest ethanol concentration of 24.05 g/L was obtained using an initial total sugar concentration of 70.30 g/L. Unstructured models were developed to describe cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production and validated by comparing the predictions of model and experimental data. The results from this study could be expected to provide insights into the process performance, optimize the process and aid in the design of processes for large-scale production of ethanol fermentation from woody biomass.

  7. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  8. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Diana; Cornelsen, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa; Smith, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks. An increase in the price of high-sugar drinks leads to an increase in the purchase of lager, an increase in the price of medium-sugar drinks reduces purchases of alcoholic drinks, while an increase in the price of diet/low-sugar drinks increases purchases of beer, cider and wines. Overall, the effects of price rises are greatest in the low-income group. Increasing the price of soft-drinks may change purchase patterns for alcohol. Increasing the price of medium-sugar drinks has the potential to have a multiplier-effect beneficial to health through reducing alcohol purchases, with the converse for increases in the price of diet-drinks. Although the reasons for such associations cannot be explained from this analysis, requiring further study, the design of fiscal interventions should now consider these wider potential outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  10. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  12. Production of xylose, furfural, fermentable sugars and ethanol from agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1984-02-01

    With the developing shortage of petroleum, reliance on biomass as a source of chemicals and fuels will increase. In the present work, bagasse and rice husk were subjected to dilute acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis using pressurised water to obtain furfural and fermentable sugars. Various process conditions such as particle size, solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration, reaction time and temperature have been studied to optimise yields of furfural, xylose and other fermentable sugars. The use of particle sizes smaller than 495 mu m did not further increase the yield of reducing sugars. A solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 was found to be the most suitable for production of reducing sugars. Hydrolysis using 0.4% H2SO4 at 453 K resulted in selective yields (g per 100 g of dried agricultural residues) of xylose from bagasse (22.5%) and rice husk (21.5%). A maximum yield of furfural was obtained using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K from bagasse (11.5%) and rice husk (10.9%). It was also found that hydrolysis using 1% H2SO4 at 493 K resulted in maximum yields of total reducing sugar from bagasse (53.5%) and rice husk (50%). The reducing sugars obtained were fermented to ethanol after removal of furfural. The effect of furfural on the fermentation of sugars to ethanol was also studied. Based on these studies, an integrated two-step process for the production of furfural and fermentable sugars could be envisaged. In the first step, using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K, furfural could be obtained, while in the second step, the use of 1% H2SO4 at 493 K should result in the production of fermentable sugars. (Refs. 22).

  13. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  14. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant.

  15. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  16. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  17. The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD; NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS; unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC; Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN; Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B and Icewine (IW. The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L, alcohol (v/v %, residual sugar (RS g/L, free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.. Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition.

  18. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  19. Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-11-01

    Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS.

  20. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Trends in sugar supply and consumption in Australia: is there an Australian Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikkers, Wavne; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-07-18

    High consumption of refined carbohydrate, in particular sugar, has been identified as a possible contributory factor in greater risk of excess weight gain. In spite of data limitations, one recent paper suggests that Australian sugar consumption has decreased over the same time period that obesity has increased, a so called 'Australian Paradox'. Given the significant public health focus on nutrition, we aimed to estimate Australian sugar supply and consumption over recent decades, to determine whether these data could be used to make any conclusions about sugar's role in obesity. Foods high in sugar were identified. Data relating to sugar supply and consumption from 1988 to 2010 were obtained from multiple sources. Using these data we attempted to generate a time series estimate of sugar in Australia's food supply. Australia produces and exports sugar from sugar cane and the sugar in imported foods has received little attention. We were unable to produce a reliable and robust estimate of total sugars in the Australian diet due to data limitations and a lack of current data sources. However, available Import data showed large increases in the volume and value of imported sweetened products between 1988 and 2010 to over 30 grams of sugar per person per day. Value estimates of local production of sweetened products also show substantial increases in this period. The Australian Paradox assertion is based on incomplete data, as it excludes sugar contained in imported processed foods, which have increased markedly. A major Australian public health target is to improve the quality of the food supply, and actions have been set in terms of achieving broader environmental changes. However, evaluation of progress is hampered by lack of high quality data relating to supply and consumption. We recommend the regular collection of comprehensive food supply statistics, which include both local production and imports. This would provide an inexpensive addition to survey data and

  2. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  3. Sugars, obesity, and cardiovascular disease: results from recent randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between sugar consumption and various health-related sequelas is controversial. Some investigators have argued that excessive sugar consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and stimulation of reward pathways in the brain potentially causing excessive caloric consumption. These concerns have influenced organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in England not to exceed 5 % of total energy and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee 2015 to recommend upper limits of sugar consumption not to exceed 10 % of calories. Data from many randomized control trials (RCTs) do not support linkages between sugar consumption at normal levels within the human diet and various adverse metabolic and health-related effects. Fructose and glucose are typically consumed together in roughly equal proportions from high-fructose corn syrup (also known as isoglucose in Europe) or sucrose. The purpose of this review is to present data from recent RCTs and findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to sugar consumption and its putative health effects. This review evaluates findings from recent randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses into the relationship of sugar consumption and a range of health-related issues including energy-regulating hormones, obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and accumulation of liver fat and neurologic responses. Data from these sources do not support linkages between sugar consumption at normal levels within the human diet and various adverse metabolic and health-related effects.

  4. GC-EI-MS identification data of neutral sugars of polysaccharides extracted from Zizyphus lotus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC–MS was used to identify and to quantify neutral sugars that constitute the water soluble polysaccharides from Zizyphus lotus fruit. The trimethylsilyl (TMS method was successfully used for derivatization of the monosaccharides units of extracted polysaccharides that were released by hydrolysis method. Sugars were identified based on their retention times compared with those of standards and the NIST MS Spectral Library. All sugars were quantified in TIC (Total Ion Current mode using calibration curves. Data is related to “Optimization extraction of polysaccharide from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruit by response surface methodology: Composition and antioxidant activity” (Mkadmini Hammi et al., 2016 [1]. Keywords: Trimethylsilyl, Derivatization, GC–MS, Neutral sugar

  5. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  6. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  7. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  8. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  9. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  10. Sugar-starvation-induced changes of carbon metabolism in excised maize root tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieuaide-Noubhani, M.; Canioni, P.; Raymond, P.

    1997-01-01

    Excised maize (Zea mays L.) root tips were used to study the early metabolic effects of glucose (Glc) starvation. Root tips were prelabeled with [1-13C]Glc so that carbohydrates and metabolic intermediates were close to steady-state labeling, but lipids and proteins were scarcely labeled. They were then incubated in a sugar-deprived medium for carbon starvation. Changes in the level of soluble sugars, the respiratory quotient, and the 13C enrichment of intermediates, as measured by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, were studied to detect changes in carbon fluxes through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Labeling of glutamate carbons revealed two major changes in carbon input into the tricarboxylic acid cycle: (a) the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase flux stopped early after the start of Glc starvation, and (b) the contribution of glycolysis as the source of acetyl-coenzyme A for respiration decreased progressively, indicating an increasing contribution of the catabolism of protein amino acids, fatty acids, or both. The enrichment of glutamate carbons gave no evidence for proteolysis in the early steps of starvation, indicating that the catabolism of proteins was delayed compared with that of fatty acids. Labeling of carbohydrates showed that sucrose turnover continues during sugar starvation, but gave no indication for any significant flux through gluconeogenesis

  11. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  12. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  13. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  14. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (psugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Sugar Price Policy on U.S. Imports of Processed Sugar-containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jabara, Cathy L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of sugar protection, as well as the effects of these other factors, on U.S. demand for imports of sugar-containing products. The paper also addresses two main issues: (1) whether substitution of alternative sweeteners has allowed U.S. food manufactures to reduce the competitive advantage provided to foreign manufactures by U.S. sugar policies, and (2) which countries -- developed or developing -- have been able to increase their exports of sugar-containing prod...

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of low-fat or low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a part of fat and sugar in ice-cream by inulin and lactulose as prebiotic may create a healthier product. Two low-fat and two low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream samples were manufactured inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bacillus coagulans. The physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of the samples were compared with regular ice-cream as control. Low-fat and low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream formulations were prepared by replacing 5% of the fat and sugar contents of the control formula by inulin and lactulose, respectively. According to the results, although the total solids of the ice-cream mixes did not differ significantly, there were significant (p

  17. Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S

    2012-09-01

    Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines.

  18. A site-specific and multi-element isotopic approach to origin inference of sugars in foods and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.L.; Martin, G.J.; Guillou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for the characterization of sugars according to their botanical origin. The samples fermented in standardized conditions can be described in the multi-dimensional space of the overall carbon isotope ratio of ethanol measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and of the specific hydrogen isotope parameters of the methyl and methylene sites derived from nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR method). In the comparison of natural juices, the deuterium and oxygen-18 parameters of water extracted from the juice and from the end fermentation medium also contain information on the origin of the product. The isotopic effects of the concentration processes leading to concentrated juices, musts and syrups can be estimated and taken into account in interpreting the data. The classification power of this multi-element and multi-site approach is illustrated by discriminant analyses involving selected isotopic variables associated with pineapple, apple and barley sugars, compared to beet and cane sugars which are common sources of enrichment. The ability of the method to detect adulteration by exogenous sugars is improved when environmental conditions can be taken into account. (authors)

  19. Respiration-Dependent Utilization of Sugars in Yeasts: a Determinant Role for Sugar Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities fo...

  20. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  1. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  3. I Mend It With Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  4. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...), Additional U.S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in...

  5. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  6. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  7. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  8. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  9. Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D A

    1985-09-01

    Acceptance is described in both market and sensory research terminology and recent developments in the fields of applied psychology and physiology are examined for their pertinence to public acceptance of sucrose and its substitutes. Information on the function of sucrose in foods other than beverages is presented with emphasis on salivation as an acceptance factor and attention is drawn to its possible dental significance. Distinctions are made between the sweetening and bulking properties of sucrose and sugar substitutes. Factors having a bearing on the acceptance of sweet foods and the determination of their optimal sugar content are described in detail. While major decreases in sucrose intake in the US resulted from high-fructose corn-sweetener usage in soft drinks, no evidence is yet available to suggest that the use of sugar substitutes of the intense artificial sweetener type has caused any decrease in ordinary sugar consumption. Neither is the consumption of polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) high enough in confectionery categories to cause any discernible decrease in sugar usage. The evidence suggests not so much that sugar substitutes may have stopped the growth in sucrose usage, but that new product categories such as diet foods and "sugarless' confections may have been created. These categories were never available to fermentable carbohydrate sweeteners and equivalence in acceptance to sucrose-sweetened products was not an important factor in their growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  11. Sugar transporter genes of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: A facilitated glucose/fructose transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shingo; Kikawada, Takahiro; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Nakashima, Nobuhiko; Noda, Hiroaki

    2010-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, attacks rice plants and feeds on their phloem sap, which contains large amounts of sugars. The main sugar component of phloem sap is sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. Sugars appear to be incorporated into the planthopper body by sugar transporters in the midgut. A total of 93 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for putative sugar transporters were obtained from a BPH EST database, and 18 putative sugar transporter genes (Nlst1-18) were identified. The most abundantly expressed of these genes was Nlst1. This gene has previously been identified in the BPH as the glucose transporter gene NlHT1, which belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Nlst1, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 18 were highly expressed in the midgut, and Nlst2, 7, 8, 10, 15, 17, and 18 were highly expressed during the embryonic stages. Functional analyses were performed using Xenopus oocytes expressing NlST1 or 6. This showed that NlST6 is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter that mediates sugar uptake from rice phloem sap in the BPH midgut in a manner similar to NlST1. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Incorporating Added Sugar Improves the Performance of the Health Star Rating Front-of-Pack Labelling System in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Dunford, Elizabeth; Jones, Alexandra; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Crino, Michelle; Taylor, Fraser; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2017-07-05

    The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally present in dairy, fruits, and vegetables are treated the same as sugars added during food processing. We assessed whether the HSR could better discriminate between core and discretionary foods by including added sugar in the underlying algorithm. Nutrition information was extracted for 34,135 packaged foods available in The George Institute's Australian FoodSwitch database. Added sugar levels were imputed from food composition databases. Products were classified as 'core' or 'discretionary' based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The ability of each of the nutrients included in the HSR algorithm, as well as added sugar, to discriminate between core and discretionary foods was estimated using the area under the curve (AUC). 15,965 core and 18,350 discretionary foods were included. Of these, 8230 (52%) core foods and 15,947 (87%) discretionary foods contained added sugar. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0, 4.5) for core foods and 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) for discretionary foods. Median added sugar contents (g/100 g) were 3.3 (1.5, 5.5) for core foods and 14.6 (1.8, 37.2) for discretionary foods. Of all the nutrients used in the current HSR algorithm, total sugar had the greatest individual capacity to discriminate between core and discretionary foods; AUC 0.692 (0.686; 0.697). Added sugar alone achieved an AUC of 0.777 (0.772; 0.782). A model with all nutrients in the current HSR algorithm had an AUC of 0.817 (0.812; 0.821), which increased to 0.871 (0.867; 0.874) with inclusion of added sugar. The HSR nutrients discriminate well between core and discretionary packaged foods. However, discrimination was improved when added sugar was also included. These data argue for inclusion of added

  13. Incorporating Added Sugar Improves the Performance of the Health Star Rating Front-of-Pack Labelling System in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A. E.; Jones, Alexandra; Crino, Michelle; Taylor, Fraser; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally present in dairy, fruits, and vegetables are treated the same as sugars added during food processing. We assessed whether the HSR could better discriminate between core and discretionary foods by including added sugar in the underlying algorithm. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 34,135 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Added sugar levels were imputed from food composition databases. Products were classified as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The ability of each of the nutrients included in the HSR algorithm, as well as added sugar, to discriminate between core and discretionary foods was estimated using the area under the curve (AUC). Results: 15,965 core and 18,350 discretionary foods were included. Of these, 8230 (52%) core foods and 15,947 (87%) discretionary foods contained added sugar. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0, 4.5) for core foods and 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) for discretionary foods. Median added sugar contents (g/100 g) were 3.3 (1.5, 5.5) for core foods and 14.6 (1.8, 37.2) for discretionary foods. Of all the nutrients used in the current HSR algorithm, total sugar had the greatest individual capacity to discriminate between core and discretionary foods; AUC 0.692 (0.686; 0.697). Added sugar alone achieved an AUC of 0.777 (0.772; 0.782). A model with all nutrients in the current HSR algorithm had an AUC of 0.817 (0.812; 0.821), which increased to 0.871 (0.867; 0.874) with inclusion of added sugar. Conclusion: The HSR nutrients discriminate well between core and discretionary packaged foods. However, discrimination was improved when added sugar was

  14. Sugar addiction: the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwater, Margaret L; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content. We then examined the addictive potential of sugar by contrasting evidence from the animal and human neuroscience literature on drug and sugar addiction. We find little evidence to support sugar addiction in humans, and findings from the animal literature suggest that addiction-like behaviours, such as bingeing, occur only in the context of intermittent access to sugar. These behaviours likely arise from intermittent access to sweet tasting or highly palatable foods, not the neurochemical effects of sugar. Given the lack of evidence supporting it, we argue against a premature incorporation of sugar addiction into the scientific literature and public policy recommendations.

  15. Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Klancar, Urska; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2011-11-09

    Fresh figs were subjected to two different drying processes: sun-drying and oven-drying. To assess their effect on the nutritional and health-related properties of figs, sugars, organic acids, single phenolics, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity were determined before and after processing. Samples were analyzed three times in a year, and phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In figs, monomer sugars predominate, which is important nutritional information, and the content of sugars as well as organic acids in fresh figs was lower than in dried fruits. However, the best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after the sun-drying process. Analysis of individual phenolic compounds revealed a higher content of all phenolic groups determined after the oven-drying process, with the exception of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Similarly, higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected after the drying process. With these results it can be concluded that the differences in analyzed compounds in fresh and dried figs are significant. The differences between the sun-dried and oven-dried fruits were determined in organic acids, sugars, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, and total phenolic contents. The results indicate that properly dried figs can be used as a good source of phenolic compounds.

  16. A Loose Relationship: Incomplete H+/Sugar Coupling in the MFS Sugar Transporter GlcP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Zabadne, Annas J; Salisowski, Anastasia; Madej, M Gregor; Fendler, Klaus

    2017-12-19

    The glucose transporter from Staphylococcus epidermidis, GlcP Se , is a homolog of the human GLUT sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Together with the xylose transporter from Escherichia coli, XylE Ec , the other prominent prokaryotic GLUT homolog, GlcP Se , is equipped with a conserved proton-binding site arguing for an electrogenic transport mode. However, the electrophysiological analysis of GlcP Se presented here reveals important differences between the two GLUT homologs. GlcP Se , unlike XylE Ec , does not perform steady-state electrogenic transport at symmetrical pH conditions. Furthermore, when a pH gradient is applied, partially uncoupled transport modes can be generated. In contrast to other bacterial sugar transporters analyzed so far, in GlcP Se sugar binding, translocation and release are also accomplished by the deprotonated transporter. Based on these experimental results, we conclude that coupling of sugar and H + transport is incomplete in GlcP Se . To verify the viability of the observed partially coupled GlcP Se transport modes, we propose a universal eight-state kinetic model in which any degree of coupling is realized and H + /sugar symport represents only a specific instance. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with strictly coupled XylE Ec and similar sugar transporters, we identify an additional charged residue that may be essential for effective H + /sugar symport. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption of less than 10% of total energy from added sugars is associated with increasing HDL in females during adolescence: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Binongo, José Nilo G; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D; Gazmararian, Julie A; Vos, Miriam B; Welsh, Jean A

    2014-02-26

    Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long-term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10-year cohort study of non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987-1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3-day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10-year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI -1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence.

  18. [Dietary patterns and its relation with overweight and obesity in Chilean girls of medium-high socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera Marqués, Lydia; Olivares Cortés, Sonia; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Bustos Zapata, Nelly

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns in girls and to assess their association with obesity or overweight. A school-based sample of 108 girls between 8 and 11 years of medium-high socioeconomic level was selected in Santiago, Chile. The body mass index was calculated and a quantified food frequency and physical activity questionnaires (validated in the FAO/MINEDUC/INTA Project Nutritional Education in primary schools) were applied. Four distinct dietary factors or patterns were obtained explaining 54% of the total variation using factorial analysis. The first factor was characterized by an energy-dense diet (high consumption of fat foods, ice creams, chocolates, French fries, snacks). The second factor represented a healthy diet (dairy products, fruits and salads). The third factor represented intake of soft drinks (either with or without sugar). The fourth factor represented a diet rich in calories and sugars (bread, sausages, sweets). The association between the four dietary factors and overweight/obesity was assessed through logistic regression models. The first factor, energy-dense foods, was the only one significantly associated with the presence of obesity (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.12 - 3.09). The results of this research about dietary patterns are consistent with studies carried out in other countries.

  19. Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea; Cunningham, Solveig A; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-01-25

    Whereas increased carbohydrate and sugar consumption has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among adults, little is known about the impact of high consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) among US adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 2157 US adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2004, dietary data from one 24-hour recall were merged with added sugar content data from the US Department of Agriculture MyPyramid Equivalents databases. Measures of cardiovascular disease risk were estimated by added sugar consumption level (added sugars averaged 21.4% of total energy. Added sugars intake was inversely correlated with mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (mmol/L) which were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 1.44) among the lowest consumers and 1.28 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.33) among the highest (P trend = 0.001). Added sugars were positively correlated with low-density lipoproteins (P trend =0.01) and geometric mean triglycerides (P trend = 0.05). Among the lowest and highest consumers, respectively, low-density lipoproteins (mmol/L) were 2.24 (95% CI 2.12 to 2.37) and 2.44 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.53), and triglycerides (mmol/L) were 0.81 (95% CI 0.74, 0.88) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.96). Among those overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile body-mass-index), added sugars were positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment (P linear trend = 0.004). Consumption of added sugars among US adolescents is positively associated with multiple measures known to increase cardiovascular disease risk.

  20. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  1. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  4. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  6. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

    2005-06-01

    Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications.

  7. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth / For Kids / When Blood ... get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to kids ...

  8. Sugar consumption and global prevalence of obesity and hypertension: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Montagnese, Concetta; Mathers, John C; Soroka, Katrina R; Stephan, Blossom C M; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-03-01

    The nutrition transition model provides an integrated approach to analyse global changes in food consumption and lifestyle patterns. Whether variability in food availability for consumption, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors is associated with the worldwide prevalence distribution of overweight, obesity and hypertension is unclear. Ecological analysis. Country-specific prevalence estimates of overweight, obesity and hypertension were obtained. Prevalence estimates were then matched to year- and country-specific food and energy availability for consumption of cereals, sugar, sweeteners and honey, vegetable oils, fruits, starchy roots, pulses, total vegetables, alcoholic beverages, total meat, animal fat, eggs, milk, and fish and seafood. The per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), urbanization rates and prevalence of physical inactivity for each country were also obtained. The overweight, obesity and hypertension databases included information from 128, 123 and seventy-nine countries, respectively. Consumption of sugar and animal products were directly associated with GDP and urbanization rates. In a multivariate regression model, physical inactivity (B = 0·01, se = 0·005, P = 0·003), cereal consumption (B = -0·02, se = 0·006, P < 0·001) and sugar consumption (B = 0·03, se = 0·01, P = 0·03) were significant predictors of obesity prevalence. Midpoint age (B = 0·21, se = 0·10, P = 0·02), prevalence of overweight (B = 0·18, se = 0·08, P = 0·02) and consumption of cereals (B = -0·22, se = 0·10, P = 0·02) were significant predictors of hypertension. Women appeared to have a significant obesity excess compared with men. High sugar consumption and sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased obesity prevalence. The non-linear association of sugar consumption with prevalence of obesity suggests that effective strategies to reduce its consumption may have differential effects in countries at different stages of the nutrition transition.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS AND FERTILITY OF SUMATRAN TIGER SPERMATOZOA CRYOPRESERVED WITH DIFFERENT SUGARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayan Kurniani Karja, Ni; Fahrudin, Mokhamad; Setiadi, Mohamad Agus; Tumbelaka, Ligaya Ita; Sudarwati, Retno; Hastuti, Yohana Tri; Mulia, Bongot Huas; Widianti, Ardyta; Sultan, Keni; Terazono, Tsukasa; Namula, Zhao; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yoko; Otoi, Takeshige

    Cryopreservation of semen is one of the most important methods for the preservation of endangered tigers. This study evaluated the effects of sugar supplementation on the cryosurvival of spermatozoa from Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae). The post-thaw characteristics and fertility of spermatozoa cryopreserved with different sugars (glucose, lactose, and trehalose) were evaluated using heterologous in-vitro fertilisation with cat oocytes. All parameters of post-thaw spermatozoa significantly decreased as compared with those of fresh spermatozoa. The index of sperm motility for semen cryopreserved with lactose was significantly higher than that for semen cryopreserved with trehalose. The percentage of total fertilisation for tiger spermatozoa cryopreserved with trehalose was significantly lower than that for control cat spermatozoa. Our findings indicated that supplementation with lactose or glycerol as the main sugar in the egg yolk extender resulted in a better motility and fertility potential for post-thawed spermatozoa.

  10. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  11. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  13. Appropriate vacuolar acidification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is associated with efficient high sugar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung D; Walker, Michelle E; Gardner, Jennifer M; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Vacuolar acidification serves as a homeostatic mechanism to regulate intracellular pH, ion and chemical balance, as well as trafficking and recycling of proteins and nutrients, critical for normal cellular function. This study reports on the importance of vacuole acidification during wine-like fermentation. Ninety-three mutants (homozygous deletions in lab yeast strain, BY4743), which result in protracted fermentation when grown in a chemically defined grape juice with 200 g L -1 sugar (pH 3.5), were examined to determine whether fermentation protraction was in part due to a dysfunction in vacuolar acidification (VA) during the early stages of fermentation, and whether VA was responsive to the initial sugar concentration in the medium. Cells after 24 h growth were dual-labelled with propidium iodide and vacuolar specific probe 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) and examined with a FACS analyser for viability and impaired VA, respectively. Twenty mutants showed a greater than two-fold increase in fluorescence intensity; the experimental indicator for vacuolar dysfunction; 10 of which have not been previously annotated to this process. With the exception of Δhog1, Δpbs2 and Δvph1 mutants, where dysfunction was directly related to osmolality; the remainder exhibited increased CF-fluorescence, independent of sugar concentration at 20 g L -1 or 200 g L -1 . These findings offer insight to the importance of VA to cell growth in high sugar media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Piloting "Sodabriety": A School-Based Intervention to Impact Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Rural Appalachian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the largest source of added sugar in the US diet. In adolescents aged 12-19, these drinks account for 13% to 28% of total daily calories. Compared with other adolescents, those residing in Appalachia have the highest consumption rates of SSBs. Methods: Using a Teen Advisory Council (TAC), a…

  15. An investigation of sugar extraction methods and the use of microwave power for date syrup processing: efficiency and color related considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennir, M A; Landry, J A; Ramaswamy, H S; Raghavan, V G S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of extraction methods on the color of date syrup and the potential use of microwave power for syrup processing. Sugar solutions were extracted from dates by boiling, soaking and blending. Color and sugar content of the extracted solutions were measured, and the percentage of sugar extracted form the total fruit sugar determined. Boiling was found to be the most efficient method of extraction whereby 74% of total samples sugar was extracted. In contrast, only 54.2% of fruit sugar was extracted by blending and 42% by soaking. In addition, solutions extracted by soaking and blending had a foaming problem in the subsequent concentration process. The extraction method had no effect on the product final color. The extracted solution was concentrated using two heating methods: conventional and microwave heating at a 600 W capacity and a frequency of 2450 MHz applied at three power levels: 10, 7, and 6. In the heating process, 180 minutes were needed to achieve a 77% degrees Brix using convective heating, while it took 81, 138, and 166 minutes of microwave heating at power level 10, 7, and 6, respectively to achieve the same concentration. Water activity of the syrup was measured within a sugar content range of 50 to 80% degrees Brix and the sugar concentration at which the product is shelf stable was determined at 76%.

  16. Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-05-01

    Lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the brain elicit sugar craving, while ingestion of sugar rich diet improves mood and alleviates anxiety. Gender differences occur not only in brain serotonin metabolism but also in a serotonin mediated functional responses. The present study was therefore designed to investigate gender related differences on the effects of long term consumption of sugar rich diet on the metabolism of serotonin in the hypothalamus and whole brain which may be relevant with the hyperphagic and anxiety reducing effects of sugar rich diet. Male and female rats were fed freely on a sugar rich diet for five weeks. Hyperphagic effects were monitored by measuring total food intake and body weights changes during the intervention. Anxiolytic effects of sugar rich diet was monitored in light-dark transition test. The results show that ingestion of sugar rich diet decreased serotonin metabolism more in female than male rats. Anxiolytic effects were elicited only in male rats. Hyperphagia was comparable in both male and female rats. Finings would help in understanding the role of sugar rich diet-induced greater decreases of serotonin in sweet craving in women during stress.

  17. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  18. [Consumption of free sugars and excess weight in infants. A longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí, Cristina; Aranda, Núria; Bedmar, Cristina; Ribot, Blanca; Elias, Irene; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria

    2018-05-14

    The consumption of free sugars has been related to excess weight, with the WHO recommending an intake of <10% of total energy. The aim of this study is to assess the association between the consumption of free sugars at 12 months and the risk of excess weight at 30 months in healthy children. A longitudinal study was conducted on 81 children followed-up from birth to 30 months. A record was made of the clinical history and anthropometry, at birth, and at 12 and 30 months. Weight status was classified as with or without excess weight, according to WHO values. At 12 months, the intake of energy and nutrients was analysed by differentiating the intake of free and natural sugars. Multivariate analyses adjusted for the main confounding variables were performed. Free sugars were consumed by 40.4% of the 12-month-old children, being higher than that recommended, and being significantly higher in children with excess weight at 30 months (60.9%). The higher intake of free sugars at 12 months is associated with an increased risk of excess weight at 30 months (OR: 1.130, 95% CI: 1.032-1.238). The consumption of free sugars is much higher than that recommended in 12-month-old infants. This high intake could be a risk factor for excess weight, even at early ages. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  1. The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Maya K; Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J; Pollack, Anna Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m(2)) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (-0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

  2. COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR DETERMINATION OF COST DAILY SUGAR PRODUCTION AND INCIDENTS DECISIONS FOR COMPANIES SUGAR (SACODI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of sugar production is complex; anything that affects this chain has direct repercussions in the sugar production’s costs, it’s synthetic and decisive indicator for the taking of decisions. Currently the Cuban sugar factory determine this cost weekly, for that, its process of taking of decisions is affected. Looking for solutions to this problem, the present work, being part of a territorial project approved by CITMA, intended to calculate the cost of production daily, weekly, monthly and accumulated until indicated date, according to an adaptation to the methodology used by the National Costs System of sugarcane created by the MINAZ, it’s supported by a computer system denominated SACODI. This adaptation registers the physical and economic indicators of all direct and indirect expenses of the  sugarcane and besides this information generates an economic-mathematical model of goal programming whose solution indicates the best balance in amount of sugar of the entities of the sugar factory, in short term. The implementation of the system in the sugar factory «Julio A. Mella» in Santiago de Cuba in the sugar-cane production 08-09 produced an estimate of decrease of the cost of until 3,5 % for the taking of better decisions. 

  3. Changes in polyphenol and sugar concentrations in wild type and genetically modified Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann in response to water and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotti, Claudia; Bogani, Patrizia; Biricolti, Stefano; Calistri, Elisa; Checchini, Leonardo; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    In this study wild type Nicotiana langsdorffii plants were genetically transformed by the insertion of the rat gene (gr) encoding the glucocorticoid receptor or the rolC gene and exposed to water and heat stress. Water stress was induced for 15 days by adding 20% PEG 6000 in the growth medium, whereas the heat treatment was performed at 50 °C for 2 h, after that a re-growing capability study was carried out. The plant response to stress was investigated by determining electrolyte leakage, dry weight biomass production and water content. These data were evaluated in relation to antiradical activity and concentrations of total polyphenols, selected phenolic compounds and some soluble sugars, as biochemical indicators of metabolic changes due to gene insertion and/or stress treatments. As regards the water stress, the measured physiological parameters evidenced an increasing stress level in the order rolC < gr < WT plants (e.g. about 100% and 50% electrolyte leakage increase in WT and gr samples, respectively) and complied with the biochemical pattern, which consisted in a general decrease of antiradical activity and phenolics, together with an increase in sugars. As regard heat stress, electrolyte leakage data were only in partial agreement with the re-growing capability study. In fact, according to this latter evaluation, gr was the genotype less affected by the heat shock. In this regard, sugars and especially phenolic compounds are informative of the long-term effects due to heat shock treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...

  5. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Properties of Two Novel Esterases Identified from Culture Supernatant of Penicillium purpurogenum Grown on Sugar Beet Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepulveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, such as sugar beet pulp, and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate components of lignocellulose. Sugar beet pulp is rich in pectin, and the purpose of this work is to identify novel esterases produced by the fungus, which may participate in pectin degradation. Partially purified culture supernatants of the fungus grown on sugar beet pulp were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides thus identified, which may be part of potential esterases were probed against the proteins deduced from the fungal genome sequence. The cDNAs of two putative esterases identified were expressed in Pichia pastoris and their properties studied. One of these enzymes, named FAET, is a feruloyl esterase, while the other, PE, is classified as a pectin methyl esterase. These findings add to our knowledge of the enzymology of pectin degradation by Penicillium purpurogenum, and define properties of two novel esterases acting on de-esterification of pectin. Their availability may be useful as tools for the study of pectin structure and degradation.

  7. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  8. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  9. Frost decreases content of sugars, ascorbic acid and some quercetin glycosides but stimulates selected carotenes in Rosa canina hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Zupan, Anka; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolites of Rosa canina hips were determined by HPLC/MS during ripening and after frost damage. Rose hips were harvested six times from the beginning of September until the beginning of December. Color parameters a*, b* and L* decreased during maturation. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars representing up to 92% total sugars, and citric acid was the major organic acid detected in rose hips (constituting up to 58% total organic acids). Total sugar and ascorbic acid content significantly decreased after frost damage; from 42.2 to 25.9 g 100 g(-1) DW for sugars and from 716.8 to 176.0 mg 100 g(-1) DW for ascorbic acid. Conversely, β-carotene and lycopene levels increased in frostbitten rose hips to 22.1 and 113.2 mg 100 g(-1) DW, respectively. In addition to cyanidin-3-glucoside (highest level in hips was 125.7 μg 100 g (-1) DW), 45 different phenolic compounds have been identified. The most abundant were proanthocyanidins (their levels amounted up to 90% of total flavanol content) and their content showed no significant differences during maturation. The levels of catechin, phloridzin, flavanones and several quercetin glycosides were highest on the first three sampling dates and decreased after frost. Antioxidant capacity similarly decreased in frostbitten rose hips. Total phenolic content increased until the third sampling and decreased on later samplings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  11. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  12. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children

  13. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  14. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45; p(trend) = 0.01), added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16-4.16; p(trend) = 0.009) and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; Ptrend = 0.01); added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16–4.16; Ptrend = 0.009); and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. PMID:21328345

  16. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  17. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  18. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P sugar ( P diets, a lower VLDL 1 -TAG fractional catabolic rate after the high sugar diet ( P sugar diet ( P sugar diet, was to channel hepatic TAG into a higher production of VLDL 1 -TAG ( P sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Textual analysis of sugar industry influence on the World Health Organization’s 2015 sugars intake guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether sugar industry-related organizations influenced textual changes between the draft and final versions of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) 2015 guideline Sugars intake for adults and children. Methods Stakeholder consultation submissions on the draft guideline from seven sugar industry-related and 10 public health organizations were assessed using the Wordscores program. Document scores were rescaled using the Martin–Vanberg transformation to improve comparability. Draft and final guidelines were compared to identify changes influenced by the sugar industry and public health organizations. Findings There was a small shift in transformed Wordscores score between the draft and final guidelines, from 0.25 to 0.24, towards the industry position. The change was linked to increased use of the word “low” to describe the quality of the evidence, consistent with industry arguments. There was also a shift from use of the word “consumption” to “intake”, irrespective of policy position. Scores for World Sugar Research Organisation and Sugar Nutrition UK submissions ( 0.11 and 0.18, respectively) represented strong pro-industry positions and scores for European Public Health Alliance and Wemos submissions (1.00 and 0.88, respectively) represented the strongest public health positions. Industry tactics included challenging the quality of the evidence, distinguishing between different types of sugar and advocating harm reduction. Conclusion There was little change between draft and final versions of the WHO sugars intake guideline 2015, following industry consultation. The main change was linked to emphasizing the low quality of the evidence on sugar’s adverse effects. Guideline development appeared relatively resistant to industry influence at the stakeholder consultation stage. PMID:27516634

  20. An evolved xylose transporter from Zymomonas mobilis enhances sugar transport in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingqing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose is a second most abundant sugar component of lignocellulose besides glucose. Efficient fermentation of xylose is important for the economics of biomass-based biorefineries. However, sugar mixtures are sequentially consumed in xylose co-fermentation with glucose due to carbon catabolite repression (CCR in microorganisms. As xylose transmembrance transport is one of the steps repressed by CCR, it is therefore of interest to develop a transporter that is less sensitive to the glucose inhibition or CCR. Results The glucose facilitator protein Glf transporter from Zymomonas mobilis, also an efficient transporter for xylose, was chosen as the target transporter for engineering to eliminate glucose inhibition on xylose uptake. The evolution of Glf transporter was carried out with a mixture of glucose and xylose in E. coli. Error-prone PCR and random deletion were employed respectively in two rounds of evolution. Aided by a high-throughput screening assay using xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX in 96-well plates, a best mutant 2-RD5 was obtained that contains several mutations, and a deletion of 134 residues (about 28% of total residues, or three fewer transmembrane sections (TMSs. It showed a 10.8-fold improvement in terms of pNPX transport activity in the presence of glucose. The fermentation performance results showed that this mutant improved xylose consumption by 42% with M9 minimal medium containing 20 g L-1 xylose only, while with the mixture sugar of xylose and glucose, 28% more glucose was consumed, but no obvious co-utilization of xylose was observed. Further glucose fed-batch experiments suggested that the intracellular metabolism of xylose was repressed by glucose. Conclusions Through random mutagenesis and partial deletion coupled with high-throughput screening, a mutant of the Glf transporter (2-RD5 was obtained that relieved the inhibition of xylose transport by glucose. The fermentation

  1. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2017-12-18

    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  2. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  3. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  4. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  5. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  6. Developments in National Fuel Alcohol (biofuel) Programs: implications for world sugar trade. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the national fuel alcohol programmes of Brazil, the European Union and USA with the main emphasis on Brazil. A brief history of Brazil's alcohol production is given, and the deregulation of the alcohol sector in Brazil, the impacts of partial liberalisation of Brazil's alcohol sector, government delays in further liberalisation and attempts to manage supply, the PROALCOOL programme, the government's actions to boost ethanol demand, the slump in ethanol output in 1998/1999, and the increase in sugar output are examined. The long term goal of increasing reliance on biofuels in the European Union, the EU's alcohol industry, and ethanol production in France are considered. Market factors affecting ethanol production in the US, the US government's extension of its ethanol tax incentive, the US ethanol sector, and the future demand for ethanol in the US are discussed. The short and medium-term implications for sugar in Brazil, the EU and the US are assessed. (UK)

  7. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  8. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g −1 ) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars

  9. An Online Survey on Consumer Knowledge and Understanding of Added Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Tierney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of an association between added sugars (AS and the risk of obesity has triggered public health bodies to develop strategies enabling consumers to manage their AS intake. The World Health Organisation (WHO has strongly recommended a reduction of free sugars to 10% of total dietary energy (TE and conditionally recommended a reduction to 5% TE to achieve health benefits. Despite food labelling being a policy tool of choice in many countries, there is no consensus on the mandatory addition of AS to the nutrition panel of food labels. An online survey was conducted to explore consumer ability to identify AS on food labels and to investigate consumer awareness of the WHO guidelines in relation to sugar intakes. The questionnaire was tested for participant comprehension using face-to-face interviews prior to conducting the online study. The online survey was conducted in Northern Ireland during May 2015 and was completed by a convenient sample of 445 subjects. Results showed that just 4% of respondents correctly classified 10 or more ingredients from a presented list of 13 items, while 65% of participants were unaware of the WHO guidelines for sugar intake. It may be timely to reopen dialogue on inclusion of AS on food product nutrition panels.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  11. Development of base populations from root and tuber crops for the production of sugar and starch as raw material for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, L.; Schittenhelm, S.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Based on results of evaluation and breeding programmes with beets, potato, Jerusalem artichoke and chicory the following conclusions can be drawn: For breeding beets with a high sugar yield it seems favourable to produce hybrids between sugar and fodder beet. Compared to the average of their parents the sugar beet x fodder beet and fodder beet x sugar beet hybrids produced 3,8 and 12,9% resp., higher sugar yields. It is, however, from this experiment not fully clear if heterosis allone is the explanation for this increase. Several preselected populations of the primitive potato species S. tuberosum subsp. andigena and S. phureja from the United States, Scotland and the Netherlands have been tested in a field trial. Compared to Phureja the Andigena material has reached a high level of adaptation. An immediate use in commercial breeding programmes for the production of high yielding Tuberosum-Andigena hybrids is possible. In Jerusalem artichoke the production of new genetic variability by crossing is complicated by the bad fertility of this species. Because of the very limited breeding activities in the past a large advance is possible. Even though the species C. intybus is of many shapes, only the root chicory is suitable for use as an industrial crop. Leaf chicory produces only low to medium sugar yields and is badly adapted to mechanical harvest. (orig.)

  12. Gradual reduction of free sugars in beverages on sale by implementing the beverage checklist as a public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Maria; Winzer, Eva; Schätzer, Manuel; Dämon, Sabine; Moser, Nadine; Blagusz, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Julia; Lechleitner, Monika; Rieder, Anita; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2018-03-15

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0.20-0.75l serving sizes in all main supermarkets and from industry was collected. These data were published annually as the beverage checklist, which displays beverages on sale in Austria. The checklist aims to encourage beverage production with a free sugar content of ≤7.4 g/100 ml and no artificial sweeteners. Free sugar content in the total supply decreased significantly [7.53 (2.86) vs. 6.75 (2.79) g/100 ml; 10.4%; P strategy, conducted by a small non-profit organization, showed a reduction in the mean free sugar content by working with the industry to voluntarily reformulate beverages. More beverages with less added sugar were brought to the market, which implies healthier choices. The challenge now is to further engage the industry and also policy makers to achieve a greater reduction in the future.

  13. Possibility as monosaccharide laxative of rare sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosaka, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    Allitol, D-talitol and L-iditol are sugar alcohols that are rare in nature. Due to their previous rarity, little is known about the laxative effects of these rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, reliable data on the laxative effect that these sugar alcohols cause in experimental animals could help to evaluate the effectiveness of new monosaccharide laxative drugs. To investigate the laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to observe the diarrhea that occurred after oral administration of these sugar alcohols in mice. Moreover, to investigate the influence on intestinal function of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to examine small intestine transit and the luminal water content. Results indicated that rare sugar alcohols have a laxative effect in mice. Diarrhea started at a dose of 4.95 g/kg of rare sugar alcohols. There was a statistically significant laxative effect for D-talitol and L-iditol at a dose of 9.9 g/kg as compared to vehicle. Moreover, rare sugar alcohols significantly increased the small intestinal transit and the luminal water content of the small intestine and cecum in mice as compared to each vehicle. Overall, L-iditol greatly changes the function of intestine. In conclusion, rare sugar alcohols increase water content in small intestine and accelerate small intestine transit. These results support laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, rare sugar alcohols may be useful as monosaccharide laxatives and may be used to treat constipation.

  14. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-09-01

    The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to reduce added sugars consumption. © 2014 American Society

  15. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  16. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains...... unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly...... to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar...

  17. A differential medium for the enumeration of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, D; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2000-11-01

    A collection of yeasts, isolated mostly from spoiled wines, was used in order to develop a differential medium for Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The 118 selected strains of 21 species differed in their origin and resistance to preservatives and belonged to the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Dekkera, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Kloeckera, Lodderomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. The design of the culture medium was based on the different ability of the various yeast species to grow in a mineral medium with glucose and formic acid (mixed-substrate medium) as the only carbon and energy sources and supplemented with an acid-base indicator. By manipulating the concentration of the acid and the sugar it was possible to select conditions where only Z. bailii strains gave rise to alkalinization, associated with a color change of the medium (positive response). The final composition of the mixed medium was adjusted as a compromise between the percentage of recovery and selectivity for Z. bailii. This was accomplished by the use of pure or mixed cultures of the yeast strains and applying the membrane filtration methodology. The microbiological analysis of two samples of contaminated Vinho Verde showed that the new medium can be considered as a differential medium to distinguish Z. bailii from other contaminating yeasts, having potential application in the microbiological control of wines and probably other beverages and foods.

  18. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  19. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhan S. Scully

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002, total polyphenols (p = 0.03 and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004 increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  20. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  1. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies.

  2. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  3. Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ.

  4. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  5. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  6. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  7. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  8. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  9. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  10. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar consumption on health continues to be a controversial topic. The objective of this review is to discuss the evidence and lack of evidence that allows the controversy to continue, and why resolution of the controversy is important. There are plausible mechanisms and research evidence that support the suggestion that consumption of excess sugar promotes the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) both directly and indirectly. The direct pathway involves the unregulated hepatic uptake and metabolism of fructose, which leads to liver lipid accumulation, dyslipidemia, decreased insulin sensitivity and increased uric acid levels. The epidemiological data suggest that these direct effects of fructose are pertinent to the consumption of the fructose-containing sugars, sucrose and HFCS, which are the predominant added sugars. Consumption of added sugar is associated with development and/or prevalence of fatty liver, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and many of these associations are independent of body weight gain or total energy intake. There are diet intervention studies in which human subjects exhibited increased circulating lipids and decreased insulin sensitivity when consuming high sugar compared with control diets. Most recently, our group has reported that supplementing the ad libitum diets of young adults with beverages containing 0, 10, 17.5 or 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and uric acid in a dose response manner. However, un-confounded studies conducted in healthy humans under a controlled, energy-balanced diet protocol that allow determination of the effects of sugar with diets that do not allow for body weight gain are lacking. Furthermore, there are recent reports that conclude that there are no adverse effects of consuming beverages

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  12. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. Methods The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. Results The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a ‘red’ (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Conclusions Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. PMID:28186923

  13. Dietary sugar/starches intake and Barrett's esophagus: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Petrick, Jessica Leigh; Steck, Susan Elizabeth; Bradshaw, Patrick Terrence; McClain, Kathleen Michele; Niehoff, Nicole Michelle; Engel, Lawrence Stuart; Shaheen, Nicholas James; Corley, Douglas Allen; Vaughan, Thomas Leonard; Gammon, Marilie Denise

    2017-11-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a lethal cancer that has increased rapidly in westernized countries over the past four decades. Dietary sugar intake has also been increasing over time, and may be associated with these tumors by promoting hyperinsulinemia. The study goal was to examine multiple measures of sugar/starches intake in association with BE. This pooled analysis included 472 BE cases and 492 controls from two similarly conducted case-control studies in the United States. Dietary intake data, collected by study-specific food frequency questionnaires, were harmonized across studies by linking with the University of Minnesota Nutrient Database, and pooled based on study-specific quartiles. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, study indicator, body mass index, frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux, and fruit/vegetable intake. In both studies, intake of sucrose (cases vs. controls, g/day: 36.07 vs. 33.51; 36.80 vs. 35.06, respectively) and added sugar (46.15 vs. 41.01; 44.18 vs. 40.68, respectively) were higher in cases than controls. BE risk was increased 79% and 71%, respectively, for associations comparing the fourth to the first quartile of intake of sucrose (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.07-3.02, P trend  = 0.01) and added sugar (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.80, P trend  = 0.15). Intake of sweetened desserts/beverages was associated with 71% increase in BE risk (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.07-2.73, P trend  = 0.04). Limiting dietary intake of foods and beverages that are high in added sugar, especially refined table sugar, may reduce the risk of developing BE.

  14. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  15. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrothermal degradation of cellulosic matter to sugars and their fermentative conversion to protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobleter, O.; Niesner, R.; Roehr, M.

    1976-01-01

    For the hydrothermal degradation of cellulosic matter, an apparatus was developed in which water is used as extraction medium. Samples, 0.15 g each, of pure cellulose (filter paper), natural straw, and 14 C-labeled straw were treated at temperatures of between 200 and 275 0 C. Of the inserted cellulose, 65.7 percent was recovered at the optimum temperature as sugars and hydroxymethylfurfural. It was possible to degrade the straw selectively: at lower temperatures, the hemicellulose part of the plant matter was converted to xylose and arabinose; and then at higher temperatures, the cellulose was converted to glucose and cellobiose. At the same time, a certain amount of the sugars was transformed to furfural compounds. The growth behavior of the yeast Candida utilis (strain Weissenbach) was analyzed, using cellobiose, xylose, and glucose (standard) as carbon sources. The growth curves applying cellobiose were nearly identical to those of glucose. Xylose showed lower productivity than the hexoses. The main products of the hydrothermal degradation can, therefore, be used favorably as nutritive substances for this protein-producing yeast

  17. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  18. Impact of mixed Torulaspora delbrueckii-Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on high-sugar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, Marina; Stoeckle, Philippe; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-20

    Conventional wine yeasts produce high concentrations of volatile acidity, mainly acetic acid, during high-sugar fermentation. This alcoholic fermentation by-product is highly detrimental to wine quality and, in some cases, levels may even exceed legal limits. In this study, a non-conventional species, Torulaspora delbrueckii, was used, in pure cultures and mixed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, to ferment botrytized musts. Fermentation rate, biomass growth, and the formation of volatile acidity, acetaldehyde, and glycerol were considered. This study demonstrated that T. delbrueckii, often described as a low acetic producer under standard conditions, retained this quality even in a high-sugar medium. Unlike S. cerevisiae, this species did not respond to the hyper-osmotic medium by increasing acetic production as soon as it is inoculated into the must. Nevertheless, this yeast produced low ethanol and biomass yields, and the fermentation was sluggish. As a result, T. delbrueckii fermentations do not reach the required ethanol content (14%vol.), although this species can survive at this concentration. A mixed culture of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae was the best combination for improving the analytical profile of sweet wine, particularly volatile acidity and acetaldehyde production. A mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae culture at a 20:1 ratio produced 53% less in volatile acidity and 60% less acetaldehyde than a pure culture of S. cerevisiae. Inoculating S. cerevisiae after 5 days' fermentation by T. delbrueckii had less effect on volatile acidity and acetaldehyde production and resulted in stuck fermentation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of non-Saccharomyces and their potential application in wine industry.

  19. Reducing the use of sugar in public schools: a randomized cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-08-01

    To test the efficacy of nutritional guidelines for school lunch cooks aiming to reduce added sugar in school meals and their own sugar intake. A controlled randomized cluster trial was carried out in twenty public schools in the municipality of Niteroi in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. A nutrition educational program was implemented in the schools in question through messages, activities and printed educational materials encouraging reduced levels of added sugar in school meals and in the school lunch cooks' own intake. The reduced availability of added sugar in schools was evaluated using spreadsheets including data on the monthly use of food item supplies. The cooks' individual food intake was evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standardized techniques and variation in weight was measured throughout the duration of the study. There was a more marked reduction in the intervention schools compared to the control schools (-6.0 kg versus 0.34 kg), but no statistically significant difference (p = 0.21), although the study power was low. Both groups of school lunch cooks showed a reduction in the consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages, but the difference in sugar intake was not statistically significant. Weight loss and a reduction in total energy consumption occurred in both groups, but the difference between them was not statistically significant, and there was no alteration in the percentages of adequacy of macronutrients in relation to energy consumption. The strategy of reducing the use and consumption of sugar by school lunch cooks from public schools could not be proved to be effective.

  20. Taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes: Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pfinder, Manuela; Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.; Pega, Frank; Gartlehner, Gerald; Fenton, Candida; Griebler, Ursula; Sommer, Isolde; Heise, Thomas L.; Lhachimi, Stefan K.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods in the general population on the:\\ud \\ud consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods;\\ud prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity; and\\ud prevalence and incidence of diet-related health conditions.

  1. Safety assessment of sugar dusting treatments by analysis of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Jevrosima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a dominant natural defense mechanism against brood diseases. In this study, the influence of sugar dusting treatments on hygienic behavior was evaluated in 44 strong honey bee colonies. Three doses of pulverized sugar, 20, 30 and 40 g, each applied at three-, seven- and fourteen-day intervals were tested. The percentage of cleaned cells (PCC in the total number of those with pin-killed brood served as a measure of the hygienic potential. The effect was dependent on the frequency of treatments: all doses applied every third and seventh day significantly (p<0.001 decreased the PCC in comparison with the untreated control colonies. Nevertheless, sugar did not threaten the hygienic potential, as PPC values remained above 94% following all treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that the tested sugar treatments are safe and can be justifiably implemented into integrated pest management strategies to control Varroa destructor.

  2. A comparison of two low-calorie sweeteners and sugar in dark chocolate on sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagast, Sofie; De Steur, Hans; Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes. The chocolate with tagatose was perceived as more similar to the chocolate with sugar than with stevia on overall liking, texture, bitterness, duration of aftertaste and intensity of aftertaste. Furthermore, chocolate with sugar and chocolate with tagatose both elicited positive emotional conceptualisations whereas chocolate with stevia elicited negative emotional conceptualisations. In conclusion, dark chocolate with tagatose did not significantly differ from sugar in overall liking, most sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisation.

  3. Types of fruits and vegetables used in commercial baby foods and their contribution to sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ada Lizbeth; McLean, Kimberley; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are often featured in names of commercial baby foods (CBFs). We aimed to survey all available CBFs in the UK market with F&V included in the food name in order to describe the amount and types of F&V used in CBF and their contribution to total sugar content. Food labels were used to identify F&V and total sugar content. Fruits were more common than vegetables in names of the 329 CBFs identified. The six most common F&V in the names were all relatively sweet: apple, banana, tomato, mango, carrot and sweet potato. The percentage of F&V in the foods ranged from a median of 94% for sweet-spoonable to 13% for dry-savoury products. Fruit content of sweet foods (n = 177) was higher than vegetable content of savoury foods (n = 152) with a median (IQR) of 64.0 g/100 g (33.0-100.0) vs. 46.0 g/100 g (33-56.7). Fruit juice was added to 18% of products. The proportion of F&V in CBF correlated significantly with sugar content for all the food types except dry-savoury food (sweet-spoonable r = 0.24, P = 0.006; savoury-spoonable r = 0.65, P vegetables which are unlikely to encourage preferences for bitter-tasting vegetables or other non-sweet foods. F&V contribute significantly to the total sugar content, particularly of savoury foods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  5. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  6. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  7. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  8. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  9. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  10. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  11. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  12. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-11-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g{sup −1}) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars.

  13. Optimization of carbon and nitrogen medium components for biomass production using non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnierda, T; Bauer, F F; Divol, B; van Rensburg, E; Görgens, J F

    2014-05-01

    The impact of different nitrogen and carbon sources on biomass production of the non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Issatchenkia orientalis was assessed. Using a molasses-based medium, yeast extract and corn steep liquor as well as ammonium sulphate and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) as nitrogen sources were compared in shake-flask cultures. A medium with 20 g l⁻¹ sugar (diluted molasses) and 500 mg l⁻¹ total yeast assimilable nitrogen, from yeast extract, gave the highest biomass concentrations and yields. Invertase pretreatment was required for cultures of M. pulcherrima and I. orientalis, and respective biomass yields of 0.7 and 0.8 g g⁻¹ were achieved in aerobic bioreactor cultures. The absence of ethanol production suggested Crabtree-negative behaviour by these yeasts, whereas Crabtree-positive behaviour by L. thermotolerans resulted in ethanol and biomass concentrations of 5.5 and 11.1 g l⁻¹, respectively. Recent studies demonstrate that non-Saccharomyces yeasts confer positive attributes to the final composition of wine. However, optimal process conditions for their biomass production have not been described, thereby limiting commercial application. In this study, industrial media and methods of yeast cultivation were investigated to develop protocols for biomass production of non-Saccharomyces yeast starter cultures for the wine industry. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  15. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  16. Rare sugars and sugar-based synthons by chemo-enzymatic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffhorn; Köpper; Huwig; Freimund

    2000-12-01

    The unique catalytic potential of the fungal enzyme pyranose oxidase was demonstrated by preparative conversions of a variety of carbohydrates, and by extensive chemical characterization of the reaction products with NMR spectroscopy. The studies revealed that POx not only oxidizes most substrates very efficiently but also that POx possesses a glycosyl-transfer potential, producing disaccharides from beta-glycosides of higher alcohols. Although most substrates are oxidized by POx at the C-2 position, several substrates are converted into the 3-keto-derivatives. On the basis of these products, strategies are developed for the convenient production of sugar-derived synthons, rare sugars and fine chemicals by combining biotechnical and chemical methods.

  17. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  18. 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, a rare sugar from agar, a new anticariogenic sugar to replace xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Ah Reum; Kim, Jung Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mun; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-04-15

    The significance for anticariogenic sugar substitutes is growing due to increasing demands for dietary sugars and rising concerns of dental caries. Xylitol is widely used as an anticariogenic sugar substitute, but the inhibitory effects of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of tooth decay, are exhibited only at high concentrations. Here, the inhibitory effects of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a rare sugar from red macroalgae, were evaluated on S. mutans, in comparison with those of xylitol. In the presence of 5g/l of AHG, the growth of S. mutans was retarded. At 10g/l of AHG, the growth and acid production by S. mutans were completely inhibited. However, in the presence of xylitol, at a much higher concentration (i.e., 40g/l), the growth of S. mutans still occurred. These results suggest that AHG can be used as a new anticariogenic sugar substitute for preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  20. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference report from the American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Flickinger, Brent D; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2010-12-07

    A 2-day forum was convened to (1) discuss ways to translate the 2009 American Heart Association added sugars recommendations into actions in areas such as regulation, food labeling, nutrient content claims, and practical application in the American diet; (2) review surveillance methodology and metrics for tracking and understanding the impact of reducing added sugars in the diet; and (3) initiate the development of a framework for future collaboration to help Americans implement science-based guidance relative to added sugars. More than 100 multinational participants representing scientists from academia and government and stakeholders engaged in food production, development, and processing, food manufacturing and servicing, food and nutrition policy, and nutrition recommendations for the public attended the conference. Presentations included definitions and examples of added sugars, current US and international added sugars perspectives, added sugars in diets of individuals and in the food supply, food technology behind added sugars, added sugars and health, food manufacturer perspectives, added sugars food-labeling considerations, and examples of positive approaches to improve eating behaviors and the food environment. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted after the plenary sessions to allow participants to contribute their expertise and thoughts. The American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference is the first step in an important process that facilitates collaboration across science, public health, and industry to foster innovation, partnerships, policy, and implementation of new products and services for the benefit of the health and well-being of the American public. Science has advanced in the area of added sugars and health, creating mounting pressure to use better methods for translation and dissemination of the science for consumer education and for food companies to respond by producing foods and beverages with fewer added sugars. The new

  1. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  2. Assessment of antioxidant activity of cane brown sugars by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays: determination of their polyphenolic and volatile constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-12-28

    Seven cane brown sugars (four from La Réunion, two from Mauritius, and one from France) were investigated for their polyphenol content and volatile composition in relation to their free radical scavenging capacity determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The thin layer coated on the sugar crystal was extracted by Soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane. The volatile compounds of brown sugars were studied by GC-MS, and 43 compounds were identified. The total phenolic content of brown sugars was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic compounds were quantified in the brown sugar extracts by LC-UV-ESI-MS. Brown sugar aqueous solutions exhibited weak free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and higher antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay at relatively high concentration. The brown sugar extracts showed interesting free radical scavenging properties despite the low concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds. Sugar is a common foodstuff traditionally used for its sweetening properties, which might be accompanied by antioxidant properties arising from molecules (polyphenols, Maillard products) other than sucrose of the cane brown sugars.

  3. Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

  4. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION FROM SUGAR SUBSTRATES IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Pérez Navarro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for opportunities of citric acid production in Cuba, using sources of sugar substrates such as refined sugar, molasses and whey, by submerged fermentation with Aspergillus niger, where a technology is established from the selected substrate which is provided and the microorganism used. This is a demanding process in terms of investment costs and operation where the best combinations of productivity and cost are achieved with molasses followed by refined sugar and whey. For the selected substrate, the mass and energy balance in each of the steps in the process of obtaining citric acid for different productive capacities of citric acid was made and the minimum economic size of 2.5 t / day was determined. A production capacity of 8 t / day of granulated acid (2 640 t / a, with estimated total investment of $ 9,068,713, NPV = $ 1,401,561, IRR = 27% and DPP = 3 years was selected. The project is resistant to the rising price of raw materials and the cost of electricity and is favored when the process is integrated into a sugar mill cogeneration, while it is sensitive to a reduction in the selling price of the product.

  5. Role of alpha-glucosidase in the fermentable sugar composition of sorghum malt mashes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the high glucose to maltose ratio in sorghum malt worts was studied. Mashing temperature and pH strongly affected both the amount of glucose and the proportion of glucose relative to total fermentable sugars. The relative proportion...

  6. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  8. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  9. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Im Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770 who participated in the 4th year (2008 of the Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS. Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = −0.10, p = 0.02 and β = −0.78, p < 0.01, respectively. At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = −0.08, p < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02, but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83. Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and

  10. The addition of zeolite adsorbents and calcium oxide on purification of bioethanol from sugar palm (arenga pinnata merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, Netti; Siska Dewi Harahap, Ici

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol (C2H5OH) is a biochemical liquid produced by microorganisms through fermentation process on sugar molecules from carbohydrates. Bioethanol is a fuel of vegetable oil that has similar properties to premium. With its main product of palm juice, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a potential source of sugar and carbohydrate for bioethanol production. Production of palm juice can reach up to 12-14 liters/tree/day with total sugar content in palm juice ranges from 12-15%. The purpose of this research was to produce highly-concentrated bioethanol from palm juice through fermentation proccess to subtitude fossil fuel. This study was conducted with three stages of treatment, namely: the fermentation of palm juice, distillation of bioethanol, and purification of bioethanol with the addition of adsorbent zeolite and calcium oxide.

  11. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole station lime-carbon dioxide purification. The results preliming felt not only on the properties of the filtration of the carbonated juices, but a lso on the quality of performance of all intermediates and produced of sugar, in particular the color and turbidity of an aqueous solution, the content of the ash. In our investigations using the raw juice from sugar beet low quality found that when a uniform progressi ve change in pH of the juice during warm preliming best results for deposition rate and volume solids of the resulting precipitate are achieved when the length of 7 to 10 minutes. If it increases to 15 minutes and further reduced the deposition rate of the solid phase with a significant increase in turbidity decantate. It found that as a result of excess visit a large part of the raw juice in a progressive preliming at 60 °C increase in color prelimed juice was 30–55%, which is in agreement with the calculated values decay reducing agents in alkaline solution and formation of any additional colorants. The results confirming the feasibility of the use preddefekatsionnoy for processing the raw juice of condensed carbonate refunds.

  12. Rapid determination of sugar level in snack products using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-08-01

    Real-time spectroscopic methods can provide a valuable window into food manufacturing to permit optimization of production rate, quality and safety. There is a need for cutting edge sensor technology directed at improving efficiency, throughput and reliability of critical processes. The aim of the research was to evaluate the feasibility of infrared systems combined with chemometric analysis to develop rapid methods for determination of sugars in cereal products. Samples were ground and spectra were collected using a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometer equipped with a triple-bounce ZnSe MIRacle attenuated total reflectance accessory or Fourier transform near infrared (NIR) system equipped with a diffuse reflection-integrating sphere. Sugar contents were determined using a reference HPLC method. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to create cross-validated calibration models. The predictability of the models was evaluated on an independent set of samples and compared with reference techniques. MIR and NIR spectra showed characteristic absorption bands for sugars, and generated excellent PLSR models (sucrose: SEP 0.96). Multivariate models accurately and precisely predicted sugar level in snacks allowing for rapid analysis. This simple technique allows for reliable prediction of quality parameters, and automation enabling food manufacturers for early corrective actions that will ultimately save time and money while establishing a uniform quality. The U.S. snack food industry generates billions of dollars in revenue each year and vibrational spectroscopic methods combined with pattern recognition analysis could permit optimization of production rate, quality, and safety of many food products. This research showed that infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for near real-time (approximately 1 min) assessment of sugar content in various cereal products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  14. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shikhar Kumar; Suma H. P. Sogi; K R Indushekar

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewin...

  15. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  16. Energy–exergy analysis and optimisation of a model sugar factory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Tolga; Sivrioglu, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    This study is related to the energy and exergy analysis of a model sugar factory in Turkey. In this study, energy efficiency issue in food industries are investigated within a general context to provide energy saving by reducing energy – exergy losses in the sugar production process. The aim of this study is to determine the best energy and exergy efficiency with the mass and energy balances according to design parameters for a sugar factory. Energy savings that can be applied in food industries are examined. Appropriate scenarios are prepared, and optimization results are compared. As a result of thermodynamics calculations made according to the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics, energy and exergy efficiencies of a factory were calculated. Factory total energy efficiency and exergy efficiency were found to be 72.2% and 37.4%, respectively, and according to these results, energy quality was found to be 0.64. In conclusion, the current turbine power process energy and exergy efficiencies were 46.4% and 27.7%, respectively, and the optimized turbine power process energy and exergy efficiencies were 48.7% and 31.7%, respectively. This study performs an attitude to the problem of exergy optimization of the turbine power plant. An overall assessment of the energy and exergy efficiency calculations is performed and is focused on how they should be. - Highlights: • The energy and exergy efficiency of a sugar plant depends more on steam than process. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of a factory increase when the turbine power increases, as in a sugar factory. • Statistical analysis demonstrates the precision of data. • Thermoeconomic analysis of the energy and exergy efficiency of the Çumra Sugar Integrated Plant is performed.

  17. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  18. Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Lindsey F; Blackburn, Alison; Sheehy, Christine; Craig, Leone C A; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Holmes, Bridget A; McNeill, Geraldine

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to investigate the strength of the association between sugar intake and treatment for dental decay in children in Scotland, and the impact of tooth brushing frequency on this association. The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in 2006 in those aged 3-17 years. Diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ, and interviews were carried out by trained fieldworkers who asked about dental health. A total of 1700 interviews were carried out, and 1512 FFQ were returned. Of the children, 56% had received treatment for decay (fillings or teeth removed due to decay). Intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), but not total sugar, increased the risk of having had treatment for decay: adjusted OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.28, 2.64) for the highest ( ≥ 20.0% food energy) v. lowest ( ≤ 14.8% food energy) tertile of NMES intake. This raised risk remained in children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day. Compared with children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day and were in the lowest tertile of NMES intake, children who reported brushing their teeth once a day or less and were in the highest tertile of NMES intake were over three times more likely to have received treatment for decay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.97, 5.82). In order to improve dental health in children in Scotland, dental health strategies must continue to stress the importance of both reduced NMES intake and good oral hygiene.

  19. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  1. Alcohol from sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Verzhbitskaya, V A

    1962-01-01

    The factor which determines the economy in the EtOH industry which uses sugar beets as raw materials is the rapid and complete recovery of the sugar contained in the beets for fermentation purposes. It is best to extract the beets at 70 to 75/sup 0/. Thorough shredding of the beets then need no longer form part of the operation, and the protein compounds, which give rise to fuel oils, are extracted in small amounts only.

  2. Sugar and ethanol production from woody biomass via supercritical water hydrolysis in a continuous pilot-scale system using acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seong, Yeong-Je; Lee, Soo Min

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study were to efficiently produce fermentable sugars by continuous type supercritical water hydrolysis (SCWH) of Quercus mongolica at the pilot scale with varying acid catalyst loading and to use the obtained sugars for ethanol production. The SCWH of biomass was achieved in under one second (380°C, 230bar) using 0.01-0.1% H 2 SO 4 . With 0.05% H 2 SO 4 , 49.8% of sugars, including glucose (16.5% based on biomass) and xylose monomers (10.8%), were liberated from biomass. The hydrolysates were fermented with S. cerevisiae DXSP and D452-2 to estimate ethanol production. To prepare the fermentation medium, the hydrolysates were detoxified using activated charcoal and then concentrated. The ethanol yield of fermentation with S. cerevisiae DXSP was 14.1% (based on biomass). The proposed system has potential for improvement in yield through process optimization. After further development, it is expected to be a competitive alternative to traditional systems for ethanol production from woody biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain ... include: Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less ...

  4. Sn-Beta catalysed conversion of hemicellulosic sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin; Pagán-Torres, Yomaira J.; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2012-01-01

    are observed for the pentoses. This finding is in accordance to a reaction pathway that involves the retro aldol condensation of the sugars to form a triose and glycolaldehyde for the pentoses, and two trioses for hexoses. When reacting glycolaldehyde (formally a C2-sugar) in the presence of Sn-Beta, aldol...... condensation occurs, leading to the formation of methyl lactate, methyl vinylglycolate and methyl 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybutanoate. In contrast, when converting the sugars in water at low temperatures (100 °C), Sn-Beta catalyses the isomerisation of sugars (ketose–aldose epimers), rather than the formation...

  5. Novel micronized woody biomass process for production of cost-effective clean fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Gu, Bon-Jae; Wang, Jinwu; Gao, Johnway; Ganjyal, Girish M; Wolcott, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Thermo-chemical pretreatments of biomass typically result in environmental impacts from water use and emission. The degradation byproducts in the resulting sugars can be inhibitory to the activities of enzymes and yeasts. The results of this study showed that combining existing commercial comminution technology can reduce total energy consumption with improved saccharification yield while eliminating chemical use. Impact mill was found to be the most efficient milling for size reduction of forest residual chips from ca. 2 mm to a specific value below 100 µm. The further micronization effectively disrupted the recalcitrance of the woody biomass and produced the highly saccharifiable substrates for downstream processing. In addition, extrusion can be integrated into a clean cellulosic sugar process for further fibrillation in place of the conventional mixing processing. The highest energy efficiency was observed on the impact-milled samples with 0.515 kg sugars kWh -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. Objective: This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. Design: BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7–12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study—a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results: Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. Conclusions: These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated

  7. Effect of the Storage Temperature, Duration and Gamma Irradiation on the Respiration Rate and Sugar Content of Minituber 'Superior'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Hwangbo, J.K.; Baek, M.H.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This study was to evaluate whether ionizing gamma radiation could be applied to break the dormancy of a potato minituber. The respiration rate of the minitubers was significantly affected by the storage temperature and a low dose gamma radiation. Ionizing radiation of 8 Gy enhanced the respiration rate of the potato tuber stored at 10°C for 20 days. The potato tuber subjected to 4 and 8 Gy after 40 days storage at 10 and 10°C exhibited higher respiration rates compared to the control (non-irradiated), but not at st. However, the ionizing radiation did not exhibit on significant effect on the respiration rate of the potato tuber stored for 60 days. It was observed that minitubers stored for 20 days had significant response to the storage temperature in terms of the total sugar content the higher the storage temperature, the lower the total sugar content. It was measured that the reducing sugar content was increased under the storage conditions both 5 and 10°C for 40 days, but not to 20°C. The total sugar contents in the minituber stored for 60 days were similar to those stored for 40 days. The data was discussed on the relationships among the storage duration, temperature and ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  9. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  10. Added sugars: Definitions, classifications, metabolism and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailane SCAPIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sugars added to foods have been featured in recent scientific research, including the publication of the World Health Organization recommendation to limit consumption of added sugars, based on studies on weight gain and dental caries. However, it is possible that there is evidence of an association between excessive consumption and other pathologies, but scientific studies have yet to investigate these associations. Moreover, there is no consensus on the descriptions and definitions of these sugars, with several terms and components used to designate them. In Brazil, there are few studies investigating added sugars, identifying a lack of discussion on this subject. This paper presents a literature review of sugars added to foods, from their definitions and classifications to the metabolism and health effects. The search was performed without limiting dates in the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and SciELO, as well as in national and international official sites. Keywords in Portuguese and English related to sugars added to foods were used, in combination with terms related to systematic review and meta-analysis studies, in order to find research linking added sugars consumption with health damage. The literature indicates that there is a relationship between excessive consumption of added sugars and various health outcomes, including weight gain, type 2 diabetes Mellitus, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The different descriptions of sugars in foods may confuse both food consumers and researchers, since each term includes different components. Thus, it is suggested to use the standardized term “added sugar” as the most suitable term for the broader population to understand, because it indicates that those sugars are not natural food components.

  11. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  12. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  14. Effect of high sugar intake on glucose transporter and weight regulating hormones in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Ritze

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sugar consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades in Western societies. Especially the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seems to be a major risk for the development of obesity. Thus, we compared liquid versus solid high-sugar diets with regard to dietary intake, intestinal uptake and metabolic parameters in mice and partly in humans. METHODS: Five iso-caloric diets, enriched with liquid (in water 30% vol/vol or solid (in diet 65% g/g fructose or sucrose or a control diet were fed for eight weeks to C57bl/6 mice. Sugar, liquid and caloric intake, small intestinal sugar transporters (GLUT2/5 and weight regulating hormone mRNA expression, as well as hepatic fat accumulation were measured. In obese versus lean humans that underwent either bariatric surgery or small bowel resection, we analyzed small intestinal GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression. RESULTS: In mice, the liquid high-sucrose diet caused an enhancement of total caloric intake compared to the solid high-sucrose diet and the control diet. In addition, the liquid high-sucrose diet increased expression of GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression in the ileum (P<0.001. Enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation was observed in mice being fed the liquid high-sucrose or -fructose, and the solid high-sucrose diet compared to controls. In obese, GLUT2 and GLUT5 mRNA expression was enhanced in comparison to lean individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the form of sugar intake (liquid versus solid is presumably more important than the type of sugar, with regard to feeding behavior, intestinal sugar uptake and liver fat accumulation in mice. Interestingly, in obese individuals, an intestinal sugar transporter modulation also occurred when compared to lean individuals.

  15. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne C de Ruyter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. METHODS: 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. RESULTS: Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39 ± 0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39 ± 0.6 (P = 0.9 on a scale running from 1 (disgusting to 5 (delicious. The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P = 0.000. Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. CONCLUSION: We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children.

  16. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  17. Conversion of woody biomass into fermentable sugars by cellulase from Agaricus arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Moon, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-11-01

    Agaricus arvensis, a newly isolated basidiomycetous fungus, was found to secrete efficient cellulases. The strain produced the highest endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and beta-glucosidase (BGL) activities of 0.3, 3.2 and 8U/mg-protein, respectively, with rice straw as the carbon source. Saccharification of the woody biomass with A. arvensis cellulase as the enzyme source released a high level of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the poplar biomass was optimized using the response surface methodology in order to study the influence of the variables (pH, temperature, cellulases concentration and substrate concentration). The enzyme and substrate concentrations were identified as the limiting factors for the saccharification of poplar wood biomass. A total reducing sugar level of 29g/L (293mg/g-substrate) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 65FPU/g-substrate after optimization of the hydrolysis parameters. The model validation showed a good agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses. A. arvensis could be a good candidate for the production of reducing sugars from a cellulosic biomass.

  18. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  19. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  20. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  1. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  3. Aroma-related cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in milk desserts: Influence on consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaire, Florencia; Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-07-01

    Reformulation of industrialized products has been regarded as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce sugar intake. Although non-nutritive sweeteners have been extensively used to reduce the added sugar content of these products, increasing evidence about the existence of compensatory energy intake mechanisms makes it necessary to develop alternative strategies to achieve rapid sugar reductions. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate aroma-related cross modal interactions for sugar reduction in vanilla milk desserts. In particular, the influence of increasing vanilla concentration and the joint increase of vanilla and starch concentration on consumer sensory and hedonic perception was assessed. Two studies with 100 consumers each were conducted, in which a total of 15 samples were evaluated. For each sample, consumers rated their overall liking and answered a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question comprising 12 flavour and texture terms. Sugar reduction caused significant changes in the flavour and texture characteristics of the desserts. An increase in vanilla concentration had a minor effect on their sensory characteristics. However, increasing both vanilla and starch concentration led to an increase in vanilla flavour and sweetness perception and reduced changes in consumer hedonic perception. These results showed the potential of aroma-related cross modal interactions for minimizing the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction. These strategies could contribute to product reformulation without the need to use non-nutritive sweeteners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fermentation of sugar solutions to butanol, acetone, and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsch, W; Schoeder, K

    1956-04-05

    The fermentation process takes place with participation of BuOH bacteria. A favorable content of AcOH (0.1 to 0.4%) is achieved by distillation with steam, by mixing fermentable liquids of different AcOH contents, or by precipitation of excess AcOH as salts insoluble in water before the fermentation process itself. Thus, a total yield about 40% organic solvents based on the reduced sugar is obtained, i.e., 10 to 20% more than previously obtained.

  5. Comparison of techniques for determination of soluble sugars used in feed for ruminant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Camila dos Reis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate different techniques for determination of soluble sugars (fraction CA in foods used for ruminant nutrition. Feed analyzed were: sugar-cane, bermuda grass, corn meal and soybean meal. Dry matter (DM, ash, ether extract (EE and crude protein (CP were determined to make possible the calculation of total carbohydrates concentration in the samples. The soluble carbohydrate fraction were determined in 15 repetitions of each sample by two different analytical techniques. One technique based on soluble carbohydrates extraction and its quantification by spectrophotometry after chelation of the sugar with anthrone; and another one that uses phenol as the chelating agent. The experiment were conducted in a completely randomized design and the data submitted to the two-factor factorial analysis of variance (? = 0.05, with the different feeds and the two techniques as factors. There was no statistical difference between techniques, but the effect of the feed and the interaction feed x technique were significant. So, a new analysis of variance was conducted to test the difference between techniques in each feed separately. Only soybean meal did not show statistical difference between the water soluble sugars determined by the two techniques.

  6. Nectar sugar production across floral phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species.

  7. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  8. Responses to sugar and sugar receptor gene expression in different social roles of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Laura; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2018-04-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are well-known for their sophisticated division of labor with each bee performing sequentially a series of social tasks. Colony organization is largely based on age-dependent division of labor. While bees perform several tasks inside the hive such as caring for brood ("nursing"), cleaning or sealing brood cells or producing honey, older bees leave to colony to collect pollen (proteins) and nectar (carbohydrates) as foragers. The most pronounced behavioral transition occurs when nurse bees become foragers. For both social roles, the detection and evaluation of sugars is decisive for optimal task performance. Nurse bees rely on their gustatory senses to prepare brood food, while foragers evaluate a nectar source before starting to collect food from it. To test whether social organization is related to differential sensing of sugars we compared the taste of nurse bees and foragers for different sugars. Searching for molecular correlates for differences in sugar perception, we further quantified expression of gustatory receptor genes in both behavioral groups. Our results demonstrate that nurse bees and foragers perceive and evaluate different sugars differently. Both groups, however, prefer sucrose over fructose. At least part of the taste differences between social roles could be related to a differential expression of taste receptors in the antennae and brain. Our results suggest that differential expression of sugar receptor genes might be involved in regulating division of labor through nutrition-related signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaimeng; Liang, Yinli; An, Xiaojuan; Kong, Fanchao; Gao, Dekai; Yin, Hongfei

    2017-09-01

    Spraying selenium (Se) fertilizer is an effective method for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated. Acid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, and photosynthetic rate in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, with a trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in neutral invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase between Se fertilizer-treated and control. In berries, AI showed a significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose; also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content. AI played an important role in the process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and photosynthetic rate in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  11. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  12. Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2004-12-01

    Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2ω 6c and 18:3ω 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i

  13. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  15. Table sugar as preparation and carbon coating reagent for facile synthesis and coating of rod-shaped MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahmedh242@yahoo.co [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abuzeid, Hanaa M. [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Nikolowski, Kristian; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-05-14

    Rod-shaped {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} has been synthesized by a novel and facile wet chemical method using simple sugar and potassium permanganate. Redox reaction between KMnO{sub 4} and sucrose is carried out in an acidic medium. Acidic medium provides a reducing character to sucrose through its decomposition to elemental carbon. Carbon coating process was done using simple sugar also as a source for carbon in an absolute ethanol with heating the mixture of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and sugar at 350 {sup o}C for an hour in an ambient atmosphere. A single phase of cryptomelane-like phase MnO{sub 2} was observed from XRD patterns for bare and carbon coated samples. TGA analysis shows the presence of carbon layer through more weight loss percent of carbon coated sample in comparison with that of carbon free MnO{sub 2}. Both virgin and carbon coated MnO{sub 2} have high thermal stability due to high percent of K inside the tunnel determined from ICP analysis. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed a rod-shaped crystal for both the parent and carbon coated {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and confirmed the presence of a thin film of carbon around MnO{sub 2} particles. Both XRD and TEM investigations show that the prepared powders are in nano-scale. Initial capacity of about 140 mAh/g was obtained for the parent and carbon coated samples. The results show also that carbon coating process improves the capacity retention and the efficiency of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} in comparison with that carbon free sample.

  16. Development of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a functional food supplement/condiment and evaluation of its physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Park, Juyeon; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-01

    Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ) root has been used as an edible vegetable in East Asia for thousands of years. The present research was aimed to explore the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety of lotus root fermented sugar syrup as a fermented food supplement or condiment for human health benefits. In this study, the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological safety properties of lotus root syrup fermented with 57° Brix brown sugar at different time periods until 6 months (180 days) was investigated. There was a significant improvement as compared to 57° Brix brown sugar broth (as a control) in the total acceptability and physicochemical properties of lotus root sugar syrup samples such as pH and color improvement. The red color values of 180 days lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were significantly enhanced (6.85 ± 0.58) when compared with the control (0.20 ± 0.15). In addition, the total protein content was increased from 8.27 ± 0.86 to 392.33 ± 7.19 μg/mL, along with the increase in fermentation time reaching to the level of consumption acceptability. All the lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. It was found that the coliform, Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts were not detected in majority of the samples, confirming the high degree of hygiene processing of lotus root fermented sugar syrup samples for its use as a food supplement or condiment.

  17. [Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Bai, Wei; Izumori, Ken; Zhang, Tongcun; Sun, Yuanxia

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion is very important to produce functional rare sugars, but the conversion rate of single enzymes is generally low. To increase the conversion rate, a dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was developed. Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. The ratio of DPE and L-RhI was 1:10 (W/W), and the concentration of DPE was 0.05 mg/mL. The optimum temperature was 60 degrees C and pH was 9.0. When the concentration of D-fructose was 2%, the reaction reached its equilibrium after 10 h, and the yield of D-psicose and D-allose was 5.12 and 2.04 g/L, respectively. Using the dual-enzymes coupled system developed in the current study, we could obtain sugar syrup containing functional rare sugar from fructose-rich raw material, such as high fructose corn syrup.

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of the sugar porters in hemiascomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Goffeau, André; Spencer-Martins, Isabel; Baret, Philippe V

    2007-01-01

    A total of 214 members of the sugar porter (SP) family (TC 2.A.1.1) from eight hemiascomycetous yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Candida albicans and Pichia stipitis, were identified. The yeast SPs were classified in 13 different phylogenetic clusters. Specific sugar substrates could be allocated to nine phylogenetic clusters, including two novel TC clusters that are specific to fungi, i.e. the glycerol:H(+) symporter (2.A.1.1.38) and the high-affinity glucose transporter (2.A.1.1.39). Four phylogenetic clusters are identified by the preliminary fifth number Z23, Z24, Z25 and Z26 and the substrates of their members remain undetermined. The amplification of the SP clusters across the Hemiascomycetes reflects adaptation to specific carbon and energy sources available in the habitat of each yeast species. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  20. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele; Coelho, Maysa Joppert; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Pacheco, Sidney

    2009-01-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 μg/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  2. Production of ethanol at high temperatures in the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke juice and a simple medium by Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.F.; Correia, I.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Temperatures as high as 36 degrees C and 40 degrees C did not negatively affect the ethanol productivity of Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice batch fermentation and the final concentrations of ethanol were close to those produced at lower temperatures. At higher process temperatures (36-40 degrees C), ethanol toxicity in Kluyveromyces marxianus was less important during the fermentation of J.a. juice as compared with a simple medium. In simple medium, the heat-sticking of fermentation was observed and the percentage of unfermented sugars steeply increased from 28 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. (Refs. 13).

  3. Comparison of Spectrophotome