WorldWideScience

Sample records for total spectral irradiance

  1. Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Candace

    2018-01-01

    TSIS-1 studies the Sun's energy input to Earth and how solar variability affects climate. TSIS-1 will measure both the total amount of light that falls on Earth, known as the total solar irradiance (TSI), and how that light is distributed among ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths, called solar spectral irradiance (SSI). TSIS-1 will provide the most accurate measurements of sunlight and continue the long-term climate data record. TSIS-1 includes two instruments: the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM), integrated into a single payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The TSIS-1 TIM and SIM instruments are upgraded versions of the two instruments that are flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission launched in January 2003. NASA Goddard's TSIS project responsibilities include project management, system engineering, safety and mission assurance, and engineering oversight for TSIS-1. TSIS-1 was installed on the International Space Station in December 2017. At the end of the 90-day commissioning phase, responsibility for TSIS-1 operations transitions to the Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) project at Goddard for its 5-year operations. NASA contracts with the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) for the design, development and testing of TSIS-1, support for ISS integration, science operations of the TSIS-1 instrument, data processing, data evaluation, calibration and delivery to the Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

  2. Continuing the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.; Kopp, G.; Richard, E. C.; Sparn, T.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative energy from the Sun establishes the basic climate of the Earth's surface and atmosphere and defines the terrestrial environment that supports all life on the planet. External solar variability on a wide range of scales ubiquitously affects the Earth system, and combines with internal forcings, including anthropogenic changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols, and natural modes such as ENSO, and volcanic forcing, to define past, present, and future climates. Understanding these effects requires continuous measurements of total and spectrally resolved solar irradiance that meet the stringent requirements of climate-quality accuracy and stability over time. The current uninterrupted 39-year total solar irradiance (TSI) climate data record is the result of several overlapping instruments flown on different missions. Measurement continuity, required to link successive instruments to the existing data record to discern long-term trends makes this important climate data record susceptible to loss in the event of a gap in measurements. While improvements in future instrument accuracy will reduce the risk of a gap, the 2017 launch of TSIS-1 ensures continuity of the solar irradiance record into the next decade. There are scientific and programmatic motivations for addressing the challenges of maintaining the solar irradiance data record beyond TSIS-1. The science rests on well-founded requirements of establishing a trusted climate observing network that can monitor trends in fundamental climate variables. Programmatically, the long-term monitoring of solar irradiance must be balanced within the broader goals of NASA Earth Science. New concepts for a low-risk, cost efficient observing strategy is a priority. New highly capable small spacecraft, low-cost launch vehicles and a multi-decadal plan to provide overlapping TSI and SSI data records are components of a low risk/high reliability plan with lower annual cost than past implementations. This paper provides the

  3. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  4. Adaption of an array spectroradiometer for total ozone column retrieval using direct solar irradiance measurements in the UV spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Sperfeld, Peter; Riechelmann, Stefan; Nevas, Saulius; Sildoja, Meelis; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    A compact array spectroradiometer that enables precise and robust measurements of solar UV spectral direct irradiance is presented. We show that this instrument can retrieve total ozone column (TOC) accurately. The internal stray light, which is often the limiting factor for measurements in the UV spectral range and increases the uncertainty for TOC analysis, is physically reduced so that no other stray-light reduction methods, such as mathematical corrections, are necessary. The instrument has been extensively characterised at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. During an international total ozone measurement intercomparison at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory in Tenerife, the high-quality applicability of the instrument was verified with measurements of the direct solar irradiance and subsequent TOC evaluations based on the spectral data measured between 12 and 30 September 2016. The results showed deviations of the TOC of less than 1.5 % from most other instruments in most situations and not exceeding 3 % from established TOC measurement systems such as Dobson or Brewer.

  5. Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fountoulakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we discuss the short- and the long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, using a long, quality-controlled data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers. Long-term changes in spectral UV irradiance at 307.5, 324 and 350 nm for the period 1994–2014 are presented for different solar zenith angles and discussed in association with changes in total ozone column (TOC, aerosol optical depth (AOD and cloudiness observed in the same period. Positive changes in annual mean anomalies of UV irradiance, ranging from 2 to 6 % per decade, have been detected both for clear- and all-sky conditions. The changes are generally greater for larger solar zenith angles and for shorter wavelengths. For clear-skies, these changes are, in most cases, statistically significant at the 95 % confidence limit. Decreases in the aerosol load and weakening of the attenuation by clouds lead to increases in UV irradiance in the summer, of 7–9 % per decade for 64° solar zenith angle. The increasing TOC in winter counteracts the effect of decreasing AOD for this particular season, leading to small, statistically insignificant, negative long-term changes in irradiance at 307.5 nm. Annual mean UV irradiance levels are increasing from 1994 to 2006 and remain relatively stable thereafter, possibly due to the combined changes in the amount and optical properties of aerosols. However, no statistically significant corresponding turning point has been detected in the long-term changes of AOD. The absence of signatures of changes in AOD in the short-term variability of irradiance in the UV-A may have been caused by changes in the single scattering albedo of aerosols, which may counteract the effects of changes in AOD on irradiance. The anti-correlation between the year-to-year variability of the irradiance at 307.5 nm and TOC is clear and becomes clearer as the AOD decreases.

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  7. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  9. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes body irradiation (TBI) being used increasingly as consolidation treatment in the management of leukaemia, lymphoma and various childhood tumours with the aim of sterilizing any malignant cells or micrometastases. Systemic radiotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy offers several possible benefits. There are no sanctuary sites for TBI; some neoplastic cells are very radiosensitive, and resistance to radiation appears to develop less readily than to drugs. Cross-resistance between chemotherapy and radiotherapy does not seem to be common and although plateau effects may be seen with chemotherapy there is a linear dose-response curve for clonogenic cell kill with radiation

  10. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  11. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d’unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck’s radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed

  12. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties

  13. Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M S; Menegotto, T; Duarte, I; Da Silva, T Ferreira; Alves, L C; Alvarenga, A D; Almeida, G B; Couceiro, I B; Teixeira, R N

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer

  14. Solar Spectral Irradiance Changes During Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Deland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by approximately 0.6% +/- 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% +/- 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar "continuum." Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar "continuum," the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at lambda approximately or greater than 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), NRLTSI Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains total solar irradiance (TSI) as a function of time created with the Naval Research Laboratory model for spectral and total...

  17. A method for total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, Hiroshi; Higashi, Shizuka; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Lee, Keiichi; Ishioka, Kuniaki; Murakami, Koji; Nagai, Jun; Kuniyasu, Yoshio

    1988-01-01

    In these two years, we have treated four infant patients of acute leukemia by Cobalt-60 total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. During total body irradiation, thermoluminescence dosimeters were attached to the skin of patients. For four patients, nine dosimetries were performed. Reliability of this method was examined by phantom experiment. Every irradiation for the patient per fraction was 2.4 Gy, that is, 60 cGy for each four positions, right decubitus A-P and PA directions and left decubitus A-P and PA directions under aseptic circumstances. Radiation dose was uniform by this technique for each patient, and average determined dose for surface of the patients was between 87 % and 106 % compared with the air dose of the center of aseptic space (wagon). As the result, we suggest that this method is suitable for the total body irradiation of acute leukemia of infant. (author)

  18. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  19. Cataract incidence after total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, D.; Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Huber, P.; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cataract incidence in a homogeneous group of patients after total-body irradiation followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Method and Materials: Between 11/1982 and 6/1994 in total 260 patients received in our hospital total-body irradiation for treatment of haematological malignancy. In 1996-96 patients out of these 260 patients were still alive. 85 from these still living patients (52 men, 33 women) answered evaluable on a questionnaire and could be examined ophthalmologically. Median age of these patients was 38,5 years (15 - 59 years) at time of total-body irradiation. Radiotherapy was applied as hyperfractionated total-body irradiation with a median dose of 14,4 Gy in 12 fractions over 4 days. Minimum time between fractions was 4 hours, photons with a energy of 23 MeV were used, and the dose rate was 7 - 18 cGy/min. Results: Median follow-up is now 5,8 years (1,7 - 13 years). Cataract occurred in (28(85)) patients after a median time of 47 months (1 - 104 months). In 6 out of these 28 patients who developed a cataract, surgery of the cataract was performed. Whole-brain irradiation prior to total-body irradiation was more often in the group of patients developing a cataract (14,3%) vs. 10,7% in the group of patients without cataract. Conclusion: Cataract is a common side effect of total-body irradiation. Cataract incidence found in our patients is comparable to results of other centres using a fractionated regimen for total-body irradiation. The hyperfractionated regimen used in our hospital does obviously not result in a even lower cataract incidence. In contrast to acute and late toxicity in other organ/organsystems, hyperfractionation of total-body irradiation does not further reduce toxicity for the eye-lens. Dose rate may have more influence on cataract incidence

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  2. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  3. Implantation of total body irradiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habitzreuter, Angela Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Before implementing a treatment technique, the characteristics of the beam under irradiation conditions must be well acknowledged and studied. Each one of the parameters used to calculate the dose has to be measured and validated before its utilization in clinical practice. This is particularly necessary when dealing with special techniques. In this work, all necessary parameters and measurements are described for the total body irradiation implementation in facilities designed for conventional treatments that make use of unconventional geometries to generate desired enlarged field sizes. Furthermore, this work presents commissioning data of this modality at Hospital das Clinicas of Sao Paulo using comparison of three detectors types for measurements of entrance dose during total body irradiation treatment. (author)

  4. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = /sub c/(1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail. (U.S.)

  5. Study the Characterization of Spectral Absorbance on Irradiated Milk Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohely, F.; Suardi, N.

    2018-04-01

    The milk has been adopted as a structural nature food for a long era since it is containing most of the growth factors, protective agents, and enzymes needed for the body. a few attempts have been conducted to treat the dairy products especially raw milk by the means of ionizing radiation. as its production has been an expanding industry for many years due to the high demands from the consumers worldwide, there is still some doubt about preserving these products by irradiation. In this work, a preliminary effort to describe the influences of ionizing radiation on raw milk’s protein will be devoted to measuring the spectral absorbance of the total protein (after subjected to varied radiation doses) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy analysis. The absorbance spectrum then analyzed based on absorbance spectra of organic compounds. A comparison is made between the effects of different radiation doses to estimate the influence in milk’s structure.

  6. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  7. Immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, V.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1981-01-01

    Contrary to the immunosuppression by means of wholebody irradiation which is known for a long while but connected with considerable side effects and risks, the total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a new possibility of immunosuppression the tolerance of which by man is known by virtue of long-standing experiences with the treatment of malignant lymphatic system diseases. In connexion with organ transplantations, TLI might possibly soon be important for the radiotherapeutist. In the experimentation on animals, the unspecific immunosuppression induced by TLI causes a prolonged survival time of allogeneic skin and organ grafts in certain mammals. Furthermore, a formation of blood chimeras combined with specific, permanent tolerance of organ grafts from the bone marrow donor can be caused by bone marrow transplantation after TLI. First experiences with man have been made. In the German literature, TLI has not been mentioned yet. In the present study, a summary is given on the Anglo-Saxon literature, and the first own experiments with regard to the problem of irradiation dose and transplantation interval are presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Total scalp irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Nigel; Jaradat, Hazim; Welsh, James; Tome, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous irradiation of the scalp poses technical and dosimetric challenges due to the extensive, superficial, curved treatment volume. Conventional treatments on a linear accelerator use multiple matched electron fields or a combination of electron and photon fields. Problems with these techniques include dose heterogeneity in the target due to varying source-to-skin distance (SSD) and angle of beam incidence, significant dose to the brain, and the potential for overdose or underdose at match lines between the fields. Linac-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans have similar problems. This work presents treatment plans for total scalp irradiation on a helical tomotherapy machine. Helical tomotherapy is well-suited for scalp irradiation because it has the ability to deliver beamlets that are tangential to the scalp at all points. Helical tomotherapy also avoids problems associated with field matching and use of more than one modality. Tomotherapy treatment plans were generated and are compared to plans for treatment of the same patient on a linac. The resulting tomotherapy plans show more homogeneous target dose and improved critical structure dose when compared to state-of-the-art linac techniques. Target equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the best tomotherapy plan was slightly higher than for the linac plan, while the volume of brain tissue receiving over 30 Gy was reduced by two thirds. Furthermore, the tomotherapy plan can be more reliably delivered than linac treatments, because the patient is aligned prior to each treatment based on megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)

  9. Biological basis of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Dendale, R.; Cosset, J.M.; Giraud, P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the radiobiological bases of total body irradiation (TBI) is made difficult by the large number of normal and malignant tissues that must be taken into account. In addition, tissue responses to irradiation are also sensitive to associated treatments, type of graft and a number of patient characteristics. Experimental studies have yielded a large body of data, the clinical relevance of which still requires definite validation through randomized trials. Fractionated TBI schemes are able to reduce late normal tissue toxicity, but the ultimate consequences of the fractional dose reduction do not appear to be equivocal. Thus, leukemia and lymphoma cells are probably more radio-biologically heterogeneous than previously thought, with several cell lines displaying relatively high radioresistance and repair capability patterns. The most primitive host-type hematopoietic stem cells are likely to be at least partly protected by TBI fractionation and may hamper late engraftment. Similarly, but with possibly conflicting consequences on the probability of engraftment, the persistence of a functional marrow stroma may also be fractionation-sensitive, while higher rejection rates have been reported after T-depletion grafts and fractionated TBI. in clinical practice (as for performance of relevant clinical trials), the influence of these results are rather limited by the heavy logistic constraints created by a sophisticated and time-consuming procedure. Lastly, clinicians are now facing an increasing incidence of second cancers, at least partly induced by irradiation, which jeopardize the long-term prospects of otherwise cured patients. (authors)

  10. THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE CLIMATE DATA RECORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitte, Steven; Nevens, Stijn [Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-10

    We present the composite measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by an ensemble of space instruments. The measurements of the individual instruments are put on a common absolute scale, and their quality is assessed by intercomparison. The composite time series is the average of all available measurements. From 1984 April to the present the TSI shows a variation in phase with the 11 yr solar cycle and no significant changes of the quiet-Sun level in between the three covered solar minima.

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one

  13. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  14. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  15. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  16. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author) [es

  17. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A.; Boiron, M.; Bernard, Jean; Dutreix, A.; Dutreix, J.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  18. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references

  19. Renal toxicity after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin; Hughes, Timothy; Horvath, Noemi; Rice, Michael; Thomas, Anthony C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction after total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1997, 64 patients (median age 50 years) received TBI as part of the conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Five patients with abnormal renal function at the beginning of treatment or with incomplete data were excluded. All patients received a total of 12 Gy (6 fractions twice daily for 3 consecutive days) prescribed to the peak lung dose (corrected for lung transmission) at a dose rate of 7.5 cGy/min. Renal shielding was not used. Renal dysfunction was assessed on the basis of the serum creatinine levels measured at the start and end of TBI and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after completion of BMT. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate the various factors known to affect renal function. Results: Only 4 patients had elevated serum creatinine levels at 12 months and subsequently only 2 of the 33 surviving patients had persistent elevated renal serum creatinine levels 24 months after BMT. A fifth patient developed proteinuria and mildly elevated serum creatinine levels at 2.5 years. In 2 patients, the elevation coincided with disease relapse and normalized once remission was achieved. In the third patient, the elevation in serum creatinine levels coincided with relapse of multiple myeloma and the presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria. The fourth patient was the only patient who developed chronic renal failure secondary to radiation nephritis at 2 years. The etiology of the fifth patient's rise in creatinine was unknown, but may have been secondary to radiation nephritis. On univariate analysis, but not on multivariate analysis, a significant correlation was found between TBI-related renal dysfunction and hypertension before and after BMT. Conclusion: A dose of 12 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction resulted in only 1 case of radiation nephritis in the 59 patients studied 24 months after the completion of TBI and BMT

  20. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M; Zekovic, L; Belca, I

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  1. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation and total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, Koichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Midori; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Miura, Takashi; Kanamaru, Akihisa; Kakishita, Eizo; Kai, Shunro; Hara, Hiroshi (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    Between April 1980 and June 1989, 15 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were treated at Hyogo College of Medicine with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after preparation consisting of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or total body irradiation (TBI) for the purpose of reducing the incidence of graft rejection. All patients had initial evidence of engraftment after the first transplantation except for one patient who died of heart failure due to CY on the third day after transplantation and could not be evaluated for engraftment. Rejection later occurred in four of these 14 patients, who then underwent successful regrafting. One of these four patients, who was conditioned with CY alone at the first grafting, underwent successful regrafting after a conditioning regimen of CY and TBI. In the other three patients, irradiation was performed twice as the conditioning regimen. Thus, 14 of 15 patients underwent successful BMT and are alive with restored hematopoietic function. From the above results, the combination of TLI or TBI and CY was considered to be very useful as a conditioning regimen for BMT in patients with SAA. (author).

  3. Deployment and early results from the CanSIM (Canadian Solar Spectral Irradiance Meter) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsiankou, Viktar; Hinzer, Karin; Schriemer, Henry; McVey-White, Patrick; Beal, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Three of seven stations have been deployed as part of the Canadian Solar Spectral Irradiance (CanSIM) network situated in Ottawa, Varennes and Egbert to measure long term spectral variation of the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal irradiances (GHI) across the country. Every station is equipped with a solar tracker, SolarSIM-D2+, SolarSIM-G+, and SR20 pyranometer, reporting the spectral DNI, GHI, diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and aerosol optical depth in the 280-4000 nm range, broadband DNI, GHI, and DHI, atmospheric total column ozone and water vapour amounts. The spectral GHI as measured by the SolarSIM-G+ was within 5% as compared to EKO MS-700 spectroradiometer in 350-1050 nm range on 17 March 2017. The difference in the GHI as reported by SolarSIM-G+ and SR20 pyranometer from all stations was within 2% on 14 April 2017. Furthermore, on this day, the daily GHI sum for the Ottawa, Varennes, and Egbert stations was 7.01, 6.95, and 7.11 kWh/m2, respectively, while the daily DNI sum was 10.65, 10.86, 10.04 kWh/m2, respectively.

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy

  5. Spectral Monte Carlo simulation of collimated solar irradiation transfer in a water-filled prismatic louver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yaomin; Guo, Zhixiong

    2018-04-20

    The Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate the collimated solar irradiation transfer and energy harvest in a hollow louver made of silica glass and filled with water. The full solar spectrum from the air mass 1.5 database was adopted and divided into various discrete bands for spectral calculations. The band-averaged spectral properties for the silica glass and water were obtained. Ray tracing was employed to find the solar energy harvested by the louver. Computational efficiency and accuracy were examined through intensive comparisons of different band partition approaches, various photon numbers, and element divisions. The influence of irradiation direction on the solar energy harvest efficiency was scrutinized. It was found that within a 15° polar angle of incidence, the harvested solar energy in the louver was high, and the total absorption efficiency reached 61.2% under normal incidence for the current louver geometry.

  6. Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-02-01

    VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.

  7. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  8. SORCE XPS Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance 6-Hour Means V010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE XUV Photometer System (XPS) Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) 6-Hour Data Product SOR3XPS6 contains solar XUV irradiances in the 0.1 to 27 nm range, as well...

  9. Quality control of dosimetry in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, W.

    1986-11-01

    An on-line dose measurement system for the quality control of the treatment of leukemia by means of total body irradiation with Co-60 gamma radiation is introduced. An ionization chamber and 5 diodes arranged on the surface of the patient incorporated with a microprocessor provides useful information and data necessary for the treatment. Following the concerted treatment procedure employing this system, the treatment of leukemia by means of total body irradiation is expected to be improved

  10. Evaluation of the desert dust effects on global, direct and diffuse spectral ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of a strong desert dust episode over the Iberian Peninsula, and its effect on the spectral ultraviolet (UV irradiance in Granada, Spain. Remote sensing measurements, forecast models, and synoptic analysis are used to identify a Saharan desert dust outbreak that affected the Iberian Peninsula starting 20 July 2009. Additionally, a Bentham DMc150 spectroradiometer is employed to obtain global, direct and diffuse spectral UV irradiances every 15 minutes in Granada. The desert dust caused a large attenuation of the direct UV irradiance (up to 55%, while the diffuse UV irradiance increased up to 40% at 400 nm. The UVSPEC/LibRadtran radiative transfer model is used to study the spectral dependence of the experimental UV irradiance ratios (ratios of spectral irradiance for the day with the highest aerosol load to that measured in days with low–moderate load. The spectral increase or decrease of the UV direct irradiance ratios depends on a new parameter: a threshold wavelength. The spectral dependence of the UV diffuse irradiance ratio can be explained because under the influence of the intense dust outbreak, the Mie scattering by aerosols at shorter wavelengths is stronger than the Rayleigh scattering by gases. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the aerosol absorption properties shows a substantial attenuation of UV spectral irradiance with a weak spectral dependence.

  11. Spectral signature of ultraviolet solar irradiance in Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo V, J. L; Mireles G, F; Rios M, C; Quirino T, L. L; Davila R, J. I [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This study presents an analysis of the global ultraviolet spectral irradiance (290-400 nm) registered in Zacatecas, a city near the Tropic of Cancer, located at 2500 m above sea level, latitude of 22 degrees N and longitude of 102 degrees W. The spectra have been measured using a Bentham radiometer with a 0.5 nm step in wavelength. The measurements show relatively high levels of ultraviolet irradiance (UV), which may be characteristic of areas close to the Tropic of Cancer. Faced with an increase of the incidence of skin cancer among the population of Zacatecas, these measurements highlight that a damage prevention plan is required. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un analisis de la radiacion espectral global ultravioleta (290-400 nm) registrada en Zacatecas, una ciudad vecina al tropico de cancer, situada a 2500 m sobre el nivel del mar, latitud de 22 grados N y longitud de 102 grados O. Los espectros correspondientes han sido medidos mediante un espectroradiometro Bentham con un paso de 0.5 nm de longitud de onda. Las mediciones muestran niveles de radiacion ultravioleta (UV) relativamente elevados, que pueden ser caracteristicos de las zonas vecinas al tropico de cancer. Frente al aumento de incidencia de cancer en la piel en la poblacion del estado de Zacatecas, estas mediciones ponen en relieve la necesidad de formular un plan preventivo de danos.

  12. Reconstruction of solar spectral surface UV irradiances using radiative transfer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Anders; Heikkilä, Anu; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    UV radiation exerts several effects concerning life on Earth, and spectral information on the prevailing UV radiation conditions is needed in order to study each of these effects. In this paper, we present a method for reconstruction of solar spectral UV irradiances at the Earth's surface. The method, which is a further development of an earlier published method for reconstruction of erythemally weighted UV, relies on radiative transfer simulations, and takes as input (1) the effective cloud optical depth as inferred from pyranometer measurements of global radiation (300-3000 nm); (2) the total ozone column; (3) the surface albedo as estimated from measurements of snow depth; (4) the total water vapor column; and (5) the altitude of the location. Reconstructed daily cumulative spectral irradiances at Jokioinen and Sodankylä in Finland are, in general, in good agreement with measurements. The mean percentage difference, for instance, is mostly within +/-8%, and the root mean square of the percentage difference is around 10% or below for wavelengths over 310 nm and daily minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 70 degrees . In this study, we used pseudospherical radiative transfer simulations, which were shown to improve the performance of our method under large SZA (low Sun).

  13. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  14. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  15. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  16. Acute tolerance of hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latz, D.; Schraube, P.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Acute side effects of total body irradiation lead to intense molestations of the patients. Therefore, it is desirable to take measures to reduce these side effects. In a retrospective study the frequency on acute side effects of a hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation was assessed and compared to frequencies of other exposure schedules published in the literature. Additionally the influence of ondansetron on the frequency of nausea and vormiting was investigated. Patients and Method: From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologeous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days to a total dose of 14,40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3x8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation. Results: The most relevant side effects were nausea and vomiting. Patients, who did not receive ondansetron (n=37) showed a nausea and emesis rate of 73%. With ondansetron (n=39) nausea and emesis were reduced to 38%. Also the grade of severity of these side effects was reduced. Conclusions: Ondansetron proved to be an effective medicament for relieving nausea and vormiting during total body irradiation. The results obtained are in concordance with those published in the literature. (orig.) [de

  17. Visible Near-infrared Spectral Evolution of Irradiated Mixed Ices and Application to Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Michael J.; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Brown, Michael E.; Carlson, Robert W.; Eiler, John M.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Wong, Ian

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the history of Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans will help to constrain models of solar system formation and dynamical evolution. Laboratory simulations of a possible thermal and irradiation history of these bodies were conducted on ice mixtures while monitoring their spectral properties. These simulations tested the hypothesis that the presence or absence of sulfur explains the two distinct visible near-infrared spectral groups observed in each population and that Trojans and KBOs share a common formation location. Mixed ices consisting of water, methanol, and ammonia, in mixtures both with and without hydrogen sulfide, were deposited and irradiated with 10 keV electrons. Deposition and initial irradiation were performed at 50 K to simulate formation at 20 au in the early solar system, then heated to Trojan-like temperatures and irradiated further. Finally, irradiation was concluded and resulting samples were observed during heating to room temperature. Results indicated that the presence of sulfur resulted in steeper spectral slopes. Heating through the 140–200 K range decreased the slopes and total reflectance for both mixtures. In addition, absorption features at 410, 620, and 900 nm appeared under irradiation, but only in the H2S-containing mixture. These features were lost with heating once irradiation was concluded. While the results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis, additional work is needed to address uncertainties and to simulate conditions not included in the present work.

  18. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  19. Properties of solar gravity mode signals in total irradiance observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, R.J.; Chen, J.; Hill, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence has been found that a significant fraction of the gravity mode power density in the total irradiance observations appears in sidebands of classified eigenfrequencies. These sidebands whose amplitudes vary from year to year are interpreted as harmonics of the rotational frequencies of the nonuniform solar surface. These findings are for non axisymmetric modes and corroborate the findings of Kroll, Hill and Chen for axisymmetric modes. It is demonstrated the the generation of the sidebands lifts the usual restriction on the parity of the eigenfunctions for modes detectable in total irradiance observations. 14 refs

  20. Solar Spectral Irradiance Reconstruction over 9 Millennia from a Composite 14C and 10Be Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. J.; Usoskin, I. G.; Krivova, N.; Kovaltsov, G.; Solanki, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is the main external energy source to the Earth and thus the knowledge of solar variability on different time scales is important for understanding the solar influence on the terrestrial atmosphere and climate. The overall energy input and its spectral distribution are described by the total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) solar irradiance, respectively. Direct measurements of the solar irradiance provide information on solar variability on the decadal and shorter time scales, while the sunspot number record covers four centuries. On yet longer time scales only indirect proxies can be used, such as the concentrations of the cosmogenic isotopes 10Be and 14C in terrestrial archives. These isotopes are produced in the terrestrial atmosphere by impinging cosmic rays, whose flux is modulated by solar activity. Therefore the isotope data retrieved from various natural archives around the globe show a very high degree of similarity reflecting changes in the solar activity. Nevertheless, significant short-term deviations can be observed due to the different geochemical production processes and local climatic conditions. We will present the newest TSI/SSI reconstruction over the last 9000 years based on a new consistent composite multi-isotope proxy series. The solar irradiance reconstruction reveals the global and robust pattern of solar variability in the past.

  1. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk

  2. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  3. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis

  4. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term emissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites

  5. Action Spectra of Microalgal Photosynthesis and Depth Distribution of Spectral Scalar Irradiance in a Coastal Marine Sediment of Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PLOUG, H.; LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1993-01-01

    for photosynthesis and spectral scalar irradiance, E0, were measured directly in the sediment at a spatial resolution of 0.1 mm by the use of oxygen and light microsensors. The action spectrum for the diatoms was similar to the attenuation spectrum of the scalar irradiance, K0, in the diatom layer with Chl...... to calculate the spectral quality for photosynthesis of the 400-700 nm light to which the two populations were exposed. This spectral quality was compared to that of the light incident on the sediment surface. Due to preferential extinction of wavelengths, at which their photosynthetically active pigments had...... populations, and that total light intensity and the chemical microenvironment are probably more important factors....

  6. Collagen synthesis in CBA mouse heart after total thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.C.; Parkins, C.S.; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton

    1988-01-01

    CBA mice were irradiated to the whole thorax with single doses of 240 kVp X-rays in the dose range 8-16 Gy. Collagen and total protein synthesis rates in the heart were measured at 2-monthly intervals using a radio-isotope incorporation techniques. Doses of 10 Gy or greater caused a slight increase in collagen synthesis, followed by significantly reduced collagen synthesis by 16 weeks or longer after treatment. The depression in synthesis appeared correspondingly earlier with increasing dose. Total protein synthesis in heart followed similar patterns although changes were not statistically significant, indicating that the changes reflected alterations to collagen synthesis specifally, and not protein synthesis in geneal. Total hydroxyproline measurements showed no significant changes in heart collagen at any time as a result of X-irradiation. 18 refs.; 7 figs

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), NRLSSI Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains solar spectral irradiance (SSI) as a function of time and wavelength created with the Naval Research Laboratory model for...

  8. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  9. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  10. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V022

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  11. Risk management in radiotherapy: analysis for total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banguero, Y., E-mail: ybanguero@cin.edu.uy [Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Píriz, G.; Guerrero, L.; Cardozo, L.; Quarneti, A. [Centro Hospital Pereira Rossell, Montevideo (Uruguay); Nader, A. [Autoridad Reguladora Nacional de Radioprotección, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Management of risk in any technique that is using radiation energy is very important to prevent incidents and accidents. Pretending evaluate the risk in the all process of Total Body Irradiation (TBI), this work present a risk matrix with different possible events than could occur. Methods: SEVRRA-R platform that run in windows is using to build a risk matrix separating the process of TBI in commissioning, prescription, planning and delivering dose. Any stage has a procedure with different errors associated. We build a matrix using all this information to evaluate the kind of risk we have in the technique. Results: It was obtained a template that describes in general the process of TBI with principles events, barriers and consequences. Conclusion: Analyzing the risk in any stage of the process in Total Body irradiation is a useful tool to understand the key points to work in safety for this technique. (author)

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  13. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease

  14. Method for estimating effects of unknown correlations in spectral irradiance data on uncertainties of spectrally integrated colorimetric quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärhä, Petri; Vaskuri, Anna; Mäntynen, Henrik; Mikkonen, Nikke; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    Spectral irradiance data are often used to calculate colorimetric properties, such as color coordinates and color temperatures of light sources by integration. The spectral data may contain unknown correlations that should be accounted for in the uncertainty estimation. We propose a new method for estimating uncertainties in such cases. The method goes through all possible scenarios of deviations using Monte Carlo analysis. Varying spectral error functions are produced by combining spectral base functions, and the distorted spectra are used to calculate the colorimetric quantities. Standard deviations of the colorimetric quantities at different scenarios give uncertainties assuming no correlations, uncertainties assuming full correlation, and uncertainties for an unfavorable case of unknown correlations, which turn out to be a significant source of uncertainty. With 1% standard uncertainty in spectral irradiance, the expanded uncertainty of the correlated color temperature of a source corresponding to the CIE Standard Illuminant A may reach as high as 37.2 K in unfavorable conditions, when calculations assuming full correlation give zero uncertainty, and calculations assuming no correlations yield the expanded uncertainties of 5.6 K and 12.1 K, with wavelength steps of 1 nm and 5 nm used in spectral integrations, respectively. We also show that there is an absolute limit of 60.2 K in the error of the correlated color temperature for Standard Illuminant A when assuming 1% standard uncertainty in the spectral irradiance. A comparison of our uncorrelated uncertainties with those obtained using analytical methods by other research groups shows good agreement. We re-estimated the uncertainties for the colorimetric properties of our 1 kW photometric standard lamps using the new method. The revised uncertainty of color temperature is a factor of 2.5 higher than the uncertainty assuming no correlations.

  15. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis

  16. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy

  17. Dosimetric verification of helical tomotherapy for total scalp irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Soisson, Emilie; Metcalfe, Peter; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2008-01-01

    Total scalp irradiation is a treatment technique used for a variety of superficial malignancies. Helical tomotherapy is an effective technique used for total scalp irradiation. Recent published work has shown the TomoTherapy planning system to overestimate the superficial dose. In this study, the superficial doses for a helical tomotherapy total scalp irradiation have been measured on an anthropomorphic phantom using radiochromic and radiographic film as well as a new skin dosimeter, the MOSkin. The superficial dose was found to be accurately calculated by the TomoTherapy planning system. This is in contrast to recent reports, probably due to a combination of the smaller dose grid resolution used in planning and this particular treatment primarily consisting of beamlets tangential to the scalp. The superficial dose was found to increase from 33.6 to 41.2 Gy and 36.0 to 42.0 Gy over the first 2 mm depth in the phantom in selected regions of the PTV, measured with radiochromic film. The prescription dose was 40 Gy. The superficial dose was at the prescription dose or higher in some regions due to the bolus effect of the thermoplastic head mask and the head rest used to aid treatment setup. It is suggested that to achieve the prescription dose at the surface (≤2 mm depth) bolus or a custom thermoplastic helmet is used.

  18. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments

  20. FIVE YEARS OF SYNTHESIS OF SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE FROM SDID/SISA AND SDO /AIA IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenla, J. M. [NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Codrescu, M. [Space Weather Prediction Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Fedrizzi, M.; Fuller-Rowell, T. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hill, F. [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Climate and Space Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Woods, T., E-mail: johnf@digidyna.com [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the synthetic solar spectral irradiance (SSI) calculated from 2010 to 2015 using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. We used the algorithms for solar disk image decomposition (SDID) and the spectral irradiance synthesis algorithm (SISA) that we had developed over several years. The SDID algorithm decomposes the images of the solar disk into areas occupied by nine types of chromospheric and 5 types of coronal physical structures. With this decomposition and a set of pre-computed angle-dependent spectra for each of the features, the SISA algorithm is used to calculate the SSI. We discuss the application of the basic SDID/SISA algorithm to a subset of the AIA images and the observed variation occurring in the 2010–2015 period of the relative areas of the solar disk covered by the various solar surface features. Our results consist of the SSI and total solar irradiance variations over the 2010–2015 period. The SSI results include soft X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and far-infrared observations and can be used for studies of the solar radiative forcing of the Earth’s atmosphere. These SSI estimates were used to drive a thermosphere–ionosphere physical simulation model. Predictions of neutral mass density at low Earth orbit altitudes in the thermosphere and peak plasma densities at mid-latitudes are in reasonable agreement with the observations. The correlation between the simulation results and the observations was consistently better when fluxes computed by SDID/SISA procedures were used.

  1. A Fundamental Study on Spectrum Center Estimation of Solar Spectral Irradiation by the Statistical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Aya; Suzuki, Kazumi; Wakao, Shinji; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Usami, Akira

    With a background of environmental problems and energy issues, it is expected that PV systems will be introduced rapidly and connected with power grids on a large scale in the future. For this reason, the concern to which PV power generation will affect supply and demand adjustment in electric power in the future arises and the technique of correctly grasping the PV power generation becomes increasingly important. The PV power generation depends on solar irradiance, temperature of a module and solar spectral irradiance. Solar spectral irradiance is distribution of the strength of the light for every wavelength. As the spectrum sensitivity of solar cell depends on kind of solar cell, it becomes important for exact grasp of PV power generation. Especially the preparation of solar spectral irradiance is, however, not easy because the observational instrument of solar spectral irradiance is expensive. With this background, in this paper, we propose a new method based on statistical pattern recognition for estimating the spectrum center which is representative index of solar spectral irradiance. Some numerical examples obtained by the proposed method are also presented.

  2. Immunosuppression and tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Slavin, S.; King, D.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Fuks, Z.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in humans and in several species of inbred and outbred laboratory animals have been investigated. A unique property of TLI, the prevention of the graft vs. host disease, was used to induce transplantation tolerance in order to study the mechanism of altered immunity when the celluar basis of the TLI-induced immunosuppression was examined by means of the mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), no suppression of the MLR was observed when spleen cells from unirradiated or whole body-irradiated donors were used instead of donors given TLI. These results indicated that TLI induces a population of cells in the spleen that can nonspecifically suppress the MLR

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Spectral Irradiance Reference Standards Used for NREL Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Campanelli, M.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral irradiance produced by lamp standards such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FEL-type tungsten halogen lamps are used to calibrate spectroradiometers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Spectroradiometers are often used to characterize spectral irradiance of solar simulators, which in turn are used to characterize photovoltaic device performance, e.g., power output and spectral response. Therefore, quantifying the calibration uncertainty of spectroradiometers is critical to understanding photovoltaic system performance. In this study, we attempted to reproduce the NIST-reported input variables, including the calibration uncertainty in spectral irradiance for a standard NIST lamp, and quantify uncertainty for measurement setup at the Optical Metrology Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  5. An algorithm to evaluate solar irradiance and effective dose rates using spectral UV irradiance at four selected wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anav, A.; Rafanelli, C.; Di Menno, I.; Di Menno, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows a semi-analytical method for environmental and dosimetric applications to evaluate, in clear sky conditions, the solar irradiance and the effective dose rates for some action spectra using only four spectral irradiance values at selected wavelengths in the UV-B and UV-A regions (305, 320, 340 and 380 nm). The method, named WL4UV, is based on the reconstruction of an approximated spectral irradiance that can be integrated, to obtain the solar irradiance, or convoluted with an action spectrum to obtain an effective dose rate. The parameters required in the algorithm are deduced from archived solar spectral irradiance data. This database contains measurements carried out by some Brewer spectrophotometers located in various geographical positions, at similar altitudes, with very different environmental characteristics: Rome (Italy), Ny Aalesund (Svalbard Islands (Norway)) and Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)). To evaluate the precision of the method, a double test was performed with data not used in developing the model. Archived Brewer measurement data, in clear sky conditions, from Rome and from the National Science Foundation UV data set in San Diego (CA, USA) and Ushuaia, where SUV 100 spectro-radiometers operate, were drawn randomly. The comparison of measured and computed irradiance has a relative deviation of about ±2%. The effective dose rates for action spectra of Erythema, DNA and non-Melanoma skin cancer have a relative deviation of less than ∼20% for solar zenith angles <50 deg.. (authors)

  6. Modelling the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations using an ANN-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Elizondo, D.; García-Domingo, B.; Nofuentes, G.; Talavera, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that in sunny inland locations artificial intelligence techniques may provide an estimation of the spectral irradiance with adequate accuracy for photovoltaic applications. An ANN (artificial neural network) based method was developed, trained and tested to model the spectral distributions between wavelengths ranging from 350 to 1050 nm. Only commonly available input data such as geographical information regarding location, specific date and time together with horizontal global irradiance and ambient temperature are required. Historical information from a 24-month experimental campaign carried out in Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data to train and test the ANN tool. A Kohonen self-organized map was used as innovative technique to classify the whole input dataset and build a small and representative training dataset. The shape of the spectral irradiance distribution, the in-plane global irradiance (G T ) and irradiation (H T ) and the APE (average photon energy) values obtained through the ANN method were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In terms of shape distribution fitting, the mean relative deformation error stays below 4.81%. The root mean square percentage error is around 6.89% and 0.45% when estimating G T and APE, respectively. Regarding H T , errors lie below 3.18% in all cases. - Highlights: • ANN-based model to estimate the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations. • MRDE value stay below 4.81% in spectral irradiance distribution shape fitting. • RMSPE is about 6.89% for the in-plane global irradiance and 0.45% for the average photon energy. • Errors stay below 3.18% for all the months of the year in incident irradiation terms. • Improvement of assessment of the impact of the solar spectrum in the performance of a PV module

  7. SAFARI 2000 AERONET-derived Diffuse Spectral Irradiance for Eight Core Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains monthly mean values of diffuse irradiance fraction [f(Ediff), or ratio of diffuse-to-total irradiance] at ground level for a 30-degree solar...

  8. Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) Solar Spectral Irradiance V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) level-2 irradiance data are available for eight space shuttle missions flown between 1989 and 1996. SSBUV, a...

  9. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  10. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS

  11. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  12. Treatment of neuroblastoma. Role of total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, G; Perin, G P; Franzone, P; Corvo, R; Scarpati, D

    1986-01-01

    Advanced neuroblastoma, scarcely responsive to conventional therapies, can take advantage of high dose chemio-radiotherapic treatment followed by bone marrow transplant. Nineteen young patients underwent an ablative chemotherapy with high dose Vincristine and Melphalan plus Total Body Irradiation in Genoa, Italy; all of them underwent autologus bone marrow transplantation. Fourteen children were in complete remission (CR), 5 had residual disease. Thirteen are alive after a median of 7 months following transplant; 9 are in CR; 4 have disease; 1 died for toxicity; 5 for relapse. The results seem to suggest that ablative therapy should be given to patients in CR. Toxicity was not remarkable mainly as far as TBI is concerned.

  13. Introduction of transplantation tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation: cellular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; King, D.P.; Gottlieb, M.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    High-dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a safe, routine regimen used to treat patients with lymphoid malignancies. Although few side effects are associated with the regimen, a profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity is observed for several years after therapy, as judged by both in vivo and in vitro assays. A profound immunosuppression has also been observed in mice and rats given TLI. Recently, we have achieved similar results using TLI in nonmatched bone marrow transplantation in outbred dogs. The experimental work in animals and underlying cellular mechanisms are reviewed here

  14. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values

  15. Comparison of three techniques for skin total irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Delano V.S.; Bardella, Lucia H.; Rosa, Luiz A.R. da

    2011-01-01

    This paper compared three techniques of skin total irradiation with electrons: 1) horizontal positioning, 2) vertical positioning - rotatory technique and 3) vertical positioning - six fields technique. For that, a anthropomorphic phantom was positioned according to the recommendation for each technique and was i radiated at the linear accelerator by using the 6 MeV electrons. Radiochromic films were positioned on the surface in various regions of the phantom for measurement of absorbed dose. A ionization chamber was positioned inside of equivalent issue plates for dose evaluation due to the photons produced by electron stopping. The technique 2 and 3 have shown too similar in the results and number or discrepant points (8 and 10 respectively) of prescription lower than the technique 1 (22 points). The total body dose of photons of the 1, 2 and 3 techniques was 2.2%, 5.3% and 5.2% respectively

  16. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Recent Characterization of the Night-Sky Irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.

  18. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  19. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  20. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  1. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation

  2. Design principles and field performance of a solar spectral irradiance meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsiankou, V.; Hinzer, K.; Haysom, J.; Schriemer, H.; Emery, K.; Beal, R.

    2016-08-01

    A solar spectral irradiance meter (SSIM), designed for measuring the direct normal irradiance (DNI) in six wavelength bands, has been combined with models to determine key atmospheric transmittances and the resulting spectral irradiance distribution of DNI under all sky conditions. The design principles of the SSIM, implementation of a parameterized transmittance model, and field performance comparisons of modeled solar spectra with reference radiometer measurements are presented. Two SSIMs were tested and calibrated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) against four spectroradiometers and an absolute cavity radiometer. The SSIMs' DNI was on average within 1% of the DNI values reported by one of NREL's primary absolute cavity radiometers. An additional SSIM was installed at the SUNLAB Outdoor Test Facility in September 2014, with ongoing collection of environmental and spectral data. The SSIM's performance in Ottawa was compared against a commercial pyrheliometer and a spectroradiometer over an eight month study. The difference in integrated daily spectral irradiance between the SSIM and the ASD spectroradiometer was found to be less than 1%. The cumulative energy density collected by the SSIM over this duration agreed with that measured by an Eppley model NIP pyrheliometer to within 0.5%. No degradation was observed.

  3. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  4. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients

  5. Rotational total skin electron irradiation with a linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Devic, Slobodan; Parker, William; Freeman, Carolyn R.; Roberge, David; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2008-01-01

    The rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) technique at our institution has undergone several developments over the past few years. Replacement of the formerly used linear accelerator has prompted many modifications to the previous technique. With the current technique, the patient is treated with a single large field while standing on a rotating platform, at a source‐to‐surface distance of 380 cm. The electron field is produced by a Varian 21EX linear accelerator using the commercially available 6 MeV high dose rate total skin electron mode, along with a custom‐built flattening filter. Ionization chambers, radiochromic film, and MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) detectors have been used to determine the dosimetric properties of this technique. Measurements investigating the stationary beam properties, the effects of full rotation, and the dose distributions to a humanoid phantom are reported. The current treatment technique and dose regimen are also described. PACS numbers: 87.55.ne, 87.53.Hv, 87.53.Mr

  6. Total body irradiation: what schedule(s). Les irradiations corporelles totales: quel(s) schema(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J M [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why a whole-body irradiation is still an essential step before a bone marrow graft. He presents irradiation protocols for acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. 14 refs.

  7. Feasibility study of helical tomotherapy for total body or total marrow irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Susanta K.; Kapatoes, Jeff; Fowler, Jack; Henderson, Douglas; Olivera, Gustavo; Manon, Rafael R.; Gerbi, Bruce; Mackie, T. R.; Welsh, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Total body radiation (TBI) has been used for many years as a preconditioning agent before bone marrow transplantation. Many side effects still plague its use. We investigated the planning and delivery of total body irradiation (TBI) and selective total marrow irradiation (TMI) and a reduced radiation dose to sensitive structures using image-guided helical tomotherapy. To assess the feasibility of using helical tomotherapy (A) we studied variations in pitch, field width, and modulation factor on total body and total marrow helical tomotherapy treatments. We varied these parameters to provide a uniform dose along with a treatment times similar to conventional TBI (15-30 min). (B) We also investigated limited (head, chest, and pelvis) megavoltage CT (MVCT) scanning for the dimensional pretreatment setup verification rather than total body MVCT scanning to shorten the overall treatment time per treatment fraction. (C) We placed thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) inside a Rando phantom to measure the dose at seven anatomical sites, including the lungs. A simulated TBI treatment showed homogeneous dose coverage (±10%) to the whole body. Doses to the sensitive organs were reduced by 35%-70% of the target dose. TLD measurements on Rando showed an accurate dose delivery (±7%) to the target and critical organs. In the TMI study, the dose was delivered conformally to the bone marrow only. The TBI and TMI treatment delivery time was reduced (by 50%) by increasing the field width from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in the inferior-superior direction. A limited MVCT reduced the target localization time 60% compared to whole body MVCT. MVCT image-guided helical tomotherapy offers a novel method to deliver a precise, homogeneous radiation dose to the whole body target while reducing the dose significantly to all critical organs. A judicious selection of pitch, modulation factor, and field size is required to produce a homogeneous dose distribution along with an acceptable treatment time. In

  8. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah

    1999-01-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy

  9. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis

  10. Positioning variations of the lungs shields during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Marcie, S.; Boulabeiz, A.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    During total body irradiation, the patient is entirely exposed to radiation and the dose to lungs have to be limited. Personalized shields are make and set between the source and the patient, in front of lungs. The patient and the shields set up are checked before the treatment session with radiographs. Verification films are performed during the treatment sessions with anterior and posterior beams. During the treatment session, the patient may move and his relative positioning can change. Also, for each daily session treatment, his positioning could be different. One way to determine position discrepancies of the shields lungs is to analyse verification films. A study has been achieved comparing positions of lungs and shields edges in digitised simulator and digitised verification images. Discrepancies on distance and angle between similar anatomical landmarks in both images are determined by applying a least squares minimisation approach. In this study, which concerns 29 patients, distance discrepancies are founded from 1,5 to 12,6 mm for the anterior beams and from 1,8 to 15,3 mm for the posterior beams. Angle discrepancies are founded from 0 to 2 degrees

  11. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis.

  12. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  13. Uncertainty Model for Total Solar Irradiance Estimation on Australian Rooftops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadi, Hassan; Zivanovic, Rastko; Al-Sarawi, Said

    2017-11-01

    The installations of solar panels on Australian rooftops have been in rise for the last few years, especially in the urban areas. This motivates academic researchers, distribution network operators and engineers to accurately address the level of uncertainty resulting from grid-connected solar panels. The main source of uncertainty is the intermittent nature of radiation, therefore, this paper presents a new model to estimate the total radiation incident on a tilted solar panel. Where a probability distribution factorizes clearness index, the model is driven upon clearness index with special attention being paid for Australia with the utilization of best-fit-correlation for diffuse fraction. The assessment of the model validity is achieved with the adoption of four goodness-of-fit techniques. In addition, the Quasi Monte Carlo and sparse grid methods are used as sampling and uncertainty computation tools, respectively. High resolution data resolution of solar irradiations for Adelaide city were used for this assessment, with an outcome indicating a satisfactory agreement between actual data variation and model.

  14. Design and characteristics of a 4 MV total body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, W.R.; Chin, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A facility for total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) has been built using two 4 MV linear accelerators, one mounted under the ceiling, the other in a floor-pit. The distance between the two sources is 410 cm to produce a field size of 200 cm x 75 cm in the midplane. This field covers the patient, lying supine on a stretcher halfway between the sources. Components from commercially available accelerators were used. Special beam hardening and flattening filters were built to achieve acceptable dose profiles in the large field. The primary collimator was modified to produce a 235 cm x 92 cm field at 205 cm from the source, while movable focused collimators were designed to define fields up to 220 cm x 80 cm. Because of the wide beams, large rectangular parallel-plate ionization chambers were built to serve as beam monitors. The dose rate at 205 cm distance from the sources can be set between 5 and 80 cGy/min, each machine contributing half. The dosimetric characteristics are practically the same for both units. The per cent depth dose for the TBI beams is 76% at a source-surface distance of 195 cm. The half value layer decreases by 12% from the centre to near the edge of the beam. Owing to the large field size, the surface dose for the TBI beams is about 80% of the dose at 1 cm depth. The dose delivery has been verified to be within 2% of the calculated value at the reference point in a homogeneous water humanoid phantom. Measurements indicate that lung doses can be predicted by the ratio-of-TMR (tissue-to-maximum ratio) method with acceptable accuracy. Lead sheets are used as attenuators to prevent excessive lung doses. (author). 7 refs, 7 figs

  15. 'Mini' total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.; Sergieva, K.; Koleva, I.; Avramova, V.; Vassileva, V.; Georgieva, S.; Sultanov, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The total body irradiation (TBI) combined with intensive chemotherapy plays an important role in the preparation of patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first autologous BMT in Bulgaria was performed in 1997 in the Specialized Pediatric Hospital for Active Treatment (SPHAT) of oncohematological diseases. The first TBI, followed by allogeneic BMT, was carried out in 2002 in the 'Queen Giovanna' University Hospital, after which its routine application as a basic form of large field radiotherapy and a main stage of the conditioning regimen for BMT was started. Fourteen allogeneic BMTs including TBI as a basic conditioning regimen have been performed till May 2006. The objective of the present report is to present the first clinical observations in the Bulgarian oncological practice on 'mini' TBI followed by allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation. During the period October 2005 - May 2006, 'mini' TBI followed by allogeneic BMT was carried out for two patients of the age 43 and 50 years. The diagnosis of both patients was acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in the remission stage, after one relapse, respectively. Intensive preceding chemotherapy was applied for both patients. A conditioning regimen was applied including the fludarabine purine analogue (3 x 30 mg/m 2 ) and 200 cGy TBI. It was followed by transplantation of allogeneic cell concentrate containing 2.5 x10 6 /kg CD34+ and 4.0 x10 6 /kg CD34+ blood stem cells of partially compatible family donors (a sister and a son), which were tolerable for the patients without complications. Cyclosporine and mycophelonate mofetile were applied as post-transplantation treatment. Active antibiotic, antiviral, symptomatic and substituting therapy, as well as GvHD prophylaxis was applied for both patients. Good clinical tolerance was recorded for the applied low dose conditioning regimen. The patients were discharged within 30 days in good general condition and stable draft action, with

  16. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  17. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 ± 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 ± 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers

  18. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 {+-} 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 {+-} 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers.

  19. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  20. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  1. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  2. Osteochondroma after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Go; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ohtomo, Katsuyuki; Takayama, Jun; Beppu, Yasuo; Fukuma, Hisatoshi; Ohira, Mutsuro

    1996-01-01

    We present two cases of osteochondroma after total body irradiation in bone marrow recipients, the first in a 6-year-old boy with juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia and the second in a 13-year-old boy with acute myelogenous leukemia. The patients developed multiple osteochondromas three years and seven years, respectively, after 12 Gy of total body irradiation. Neither had a family history of hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis. A review of the English literature revealed only one report describing five cases of osteochondroma after 12 Gy of total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Osteochondroma should be considered as an additional adverse effect of total body irradiation. (author)

  3. Uncertainty of rotating shadowband irradiometers and Si-pyranometers including the spectral irradiance error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Stefan; Kleindiek, Stefan; Nouri, Bijan; Geuder, Norbert; Habte, Aron; Schwandt, Marko; Vignola, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power projects require accurate direct normal irradiance (DNI) data including uncertainty specifications for plant layout and cost calculations. Ground measured data are necessary to obtain the required level of accuracy and are often obtained with Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (RSI) that use photodiode pyranometers and correction functions to account for systematic effects. The uncertainty of Si-pyranometers has been investigated, but so far basically empirical studies were published or decisive uncertainty influences had to be estimated based on experience in analytical studies. One of the most crucial estimated influences is the spectral irradiance error because Si-photodiode-pyranometers only detect visible and color infrared radiation and have a spectral response that varies strongly within this wavelength interval. Furthermore, analytic studies did not discuss the role of correction functions and the uncertainty introduced by imperfect shading. In order to further improve the bankability of RSI and Si-pyranometer data, a detailed uncertainty analysis following the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has been carried out. The study defines a method for the derivation of the spectral error and spectral uncertainties and presents quantitative values of the spectral and overall uncertainties. Data from the PSA station in southern Spain was selected for the analysis. Average standard uncertainties for corrected 10 min data of 2 % for global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and 2.9 % for DNI (for GHI and DNI over 300 W/m²) were found for the 2012 yearly dataset when separate GHI and DHI calibration constants were used. Also the uncertainty in 1 min resolution was analyzed. The effect of correction functions is significant. The uncertainties found in this study are consistent with results of previous empirical studies.

  4. Results of neutron measurements in the spectral position of the Juelich FKS steel irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.

    1986-10-01

    This is a report on the planning and results of neutron monitoring in the capsules of the Juelich steel irradiation for the research project on component safety (FKS). The table of results and their discussion is provided specifically for the spectral positions (for characterising the neutron spectrum) in each of the types of irradiation capsules used. The results are given for the reaction rates of the neutron measurement reactions used (activation or fission reactions), for the neutron flux densities and fluxes derived from them related to the actual or at least plausible neutron spectra and finally for the radiation damage (or exposure) of the irradiated material calculated from them, expressed as the atomic displacement figure (dpa) and its percentage in sections of the neutron spectrum. (orig.) [de

  5. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  6. Improving Soft X-Ray Spectral Irradiance Models for Use Throughout the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Thiemann, E.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of solar variability on planetary atmospheres has been hindered by the lack of accurate models and measurements of the soft x-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance (0-6 nm). Most measurements of the SXR have been broadband and are difficult to interpret due to changing spectral distribution under the pass band of the instruments. Models that use reference spectra for quiet sun, active region, and flaring contributions to irradiance have been made, but with limited success. The recent Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat made spectral measurements in the 0.04 - 3 nm range from June 2016 to May 2017, observing the Sun at many different levels of activity. In addition, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) has observed the Sun since May 2010, in both broad bands (including a band at 0-7 nm) and spectrally resolved (6-105 nm at 0.1 nm resolution). We will present an improved model of the SXR based on new reference spectra from MinXSS and SDO-EVE. The non-flaring portion of the model is driven by broadband SXR measurements for determining activity level and relative contributions of quiet and active sun. Flares are modeled using flare temperatures from the GOES X-Ray Sensors. The improved SXR model can be driven by any sensors that provide a measure of activity level and flare temperature from any vantage point in the solar system. As an example, a version of the model is using the broadband solar irradiance measurements from the MAVEN EUV Monitor at Mars will be presented.

  7. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  8. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  9. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Pawel, J.E.; Heatherly, D.W.; Sitterson, R.G.; Wallace, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB * capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400 degrees C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60 degrees C capsule, where the test specimens were in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a thin gap region between the specimen holder outer sleeve and containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330 degrees C capsules, which started on July 17, 1990, was completed on November 14, 1992, after 24 cycles of irradiation to an incremental damage level of approximately 10.9 displacements per atom (dpa). Assembly of the follow-up 200 and 400 degrees C capsules was completed in November 1992, and their planned 20-cycle irradiation to approximately 9.1 incremental dpa was started on November 21, 1992. As of February 11, 1993, the 200 and 400 degrees C capsules had successfully completed three cycles of irradiation to approximately 1.4 incremental dpa

  10. Assessment of performances of sun zenith angle and altitude parameterisations of atmospheric radiative transfer for spectral surface downwelling solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, L.; Blanc, Ph.

    2010-09-01

    Satellite-derived assessments of surface downwelling solar irradiance are more and more used by engineering companies in solar energy. Performances are judged satisfactory for the time being. Nevertheless, requests for more accuracy are increasing, in particular in the spectral definition and in the decomposition of the global radiation into direct and diffuse radiations. One approach to reach this goal is to improve both the modelling of the radiative transfer and the quality of the inputs describing the optical state. Within their joint project Heliosat-4, DLR and MINES ParisTech have adopted this approach to create advanced databases of solar irradiance succeeding to the current ones HelioClim and SolEMi. Regarding the model, we have opted for libRadtran, a well-known model of proven quality. As many similar models, running libRadtran is very time-consuming when it comes to process millions or more pixels or grid cells. This is incompatible with real-time operational process. One may adopt the abacus approach, or look-up tables, to overcome the problem. The model is run for a limited number of cases, covering the whole range of values taken by the various inputs of the model. Abaci are such constructed. For each real case, the irradiance value is computed by interpolating within the abaci. In this way, real-time can be envisioned. Nevertheless, the computation of the abaci themselves requires large computing capabilities. In addition, searching the abaci to find the values to interpolate can be time-consuming as the abaci are very large: several millions of values in total. Moreover, it raises the extrapolation problem of parameter out-of-range during the utilisation of the abaci. Parameterisation, when possible, is a means to reduce the amount of computations to be made and subsequently, the computation effort to create the abaci, the size of the abaci, the extrapolation and the searching time. It describes in analytical manner and with a few parameters the

  11. Making of a solar spectral irradiance dataset I: observations, uncertainties, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöll Micha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Changes in the spectral solar irradiance (SSI are a key driver of the variability of the Earth’s environment, strongly affecting the upper atmosphere, but also impacting climate. However, its measurements have been sparse and of different quality. The “First European Comprehensive Solar Irradiance Data Exploitation project” (SOLID aims at merging the complete set of European irradiance data, complemented by archive data that include data from non-European missions. Aims. As part of SOLID, we present all available space-based SSI measurements, reference spectra, and relevant proxies in a unified format with regular temporal re-gridding, interpolation, gap-filling as well as associated uncertainty estimations. Methods. We apply a coherent methodology to all available SSI datasets. Our pipeline approach consists of the pre-processing of the data, the interpolation of missing data by utilizing the spectral coherency of SSI, the temporal re-gridding of the data, an instrumental outlier detection routine, and a proxy-based interpolation for missing and flagged values. In particular, to detect instrumental outliers, we combine an autoregressive model with proxy data. We independently estimate the precision and stability of each individual dataset and flag all changes due to processing in an accompanying quality mask. Results. We present a unified database of solar activity records with accompanying meta-data and uncertainties. Conclusions. This dataset can be used for further investigations of the long-term trend of solar activity and the construction of a homogeneous SSI record.

  12. Satellite estimation of surface spectral ultraviolet irradiance using OMI data in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.

    2017-12-01

    Due to a strong influence to the human health and ecosystem environment, continuous monitoring of the surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is important nowadays. The amount of UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation at the Earth surface depends on the extent of Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric gas molecules, the radiative absorption by ozone, radiative scattering by clouds, and both absorption and scattering by airborne aerosols. Thus advanced consideration of these factors is the essential part to establish the process of UV irradiance estimation. Also UV index (UVI) is a simple parameter to show the strength of surface UV irradiance, therefore UVI has been widely utilized for the purpose of UV monitoring. In this study, we estimate surface UV irradiance at East Asia using realistic input based on OMI Total Ozone and reflectivity, and then validate this estimated comparing to UV irradiance from World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) data. In this work, we also try to develop our own retrieval algorithm for better estimation of surface irradiance. We use the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (VLIDORT) model version 2.6 for our UV irradiance calculation. The input to the VLIDORT radiative transfer calculations are the total ozone column (TOMS V7 climatology), the surface albedo (Herman and Celarier, 1997) and the cloud optical depth. Based on these, the UV irradiance is calculated based on look-up table (LUT) approach. To correct absorbing aerosol, UV irradiance algorithm added climatological aerosol information (Arola et al., 2009). The further study, we analyze the comprehensive uncertainty analysis based on LUT and all input parameters.

  13. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model

  14. Total body irradiation (TBI) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, U; Johnson, R E

    1975-01-01

    80 patients with previously untreated CLL have been admitted to the Radiation Oncology Branch of the NCI. Fourteen of these patients have remained classified as 'indolent' until the present time and have not received any treatment. 48 patients with 'active' CLL were treated with TBI and were compared with 18 patients treated with chemotherapy and/or local irradiation. Our series of patients primarily treated with TBI have twice the median survival (57 months) measured from first therapy of the concurrent chemotherapy series (27 months). One third of the TBI group have experienced a complete or nearly complete remission and these patients showed a definite longer survival, with a median survival well in excess of five years until now. However, patients with a less complete remission failed to demonstrate a prolonged survival time with TBI in comparison to other modes of treatment. These results indicate that TBI can induce complete remissions which improve the prognosis in patients with active CLL.

  15. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  16. Competition for spectral irradiance between epilimnetic optically active dissolved and suspended matter and phytoplankton in the metalimnion. Consequences for limnology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino Massimo; Falcucci, Margherita; Hull, Vincent; Tognazzi, Antonio; Rossi, Claudio; Loiselle, Steven Arthur

    2011-06-01

    In deep lakes, water column stratification isolates the surface water from the deeper bottom layers, creating a three dimensional differentiation of the chemical, physical, biological and optical characteristics of the waters. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended solids (TSS) play an important role in the attenuation of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation. In the present analysis of spectral irradiance, we show that the wavelength composition of the metalimnetic visible irradiance was influenced by epilimnetic spatial distribution of CDOM. We found a low occurrence of blue-green photons in the metalimnion where epilimnetic concentrations of CDOM are high. In this field study, the spatial variation of the spectral irradiance in the metalimnion correlates with the observed metalimnetic concentrations of chlorophyll a as well as chlorophyll a : chlorophyll b/c ratios. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrients trends suggest that chlorophyll a concentrations were representative of the phytoplankton biomass and primary production. Thus, metalimnetic changes of spectral irradiance may have a direct impact on primary production and an indirect effect on the spatial trends of pH, dissolved oxygen, and inorganic nutrients in the metalimnion.

  17. Radiation therapy in leukemia (total body irradiation excluded); Irradiations pour leucemie a l`exclusion de l`irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Dept. de Radiotherapie

    1999-03-01

    Radiation techniques and indications in leukemias have been described in detail, yet prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute leukemia still has few indications. Cerebrospinal and testicular irradiation are reserved for relapsing disease. Radiation usually results in rapid functional improvement when used in neurologic emergencies and symptomatic neurologic or gross tumors relapses. Nevertheless, the improvements recently obtained by systemic chemotherapy have resulted in the reduction in the use of irradiation, especially in children, where it was considered deleterious with neuropsychological sequelae. Splenic irradiation remains useful for symptomatic myelo-proliferative syndrome. (authors)

  18. Dose compensation of the total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-P.; Chu, T.-C.; Liu, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve dose uniformity in the body by the compensator-rice and to decrease the dose to the lung by the partial lung block. Rando phantom supine was set up to treat bilateral fields with a 15 MV linear accelerator at 415 cm treatment distance. The experimental procedure included three parts. The first part was the bilateral irradiation without rice compensator, and the second part was with rice compensator. In the third part, rice compensator and partial lung block were both used. The results of thermoluminescent dosimeters measurements indicated that without rice compensator the dose was non-uniform. Contrarily, the average dose homogeneity with rice compensator was measured within ±5%, except for the thorax region. Partial lung block can reduce the dose which the lung received. This is a simple method to improve the dose homogeneity and to reduce the lung dose received. The compensator-rice is cheap, and acrylic boxes are easy to obtain. Therefore, this technique is suitable for more studies

  19. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  20. The angular distributions of ultraviolet spectral irradiance at different solar elevation angles under clear sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, LiWen; Wang, Fang; Gao, YanYan; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the angular distributions of UVA, UVB, and effective UV for erythema and vitamin D (vitD) synthesis, the UV spectral irradiances were measured at ten inclined angles (from 0° to 90°) and seven azimuths (from 0° to 180°) at solar elevation angle (SEA) that ranged from 18.8° to 80° in Shanghai (31.22° N, 121.55° E) under clear sky and the albedo of ground was 0.1. The results demonstrated that in the mean azimuths and with the back to the sun, the UVA, UVB, and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances increased with the inclined angles and an increase in SEA. When facing toward the sun at 0°-60° inclined angles, the UVA first increased and then decreased with an increase in SEA; at other inclined angles, the UVA increased with SEA. At 0°-40° inclined angles, the UVB and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances first increased and then decreased with an increase in SEA, and their maximums were achieved at SEA 68.7°; at other inclined angles, the above three irradiances increased with an increase in SEA. The maximum UVA, UVB, and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances were achieved at an 80° inclined angle at SEA 80° (the highest in our measurements); the cumulative exposure of the half day achieved the maximum at a 60° inclined angle, but not on the horizontal. This study provides support for the assessment of human skin sun exposure.

  1. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  2. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  3. Survey of the spectral irradiance distribution of fluorescent tubes for solaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Hannevik, M.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes a systematic mapping of the spectral irradiance distribution of typical fluorescent tubes, emitting ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The spectra were multiplied with biological action curves for assessing their potential for acute harmful effects. Comparing values of effective irradiance revealed a difference by a factor of ten between tubes for cosmetic UVR-treatment. Comparing spectra of the strongest cosmetic types with the spectrum of a typical tube for medical UVR-treatment revealed another factor of ten in effective irradiance. Spectra of typical cosmetic solarium tubes and natural sun at summer in Oslo are shown to be closely related in the UV-region, thereby justifying the term artificial sunlamps. Threshold limit values and action curves, as expressed in the former Norwegian solarium prescriptions from 1983 and the CENELEC standard for classifying UVR-emitting appliance, were compared. Calculations have shown that an adoption of the CENELEC threshold limit values will be more restrictive on the short-wave UV-region, while they generally will be similar, or a bit less restrictive on the longwave UV-region. 3 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs

  4. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Means V002 (TCTE3TSI6) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSI6 contains 6-hour averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant)...

  5. Effect of γ-irradiation on spectral characteristics of oxyhemoglobin solutions of mice in the presence of serotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhov, V.G.; Sviridova, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    Study of spectral characteristics of oxyhemoglobin solutions (0.5 x 10 -5 M) γ-irradiated in the presence of serotonin (5 x 10 -5 M) has demonstrated that serotonin has a protective action on oxyhemoglobin. The protective effect of serotonin was also observed in relation to irradiated oxyhemoglobin solutions incubated for 30 min at 45 deg C. It is suggested that the protective action of serotonin may be due to the formation of H 2 O 2 /serotonin complex

  6. Combining total internal reflection sum frequency spectroscopy spectral imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, Edward S; Sterling, Sarah M; Gunewardene, Mudalige S; Hess, Samuel T; Neivandt, David J; Mason, Michael D

    2015-01-27

    Understanding surface and interfacial lateral organization in material and biological systems is critical in nearly every field of science. The continued development of tools and techniques viable for elucidation of interfacial and surface information is therefore necessary to address new questions and further current investigations. Sum frequency spectroscopy (SFS) is a label-free, nonlinear optical technique with inherent surface specificity that can yield critical organizational information on interfacial species. Unfortunately, SFS provides no spatial information on a surface; small scale heterogeneities that may exist are averaged over the large areas typically probed. Over the past decade, this has begun to be addressed with the advent of SFS microscopy. Here we detail the construction and function of a total internal reflection (TIR) SFS spectral and confocal fluorescence imaging microscope directly amenable to surface investigations. This instrument combines, for the first time, sample scanning TIR-SFS imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  7. A Fiberoptic Scalar Irradiance Microsensor - Application for Spectral Light Measurements in Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; PLOUG, H.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    in sediments was measured at 100-mu-m spatial resolution. Light was available for photosynthesis near the sediment surface at a higher intensity and a different spectral composition than could be expected from the illumination. By the combination of oxygen microelectrodes and the present fibre......The manufacturing of a new spherical fibreoptic microsensor is described. The microsensor measures scalar irradiance, i.e. the spherically integrated light at a point in space. The light collector of the probe was a 70-mu-m diffusing sphere cast on the tip of a 125-mu-m wide optical fibre tapered......-optic microsensor it is now possible to study the depth distribution of microbenthic photosynthesis in relation to the available photosynthetically active radiation at less-than-or-equal-to 100-mu-m resolution....

  8. Spectral distribution of the radiochemiluminescence from gamma-irradiated humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.; Slawinski, J.; Staninski, K.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra (340-650 nm), kinetics and absorption spectra of humic acids (HA) after their exposure of gamma-radiation (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, 60 Co) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL were measured using the single photon counting method (SPC) and cut-off filters. Absorption spectra (range 240-800 nm) of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA changing their macromolecule or properties. The intensity of the delayed RCL was nonlinearly and suggested that complex radical formation mechanisms were still involved in the post-radiative reactions. (author)

  9. Spectral distribution of the radiochemiluminescence from gamma-irradiated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W [Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemical Technology, Radio- and Photochemistry Department; Slawinski, J [Institute of Ecotechnology, Gniezno (Poland). State High Vocational School; Staninski, K [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Rare Earths

    2008-09-15

    This study was conducted to investigate radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra (340-650 nm), kinetics and absorption spectra of humic acids (HA) after their exposure of gamma-radiation (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, {sup 60}Co) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL were measured using the single photon counting method (SPC) and cut-off filters. Absorption spectra (range 240-800 nm) of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA changing their macromolecule or properties. The intensity of the delayed RCL was nonlinearly and suggested that complex radical formation mechanisms were still involved in the post-radiative reactions. (author)

  10. Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance between 4000-10000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, J.; Coleman, M. D.; Gardiner, T.; Shine, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The near-infrared solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is an important input into simulations of weather and climate; the distribution of energy throughout this region of the spectrum influences atmospheric heating rates and the global hydrological cycle through absorption and scattering by water vapour. Current measurements by a mixture of ground-based and space-based instruments show differences of around 10% in the 4000-7000 cm-1 region, with no resolution to this controversy in sight. This work presents observations of SSI taken using a ground-based Fourier Transform spectrometer between 4000-10000 cm-1 at a field site in Camborne, UK, with particular focus on a rigorously defined uncertainty budget. While there is good agreement between this work and the commonly-used ATLAS3 spectrum between 7000-10000 cm-1, the SSI is systematically lower by 10% than ATLAS3 between 4000-7000 cm-1, with no overlap within the k = 2 measurement uncertainties.

  11. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  12. The indication and the point at issue in total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yuzo; Nishino, Shigeo.

    1992-01-01

    The role of radiation in the cause of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) was analysed here. Also optimal dose fractionation was discussed about total absorbed lung dose, dose rate and fractionation in spect of IP. After all optimal time schedule was recommended 3, 4 and 6 fraction of ≤ 4 Gy of fraction size using conventional and hyperfractionated irradiation. In the end the present condition and the point at issue in the irradiation of blood for prevention GVHD were discussed. (author)

  13. Effect of irradiance and spectral composition of radiation on in vitro shoot proliferation in Malus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noè, N.; Eccher, T.; Bonini, L.

    1997-01-01

    Four clones of Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious - namely Smoothee, Crielaard, Reinders and Golden B - were cultured in vitro from single-node microcuttings placed on solid medium under irradiance (PPFD) of 50 micromol m -2 s -1 . After 9 months an average shoot proliferation of 5.3 was achieved; Crielaard showed the highest rate (7.1), followed Golden B (5.4), Smoothee and Reinders (4.4). Proliferating shoots were then exposed to higher PPFD (80 micromol m -2 s -1 ) and different spectral composition of radiation using PMMA-B and PMMA-R/FR filters. High PPFD decreased the average proliferation rate to 4.5, in particular in Crielaard and Golden B, while it increased proliferation in Reinders. When a PMMA-R/FR filter was interposed, the mean proliferation rate slightly increased. PMMA-B filters decreased the overall proliferation rate to 3.0; only in Crielaard it was increased, but shoots were very small. Thus PPFD and spectral composition influenced in vitro shoot proliferation and growth and the responses were different among the clones. (author)

  14. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Observations from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.; Pereira, N.; Cessateur, G.; Marchand, M.; Thiéblemont, R.; Foujols, T.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its UV variability, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  15. Spectral solar irradiance and some optical properties for various polluted atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, Constantinos P.; Asimakopoulos, Demosthenis N.; Steven, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Using ground-based spectroradiometric measurements taken over the Athens atmosphere during May 1995, the influence of gaseous pollutants and aerosol on the spectral radiant energy distribution was investigated. It was found that spectral measurements exhibited variations based on various polluted urban atmospheric conditions as determined via gaseous pollutants record analysis. The relative attenuations cause by gaseous pollutants and aerosol can exceed 27%, 17% and 16% in the global ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum respectively, as compared to 'background' values. In contrast, an enhancement of the near-infrared diffuse component by 66%, was observed, while in visible and ultraviolet bands the relative increases reached 54% and 21% respectively. Experimental total Rayleigh-corrected and spectral aerosol optical depths were retrieved, representing differences in polluted air over the Athens atmosphere. The diffuse component accounts for more than 80% of the total radiation field under high polluted atmosphere. The observed differences of solar radiation between the Athens center and at a nearby suburban site are a manifestation of contrasting air properties provided mainly by automotive traffic. (Author)

  16. The delta-Sobolev approach for modeling solar spectral irradiance and radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xuwu.

    1990-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a solar radiation model is reported, which gives irradiance and radiance results at the bottom and top of an atmosphere of specified optical depth for each of 145 spectral intervals from 0.29 to 4.05 microns. Absorption by water vapor, aerosols, ozone, and uniformly mixed gases; scattering by molecules and aerosols; and non-Lambertian surface reflectance are included in the model. For solving the radiative transfer equation, an innovative delta-Sobolev method is developed. It applies a delta-function modification to the conventional Sobolev solutions in a way analogous to the delta-Eddington method. The irradiance solution by the delta-Sobolev method turns out to be mathematically identical to the delta-Eddington approximation. The radiance solution by the delta-Sobolov method provides a convenient way to obtain the directional distribution pattern of the radiation transfer field, a feature unable to be obtained by most commonly used approximation methods. Such radiance solutions are also especially useful in models for satellite remote sensing. The model is tested against the rigorous Dave model, which solves the radiation transfer problem by the spherical harmonic method, an accurate but very time consuming process. Good agreement between the current model results and those of Dave's model are observed. The advantages of the delta-Sobolev model are simplicity, reasonable accuracy and capability for implementation on a minicomputer or microcomputer

  17. On the influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varonov, Albert; Shopov, Yavor

    2014-01-01

    Using statistical analysis, correlation between the variations of the total solar irradiance and of the annual-mean land temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth’s climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data until 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show substantially higher influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperatures until 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. Key words: total solar irradiance, solar variations, solar forcing, climate change

  18. Long-term followup of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Field, E.H.; Hoppe, R.T.; Strober, S.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation was administered to 32 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-four patients showed at least a 25% improvement in 3 of 4 disease activity parameters, which persisted during the followup period of up to 48 months. Eight of the 32 patients required adjunctive immunosuppressive drug therapy to maintain improvement. Four patients died after total lymphoid irradiation; the causes of death were acute myocardial infarction (1 patient), pulmonary embolism (1 patient), and rheumatoid lung disease complicated by respiratory infection (2 patients). After therapy, patients exhibited a prolonged reduction in the number and function of circulating T helper cells

  19. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  20. The effect of total-body γ-irradiation on pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)

  1. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  2. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  3. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  4. Total body irradiation and marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia. The Royal Marsden Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, A; Barrett, A J; Powles, R L [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch; Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK))

    1979-06-01

    The experience with total body irradiation at the Royal Marsden Hospital is described for an elective program of transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in first remission. Dose rate appears to be a critical factor in the reduction of radiation-associated damage and careful monitoring of the actual dose distribution and dose received is mandatory.

  5. Fractionated homogenous total-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duehmke, E; Brix, F; Hebbinghaus, D; Jensen, M; Wendhausen, H; Schmitz, N

    1985-03-01

    At the University of Kiel, myeloid and acute lymphatic leukemia is treated since 1983 by total-body irradiation applied prior to bone marrow transplantation. Dose deviations in the midplane caused by the irregular surface and tissue inhomogeneities of the patient are reduced down to +-3.5% compared to the central ray, with the help of CT-based individual compensators. This method prevents above all an excessive dose to the lungs. The radiobiologic advantages of fractionated irradiation have been employed for all patients treated hitherto (n = 9). At present, a total body dose of 12 Gy in six fractions is applied within three days. There were no undesired acute radiogenic reactions except a mild acute mucositis found in all patients. Chronic side effects, especially in the lungs, were not demonstrated, too. However, the average follow-up time of 149 days has been rather short. One patient died from relapse of leukemia after a total dose of 10 Gy, another patient died because the transplanted bone marrow was rejected, and a third died from catheter sepsis. Six out of nine patients are in complete remission with a maximum index of Karnofsky. The limited experiences gained hitherto show that the homogeneous accelerated-fractionated total-body irradiation offers essential advantages compared to non-compensated single dose irradiation with respect to the prevention of undesired radiogenic effects in sound tissues and that its therapeutic efficacy is at least the same.

  6. Treatment of severe aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, J.; Singhal, S.; Huilgol, N.; Merchant, R.; Mehta, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This case report briefly summarizes the treatment of aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone and recommends that this procedure should be considered a therapeutic option in patients who are not candidates for bone marrow transplantation or antithymocyte globulin, or those who have failed one course of the latter. (Author)

  7. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  8. Worst-Case Bias During Total Dose Irradiation of SOI Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Colladant, T.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.-L; Musseau, O.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Pelloie, J.L.; Du Port de Poncharra, J.

    2000-01-01

    The worst case bias during total dose irradiation of partially depleted SOI transistors (from SNL and from CEA/LETI) is correlated to the device architecture. Experiments and simulations are used to analyze SOI back transistor threshold voltage shift and charge trapping in the buried oxide

  9. Comparative evolution of coagulation disorders in baboons and Pigs after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Lefleche, P.; Veyret, J.; Grasseau, A.; Agay, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acute total body irradiation in pigs, with a lethal dose of either gamma or mixed gamma-neutron radiation, induced similar plasmatic coagulation disorders as those observed in baboons. These data validated pathophysiological hypothesis which were developed during previous studies, but do not support the idea of a possible species specific radiosensitivity. (author)

  10. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Lie, T.S.; Nakauo, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by 51 Cr release assay

  11. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Lie, T S [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nakauo, H; Nakagawa, K; Segawa, M [Nara Women' s Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by /sup 51/Cr release assay.

  12. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  13. Effect of milk temperature during irradiation on total bacterial count and keeping quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbour, M.M.; Dawod, A.H.; Newigy, N.A.; Wahab, G.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cows' and buffaloes' milk samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300 Kr) at 10 and 30°C. Irradiation of milk at 10°C caused more reduction in total bacterial count than that occurred at 30°C. The rate of microbial destruction due to irradiation at 10°C was higher than that occurred at 30°C. The keeping quality was determined daily for 15 days by clot-on-boiling test for samples kept at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The keeping quality recorded for cows' and buffaloes' milk samples in the refrigerator was 4 days, while it was only 1 day at room temperature. Irradiation of milk at 10°C was more effective than irradiation at 30°C, to increase the keeping quality of irradiated milk kept at refrigeration. Irradiation of milk samples at 10°C by 200 Kr increased the keeping quality for two weeks in the refrigerator, i.e. such a treatment increased the keeping quality by 4 folds

  14. THE URINE PROTEOME FOR RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY: EFFECT OF TOTAL BODY VERSUS LOCAL KIDNEY IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D.; Wakim, Bassam T.; Savin, Virginia J.; Cohen, Eric P.; Moulder, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. We used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10 Gy dose of X-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 hours with noticeable differences in Gene Ontology categories. Some proteins including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Up/Uc ratio and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation. PMID:20065682

  15. The urine proteome for radiation biodosimetry: effect of total body vs. local kidney irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2010-02-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. The authors used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10-Gy dose of x-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 h with noticeable differences in gene ontology categories. Some proteins, including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins, including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Urine protein (Up) and creatinine (Uc) (Up/Uc) ratios and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation.

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells

  18. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  19. Phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene: Sensitized by riboflavin under different irradiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xin; Zhao Xueheng; Hwang, H.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin-sensitized phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under natural sunlight was investigated with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of different spectral region of sunlight on TNT phototransformation in the absence or presence of riboflavin was also investigated by using optical filters with cut-off at 400 or 455 nm. The concentration of riboflavin in the phototransformation of TNT was optimized. Concentration of riboflavin and TNT was 1.0 and 50 μM, respectively. The rates of phototransformation of TNT under natural sunlight in the presence or absence of riboflavin were conformed to initial pseudo-first-order rate equation. The photolysis half life of TNT in the presence of riboflavin was 21.87 min, compared to 39 min in the absence of riboflavin under natural sunlight. Two major phototransformation products of TNT, 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), were detected in the samples in the presence of riboflavin receiving irradiation at full wavelength or wavelength >400 nm. The results indicate that riboflavin mediates TNT sensitized-phototransfomation under natural sunlight or near-UV-vis light

  20. Impact of spectral irradiance distribution and temperature on the outdoor performance of concentrator photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Shibata, Naoki; Sawano, Naoki; Ueno, Seiya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Araki, Kenji; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2013-09-01

    Multi-junction solar cell is designed to have considerable effect towards the solar spectrum distribution so that the maximum solar radiation could be absorbed hence, enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of the cell. Due to its application in CPV system, the system's characteristics are more sensitive to environmental factor in comparison to flat-plate PV system which commonly equipped with Si-based solar cell. In this paper, the impact of environmental factors i.e. average photon energy (APE) and temperature of solar cell (Tcell) towards the performance of the tracking type CPV system were discussed. A year data period of direct spectral irradiance, cell temperature, and power output which recorded from November 2010 to October 2011 at a CPV system power generator plant located at Miyazaki, Japan was used in this study. The result showed that most frequent condition during operation was at APE = 1.87±0.005eV, Tcell = 65±2.5°C with performance ratio of 83.9%. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit simulation of a CPV subsystem in module unit was conducted in order to investigate the influence of environmental factors towards the performance of the module.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases

  2. Modification of hydrogen determinator for total hydrogen analysis in irradiated zircaloy cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwnag Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen determinator was modified and installed in the glove box to analyse total hydrogen content in irradiated zircaloy tube. The analysis method of hydrogen is Inert Gas Fusion(IGF)-Thermal Conductivity Detection(TCD). The hydrogen recoveries of no tin method using Ti and Zr matrix standards, respectively, were available within 3 μg of hydrogen. Also the smaller size of sample showed the better hydrogen recovery. It was found that the hydrogen standard of Ti matrix is available to hydrogen analysis in zircaloy sample. The mean radioactivity of irradiated zircaloy sample was 10 mR/hr and hydrogen concentration was 130 ppm

  3. Transplantation tolerance in primates following total lymphoid irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow injection. II. Renal allographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myburgh, J.A.; Smit, J.A.; Hill, R.R.H.; Browde, S.

    1980-01-01

    A modified regimen of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) injection in chacma baboons produced transplantation tolerance for allografted kidneys from the BM donors, and substantial chimerism without evidence of graft-versus-host disease. Increasing the dose of nucleated BM cells injected 4-fold over that used in liver transplantation resulted consistently in normal graft function in the early weeks after transplantation. Bone marrow injection and challenge with renal allografts could be delayed for at least 3 weeks after completion of irradiation. If it can be shown that this period can be extended even further, the protocols will be relevant to the circumstances of clinical cadaveric renal transplantation

  4. Total emissivity and spectral emissivity of high-temperature materials; Gesamtemissionsgrad und spektraler Emissionsgrad von Hochtemperaturmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuer, G.; Pohlmann, P.; Schreiber, E.

    1998-05-01

    A new emissivity measurement device with inductive sample heating is described. The disc shaped samples can be measured between 800 C and 2000 C in vacuum or in each available gas atmosphere. Two kinds of surface temperature measurement methods are described, one by measuring in a blackbody hole and one by measuring at the surface without additional measures to correct emissivity. Total normal and spectral emissivity at wavelengths between 0,5 {mu}m and 8,3 {mu}m of various high temperature materials like platinum and Pt-Rh-alloys, siliconcarbide and molybdenum disilicide have been measured. From the investigated materials a few have been selected as reference samples for comparative emissivity measurements fullfilling the requirement of stability on air up to 400 C to 1000 C in order to ensure reproducibility of the results at different measurement conditions in air and in vacuum. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Aufbau einer neuen Messapparatur fuer Emissionsgradmessungen bei Temperaturen zwischen 1000 C und 2000 C wird beschrieben. Die scheibenfoermigen Proben werden induktiv beheizt, und die Messungen koennen entweder in Vakuum oder einer beliebigen Gasatmosphaere durchgefuehrt werden. Es werden zwei verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Oberflaechentemperatur bechrieben, wobei entweder in einer oder direkt an der Oberflaeche ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen zur Emissionsgradkorrektur gemessen wird. An verschiedenen Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen wie Platin und Platin-Rhodium-Legierungen, Siliziumkarbid mit unterschiedlichen Herstellungsarten und Molybdaen-Disilizid wurden der Gesamtemissionsgrad und der spektrale Emissionsgrad bei Wellenlaengen von 0,5 {mu}m bis 8,3 {mu}m senkrecht zur Oberflaeche gemessen. Aus den untersuchten Materialien wurden solche als Referenzmaterialien fuer vergleichende Emissionsgradmessungen ausgewaehlt, die sowohl im Vakuum als auch in Luft und bei Temperaturen von 1400 C bis 1600 C unter verschiedenen Messbedingungen reproduzierbare Ergebnisse

  5. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  6. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of UV-A dose during this time period would be from 1.4 to 10.3 times more than the solar UV-A dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Yu Xue-Feng; Cui Jiang-Wei; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan; Cong Zhong-Chao; Zhou Hang

    2014-01-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  8. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi-Wen; Yu, Xue-Feng; Cui, Jiang-Wei; Guo, Qi; Ren, Di-Yuan; Cong, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Hang

    2014-10-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device.

  9. Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir

    2010-01-01

    As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 μl CD 3 OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

  10. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy γ total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  11. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  12. Optimum combination of targeted 131I and total body irradiation for treatment of disseminated cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Amin E.; Wheldon, Tom E.; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Gaze, Mark N.; Barrett, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Radiobiological modeling was used to explore optimum combination strategies for treatment of disseminated malignancies of differing radiosensitivity and differing patterns of metastatic spread. The purpose of the study was to derive robust conclusions about the design of combination strategies that incorporate a targeting component. Preliminary clinical experience of a neuroblastoma treatment strategy, which is based upon general principles obtained from modelling, is briefly described. Methods and Materials: The radiobiological analysis was based on an extended (dose-rate dependent) formulation of the linear quadratic model. Radiation dose and dose rate for targeted irradiation of tumors of differing size was in part based on microdosimetric considerations. The analysis was applied to several tumor types with postulated differences in the pattern of metastatic spread, represented by the steepness of the slope of the relationship between numbers of tumors present and tumor diameter. The clinical pilot study entailed the treatment of five children with advanced neuroblastoma using a combination of 131 I metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) and total body irradiation followed by bone marrow rescue. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that both intrinsic radiosensitivity and pattern of metastatic spread can influence the composition of the ideal optimum combination strategy. High intrinsic radiosensitivity generally favors a high proportion of targeting component in the combination treatment, while a strong tendency to micrometastatic spread favors a major contribution by total body irradiation. The neuroblastoma patients were treated using a combination regimen with an initially low targeting component (2 Gy whole body dose from targeting component plus 12 Gy from total body irradiation). The treatment was tolerable and resulted in remissions in excess of 9 months in each of these advanced neuroblastoma patients. Conclusions: Radiobiological analysis, which

  13. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  14. Gamma irradiation affects the total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties in three different persian pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Aalifar, Mostafa; Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (GR) on total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were investigated in three different Persian pistachio nuts at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, revealed a significant increase in the 1-2 kGy dose range. Total phenol content (TPC) revealed a similar pattern or increase in this range. However, when radiation was increased to 4 kGy, TPC in all genotypes decreased. A radiation dose of 1 kGy had no significant effect on anthocyanin content of Kale-Ghouchi (K) and Akbari (A) genotypes, while it significantly increased the anthocyanin content in the Ghazvini (G) genotype. In addition, increasing the radiation to 4 kGy significantly increased the anthocyanin content of K and G genotypes. To conclude, irradiation could increase the phenolic content, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of pistachio nuts.

  15. Bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anaemia using cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Noordijk, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Six patients with severe aplastic anaemia received a bone-marrow graft after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). No rejections occurred. Acute graft-versus-host disease developed in 3 patients and was fatal in one. Another patient died from systemic aspergillus infection. Chronic GVHD of the skin developed in a patient who was grafted with bone marrow from her HLA-phenotypically identical father. These data suggest that conditioning with cyclophosphamide and TLI is a promising regimen. (orig.) [de

  16. Total skin electron irradiation: evaluation of dose uniformity throughout the skin surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Yavuz; Arican, Zumre; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Tamir, Ada; Kuten, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    In this study, in vivo dosimetic data of 67 total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) treatments were analyzed. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were made at 10 different body points for every patient. The results demonstrated that the dose inhomogeneity throughout the skin surface is around 15%. The homogeneity was better at the trunk than at the extratrunk points, and was worse when a degrader was used. There was minimal improvement of homogeneity in subsequent days of treatment

  17. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  18. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, Luiz Alberto Malaguti

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using 60 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this work all the adapted formulas for dose rate calculations in several areas of the body are described, as well time/dose templates sheets for total body irradiation. The in vivo dosimetry, proved that either experimental or calculated dose rate values (achieved by the proposed method), did not have significant discrepancies. (author)

  19. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients

  20. Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured inWagrain, Austria in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Pearson, Andy J; O'Hagan, John B

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation spectral irradiance was measured at different altitudes on horizontal and tilted planes in different azimuth directions on cloudless days in Austria, in March 2010, within the Impact of Climatic and Environmental factors on Personal Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure project...

  1. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following double lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Trulock, Elbert M.; Lynch, John P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in a series of patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation. Patients and Materials: Eleven patients (10 males, 1 female) received total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Treatment was delivered between March, 1995, and September, 1996. Mean patient age was 33 years (range 15-51). Indications for transplantation included cystic fibrosis (7 patients), alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency (2 patients), primary pulmonary hypertension (1 patient), and emphysema (1 patient). Radiation therapy was prescribed as 800 cGy delivered in ten 80 cGy fractions, 2 fractions per week, via AP/PA mantle and inverted-Y fields. Radiation was withheld for total wbc count 3 , absolute neutrophil count 3 , or platelets 3 . Serial pre- and post-radiation therapy pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements (use of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, OKT3, and FK506) were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding total lymphoid irradiation, the average decrease in FEV 1 was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). At initiation of radiation therapy, the average FEV 1 was 1.4 liters (range 0.77-2.28). Only (4(11)) patients completed all 10 treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included unabated rejection (4 patients), worsening pulmonary infection (2 patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (1 patient). No treatment course was discontinued because of persistent neutropenia or leukopenia. Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related donor transplants. He is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due

  2. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, J. F.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  3. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, J. F., E-mail: fernando.lucero@hoperadiotherapy.com.gt [Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Hope International, Guatemala (Guatemala); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI, San José (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  4. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  5. Radiotherapy of ovarian epithelial cancer by total orthogonal field irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouche, G.; Valinta, D.; Bachelot, F.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic intraperitoneal curietherapy by 32 P is the simplest method for irradiating the peritoneum, but it has only limited indications. This irradiation has usually to be given by the percutaneous route, but because of the size of the region to be irradiated it raises delicate problems poorly resolved by the traditional methods applied. For this reason, a particular method is suggested including, among other characteristics: 4 orthogonal fields; 2 sessions daily, irradiating one part of the abdomen in the morning and the other part in the afternoon; spreading of the doses in confirmity with current specifications; and modulation of the total dose as a function of the maximum size of the tumoral remnants. Abdominal radiotherapy is currently the method of choice in cases where lesions are in their early stages, in so far as chemotherapy, much more restrictive for the patient, has not yet demonstrated its long-term efficacy. A controlled clinical study is necessary in order to determine the most effective method [fr

  6. The biological effects of high dose total body irradiation in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Liu Xiaolan; Hao Jing; Xiong Guolin; Dong Bo; Zhao Zhenhu; Xia Zhengbiao; Qiu Liling; Mao Bingzhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effects of Beagle dogs irradiated by γ-rays at different doses. Methods: All Beagle dogs were divided into six groups and were subjected respectively to total-body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.5, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, 3, 5 and 2.5 Gy γ-rays delivered by 60 Co sources at 7.224 x 10 -2 C/kg per minute. The general condition, blood cell counts and bone marrow cell CFC assays were observed. Results: Vomiting occurred at 0.5 to 2 hours after TBI in all groups. In 6.5 Gy group 3/5 dogs had blood-watery stool and 1/5 in 5.5 Gy group had watery stool. Diarrhea occurred in all other animals. Only one dog in 2.5 Gy group survived, all of others died. in order of decreasing irradiation dosage, the average survival time was 5.0, 8.0, 9.3, 9.5, 10.5 and 14.1 days, respectively. Conclusions: According to the clinical symptoms, leukocyte count and survival time of the dogs, the irradiation dose which will induce very severe hematopoietic radiation syndrome in Beagle dogs is 4.5 to 5.0 Gy

  7. The effect of low-dose total body irradiation on tumor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Miyamoto, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is considered to bring about an immunosuppressive effect on an organism, on the basis of data obtained from sublethal doses of TBI. However, there are no data on how low-dose TBI affects an organism. Over the last five years, we have been studying the effects of low-dose TBI on normal or tumor-bearing mice and the immunological background of these effects. In experimental studies, an increase in the TD50 value (the number of cells required for a tumor incidence of 50 %) in mice exposed to 10 rad was recognized and showed a remarkable increase at 6 hours to 15 hours after irradiation. TBI of 10 rad also showed an enhancement effect on tumor cell killing when given 12 hours before local tumor irradiation. In order to clarify the mechanism of this kind of effect, some immunological studies were performed using several immunological procedures, and the results suggested that 10 rad of TBI caused increasing tumor immunity in irradiated mice. Clinical trials in some patients with advanced tumors are now being undertaken on the basis of these experimental data, and the effect of TBI on tumor control appears promising, although it is too early to draw conclusions. (author)

  8. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  9. Tissue breathing and topology of rats thymocytes surface under acute total γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I A; Gritsuk, A I

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of the effect of single total γ irradiation to the parameters of mitochondrial oxidation and the topology of the thymocyte surface. The study was performed in sexually mature white outbreeding male rats divided into three groups: two experimental and one control. The states of energy metabolism were determined by the rate of oxygen consumption by the thymus tissues on endogenous substrates at the presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol, uncoupler of a tissue breathing (TB) and oxidative phosphorylation (OP) after a single total γ irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy at 3, 10, 40 and 60 days. The topology of thymus cells was assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the 3rd and 10th days after total gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy, a significant decrease in respira tory activity was determined in thymus tissues on endogenous substrates. Simultaneously, on the 3rd day, pro nounced changes in the morphological parameters of thymocytes (height, volume, area of contact with the sub strate) and the topology of their surface were also observed. On the 10th day after irradiation, most of the morpho logical parameters of thymocytes, except for their volume, were characterized by restoration to normal. In the long term (on the 30th and 60th days after exposure), a gradual but not complete recovery of the respiratory activity of thymocytes was observed, accompanied by an increase in the degree of dissociation of TD and OP. The obtained data reflect and refine mechanisms of post radiation repair of lymphopoiesis, showing the presence of conjugated changes in the parameters of aerobic energy metabolism of thymocytes, morphology and topology of their surface. The synchronism of changes in the parameters under study is a reflection of the state of the cytoskeleton, the functional activity of which largely depends on the level and efficiency of mitochondrial oxidation. І. A. Nikitina, A. I. Gritsuk.

  10. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  11. Middle atmosphere response to different descriptions of the 11-yr solar cycle in spectral irradiance in a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Swartz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 11-yr solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOSCCM. The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3–6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7 in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units F10.7 – 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOSCCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. This is important in that it means that chemistry-transport models should simulate the solar cycle in ozone well, while general circulation models without coupled chemistry will underestimate the temperature response to the solar cycle significantly in the middle atmosphere. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm

  12. Tailored total lymphoid irradiation in heart transplant patients: 10-years experience of one center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Joos, Daniela; Martinelli, Michele; Hullin, Roger; Zwahlen, Marcel; Lössl, Kristina; Carrel, Thierry; Aebersold, Daniel M; Mohacsi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    To assess safety and efficacy of tailored total lymphoid irradiation (tTLI) in cardiac transplant patients. A total of seven patients, of which five had recalcitrant cellular cardiac allograft rejection (RCCAR), confirmed by endomyocardial biopsies, and two had side effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, were all treated with tTLI. tTLI was defined by the adjustment of both the fraction interval and the final irradiation dosage both being dependent on the patients general condition, irradiation-dependent response, and the white blood and platelet counts. A mean dose of 6.4 Gy (range, 1.6 - 8.8 Gy) was given. Median follow-up was 7 years (range, 1.8 - 12.2 years). tTLI was well tolerated. Two patients experienced a severe infection during tTLI (pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, urosepsis and generalized herpes zoster) and one patient developed a lymphoproliferative disorder after tTLI. The rate of rejection episodes before tTLI was 0.43 episodes/patient/month and decreased to 0.02 episodes/patient/month after tTLI (P < .001). At the end of the observation time, all patients except one were alive. tTLI is a useful treatment strategy for the management of RCCAR and in patients with significant side effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy. In this series tTLI demonstrated significantly decreased rejection rates without causing relevant treatment-related toxicity

  13. Long-term temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spectral irradiance scale determined with absolute filter radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Howard W.; Gibson, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    The temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral irradiance scale as measured with broadband filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity is described. The working standard free-electron laser (FEL) lamps and the check standard FEL lamps have been monitored with radiometers in the ultraviolet and the visible wavelength regions. The measurements made with these two radiometers reveal that the NIST spectral irradiance scale as compared with an absolute thermodynamic scale has not changed by more than 1.5% in the visible from 1993 to 1999. Similar measurements in the ultraviolet reveal that the corresponding change is less than 1.5% from 1995 to 1999. Furthermore, a check of the spectral irradiance scale by six different filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity based on the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer shows that the agreement between the present scale and the detector-based scale is better than 1.3% throughout the visible to the near-infrared wavelength region. These results validate the assigned spectral irradiance of the widely disseminated NIST or NIST-traceable standard sources

  14. Ion irradiation effects on lithium niobate etalons for tunable spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Ibarmia, S.; Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M.; Díaz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Orbiter is a mission dedicated to solar and heliospheric physics. It was selected as the first mediumclass mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. Solar Orbiter will be used to examine how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, the vast bubble of charged particles blown by the solar wind into the interstellar medium. One of the scientific payload elements of Solar Orbiter is the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). The PHI instrument consists of two telescopes, a High Resolution Telescope (HRT) that will image a fraction of the solar disk at a resolution reaching {150 km at perihelion, and a Full Disk Telescope (FDT) to image the full solar disk during all phases of the orbit. PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, polarisation sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft. For the spectral analysis, PHI will use an order-sorting filter to isolate a bandpass of the order of 100 mÅ . The FilterGraph (FG) contains an etalon in single pass configuration as tunable spectral filter located inside a temperature stabilized oven. This filter will be made by means of a z-cut LiNbO3 crystal (about 300 microns thick) and multilayer coatings including a conductive one in order to apply a high voltage (up to 5 kV) and induce the required electric field to tune the filter. Solar Orbiter observing mission around the Sun will expose the PHI instrument to extreme radiation conditions, mainly dominated by solar high-energy particles released during severe solar events (protons with energies typically ranging from few keV up to several GeV) and the continuous isotropic background flux of galactic cosmic rays (heavy ions, from Z=1 to Z=92). The main concerns are whether the cumulated radiation damage can degrade the functionality of the filter or, in the worst case, the impact of a single highly ionizing particle

  15. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  16. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  17. Investigation on atmospheric transmittance based on spectral and total direct insolation data; Nissha data ni motozuku taiki tokaritsu no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H; Kanayama, K; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Spectral insolation values measured at Kitami since 1994 by using a multi-purpose spectral radiometer, and direct insolation data collected at seven locations are available. Based on these data, effects of sun`s altitude and atmospheric condition on atmospheric transmittance were discussed. Spectra of insolation received on the ground are subjected to scattering and absorption by gas and particulates, and show complex shapes while they transmit from the sun, reach the atmosphere of the earth and pass through the atmosphere. The Bird`s model is shown. Impact of the sun`s altitude on the spectra of insolation directly reaching the ground is small if the altitude is higher than 45 degrees. The impact grows suddenly large when it is lower than 30 degrees. Atmospheric turbidity (caused by aerosols generated by volcanic eruption or exhaust gases) affects the spectral transmittance over the whole wavelength region. Amount of steam in the atmosphere has a strong effect on the spectral transmittance in the steam absorption band. Total transmittance of the atmosphere was sought based on the measurement data of insolation directly reaching the ground at eight locations from Kitami to Shiono-misaki. The transmittance at each location is in a range from 0.75 to 0.83 showing close proximity. These data agreed well also with the average transmittance surveyed by the Meteorological Agency. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  19. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  20. Renal toxicity in children undergoing total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esiashvili, Natia; Chiang, K.-Y.; Hasselle, Michael D.; Bryant, Cynthia; Riffenburgh, Robert H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to renal toxicity in children undergoing the bone marrow transplant (BMT) remains controversial. We report our institutional retrospective study that evaluates the frequency of acute and chronic renal dysfunction in children after using total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 60 children with hematological malignancies underwent TBI as part of a conditioning regimen before allogeneic BMT. Patients received 4-14 Gy at 1.75-2 Gy/fraction in six-eight fractions. Lung shielding was used in all patients to limit lung dose to less than 10 Gy; renal shielding was not utilized. All patients had baseline renal function assessment and renal dysfunction post-BM was mainly evaluated on the basis of persistent serum creatinine elevation at acute (0-90 days) and chronic (>90 days) intervals after completion of BMT. Results: Acute renal dysfunction (ARD) was documented in 27 patients (45%); the majority had concurrent diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other potential causes (sepsis, antibiotic). The risk for delayed renal dysfunction (DRD) at 1 year approached 25% for surviving patients. The ARD was strongly linked with the risk of the DRD. There was no statistically significant relationship between ARD, DRD and underlying diagnosis, GVHD, VOD or TBI doses with both univariate and multivariate analyses. The younger age (<5 years) had significantly increased risk for the development of ARD (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Our analysis validates high incidence of renal dysfunction in the pediatric BMT population. In contrast to other reports we did not find total body irradiation dose to be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to assess risk factors and interventions for this serious toxicity in children following allogeneic BM

  1. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18)

  2. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  3. The dosimetry of cobalt-60 γ-ray total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Fan; Zhang Guiru

    1989-11-01

    The dosimetric considerations of using conventional cobalt-60 unit total body irradiation (TBI) are presented. By extending the source-to-midplane distance (SMD) to 346 cm, a 92 x 98 cm 2 rectangular field with diagonal dimension 134 cm was obtained. The results from the phantom measurements showed: (1) the effective field corresponding to an average-size patient is 25 x 25 cm 2 , and a method for estimating the effective field of human body is given; (2) the midplane doses are consistently higher than those of surfaces, but the dose ratio of midplane to surface decreases as the body thickness increases, and a significant negative correlation is existed between the dose ratio and thickness, thus a linear regression line is fitted; (3) the anterior-posterior (AP) or AP + bilateral irradiation will yield a more uniform dose distribution in the whole body than the bilateral irradiation; (4) the dose uniformity can apparently be improved by the tissue compensation, for which the technique is described

  4. A comparative study of total body irradiation as a method of inducing granulocyte depletion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Cornelissen, I.M.H.A.; Berden, J.H.M.; Jong, J. de; Koene, R.A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since conventional methods of inducing depletion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in mice, such as treatment with cytostatic drugs and anti-PMN sera, proved to be insufficient to induce a stable PMN depletion for several days, and were accompanied by considerable toxic side effects, we induced neutrophil depletion in mice by total body irradiation (TBI) in a single dose of 6.0 Gy (600 rads.) at a dose rate of 0.20 Gy/min. This treatment reduced the number of PMNs in the peripheral circulation to values below 150/μl from day 3-10 after irradiation. The number of lymphocytes fell simultaneously. Platelet counts remained above 60% of normal values during the first 7 days after irradiation. Complement levels were not significantly affected by TBI. The results show that TBI of 6.0 Gy induces pronounced and stable PMN depletion in mice for at least 7 days. Furthermore, under an aseptic regimen the mice can be kept in good condition and losses are less than 5%. (Auth.)

  5. Effect of Iranian Propolis on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity in Gamma-irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aghel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis were studied. Since saliva contains antioxidants and radiotherapy of the head and neck mainly affects the saliva, salivary antioxidant defensive mechanism is compromised with oxidative stress produced by radiation therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of propolis on salivary total antioxidant capacity in irradiated rats. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 28 rats, 7‒11 weeks of age (160±20 g, divided into four groups: saline with no radiation (S, saline and radiation (SR, propolis with no radiation (P [400 mg/kg IP], propolis and radiation (PR [400 mg/kg IP]. SP and PR were exposed to 15 Gy of gamma irradiation for 7 minutes and 39 seconds. The rats received intraperitoneal injections each day for 10 days, and their tongues and lips were daily examined for mucositis; saliva sample were also taken three times on days 0, 6, and 10. Results. Mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the PR compared to the SR, and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the PR. No significant alterations were observed in salivary antioxidant levels during the experiment, except the SR group in which a significant reduction was found. Conclusion. Propolis might reduce and delay radiation-induced mucositis in animal models; it might be able to prevent the reduction in salivary antioxidant levels in irradiated rats as well.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation in the patients with malignant tumor. Studies on supralethal total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Ikuro; Saito, Yasuo

    1984-11-01

    Based on evidence gained from ten patients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and eight patients of autologous BMT, recent knowledge on literatures of BMT and total body irradiation (TBI) is summarized. Interstitial pneumonia after BMT has a strong correlation with TBI. Low dose-rate and fractionation of TBI are seemed to reduce the lung injury, thereby reducing the incidence of nonleukemia deaths. BMT is applied to not only acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma and solid tumors but also to chronic leukemia. It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the transplantation team.

  7. Indication of total body irradiation in adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Masaharu (Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital (Japan). Artificial Organ and Transplantation Hospital)

    1992-10-01

    Indication of total body irradiation (TBI) in adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was discussed in comparison with non-TBI method of busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BU+CY). Each method has unique advantages and disadvantages. Concerning adverse effects of interstitial pneumonia, liver dysfunction and so on, there are no significant differences in both methods. TBI method should be preferably indicated for lymphatic leukemias and leukemias involving central nervous systems. It is important to clarify what kinds of combination regimen depending on the type and the stage of disease are most suitable for the longer survival of patients with leukemia or aplastic anemia by multicentric randomized study. (author).

  8. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  9. Treatment of cervical carcinoma by total hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.; Yiogarakis, D.; Pappas, J.; Keramopoulos, A.

    1980-01-01

    The survival rates of 36 patients with early cervical carcinoma who had undergone total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy (THBSO) were compared to the survival rates of 41 patients who were subjected to the radical operation. As an integral part of their therapy both groups postoperatively received adequate doses of external beam supervoltage irradiation. Satisfactory results were obtained in both groups of patients. According to these results THBSO followed by postoperative radiotherapy is adequate treatment for early cervical carcinoma. In comparison to the radical operation or curietherapy alone this type of treatment has the advantage of requiring less surgical or radiotherapeutic expertise; it probably is associated with less morbidity

  10. Spectral irradiance of singly and doubly ionized zinc in low-intensity laser-plasma ultraviolet light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, John; Parchamy, Homaira; Masnavi, Majid; Richardson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The absolute spectral irradiances of laser-plasmas produced from planar zinc targets are determined over a wavelength region of 150 to 250 nm. Strong spectral radiation is generated using 60 ns full-width-at-half-maximum, 1.0 μm wavelength laser pulses with incident laser intensities as low as ˜5 × 108 W cm-2. A typical radiation conversion efficiency of ˜2%/2πsr is measured. Numerical calculations using a comprehensive radiation-hydrodynamics model reveal the strong experimental spectra to originate mainly from 3d94s4p-3d94s2, 3d94s4d-3d94s4p, and 3d94p-3d94s, 3d94d-3d94p unresolved-transition arrays in singly and doubly ionized zinc, respectively.

  11. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  12. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  13. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  14. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Tsai, Nicole [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen J. [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk.

  15. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Stein, Anthony; Tsai, Nicole; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Palmer, Joycelynne; Liu, An; Rosenthal, Joseph; Forman, Stephen J.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on total carbohydrate concentration of finger millet flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathika; Patil, Shrikant L.; Bhasker Shenoy, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ragi or finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is one of the common millets in several regions of India. The effect of gamma irradiation, on ragi flour was investigated in the study. Ragi flour is procured from market. Flour samples of 50 gms were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 30 and 90 days. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for total carbohydrate concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The same was repeated after 30 and 90 days of storage. The comparative study showed that, at 0 day, total carbohydrate concentration has decreased slightly when compared to the non-irradiated sample (0.024 mg/ml). The lowest concentration of carbohydrate is seen at 0.025 kGy (0.019mg/ml). The samples stored in polyethylene bag, after 30 days showed both increase (0.056 mg/ml at 0.025 kGy) and decrease (0.04 mg/ml at 10 kGy) in total carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.046 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed increase in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.029 mg/ml). The highest carbohydrate concentration is seen in 1 kGy dose (0.037 mg/ml). The samples stored at container after 30 days showed both increase (0.045 mg/ml at 5 kGy) and decrease (0.034 mg/ml at 0.025 mg/ml) of carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.043 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed decrease in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.034 mg/ml). The lowest concentration is seen at 5 kGy (0.022 mg/ml). (author)

  17. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Koch

    Full Text Available Acute radiation sickness (ARS following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1, which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated, 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors. In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  18. Dosimetry and verification of 60Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdi Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Body Irradiation (TBI is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a 60 Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW. Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW. The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013. The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation preceding bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, N D; Apperley, J F; Kam, K C; Mackinnon, S; Goldman, J M; Goolden, A W.G.; Sikora, K [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1989-03-01

    Between August 1985 and October 1987 35 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were treated by high dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) (1000 or 1200 cGy, n=31) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) (800 or 600 cGy, n=35) preceding allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both TBI and TLI were given at 200 cGy/fraction. Twenty-three patients had HLA-identical sibling donors, nine patients had HLA-matched but unrelated donors, and three partially HLA-mismatched donors. Twenty-two patients received T-cell depleted marrow. TLI did not add greatly to the toxicity. Four patients had recurrent leukaemia before engraftment was evaluable. The other 31 patients engrafted and no graft failed. Twenty-two patients survive at a median time from transplant of 305 days (range 81-586 days). Fourteen have no evidence of disease; eight have or had only cytogenetic evidence of leukaemia. It is concluded that addition of TLI to pretransplant immunosuppression increases the probability of reliable engraftment in patients receiving T-cell depleted marrow. This is not associated with significantly increased toxicity. (author).

  20. Depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of mice after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Owen, R.L.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    The depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in specific cellular domains of mouse Peyer's patches were examined following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). BALB/c mice 5-months-old were given 17 fractionated doses of irradiation to a total of 3400 to 4250 rads over a 4-week period, and Peyer's patches were examined by immunohistochemistry at 1 to 4 days and 1 to 4 weeks after TLI. Cryostat sections were labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against B220 (B cells), Thy-1.2 (all T cells), L3T4 (helper T cells), and Ly-2 (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells). In depleted mice, Peyer's patches were greatly reduced in size in comparison to controls, although the structural framework of follicles, domes, and interfollicular areas was still present. B cells in follicles were reduced to a small core of B220+ cells interspersed with nonlymphocytic cells. T cells were virtually eliminated from the patch except for a small population of Thy-1.2+ cells that were neither L3T4+ nor Ly-2+ in follicle domes. During early stages of repopulation at 1 to 2 weeks after TLI, follicles increased in size and were populated by helper T cells but Peyer's patches lacked discrete interfollicular T cell regions. At 3 to 4 weeks after TLI, T cell regions were found in interfollicular areas. The results indicate that morphologically distinct cellular domains are maintained in Peyer's patches after TLI which are sequentially repopulated by immigrating lymphocytes

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation preceding bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, N.D.; Apperley, J.F.; Kam, K.C.; Mackinnon, S.; Goldman, J.M.; Goolden, A.W.G.; Sikora, K.

    1989-01-01

    Between August 1985 and October 1987 35 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were treated by high dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) (1000 or 1200 cGy, n=31) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) (800 or 600 cGy, n=35) preceding allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both TBI and TLI were given at 200 cGy/fraction. Twenty-three patients had HLA-identical sibling donors, nine patients had HLA-matched but unrelated donors, and three partially HLA-mismatched donors. Twenty-two patients received T-cell depleted marrow. TLI did not add greatly to the toxicity. Four patients had recurrent leukaemia before engraftment was evaluable. The other 31 patients engrafted and no graft failed. Twenty-two patients survive at a median time from transplant of 305 days (range 81-586 days). Fourteen have no evidence of disease; eight have or had only cytogenetic evidence of leukaemia. It is concluded that addition of TLI to pretransplant immunosuppression increases the probability of reliable engraftment in patients receiving T-cell depleted marrow. This is not associated with significantly increased toxicity. (author)

  2. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-depleted HLA identical bone marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, P.; Checcaglini, F.; Maranzano, E.; Aristei, C.; Panizza, B.M.; Gobbi, G.; Raymondi, C.; Aversa, F.; Martelli, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty patients suffering from malignant hemopathies (mean age 31.7 years) were given hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for T-depleted HLA identical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At an average of 12 months (range of 4.5-22 months) follow-up there were two cases of early death and two cases (11%) of rejection. There were no cases of acute or chronic graft versus host disease nor cases of interstitial pneumonitis. The average time for durable engraftment was 22 days. Disease-free survival at 12 months was 65%. To improve the results and further reduce the percent of rejection, the authors propose intensifying the immunosuppressive conditioning by increasing the cyclophosphamide dose and that of TBI so that a total dose of 1560 cGy is reached. 35 refs.; 1 figure

  3. Comparison of total body irradiation-based or non-total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jeong Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40 or non-TBI (n=37 regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS, and event-free survival (EFS were compared between the 2 groups. Results : Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 28 (82.4% were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33 of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%, the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P =0.005. In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089. The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion : The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian; Eagle, Don G.; Burmeister, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalichowski, Adrian, E-mail: nalichoa@karmanos.org [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Eagle, Don G. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  6. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucu, Delia-Irina; Dorobantu, Ioan

    2002-01-01

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  7. Total annoyance from an industrial noise source with a main spectral component combined with a background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, M; Marquis-Favre, C; Viollon, S

    2011-07-01

    When living close to an industrial plant, people are exposed to a combination of industrial noise sources and a background noise composed of all the other noise sources in the environment. As a first step, noise annoyance indicators in laboratory conditions are proposed for a single exposure to an industrial noise source. The second step detailed in this paper involves determining total annoyance indicators in laboratory conditions for ambient noises composed of an industrial noise source and a background noise. Two types of steady and permanent industrial noise sources are studied: low frequency noises with a main spectral component at 100 Hz, and noises with a main spectral component in middle frequencies. Five background noises are assessed so as to take into account different sound environments which can usually be heard by people living around an industrial plant. One main conclusion of this study is that two different analyses are necessary to determine total annoyance indicators for this type of ambient noise, depending on the industrial noise source composing it. Therefore, two total annoyance indicators adapted to the ambient noises studied are proposed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Calculus of the Power Spectral Density of Ultra Wide Band Pulse Position Modulation Signals Coded with Totally Flipped Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURNEA, T. N.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available UWB-PPM systems were noted to have a power spectral density (p.s.d. consisting of a continuous portion and a line spectrum, which is composed of energy components placed at discrete frequencies. These components are the major source of interference to narrowband systems operating in the same frequency interval and deny harmless coexistence of UWB-PPM and narrowband systems. A new code denoted as Totally Flipped Code (TFC is applied to them in order to eliminate these discrete spectral components. The coded signal transports the information inside pulse position and will have the amplitude coded to generate a continuous p.s.d. We have designed the code and calculated the power spectral density of the coded signals. The power spectrum has no discrete components and its envelope is largely flat inside the bandwidth with a maximum at its center and a null at D.C. These characteristics make this code suited for implementation in the UWB systems based on PPM-type modulation as it assures a continuous spectrum and keeps PPM modulation performances.

  9. External-beam boost prior to total-body irradiation in relapsed NHL transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Jedidiah M; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, Arnold S; Tarbell, Nancy J; Nadler, Lee M; Mauch, Peter

    1995-07-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the impact of an external beam boost (EBB) on the outcome, relapse pattern and normal tissue toxicities of patients undergoing total-body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for relapsed NHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1994, 299 patients at our institution underwent BMT for relapsed NHL. Patients underwent induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by conditioning with cyclophosphamide and 12 Gy TBI delivered in 6 fractions over 3 days. A total of 77 patients had persistent gross disease, defined as 2 cm or greater, after induction CT and received an EBB prior to BMT (EBB cohort). The median EBB dose was 28.8 Gy (range, 5-63), the median field size was 13 cm{sup 2} (range, 5-29.4) and the median time from EBB to BMT was 3 weeks (range, 1-20). A total of 222 patients were free of measurable disease or had disease measuring <2cm after CT and did not receive EBB (no-EBB cohort). To assess normal tissue toxicity, patients' simulation films and/or treatment records were reviewed for all 77 patients treated with local EBB and estimates were made of the percentage lung, heart and kidney in the radiation field. RESULTS: A total of 79 of 222 patients (36%) in the no-EBB cohort have relapsed; 33 of 77 patients (43%) in the EBB cohort have relapsed (p=0.28, by Fisher exact test). Median time to relapse after BMT was 54 months for the no-EBB cohort and 38 months for the EBB cohort (p=0.26, by log-rank test). The 3-year actuarial freedom from relapse (deaths in remission censored) was 59% for the no-EBB cohort (90% CI: 52-66%) and 51% for the EBB cohort (90% CI: 40-62%). Data on site of relapse was available for 101 of the 112 relapses (75 no-EBB, 26 EBB). For the no-EBB cohort 33 of 75 relapses (44%) were in sites of prior nodal disease only. For the EBB cohort, 12 of 26 relapses (46%) were in sites of prior nodal disease only, of these, only 6 (23%) were within the EBB treatment field. A total of 26 patients had thoracic

  10. Estimating solar ultraviolet irradiance (290-385 nm by means of the spectral parametric models: SPCTRAL2 and SMARTS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Foyo-Moreno

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the ozone depletion in Antarctic and the globally declining trend of stratospheric ozone concentration, public and scientific concern has been raised in the last decades. A very important consequence of this fact is the increased broadband and spectral UV radiation in the environment and the biological effects and heath risks that may take place in the near future. The absence of widespread measurements of this radiometric flux has lead to the development and use of alternative estimation procedures such as the parametric approaches. Parametric models compute the radiant energy using available atmospheric parameters. Some parametric models compute the global solar irradiance at surface level by addition of its direct beam and diffuse components. In the present work, we have developed a comparison between two cloudless sky parametrization schemes. Both methods provide an estimation of the solar spectral irradiance that can be integrated spectrally within the limits of interest. For this test we have used data recorded in a radiometric station located at Granada (37.180°N, 3.580°W, 660 m a.m.s.l., an inland location. The database includes hourly values of the relevant variables covering the years 1994-95. The performance of the models has been tested in relation to their predictive capability of global solar irradiance in the UV range (290–385 nm. After our study, it appears that information concerning the aerosol radiative effects is fundamental in order to obtain a good estimation. The original version of SPCTRAL2 provides estimates of the experimental values with negligible mean bias deviation. This suggests not only the appropriateness of the model but also the convenience of the aerosol features fixed in it to Granada conditions. SMARTS2 model offers increased flexibility concerning the selection of different aerosol models included in the code and provides the best results when the selected models are those

  11. Estimating solar ultraviolet irradiance (290-385 nm by means of the spectral parametric models: SPCTRAL2 and SMARTS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Foyo-Moreno

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the ozone depletion in Antarctic and the globally declining trend of stratospheric ozone concentration, public and scientific concern has been raised in the last decades. A very important consequence of this fact is the increased broadband and spectral UV radiation in the environment and the biological effects and heath risks that may take place in the near future. The absence of widespread measurements of this radiometric flux has lead to the development and use of alternative estimation procedures such as the parametric approaches. Parametric models compute the radiant energy using available atmospheric parameters. Some parametric models compute the global solar irradiance at surface level by addition of its direct beam and diffuse components. In the present work, we have developed a comparison between two cloudless sky parametrization schemes. Both methods provide an estimation of the solar spectral irradiance that can be integrated spectrally within the limits of interest. For this test we have used data recorded in a radiometric station located at Granada (37.180°N, 3.580°W, 660 m a.m.s.l., an inland location. The database includes hourly values of the relevant variables covering the years 1994-95. The performance of the models has been tested in relation to their predictive capability of global solar irradiance in the UV range (290–385 nm. After our study, it appears that information concerning the aerosol radiative effects is fundamental in order to obtain a good estimation. The original version of SPCTRAL2 provides estimates of the experimental values with negligible mean bias deviation. This suggests not only the appropriateness of the model but also the convenience of the aerosol features fixed in it to Granada conditions. SMARTS2 model offers increased flexibility concerning the selection of different aerosol models included in the code and provides the best results when the selected models are those

  12. The influence of solar system oscillation on the variability of the total solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yndestad, Harald; Solheim, Jan-Erik

    2017-02-01

    Total solar irradiance (TSI) is the primary quantity of energy that is provided to the Earth. The properties of the TSI variability are critical for understanding the cause of the irradiation variability and its expected influence on climate variations. A deterministic property of TSI variability can provide information about future irradiation variability and expected long-term climate variation, whereas a non-deterministic variability can only explain the past. This study of solar variability is based on an analysis of two TSI data series, one since 1700 A.D. and one since 1000 A.D.; a sunspot data series since 1610 A.D.; and a solar orbit data series from 1000 A.D. The study is based on a wavelet spectrum analysis. First, the TSI data series are transformed into a wavelet spectrum. Then, the wavelet spectrum is transformed into an autocorrelation spectrum to identify stationary, subharmonic and coincidence periods in the TSI variability. The results indicate that the TSI and sunspot data series have periodic cycles that are correlated with the oscillations of the solar position relative to the barycenter of the solar system, which is controlled by gravity force variations from the large planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A possible explanation for solar activity variations is forced oscillations between the large planets and the solar dynamo. We find that a stationary component of the solar variability is controlled by the 12-year Jupiter period and the 84-year Uranus period with subharmonics. For TSI and sunspot variations, we find stationary periods related to the 84-year Uranus period. Deterministic models based on the stationary periods confirm the results through a close relation to known long solar minima since 1000 A.D. and suggest a modern maximum period from 1940 to 2015. The model computes a new Dalton-type sunspot minimum from approximately 2025 to 2050 and a new Dalton-type period TSI minimum from approximately 2040 to 2065.

  13. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Richard; Polishchuk, Alexei; DuBois, Steven; Hawkins, Randall; Lee, Stephanie W.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Shusterman, Suzanne; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Diller, Lisa; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  14. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Richard [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Polishchuk, Alexei [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); DuBois, Steven [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hawkins, Randall [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Stephanie W. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bagatell, Rochelle [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shusterman, Suzanne [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Al-Sayegh, Hasan [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Diller, Lisa [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); London, Wendy B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  15. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  16. Physically-based biodosimetry using in vivo EPR of teeth in patients undergoing total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Gladstone, David J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Zaki, Bassem I.; Salikhov, Ildar K.; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The ability to estimate individual exposures to radiation following a large attack or incident has been identified as a necessity for rational and effective emergency medical response. In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of tooth enamel has been developed to meet this need. Materials and methods A novel transportable EPR spectrometer, developed to facilitate tooth dosimetry in an emergency response setting, was used to measure upper incisors in a model system, in unirradiated subjects, and in patients who had received total body doses of 2 Gy. Results A linear dose response was observed in the model system. A statistically significant increase in the intensity of the radiation-induced EPR signal was observed in irradiated versus unirradiated subjects, with an estimated standard error of dose prediction of 0.9 + 0.3 Gy. Conclusions These results demonstrate the current ability of in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry to distinguish between subjects who have not been irradiated and those who have received exposures that place them at risk for acute radiation syndrome. Procedural and technical developments to further increase the precision of dose estimation and ensure reliable operation in the emergency setting are underway. With these developments EPR tooth dosimetry is likely to be a valuable resource for triage following potential radiation exposure of a large population. PMID:21696339

  17. Study on the immunological suppressive mechanisms of the cyclophosphamide-administration and total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakizaka, Yoshitaka; Uchino, Junichi; Yang, Zi-Bo.

    1994-01-01

    High dose-cyclophosphamide (CP) administration and total body irradiation (TBI) are often used for bone marrow transplantation in order to eradicate the residual tumor cells and to induce the immunological tolerance in the recipients. But CP is difficult to use as an immunosuppressant because this drug has indefinite effects on host's immune status depending on the dose, i.e. augment the humoral antibody production in small dosage and inhibit the rejective reaction in large dosage. Thus we study on the immunological mechanisms of this drug and the TBI used often with CP for bone marrow transplantation in leukemic patients. 150 mg/kg of CP was administered via tail vein, and 3 Gy (300 rads) of X-ray was irradiated. CP could suppress the host's cellular immunity within 5 days after administration but TBI could within 3 days. Reversely, CP augmented the cellular immunity since 5 days after treatment. CP damaged the IL-2 production irreversibely, but IL-3 production was inhibited by CP for only a few days and recovered rapidly. These characters were thought to be a big help for the implantation and development of the multipotent stem cells in the recipient's body after transplantation. (author)

  18. Differences in the acute intestinal syndrome after partial and total abdominal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewit, L.; Oussoren, Y.; Bartelink, H.; Stewart, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The acute intestinal syndrome in mice was analysed after partial (PAI) and total abdominal irradiation (TAI). The LDsub(50/15) was significantly higher after PAI (16.3 Gy) than after TAI(14.3 Gy). The dose-response curve for maximal weight loss also showed a shift of 1.8-2 Gy to higher doses after PAI compared with TAI. The X-ray survival curve for duodenal crypt cells was shifted by only 0.6 Gy for PAI and TAI. In order to assess the possible role of radiation-induced leucopenia and the influence of irradiating the spleen (shielded with PAI), lethality, weight loss and blood leucocyte counts were compared after PAI and TAI in splenectomized and non-splenectomized mice. No major difference in leucopenia was found between the different treatment groups, whereas the differences in lethality and weight loss between PAI and TAI remained the same. Shielding the spleen in the partial abdominal field therefore did not contribute to the difference in LDsub(50/15). These findings imply that the increased LDsub(50/15) after PAI compared with TAI was mainly due to shielding of a small part of the bowel (about 13 per cent of the abdominal area). (author)

  19. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  20. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  1. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip

    1994-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase

  2. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase.

  3. Microalgal Photosynthesis and Spectral Scalar Irradiance in Coastal Marine-Sediments of Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; PLOUG, H.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    (bacteriochlorophyll a). Infrared scalar irradiance reached 200% of incident light intensity at 0.0-0.3-mm depth and IR penetration was independent of the development of a cyanobacterial surface film. At high incident light intensity, 740 muEinst m-2 s-1, the photosynthetic efficiency at 1.0-mm depth was 10-fold...... higher than in the uppermost 0.0-0.6 mm of the sediment. The lower boundary of the euphotic zone (detectable gross photosynthesis) was at a mean light level of greater-than-or-equal-to 7.5 muEinst m-2 s-1.......Scalar irradiance and oxygenic photosynthesis were measured simultaneously at 100-mum spatial resolution by a fiber-optic scalar irradiance microsensor and an oxygen microelectrode spaced 120 mum apart. Marine microbial mats on sandy sediments along the coast of Limfjorden, Denmark, were dominated...

  4. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  5. Use of postoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic bone formation after total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, J.E.; Greenberg, P.; Selch, M.T.; Thomas, B.J.; Amstutz, H.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of heterotopic bone (HTB) following total hip replacement may partially or completely ankylose the joint space, causing pain and/or limiting the range of motion. Patients at high risk for formation of HTB postoperatively include those with previous HTB formation, heterotopic osteoarthritis, and active rheumatoid spondylitis. Patients in these high risk groups have a 63-69% incidence of post-operative HTB formation, usually seen radiographically by 2 months post-operation. From 1980-1986 twenty-nine hips in 28 consecutively treated patients were irradiated post-operatively at the UCLA Center for the Health Sciences. The indication for irradiation was documented HTB formation previously in 26 of the 27 hips presented below. From 1980-1982 patients received 20 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions; from 1982-1986 the dose was reduced to 10 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. Twenty-seven hips in 26 patients completed therapy and were available for evaluation, with a minimum of 2 month follow-up, and a median follow-up of 12 months. Three of 27 hips developed significant HTB (Brooker grade III or IV) post-operatively, whereas 5 of 27 hips developed minor, nonsymptomatic HTB (Brooker grade I). When irradiation was begun by postoperative day 4, 0 of 17 hips formed significant HTB. If irradiation began after post-operative day 4, 3 of 10 hips formed significant HTB (Brooker grade III or IV). These 3 hips received doses of 10 Gy in one hip and 20 Gy in the other 2 hips. There were no differences in the incidence or severity of side effects in the 10 Gy vs. the 20 Gy treatment groups. Eighteen hips received 10 Gy, 8 hips 20 Gy and, 1 hip 12 Gy. In conclusion, 10 Gy in 5 fractions appears as effective as 20 Gy in 10 fractions at preventing post-operative formation of HTB. For optimal results, treatment should begin as early as possible prior to post-operative day 4

  6. The effect of whole body or total-head x irradiation of the metallophilic cells in the mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Matsueda, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Kenzo; Ogata, Kunitoshi; Sugie, Tsuneto

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify morphological changes of the reticuloendothelial cells in the spleen following X-irradiation by Katsura's silver impregnation method. The animals used in this experiment were ddN female mice weighing 20 to 25g. The mice were given X-irradiation to the total-head (1,500R) or whole body (300R). The metallophilic cells in the spleen of control mice were of the small foamy type in the follicle, the large stellate type in the marginal metallophils, the small branching type in the marginal zone and the small foamy or round type in the red pulp, respectively. The metallophilic cells decreased immediately after whole body irradiation and the number of cells returned to normal in from 10 to 14 days. On the other hand, the number of the metallophilic cells in the follicle and the perifollicular region increased immediately after total-head X-irradiation. This state continued for several days. In the marginal zone and red pulp, the number of amoebian type cells appeared from 24 hours after irradiation and the number of cells in total-head irradiation group were more clearly distinguishable than in the whole body irradiated group. (author)

  7. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  8. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, N; Goedde-Salz, E; Loeffler, H [Christian-Albrechts-Univ., Kiel (Germany, F.R.)

    1985-06-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process.

  9. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21

  10. Total-body irradiation and bone-marrow transplantation - first observations on clinical tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.; Sergieva, K.; Koleva, I.; Mlachkova, D.; Michailov, G.; Avramova, B.

    2004-01-01

    About 50 000 bone-marrow transplantations (BMT) are performed annually at the present stage in numerous clinical centers all over the world. The Bulgarian experience in total-body irradiation (TBI) with following BMT is rather scarce. The routine TBI procedures in the oncological practice in the country date back just to 2001. The aim of the present publication is to describe the Bulgarian experience and the first impressions from the clinical tolerance of the total-body irradiation (TBI) with subsequent allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). Patient characteristics are presented in detail, including their distribution with respect to sex, age, primary diagnose, recurrence number till BMT, patient status during BMT performance (clinical hematological remission or relapse), as well as the basic parameters of the conditioning regime including TBI with subsequent allogeneic PSCT. The position of the patient and the applied radiotherapeutic equipment are described as well as the TBI schemes, respectively 5 fractions of 2 Gy per day for two patients and 3-day irradiation with 6 fractions (two fractions with a 6-hour interval between them) for the rest of the patients. The total dose (TD) of 10 Gy is realized for all patients. The clinical tolerance of 7 patients subjected to TBI and allogeneic PSCT is discussed. All patients were tolerable to the TBI treatment and had no serious problems. The radiotherapy was interrupted only in the case of the first two patients due to slight gastro-intestinal reactions. The first days of radiation were accompanied with a light degree of headache, nausea and vomiting, which were successfully overcome by granisetron. Diarrhea syndrome and mucositis to the II-III degree were developed subsequently without parotitis development. On the days 0 and +1 of the clinical protocol transplantation was realized of non- T-cell-depleted grafts (in 5 patients) and T-cell-depleted grafts (in 2 patients), which had no serious

  11. Radiobiological considerations in the treatment of neuroblastoma by total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; O'Donoghue, J.; Gregor, A.; Livingstone, A.; Wilson, L.; West of Scotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1986-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a radiosensitive neoplasm for which total body irradiation (TBI) is presently under clinical consideration. Collated data on the radiobiology of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro indicates moderate cellular radiosensitivity and low capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. Mathematical studies incorporating these parameters suggest that low dose fractionated TBI is unlikely to achieve significant levels of tumour cell kill. When high dose TBI is used in conjuction with bone marrow rescue a tumour 'log cell kill' of 4-5 should be achievable. This effect would be additional to that acheived by chemotherapy. Fractionated TBI with bone marrow rescue may be curative for some patients in clinical remission who are presently destined to relapse. (Auth.)

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation assessed for possible enhancement of immunosuppression in hyperimmunized dogs receiving renal allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Kazuhiko (Yamato Seiwa Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Rapaport, F.T.

    1992-12-01

    With performed antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) appearing in an increasing number of patients today, hyperimmunization constitutes a major problem in clinical transplantation. In adult beagle dogs hyperimmunized with skin allografts and buffy coat injection, we performed renal allograft transplantation to assess the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) employed as a preoperative measure in combination with cyclosporine (CyA) and methyl-prednisolone (MPL) in effecting immunosuppression. The mean survival period were 6.5 days in dogs withheld preliminary treatment, 9.0 days in the dogs receiving CyA and MPL, 26.7 days in those administered one-stage TLI, and 68 days (terminated by euthanasia) of the dogs given two-stage TLI. TLI administered two stages is considered an effective method of enhancing immunosuppression sufficiently to enable the attenuation of adverse reaction to renal allograft in hyperimmunized recipients. (author).

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation assessed for possible enhancement of immunosuppression in hyperimmunized dogs receiving renal allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Rapaport, F.T.

    1992-01-01

    With performed antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) appearing in an increasing number of patients today, hyperimmunization constitutes a major problem in clinical transplantation. In adult beagle dogs hyperimmunized with skin allografts and buffy coat injection, we performed renal allograft transplantation to assess the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) employed as a preoperative measure in combination with cyclosporine (CyA) and methyl-prednisolone (MPL) in effecting immunosuppression. The mean survival period were 6.5 days in dogs withheld preliminary treatment, 9.0 days in the dogs receiving CyA and MPL, 26.7 days in those administered one-stage TLI, and 68 days (terminated by euthanasia) of the dogs given two-stage TLI. TLI administered two stages is considered an effective method of enhancing immunosuppression sufficiently to enable the attenuation of adverse reaction to renal allograft in hyperimmunized recipients. (author)

  14. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  15. Pilot production of the wedge filter for the TBI (total body irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Ikuo; Maruyama, Yasushi; Nako, Yasunobu; Tonari, Ayako; Kusuda, Junko; Takayama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed by various methods, such as a long SSD method and a translational couch method. For patient safety in carrying out TBI, the patient should be placed on the supine position and prone position near the floor. TBI is performed from 2 opposite ports (AP/PA) with a linear accelerator (10 MV X-ray). We experimented with a wedge filter for TBI created by us, which makes dose distribution to a floor uniform. The wedge filter, made of iron alloy, was attached to the linear accelerator. In designing the wedge filter, thickness of the lead-made wedge filter can be calculated numerically from the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient of iron alloy and lead. In measuring the dose profile for a phantom of 20 cm thick, dose homogeneity less than 10% was proved by the wedge filter for TBI. (author)

  16. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found

  17. Prolonged bone marrow and skin allograft survival after pretransplant conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersey, J.H.; Kruger, J.; Song, C.; Kloster, B.

    1980-01-01

    Current studies were designed to provide long-term survival of allogeneic skin and bone marrow in mice preconditioned with various combinations of cyclophosphamide (CY) and/or total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Long-term skin graft and bone marrow survival was obtained across the major histocompatibility barrier (BALB/c into C57BL/6) using pregrafting conditioning with either fractionated TLI or the combination of CY with a single dose of TLI. CY alone and a single dose of TLI alone were relatively ineffective as regrafting immunosuppressive combinations. Allogeneic bone marrow was required for long-term skin graft survival with either conditioning regimen. Allogeneic marrow transplantation resulted in somewhat more deaths than syngeneic transplantation with both CY + TLI and fractionated TLI

  18. Total body irradiation and autologus bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemias and non Hodgkin-lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvo, R; Franzone, P; Scarpati, D; Congiu, M; Carella, A

    1986-01-01

    From january 1984 to may 1986, 31 patients, 15 ANLL, 8 ALL (in remission status) and 8 NHL (6 in remission, 2 in relapse) have been treated with chemo-radiotherapy (cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg x 2 days + total body irradiation (TBI): 10 Gy/3 fr./3 days with 4 Gy boost testicular dose in ALL) and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventeen patients are alive, 16 in remission: 9 (60%) ANLL, 2 (25%) ALL, 5 (62%) NHL (median 8+ months, follow up 1+ /29+); 2 patients presented interstitial pneumonitis (6.45%). In this series, very good results have been achieved in ANLL, where no relapse was noted, encouraging achievements in NHL, with 4/8 relapse. Advantages and disadvanteges of autologus relative to allogenic BMT, and of conditioning regimen with or without TBI are discussed.

  19. Kidney allograft tolerance in diabetic patients after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, K.K.; Vanrenterighem, Y.; Waer, M.; Michielsen, P.; Schueren, E. van der (University Hospital St. Rafael, Leuven (Belgium)); Vandeputte, M. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Rega Institute for Medical Research)

    1985-04-01

    The value of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) combined with low dose prednisone as sole immunosuppressive regimen in renal allograft transplantation in humans has been investigated. Seventeen patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy received TLI to a cumulative dose of 20-30 Gy in fractions of 1 Gy. Cadaver kidneys were grafted as soon as they were available after completion of TLI. Profound and long-term immunosuppression has been achieved in 17 patients. Six patients live already more than one year and 7 for less than one year with a functioning kidney graft. One patient returned to chronic hemodialysis 11 months after transplantation and died of pericardial tamponade one month later. One patient had severe acute rejection for which cyclosporine A was administered; he died of septic shock as a consequence of immune deficiency a month later. The other two patients succumbed to other causes (myocardial infarction and hyperglycemia).

  20. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doney, K; Buckner, C D; Sale, G E; Ramberg, R; Boyd, C; Thomas, E D [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute; Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine)

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration.

  1. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doney, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sale, G.E.; Ramberg, R.; Boyd, C.; Thomas, E.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration. (Author)

  2. Fetal liver transplantation in 2 patients with acute leukaemia after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, G.; Izzi, T.; Porcellini, A.; Delfini, C.; Galimberti, M.; Moretti, L.; Polchi, P.; Agostinelli, F.; Andreani, M.; Manna, M.; Dallapiccola, B.

    1982-01-01

    2 patients with acute leukaemia in relapse were transplanted with fetal liver cells following a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (1000 r). Each patient achieved a remission with haematopoietic recovery that was rapid in one case and delayed in the other. In one case there was evidence of chimerism as demonstrated by the presence of the XYY karyotype of the donor fetus in 20 % of marrow metaphases, by the presence of double Y bodies in the peripheral blood, by the appearance of new HLA-antigens, and by red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. In the second case there was prompt haemotopoietic recovery and the appearance of red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. Survival was 153 and 30 d, respectively, and both patients died of interstitial pneumonia without evidence of graft versus host disease. (author)

  3. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, N.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Loeffler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process. (author)

  4. Hemopoiesis in monkeys in the course of and after total chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhikikidze, Eh.E.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Kuksova, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic changes in blood-formation system of 2 types of monkeys were studied following chronic prolonged irradiation with low daily doses and considerable integral radiation load. Peak decrease of total leukocyte number of 1 mkl in both groups of monkeys at the expense of neutrophils was observed at integral dose of 10.78 Gy and was caused by decrease of index of neutrophil maturation. Violations of hereditary structures of bone marrow cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes were stable. Structural chromosomal aberrations remained in monkeys of both groups up to natural animal death. Quantitative and qualitative violations were less pronounced in macaca rhesus than in hamadryas baboons. This fact revealed high radiosensitivity of the baboons

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation prevents diabetes mellitus in the Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, A.A.; Slavin, S.; Woda, B.A.; Geisberg, M.; Like, A.A.; Mordes, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) at doses of 2200 rads or greater prevented diabetes in susceptible BB/W rats. Two of 29 (7%) treated rats became diabetic compared with 23 of 39 (59%) controls. TLI did not, however, prevent insulitis or thyroiditis in nondiabetic rats, nor did it restore the depressed concanavalin-A responsiveness of BB rat lymphocytes. T-lymphocyte subset proportions were the same in both groups. TLI was associated with significant radiation-related mortality, and nondiabetic TLI-treated rats weighed significantly less than controls. It was concluded that TLI is effective in the prevention of BB rat diabetes. However, TLI fails to correct the subclinical immunologic abnormalities of the model and is associated with significant morbidity

  6. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Els, D.; Du Toit, L.B.; Weideman, A.; Davids, H.; van der Merwe, E.

    1987-09-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum.

  7. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1987-01-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum

  8. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  9. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, J.L.; Reitz, B.A.; Beiber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either Cy A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy

  10. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following bilateral lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lynch, John P.; Trulock, Elbert P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation (BLT). Patients and Materials: Eleven patients received TLI for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Radiation therapy (RT) was prescribed as 8 Gy delivered in 10 0.8-Gy fractions, 2 fractions/week, via mantle, paraaortic, and inverted-Y fields. Serial pre- and post-RT pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements [use of methylprednisolone, murine anti-human mature T-cell monoclonal antibody (OKT3), polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and tacrolimus] were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding TLI, the average decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). Only 4 of 11 patients completed all 10 TLI treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included progressive pulmonary decline (four patients), worsening pulmonary infection (two patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (one patient). Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related-donor transplants; he is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due to pulmonary infection from organisms isolated prior to the start of RT; the other four deaths were from progressive pulmonary decline. The four remaining patients had durable positive responses to TLI (mean follow-up of 47 weeks; range 24-72). Comparing the 3 months preceding RT to the 3 months following treatment, these four patients had improvements in average FEV 1 (40% decline vs. 1% improvement) and fewer median number of immunosuppressive augmentations (3.5 vs. 0). None of these patients has developed lymphoproliferative disease or has died

  11. Novel determination of the total phenolic content in crude plant extracts by the use of 1H NMR of the -OH spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerantzaki, A.A.; Tsiafoulis, C.G.; Charisiadis, P.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Gerothanassis, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using 1 H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d 6 , which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the 'appearance' of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d 6 ; (ii) a subsequent 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D 1 H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO 3 , which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d 4 , of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed 1 H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since 1 H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A e , is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The 1 H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.

  12. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  13. Evaluation and comparison of gamma- and electron beam irradiation effects on total and free gossypol of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, M.H.; Sadeghi, A.A.; Ziaie, F.

    2011-01-01

    Impact of gamma- and electron beam irradiation on total and free gossypol content of cottonseed meal was assessed by exposing them to doses of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy. Gamma rays and electron beam showed the same effects with significant dose-dependent decrease in total and free gossypol content. Based on these results, ionizing irradiation at doses of 25 kGy and above could completely remove free gossypol and bring down total gossypol content to permissible level in poultry feed.

  14. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  15. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XIV: the Absolute Calibration of 2MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Martin; Wheaton, Wm. A.; Megeath, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Element-by-element we have combined the optical components in the three 2MASS cameras, and incorporated detector quantum efficiency curves and site-specific atmospheric transmissions, to create three relative spectral response curves (RSRs). We provide absolute 2MASS attributes associated with "zero magnitude" in the JHKs bands so that these RSRs may be used for synthetic photometry. The RSRs tie 2MASS to the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn framework of absolute photometry and spectra for the purpose ...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Mehyou, A.

    1999-11-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO 2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Mehyou, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Radiation Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1999-11-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a {sup 60} CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO{sub 2} treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  18. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  19. Fractionated total body irradiation; the gastrointestinal toxicity versus the conditioning effect for bone marrow transplantation with different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walma, E.P.; Klapwijk, W.M.; Miller, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In most cases, bone marrow transplantation is preceded by a conditioning regimen employing irradiation and/or cytotoxic drugs. The authors are searching for better fractionation schedules in order to optimize the conditioning regimen prior to transplantation of stem-cell-enriched bone marrow. They have determined damage to the gastrointestinal tract in dogs and mice after total body irradiation in mice and dogs following a number of fractionation schedules, and these results are presented. The schedules were chosen such as to minimize the interval between irradiation and the bone marrow transplantation and to maximize clinical feasibility. (Auth./C.F.)

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of early or recurrent heart transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, Susan P.; Salter, Merle M.; Kirklin, James K.; Bourge, Robert C.; Naftel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Recurrent acute cardiac allograft rejection is an important cause of repeat hospitalization and a major mode of mortality, particularly during the 6 months immediately following transplant. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown experimentally to induce a state of partial tolerance when administered prior to transplantation. Anecdotal reports of clinical experience have also suggested efficacy of TLI in treatment of recurrent cardiac rejection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TLI for treatment of early or recurrent heart transplant rejection. Materials and Methods: Between January 1990 and June 1992, 49 patients postallograft cardiac transplant were given courses of TLI for treatment of early or recurrent rejection after conventional therapy with Methylprednisolone, antithymocyte globulin, OKT3, and methotrexate. Two patients failed to complete their therapy and were not evaluated. Two other patients received a second TLI course, making a total of 49 courses delivered. Indications for TLI were early rejection (n = 5), recurrent rejection (n = 38), and recurrent rejection with vasculitis (n = 6). The dose goal of the TLI protocol was 8 Gy in 10 fractions given twice weekly. Three separate fields were used to encompass all major lymph node-bearing areas. The actual mean dose was 7 Gy (range 2.4-8.4 Gy), and the duration of treatment was 8 to 106 days. These variations were secondary to leukopenia or thrombocytopenia. Results: The mean posttransplant follow-up is 15 ± 1.2 months (maximum 27 months). Among patients initiating TLI within 1 month posttransplant (n = 15), the rejection frequency decreased from 1.83 episodes/patient/month pre-TLI to 0.13 episodes/patient/month post-TLI (p < 0.0001). For those who began TLI 1-3 months after transplant (n = 21), rejection decreased from 1.43 to 0.10 episodes/patient/month (p < 0.0001). When TLI was started more than 3 months posttransplant (n = 11), the pre-TLI and post

  1. Special neutron measurement results from the spectral positions of the Juelich FKS steel irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Kuepper, H.; Pott, G.; Borchardt, G.; Segelhorst, G.; Thoene, L.; Weise, L.

    1986-10-01

    For the German project 'Forschungsvorhaben Komponentensicherheit' (FKS, i.e., Structural Integrity of Components) steel specimen irradiations have been carried out in the Juelich Merlin-type reactor (FRJ-1). The neutron monitoring to these irradiations is described in a German report (Juel-2087). In this context, some special considerations and results are given here, i.e., an experimental investigation of the fast neutron spectrum variation over a thick steel plate (in a special dosimetry test experiment); a comparison of the outcome of this investigation with the results from other FKS participants; and finally, the evaluation of the neutron exposure expressed in displacements per atom (dpa) in the centre of that steel plate. (orig.)

  2. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  3. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, David J., E-mail: davideaton@nhs.net [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Warry, Alison J. [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  4. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources

  5. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  6. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia:an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, A.; Martin de Vidales, C.; Pinar, B.; Marin, A.; Cerezo, L.; Dominguez, P.; Perez, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneicbone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide(CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=3D0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=3D>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival witha low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  9. Linac-based total body irradiation (TBI) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate dose distribution of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning tecnique using Versa HD® lineer accelerator to deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) on the coach. Eight TBI patient's Treatment Planning System (TPS) were performed with dual arc VMAT for each patient. The VMAT-TBI consisted of three isocentres and three dual overlapping arcs. The prescribed dose was 12 Gy. Mean dose to lung and kidney were restricted less than 10 Gy and max. dose to lens were restricted less than 6 Gy. The plans were verified using 2D array and ion chamber. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by γ-index analysis and absolute dose. An average total delivery time was determined 923±34 seconds and an average MU was determined 2614±228 MUs for dual arc VMAT. Mean dose to lungs was 9.7±0.2 Gy, mean dose to kidneys was 8.8±0.3 Gy, max. dose to lens was 5.5±0.3 Gy and max. dose was 14.6±0.3 Gy, HI of PTV was 1.13±0.2, mean dose to PTV was 12.6±1.5 Gy and mean γ-index pass rate was %97.1±1.9. The results show that the tecnique for TBI using VMAT on the treatment coach is feasible.

  10. Analysis of Surface Dose Refer to Distance between Beam Spoiler and Patient in Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Ji Min; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Song, Ki Won; Park, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation is used to kill the total malignant cell and for immunosuppression component of preparatory regimens for bone-marrow restitution of patients. Beam spoiler is used to increase the dose to the superficial tissues. This paper finds the property of the distance between beam spoiler and patient. Set-up conditions are 6 MV-Xray, 300 MU, SAD = 400 cm, field size = 40 x 40 cm 2 . The parallel plate chamber located in surface, midpoint and exit of solid water phantom. The surface dose is measured while the distance between beam spoiler and patient is altered. Because it should be found proper distance. The solid water phantom is fixer and beam spoiler is moving. Central dose of phantom is 10.7 cGy and exit dose is 6.7 cGy. In case of distance of 50 cm to 60 cm between beam spoiler and solid water phantom, incidence dose is 14.58-14.92 cGy. Therefore, The surface dose was measured 99.4-101% with got near most to the prescription dose. In clinical case, distance between beam spoiler and patient affect surface dose. If once 50-60 cm of distance between beam spoiler and patient, surface dose of patient got near prescription dose. It would be taken distance between beam spoiler and patient into account in clinical therapy.

  11. Neurobehavioral toxicity of total body irradiation: a follow-up in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peper, Martin; Steinvorth, Sarah; Schraube, Peter; Fruehauf, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Kimmig, Bernhard N.; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a routine treatment of hematological malignancy. A retrospective and a prospective group study of long-term cerebral side effects was performed, with a special emphasis on neurobehavioral toxicity effects. Methods and Materials: Twenty disease-free patients treated with hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy, 4 days), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and autologous BMT (mean age 38 years, range 17-52 years; age at TBI 35 years, 16-50 years; follow-up time 32 months, 9-65 months) participated in a neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neurological examination. Data were compared to 14 patients who were investigated prior to TBI. Eleven patients with renal insufficiencies matched for sex and age (38 years, 20-52 years) served as controls. In a longitudinal approach, neuropsychological follow-up data were assessed in 12 long-term survivors (45 years, 23-59 years; follow-up time 8.8 years, 7-10.8 years; time since diagnosis 10.1 years, 7.5-14.2 years). Results: No evidence of neurological deficits was found in post-TBI patients except one case of peripheral movement disorder of unknown origin. Some patients showed moderate brain atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed a subtle reduction of memory performance of about one standard deviation. Cognitive decline in individual patients appeared to be associated with pretreatment (brain irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate). Ten-years post disease onset, survivors without pretreatment showed behavioral improvement up to the premorbid level. Conclusion: The incidence of long-term neurobehavioral toxicity was very low for the present TBI/BMT regimen

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  13. Recovery of rat lens epithelial cells after total or partial x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Riley, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation of whole lenses interferes with the normal mitogenic response of lens cells to stimulation by mechanical wounding. Radiation exposure causes a delay and partial suppression of cells entering the S phase of the cell cycle. When cells are irradiated 1 day before wounding, DNA synthesis begins 20 hr after wounding and peaks 10 hr later. The return to a normal wound response is gradual when the time interval between irradiation and wounding is lengthened. By 28 days, essentially complete recovery of the wound response occurs. Mitosis shows a similar pattern of recovery. When half of the lens is irradiated 1 day before wounding, delay and suppression of the wound response in the irradiated half of the lens epithelium is observed. However, if 4 days elapse between irradiation and mechanical wounding, complete recovery of cells responding to the mitogenic stimulus occurs. Cells of the shielded half of the lens appear to compensate for the reduced number of irradiated cells entering S phase so that peak labelling of shielded cells is 70% compared with 50% for control lens cells. An evaluation of mitotic figures confirms faster recovery of the entire lens when only half the lens is irradiated. Complete recovery of the cellular response of partially irradiated lenses occurs in 4 days in contrast to almost 28 days for wholly irradiated lenses. (author)

  14. Inter-particle gap distribution and spectral rigidity of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krbalek, Milan; Hrabak, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP model) with open boundary conditions and present the analytical computations leading to the exact formula for distance clearance distribution, i.e. probability density for a clear distance between subsequent particles of the model. The general relation is rapidly simplified for the middle part of the one-dimensional lattice. Both the analytical formulas and their approximations are compared with the numerical representation of the TASEP model. Such a comparison is presented for particles occurring in the internal part as well as in the boundary part of the lattice. Furthermore, we introduce the pertinent estimation for the so-called spectral rigidity of the model. The results obtained are sequentially discussed within the scope of vehicular traffic theory.

  15. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  16. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  17. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than ±10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  18. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these "sequential" techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than +/- 10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times. However, the EUD was

  19. Fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C radioluminescence dosimetry for total body irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranurak, S.; Andersen, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry can be important and relevant in radiotherapy, especially when commissioning new treatment techniques at hospitals. This study investigates the potential use of fiber-coupled radioluminescence (RL) dosimetry based on Al_2O_3:C or organic plastic scintillators for this purpose in the context of Total Body Irradiations (TBIs) where patients are treated with large fields of 6 or 18 MV photons at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). The study shows that Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol may be suitable for real-time in vivo dosimetry during TBI treatments from the perspective of the good agreement with alanine dosimetry and other critical phantom tests, including the ability to cope with the large stem signal experienced during TBI treatments at extended SSD. In contrast, the chromatic stem removal technique often used for organic plastic scintillators did not work well in large fields with the tested calibration procedure and instrumentation. An apparent dose-rate effect discussed in a previous study of the RL properties of Al_2O_3:C (Andersen et al., 2011) was found to have resulted from an overlooked dead time problem in the counting system, and this potential caveat can therefore be removed from the list of potential problems associated with fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol. This further has implications for TBI dosimetry using the RL Al_2O_3:C system due to large dose-rate differences between calibrations at the iso-center and in vivo measurements at extended source-to-surface distances. - Highlights: • Fiber-coupled dosimetry can be used for measurements during total body irradiations. • An apparent dose-effect associated with radioluminescence from Al2O3:C was resolved. • The gated-counting stem removal procedure worked well for Al2O3:C in pulsed accelerator beams. • The chromatic stem removal procedure did not work well with the tested instrumentation and organic plastic

  20. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variability Observed from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Bolsée, David; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdenour; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bekki, Slimane; Pereira, Nuno; Cessateur, Marchand; Gäel; , Marion; et al.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its variability in the UV, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC for 8 years. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the total nitrogen and protein content in body during different stages of silkworm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.; Binkh, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation of eggs of silk moth in B 2 stage in doses of 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 Gy on the changes of total nitrogen and protein content during different stages of Bombyx mori L. development. Highest levels of total nitrogen and protein were found in silk gland 14.032-14.355 mg%, followed by pupae - 7.448-8.092 and 46.550-48.906 mg%, moths after egg laying - 6.650-7.825 and 41.563-48.906 mg% and silkworm hemolymph - 6.920-6.980 and 43.250-43.625 mg%, respectively. The irradiation of eggs with 2.00 and 3,00 Gy gamma rays stimulated the increase of total nitrogen and protein content in silk gland by 6.66-7.3% compared to non-irradiated eggs of the same breed. 14 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  2. Long term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients. Materials and Methods: From 1986 to 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 patients who had received cardiac transplants at Stanford University. In 38 cases, TLI was administered for chronic, intractable allograft rejection despite conventional anti-rejection therapy, including corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, OKT3, DHPG, RATG, and methotrexate. Ten patients received TLI prophylactically, beginning radiation between 5 and 16 days after heart transplantation. The prescribed radiation dose was 800 cGy given in 80 cGy fractions twice weekly to all major lymph node regions using mantle and inverted Y fields. Patients continued to receive all medications except azathioprine which was held during TLI to prevent severe marrow suppression. All patients were closely monitored for episodes of rejection, infection, prednisone requirements, blood counts, and complications of treatment. Post-irradiation follow up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose of radiation was 730 cGy delivered over a mean of 39 calendar days. Fifty six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, the frequency of rejection dropped from 0.46 episodes/patient/month before radiation to 0.14 episodes/patient/month during TLI (p 3 during TLI (p = 0.01) and remained low at 167.6 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after treatment (p = 0.05). CD8+ lymphocytes also decreased during treatment from 233.2 to 65.8 cells/mm 3 (p = 0.003) but rose significantly above normal to 381.3 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after TLI (p 0.05). Thus, the ratio of helper/suppresser T-cells was chronically decreased. Infection rates were not significantly different before, during or after

  3. Spectral, structural, optical and dielectrical studies of UV irradiated Rose Bengal thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeyada, H.M., E-mail: hzeyada@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Youssif, M.I.; El-Ghamaz, N.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Aboderbala, M.E.O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, AlJabl Al Gharbi University (Libya)

    2017-02-01

    Optical properties of pristine and UV irradiated Rose Bengal (RB) films have been investigated using transmittance and reflectance methods. The refractive index(n) and extinction coefficient (k) have been calculated from the absolute values of transmission and reflection spectrum. Single oscillator parameters and Drude model of free carrier absorption have been applied for analysis of the refractive index dispersion. Within the frame work of the band-to-band electron transitions theory; the fundamental absorption edge data were analyzed. Our results suggest that thickness of RB films has no effect on the absorption or the refractive indices in the investigated thicknesses range and within the experimental error. Structural transformation of films from amorphous to polycrystalline has been observed upon UV irradiation. Accordingly, the decreases of all of the absorption coefficient, the energy gap and the refractive index of RB films have been detected. Furthermore, the dependence of the optical functions on UV exposure times has been discussed based on the spectral distribution of the dielectric constant.

  4. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  5. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods

  6. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore-570025, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods.

  7. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  8. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shuji; Shen, Robert K.; Laack, Nadia N.; Inwards, Carrie Y.; Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  9. Spectral effects in low-dose fission and fusion neutron irradiated metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Atkin, S.D.; Martinez, C.

    1986-04-01

    Flat miniature tensile specimens were irradiated to neutron fluences up to 9 x 10 22 n/m 2 in the RTNS-II and in the Omega West Reactor. Specimen temperatures were the same in both environments, with runs being made at both 90 0 C and 290 0 C. The results of tensile tests on AISI 316 stainless steel, A302B pressure vessel steel and pure copper are reported here. The radiation-induced changes in yield strength as a function of neutron dose in each spectrum are compared. The data for 316 stainless steel correlate well on the basis of displacements per atom (dpa), while those for copper and A302B do not. In copper the ratio of fission dpa to 14 MeV neutron dpa for a given yield stress change is about three to one. In A302B pressure vessel steel this ratio is more than three at lower fluences, but the yield stress data for fission and 14 MeV neutron-irradiated A302B steel appears to coalesce or intersect at the higher fluences

  10. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Gen; Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  11. Xenograft survival in two species combinations using total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has profound immunosuppressive actions and has been applied successfully to allotransplantation but not xenotransplantation. Cyclosporine (CsA) has not generally permitted successful xenotransplantation of organs but has not been used in combination with TLI. TLI and CsA were given alone and in combination to rats that were recipients of hamster or rabbit cardiac xenografts. Combined TLI and CsA prolonged survival of hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts from three days in untreated controls to greater than 100 days in most recipients. TLI alone significantly prolonged rabbit to rat xenograft survival with doubling of survival time. However, combined treatment did not significantly prolong rabbit-to-rat cardiac xenograft survival compared with TLI alone. The hamster and rat are phylogenetically closely related. Transplants from hamsters to rat are concordant xenografts since the time course of unmodified rejection is similar to first-set rejection of allografts. Although the rabbit-to-rat transplant is also between concordant species (average survival of untreated controls: 3.2 days) the rabbit and rat are more distantly related. These results suggest that TLI is an effective immunosuppressant when applied to cardiac xenotransplants in these animal models; that the choice of species critically affects xenograft survival when TLI and/or CsA are used for immunosuppression; and that the closely related species combination tested has markedly prolonged (greater than 100 days) survival using combined TLI and CsA

  12. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  13. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  14. Efficacy of granisetron in the prevention of GIT problems in patients undergoing total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, L.; Jammet, P.; Campana, F.; Cosset, J.M.; Fourquet, A.

    1994-01-01

    From december 1991 to september 1992, 20 patients due to receive total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation were given granisetron (Kytril) in order to prevent intestinal (nausea and vomiting) early intolerance, TBI regimen was delivered on a fractional basis of six fractions, over 3 days. Twelve grays were delivered with a lung protection decreasing the pulmonary dose to 9 Gy Granisetron (3 mg) was administered by a 5-min intravenous infusion, 1 h before TBI. Up to two further infusions were given if nausea or vomiting occurred. The pretreatment perfusion was sufficient to prevent nausea and vomiting in 10/20 patients, one additional post-treatment perfusion was necessary in 7/20 patients, and two in 1/20 patients. In 2/20 cases, nausea and vomiting persisted in spite of three perfusions. Excellent or good efficacy was noted in 15/20 patients and a minor (or no) efficacy in five. Granisetron appears to be superior to the conventional anti emetic schemes to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving TBI for bone marrow transplantation. 15 Refs

  15. Total solar irradiance as measured by the SOVAP radiometer onboard PICARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the SOlar VAriability PICARD (SOVAP space-based radiometer, we obtained a new time series of the total solar irradiance (TSI during Solar Cycle 24. Based on SOVAP data, we obtained that the TSI input at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit from the Sun is 1361.8 ± 2.4 W m−2 (1σ representative of the 2008 solar minimum period. From 2010 to 2014, the amplitude of the changes has been of the order of ± 0.1%, corresponding to a range of about 2.7 W m−2. To determine the TSI from SOVAP, we present here an improved instrument equation. A parameter was integrated from a theoretical analysis that highlighted the thermo-electrical non-equivalence of the radiometric cavity. From this approach, we obtained values that are lower than those previously provided with the same type of instrument. The results in this paper supersede the previous SOVAP analysis and provide the best SOVAP-based TSI-value estimate and its temporal variation.

  16. ACPSEM ROSG TBI working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Bailey, Michael; Tran, Thu; Baldwin, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) radiation oncology specialty group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian audience, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the tripartite radiation oncology practice standards [1, 2]. This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM total body irradiation working group (TBIWG) and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the ROSG of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBI in Australasia.

  17. ACPSEM ROSG TBE working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Baldwin, Zoe; Ostwald, Trish; Tran, Thi; Bailey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Radiation Oncology Specialty Group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian readers, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Tripartite Radiation Oncology Reform Implementation Committee Quality Working Group: Radiation Oncology Practice Standards (2011), and Radiation Oncology Practice Standards Supplementary Guide (2011). This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM ROSG Total Body Electron Irradiation Working Group and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the Radiation Oncology Specialty Group of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBE in Australasia.

  18. Association of Supergranule Mean Scales with Solar Cycle Strengths and Total Solar Irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sudip; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Banerjee, Dipankar, E-mail: sudip@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2017-07-20

    We analyze the long-term behavior of the supergranule scale parameter, in active regions (ARs) and quiet regions (QRs), using the Kodaikanal digitized data archive. This database provides century-long daily full disk observations of the Sun in Ca ii K wavelengths. In this paper, we study the distributions of the supergranular scales, over the whole data duration, which show identical shape in these two regimes. We found that the AR mean scale values are always higher than that of the QR for every solar cycle. The mean scale values are highly correlated with the sunspot number cycle amplitude and also with total solar irradiance (TSI) variations. Such a correlation establishes the cycle-wise mean scale as a potential calibrator for the historical data reconstructions. We also see an upward trend in the mean scales, as has already been reported in TSI. This may provide new input for climate forcing models. These results also give us insight into the different evolutionary scenarios of the supergranules in the presence of strong (AR) and weak (QR) magnetic fields.

  19. Total body irradiation in intensive treatment necessitating bone marrow graft, of malignant hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, R.; Van Houtte, P.; Piron, A.; Debusscher, L.; Strijckmans, P.

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1988, 65 consecutive patients were treated with a program of intensive chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) for malignant hematological diseases at the Institut Jules-Bordet. Results were analyzed according to different prognostic factors as well as to the radiation technique; 3 different schedules were used: 3 fractions of 2.66 Gy given in one day at 3-h intervals, 6 daily fractions of 2 Gy in 6 days and 7 fractions of 2.25 Gy in 8 days. The second radiation schedule appears to give the best results as relapses were higher with the 1-day program and there was an increase in later effects and early deaths with 7 fractions of 2.25 Gy. Nevertheless, the results indicate that after administration of 5 or 6 times 2 Gy TBI, there might be possible benefit in treating certain parts of the body by radiation, those in particular that could be sanctuary sites for malignant cells from chemotherapy. The authors propose a simple and easy way of uniformizing the radiation schedule to carry out a multicentric trial [fr

  20. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of T..gamma.. cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Two of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy.

  1. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of Tγ cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Tow of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy. (author)

  2. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  3. Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation as preparative immunosuppression in high risk renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najarian, J.S.; Ferguson, R.M.; Sutherland, D.E.; Slavin, S.; Kim, T.; Kersey, J.; Simmons, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-two patients at high risk to reject renal allografts have been treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FTLI) prior to transplantation of primary (2), secondary (16) or tertiary (4) renal allografts. All patients undergoing retransplantation had rapidly rejected previous grafts. At 24 months following transplantation, 72% of grafts were functioning in the TLI group compared with a 38% graft function in an historical control group of recipients receiving secondary or tertiary grafts and treated with conventional immunosuppression. Important variables in determining success of transplantation following fractionated TLI include the dose of TLI, the interval from radiation to transplantation, and maintenance post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy. Optimal results were achieved with 2500 rads delivered in 100 rad fractions followed by transplantation within two weeks, and a tapering prednisone schedule and maintenance azathioprine post-transplantation. Seventeen patients had significant complications of the radiation treatment and there was one death, prior to transplantation, associated with pneumonitis. In vitro assessment of immune function demonstrated marked peripheral T cell depletion and loss of in vitro responsiveness to mitogen and allogeneic stimulation following FTLI. The administration of donor bone marrow at the time of transplantation did not produce chimerism. The results suggest that when properly utilized FTLI can produce effective adjunctive immunosuppression for clinical transplantation

  4. Marrow transplantation for leukemia following fractionated total body irradiation. A comparative trial of methotrexate and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irle, C.; Deeg, H.J.; Buckner, C.D.; Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Veterans Administration Hospital, Seattle, WA; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, 30-47 yr of age, with leukemia in relapse received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and 7 daily fractions of 2.25 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for seven consecutive days. Nine patients (16%) are currently alive, free of disease, 324-845 days from transplantation. Actuarial relapse and survival rates at 2 yr were 56% and 9.5% respectively. These data were not remarkably different from those in previous studies using 10 Gy of TBI administered as a single dose. Thirty patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (MTX) and 26 to receive cyclosporine (CSP) as postgrafting prophylaxis for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Probability of developing significant acute GVHD by day 100 post-transplant was 71% for patients in the MTX group and 45% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Probability of relapse was 37% for patients in the MTX group and 70% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Transplant-related deaths were more frequent in the MTX group and leukemic deaths more frequent in the CSP group although this may have been related to an uneven distribution of high-risk patients. Long term disease-free survival was comparable. (author)

  5. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  6. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT

  7. Biologically effective dose in total-body irradiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Heijenbrok-Kal, M.H.; Struikmans, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) is an important part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results after treatment with various TBI regimes were compared, and dose-effect relationships for the endpoints relapse incidence, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, and overall survival were derived. The aim was to define requirements for an optimal treatment schedule with respect to leukemic cell kill and late normal-tissue morbidity. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed. Three randomized studies, four studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens, and nine reports with results of one specific TBI regimen were identified. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. The results of the randomized studies and the studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens were pooled, and the pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for the treatments with high BED values versus treatments with a low BED. BED-effect relationships were obtained. Results: RRs for the high BED treatments were significantly lower for relapse incidence, not significantly different for disease-free survival and treatment-related mortality, and significantly higher for overall survival. BED-effect relationships indicate a decrease in relapse incidence and treatment-related mortality and an increase in disease-free and overall survival with higher BED values. Conclusion: 'More dose is better', provided that a TBI setting is used limiting the BEDs of lungs, kidneys, and eye lenses. (orig.)

  8. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  9. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  10. Low-dose-rate total lymphoid irradiation: a new method of rapid immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.; de Silva, S.M.; Rachman, D.B.; Order, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) has been successful in inducing immunosuppression in experimental and clinical applications. However, both the experimental and clinical utility of TLI are hampered by the prolonged treatment courses required (23 days in rats and 30-60 days in humans). Low-dose-rate TLI has the potential of reducing overall treatment time while achieving comparable immunosuppression. This study examines the immunosuppressive activity and treatment toxicity of conventional-dose-rate (23 days) vs low-dose-rate (2-7 days) TLI. Seven groups of Lewis rats were given TLI with 60Co. One group was treated at conventional-dose-rates (80-110 cGy/min) and received 3400 cGy in 17 fractions over 23 days. Six groups were treated at low-dose-rate (7 cGy/min) and received total doses of 800, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000, and 3400 cGy over 2-7 days. Rats treated at conventional-dose-rates over 23 days and at low-dose-rate over 2-7 days tolerated radiation with minimal toxicity. The level of immunosuppression was tested using allogeneic (Brown-Norway) skin graft survival. Control animals retained allogeneic skin grafts for a mean of 14 days (range 8-21 days). Conventional-dose-rate treated animals (3400 cGy in 23 days) kept their grafts 60 days (range 50-66 days) (p less than .001). Low-dose-rate treated rats (800 to 3400 cGy total dose over 2-7 days) also had prolongation of allogeneic graft survival times following TLI with a dose-response curve established. The graft survival time for the 3400 cGy low-dose-rate group (66 days, range 52-78 days) was not significantly different from the 3400 cGy conventional-dose-rate group (p less than 0.10). When the total dose given was equivalent, low-dose-rate TLI demonstrated an advantage of reduced overall treatment time compared to conventional-dose-rate TLI (7 days vs. 23 days) with no increase in toxicity

  11. Growth and proliferation in vitro of Vaccinium corymbosum under different irradiance and radiation spectral composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, N.; Eccher, T.; Signore, E. del; Montoldi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Plantlets of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cvs. Atlantic, Barkeley and Elizabeth, were exposed in vitro to radiation of different spectral compositions obtained by filtering the cool-white light. Red colour of leaves was the first response to the light treatments. On average, cv. Atlantic yielded the highest number of shoots per explant (10.4), followed by cv. Elizabeth (9.1) and Berkeley (6.5). No-B-PMMA increased the proliferation rate in all the 3 genotypes, especially in cv. Atlantic. Cutting wavelengths between 650 and 760 nm (no-R-PMMA filter) generally depressed the proliferation rate. No-B-PMMA induced remarkable changes in the morphology of the shoots - more elongate leaves and longer internodes - especially in cv. Atlantic

  12. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier

  13. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  14. Enzymatic collection test as total gamma irradiation pronostic test in rat, rabbit and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuil, G.; Dinnequin, B.

    The purpose of this study is to known, during 30 days, what becomes the animal whose enzymatic co-ordinates are well known. Both 100, 160, 200, 325, 400, 650, 850, 975, 1000, 1300 rads irradiated rabbit serum enzymatic evolution and that of two 1000 rads in toto irradiated leucemic men for a cord graft are studied [fr

  15. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. II. Kidney graft after conventional total lymphoid irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradelizi, D.; Mahouy, G.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Alhomme, P.; Douard, M.C.; Chotin, G.; Martelli, H.; Daburon, F.; Vaiman, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed in order to establish bone marrow chimerism and kidney graft tolerance between SLA genotyped semi-incompatible animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of conventional fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) delivered by a vertical cobalt source. The principal lymphoid regions of the pig, including thymus and spleen, were submitted to irradiation. Two protocols were tested: A = 250 cGy four times a week x 13 times (TLI) (two animals) and B = 350 cGy three times a week x 8 times (TLI) (four animals). Bone marrow cells were injected 24 h after the last irradiation. One day later, bilateral nephrectomy and the graft of one kidney from the bone marrow cell donor were performed simultaneously. Results convinced us that application of the TLI protocol to humans is not yet practicable and that further experimental work is needed

  16. Long-term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long-term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of cardiac transplant rejection. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 cardiac transplant patients. In 37 patients, TLI was administered for intractable allograft rejection despite conventional therapy while 10 patients received TLI prophylactically. The prescribed radiation dose was 8 Gy in 0.8 Gy fractions twice weekly to mantle and inverted-Y plus spleen fields. Postirradiation follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years, with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose was 7.3 Gy delivered over a mean of 39 days. Fifty-six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, rejection rates dropped from 0.46 to 0.14 and to 0.06 episodes/patient/month before, during, and after TLI (p < 0.0001). Rejection rates continued to drop throughout follow-up. Prednisone requirements decreased from 0.41 mg/kg before treatment to 0.21 mg/kg afterward (p < 0.0001). The ratio of helper to cytotoxic-suppressor T-cells decreased during TLI from 1.33 to 0.89, and remained low at 0.44, 2-4 months after treatment. Infection rates were not increased and two patients developed malignancy. Rejection rates were high during prophylactic treatment and this protocol was abandoned. Three-year actuarial survival after irradiation was 60% for patients with intractable rejection and 70% for the prophylactic cohort. Conclusion: TLI is an effective treatment for control of intractable cardiac rejection. Episodes of rejection and steroid dosage requirements are decreased for up to 9.1 years. A possible mechanism of action is long term alteration in T-lymphocyte subsets. Patients experience transient bone marrow suppression but no increase in infection or bleeding. Long-term complications of TLI are not

  17. Solar spectral irradiance variability of some chromospheric emission lines through the solar activity cycles 21-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göker Ü.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of variations of solar spectral irradiance (SSI in the wave-length ranges 121.5 nm-300.5 nm for the period 1981-2009 is presented. We used various data for ultraviolet (UV spectral lines and international sunspot number (ISSN from interactive data centers such as SME (NSSDC, UARS (GDAAC, SORCE (LISIRD and SIDC, respectively. We reduced these data by using the MATLsoftware package. In this respect, we revealed negative correlations of intensities of UV (289.5 nm-300.5 nm spectral lines originating in the solar chromosphere with the ISSN index during the unusually prolonged minimum between the solar activity cycles (SACs 23 and 24. We also compared our results with the variations of solar activity indices obtained by the ground-based telescopes. Therefore, we found that plage regions decrease while facular areas are increasing in SAC 23. However, the decrease in plage regions is seen in small sunspot groups (SGs, contrary to this, these regions in large SGs are comparable to previous SACs or even larger as is also seen in facular areas. Nevertheless, negative correlations between ISSN and SSI data indicate that these variations are in close connection with the classes of sunspots/SGs, faculae and plage regions. Finally, we applied the time series analysis of spectral lines corresponding to the wavelengths 121.5 nm-300.5 nm and made comparisons with the ISSN data. We found an unexpected increase in the 298.5 nm line for the Fe II ion. The variability of Fe II ion 298.5 nm line is in close connection with the facular areas and plage regions, and the sizes of these solar surface indices play an important role for the SSI variability, as well. So, we compared the connection between the sizes of faculae and plage regions, sunspots/SGs, chemical elements and SSI variability. Our future work will be the theoretical study of this connection and developing of a corresponding model.

  18. Spectrally resolved thermally stimulated luminescence of irradiated anion-defective alumina single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortov, V., E-mail: vskortov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lushchik, A.; Nagirnyi, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwald Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Ananchenko, D. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Romet, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwald Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-06-15

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) spectra in the 313–580 K temperature range have been studied in anion-defective alumina crystals (named in literature as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) exposed to different irradiation doses. The TSL curve features two peaks with the maxima at T{sub m1}=437 K and T{sub m2}=565 K. The TSL spectrum of the first peak contains the emission of F centers and the R line of Cr{sup 3+} impurity ions. The absence of the emission of F{sup +} centers indicates that electron traps are responsible for the first dosimetric TSL peak. The TSL spectrum of the second peak features emission bands of F, F{sup +} centers, R line as well as a wide band centered at 550 nm and associated with the formation of aggregate centers (F{sub 2} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) under irradiation. Possible excitation mechanisms of the TSL emission bands that involve both electron and hole traps related to anion vacancies and impurities are discussed. - Highlights: •TSL curve of alumina crystals features peaks at 437 and 565 K. •There are emission bands of 410 and 695 nm in the TSL spectrum of the first peak. •TSL spectrum of the second peak features bands of F, F{sub 2}-type centers and the R line of trivalent chromium. •Excitation mechanisms of the emission bands in TSL spectra are discussed.

  19. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  20. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver; Martus, Peter; Arnold, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  1. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  2. The economics of biomedical waste irradiation: key issues influencing total cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Each application of gamma irradiation technology is different in one or more significant respects. Disinfection of biomedical wastes presents similar technical challenges to sterilization of medical supplies, but the economic issues are dramatically different. Regulatory requirements, site and technology approvals, waste separation/mixing, transportation, irradiator utilization, economies of scale, and end-product disposal can each have a prohibitive or enabling effect on whether irradiation of biomedical wastes makes good financial sense in a particular situation. This paper discusses each of these issues. (author)

  3. Estimation of the effect of food irradiation on total dietary vitamin availability as compared with dietary allowances: study for Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research

  4. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, R. H. H.; Boomsma, M. F.; van Osch, J. A. C.; Vlassenbroek, A.; Milles, J.; Edens, M. A.; Streekstra, G. J.; Slump, C. H.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer

  5. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Clare, E-mail: clmck7@student.monash.edu; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies.

  6. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.; Buckner, C.D.; Banaji, M.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred patients, 54 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 46 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), considered to be in the end stages of their disease, after combination chemotherapy were treated by marrow transplantation. All patients were given a marrow graft from an HLA-identical sibling after receiving 1000-rad total body irradiation (TBI). One group of 43 patients was given cyclophosphamide (CY), 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days, 5 and 4 days before TBI. In a second group of 31 patients, additional chemotherapy was given before CY and TBI. In a third group of 19 patients, BCNU was given before CY and TBI. A fourth group of 7 patients received other chemotherapy regimens before TBI. Six patients died 3 to 17 days after marrow infusion without evidence of engraftment. Ninety-four patients were engrafted rejected and only one patient rejected the graft. Thirteen patients are alive with a marrow graft, on no maintenance antileukemic therapy, and without recurrent leukemia 1--4 1 / 2 yr after transplantation. Three have chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relapse rate appeared to be relatively constant over the first 2 yr and was extremely low after that time. Neither survival nor leukemic relapse appeared to be influenced by the type of leukemia nor by the preparative chemotherapy regimen given before TBI. Patients in fair clinical condition at the time of transplantation showed significantly longer survival times than patients in poor condition (p = 0.001). This observation, coupled with the observation that some patients may be cured of their disease, indicates that marrow transplantation should now be undertaken earlier in the management of patients with acute leukemia who have an HLA-matched sibling marrow donor

  7. Functional clonal deletion versus active suppression in transplantation tolerance induced by total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecki, S.; Leshem, B.; Weigensberg, M.; Bar, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Transplantation tolerance and stable chimerism were established in adult mice conditioned with a short course of total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) followed by infusion of 30 X 10(6) allogeneic bone marrow cells. Spleen cells of tolerant mice could not exert a proliferative or cytotoxic response against host-type cells in vitro and were unable to induce graft-versus-host reaction in secondary host-type recipients. The degree of suppression assessed by coculturing tolerant splenocytes in vitro in the one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction was quite variable--and, in some cases, was not at all demonstrable, although tolerance was clearly maintained. Suppression, when apparent, could not be ascribed to T lymphocytes. Suppressor cells were found to bind soybean agglutinin and could be separated from the nonsuppressive cells by means of this lectin. Dissociation of the suppressive population (SBA+ cells) from that which is normally alloreactive (SBA- cells) resulted in a suppressor cell-depleted fraction that was still unable to respond to host-type cells but regained reactivity to unrelated cells. Limiting dilution analysis of chimeric splenocytes revealed markedly reduced frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTL-P) directed against host-type cells, as compared with normal splenocytes reacting against the same target cells. This difference was accentuated when these cells were sensitized to host-type target cells prior to plating in limiting dilution cultures. In 1:1 mixing experiments of normal and chimeric splenocytes, there was no evidence of any in vitro suppressive activity to account for hyporeactivity of chimeric cells against host-type cells. Thus, maintenance of TLI-induced tolerance seemed not to be mediated primarily through an active suppressor cell mechanism

  8. Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Claus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The existing records of total solar irradiance (TSI since 1978 differ not only in absolute values, but also show different trends. For the study of TSI variability these records need to be combined and three composites have been devised; however, the results depend on the choice of the records and the way they are combined. A new composite should be based on all existing records with an individual qualification. It is proposed to use a time-dependent uncertainty for weighting of the individual records. Methods. The determination of the time-dependent deviation of the TSI records is performed by comparison with the square root of the sunspot number (SSN. However, this correlation is only valid for timescales of the order of a year or more because TSI and SSN react quite differently to solar activity changes on shorter timescales. Hence the results concern only periods longer than the one-year-low-pass filter used in the analysis. Results. Besides the main objective to determine an investigator-independent uncertainty, the comparison of TSI with √SSN turns out to be a powerful tool for the study of the TSI long-term changes. The correlation of √SSN with TSI replicates very well the TSI minima, especially the very low value of the recent minimum. The results of the uncertainty determination confirm not only the need for adequate corrections for degradation, but also show that a rather detailed analysis is needed. The daily average of all TSI values available on that day, weighted with the correspondingly determined uncertainty, is used to construct a “new” composite, which, overall, compares well with the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD composite. Finally, the TSI − √SSN comparison proves to be an important diagnostic tool not only for estimating uncertainties of observations, but also for a better understanding of the long-term variability of TSI.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  10. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five‐year results and technique comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warry, Alison J.; Eaton, David J.; Collis, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT‐based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT‐planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT‐planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.N‐ PMID:25207423

  11. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Clare; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies

  12. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Results in seventy leukemia patients with allogeneic transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Chu, F.C.H.; Dinsmore, R.

    1983-01-01

    From May, 1979 to March, 1981, 76 leukemia patients were prepared for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with a new hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) regimen (1320 cGy in 11 fractions, 3x/day), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, for two days. Partial lung shielding was done on each treatment, with supplemental electron beam treatments of the chest wall to compensate, and of the testes, a sanctuary site. This regimen was initiated to potentially reduce fatal interstitial pneumonitis as well as decrease leukemic relapse. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients is 63%, while relapse-free survival at 1 year is 53%. On the other hand, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients, there is no significant difference between relapse or remission patients with regard to overall survival or relapse-free survival, when relapse is defined as > 5% blasts in the marrow at the time of cytoreduction. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for ALL is 61% and relapse-free survival is 45% at 1 year. Fatal interstitial pneumonitis has dropped to 18% compared with 50% in our previous single-dose TBI regimen (1000 cGy), in which the same doses of cyclophosphamide were given prior to TBI. In conclusion, not only has fatal interstitial pneumonitis been reduced by hyperfractionation and partial lung blocking, but there may be a survival advantage in ALL patients in relapse, who have a survival equal to that of remission patients. This may indicate a greater cell kill with the higher dose (1320 cGy) attained with this regimen, in these patients with a higher leukemic cell burden

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  14. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation degree of visual impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation were analyzed with respect to the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation. The probability to develop severe visual impairment (SVI) was determined for all patients, and the degree of visual impairment was assessed for 56 patients with stabilized cataract, using three categories: no, mild, or severe. Results: For all 93 patients, the probability of developing a cataract causing SVI was 0.44. For allogeneic patients, it was 0.33 without and 0.71 with steroid treatment (p<0.001). All SVI-free probability curves reached a plateau distinct from the cataract-free curves. Apparently, cataracts developing late in the follow-up period rarely cause SVI. Of the patients with stabilized cataract, 32% had no visual impairment, 16% had mild, and 52% severe impairment. No or mild visual impairment was present in 61% of all patients with stable cataract and no steroid treatment compared with only 13% of the patients treated with steroids (p=0.035). Conclusion: SVI occurs in only some of the patients (52%) with stable cataract after TBI for bone marrow transplantation in 1 or 2 fractions. Steroid treatment markedly increases the probability of developing visual problems as result of a cataract after TBI

  15. Prediction of midline dose from entrance ad exit dose using OSLD measurements for total irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Chun, Min Soo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

  16. Immunological and clinical observations in diabetic kidney graft recipients pretreated with total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Roels, L.

    1987-01-01

    In a feasibility study, twenty patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy were treated with fractionated total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI, mean dose 25 Gy), before transplantation of a first cadaveric kidney. During radiotherapy, only one patient had a serious side effect (bone marrow depression). After transplantation four patients died (one of a myocardial infarction, one of ketoacidosis, and two of infections occurring during treatment of rejection crises). One graft was lost because of chronic rejection. The other 15 patients have a functioning graft (mean follow-up 24 months) and receive low-dose prednisone alone (less than 10 mg/day, n = 11) or in conjunction with cyclosporine (n = 4) as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. A favorable clinical outcome after TLI (no, or only one, steroid-sensitive rejection crisis) was significantly correlated with a high pre-TLI helper/suppressor lymphocyte ratio, a short interval between TLI and the time of transplantation, and the occurrence of functional suppressor cells early after TLI. The most striking immunological changes provoked by TLI consisted of a long-term depression of the mixed lymphocyte reaction and of the phytohemagglutinin, and Concanavalin A or pokeweed-mitogen-induced blastogenesis. A rapid and complete recovery of the natural killer cell activity was observed after TLI. A permanent inversion of the OKT4+ (T helper/inducer) over OKT8+ (T suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocyte ratio was provoked by a decrease of the OTK4+ subpopulation, together with a supranormal recovery of the OKT8+ lymphocytes. A majority of the latter lymphocytes did also express the Leu 7 and the Leu 15 phenotype

  17. Comprehensive method for analyzing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells under different spectral irradiances considering both photonic and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Hong, Kai-Jeat; Reyes-Martinez, Marcos; Rand, Barry P.; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Method to analyze power-conversion efficiency under various solar irradiance. • Power-conversion efficiency at local irradiance is 5.4% higher than AM1.5G. • Diffuse local irradiance has gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions. • Annual average energy density yield is estimated as 31.89 kW h/m 2 in Malaysia. - Abstract: The solar spectral irradiance varies significantly for different locations and time due to latitude, humidity, cosine effect of incident sunlight, etc. For convenience, the power-conversion efficiency of a solar cell is referenced to the international standard of AM1.5G spectral irradiance, which inevitably leads to varying performance of deployed solar cells under the specific local climate and insolation conditions. To predict the actual performance of solar cells under local climate conditions, we propose a methodology to compute the power-conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells based upon indoor measurement with a solar simulator, the measured local solar spectrum, and making use of both optical and electrical factors. From our study, the annual average energy density yield of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells under the local spectral irradiance of Malaysia is estimated to be 31.89 kW h/m 2 and the power-conversion efficiency is increased by 5.4% compared to that measured under AM1.5G conditions. In addition, diffuse solar irradiance (cloudy condition) was found to be in favor of P3HT:PCBM solar cells, with gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE HERSCHEL /HEXOS SPECTRAL SURVEY TOWARD ORION SOUTH: A MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE WITH STRONG EXTERNAL IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tolls, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Cabrit, S.; Pagani, L. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC). Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Goldsmith, P. F.; Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnstone, D. [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Tak, F. F. S. van der, E-mail: ktahani@ucalgary.ca [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-20

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory , covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral lines with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3 σ , originating from 52 different molecular and atomic species. We model each of the detected species assuming conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. This analysis provides an estimate of the physical conditions of Orion South (column density, temperature, source size, and V {sub LSR}). We find evidence for three different cloud components: a cool ( T {sub ex} ∼ 20–40 K), spatially extended (>60″), and quiescent (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 4 km s{sup -1}) component; a warmer ( T {sub ex} ∼ 80–100 K), less spatially extended (∼30″), and dynamic (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}) component, which is likely affected by embedded outflows; and a kinematically distinct region ( T {sub ex} > 100 K; V {sub LSR} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}), dominated by emission from species that trace ultraviolet irradiation, likely at the surface of the cloud. We find little evidence for the existence of a chemically distinct “hot-core” component, likely due to the small filling factor of the hot core or hot cores within the Herschel beam. We find that the chemical composition of the gas in the cooler, quiescent component of Orion South more closely resembles that of the quiescent ridge in Orion-KL. The gas in the warmer, dynamic component, however, more closely resembles that of the Compact Ridge and Plateau regions of Orion-KL, suggesting that higher temperatures and shocks also have an influence on the overall chemistry of Orion South.

  19. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF SEED IRRADIATION ON 14C FIXATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF VITAMIN C AND TOTAL PHENOLS OF CANOLA LEAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of canola were gamma irradiated with doses of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Gy then cultivated in 30 cm plastic pots containing 7 kg clay soil. After 45 days of cultivation, plants were used to measure 14 C fixation capacity, vitamin C, total phenol, free proline and peroxidase activity in addition to the antioxidant activity. The results showed decrease in the chlorophyll content and 14 C fixation at all gamma doses. Irradiation of canola seeds caused significant reduction in vitamin C and phenol content, while significant increase was occurred in free proline and peroxidase activity. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C was higher than that of phenols at all doses used

  1. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  2. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  3. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  4. Restoring efficiency of hemopoietic cell transplantation in a mouse lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Gino

    1959-10-01

    This research thesis reports the study of possibility of treatments (or restoration) of a mouse which has been submitted to a lethal dose of X rays. More particularly, the author compared the restoring efficiency of bone marrow and fetal liver injected in a mouse which had been lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays. He also studied the functional status of the hemopoietic graft, and the emergence of the secondary disease in mice which had been as well lethally irradiated and then restored by injection of bone marrow and fetal liver. The author then addressed the influence of the induction of immune tolerance of the host with respect to the donor on the survival of a mouse lethally irradiated and restored by homologue bone marrow [fr

  5. Dose characteristics of total-skin electron-beam irradiation with six-dual electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1998-01-01

    To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated. The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of Target-Skin Distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35x35 cm 2 on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cmx105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. The Full Width at Half Maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105x105 cm 2 . The width of 100±10% of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose uniformity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80% depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within±10% difference excepts the protruding area of skin which needs a

  6. Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, Steven L.; Powell, Simon N.; Colby, Christine; Spitzer, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT. The three dose levels of fractionated TBI (200 cGy twice daily) were 1,600 cGy, 1,800 cGy, and 2,000 cGy. Lung blocks were used to reduce the TBI transmission dose by 50%, and the chest wall dose was supplemented to the prescribed dose using electrons. Shielding of the kidneys was performed to keep the maximal renal dose at 1,600 cGy. Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT. Results: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n=4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n=1). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant α-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon). Six (66%) patients achieved a response. Four (44%) patients achieved complete responses, three of which were of a duration greater than 1 year, and 2 (22%) patients achieved a partial response. One patient remains disease-free more than 5 years posttransplant. Corticosteroid-induced gastritis and postoperative infection resulted in the death of 1 patient in complete response, 429 days posttransplant. Conclusion: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as

  7. Repair capacity of mouse lung after total body irradiation alone or combined with cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Bentzen, Soeren M.; Nielsen, Ole S.; Mahmoud, Hossam K.; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) combined with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) is frequently used in the conditioning of patients prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). This study was performed to investigate the effect of CTX on the repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI in a mouse model for BMT. Materials and methods. TBI was given as a single fraction, 3 fractions in 3 days (Fx 3) or 9 fractions in 3 days (Fx 9) either alone or 24 h after a single dose of CTX. The single fraction TBI was given at either high dose rate (HDR) of 0.71 Gy/min or low dose rate (LDR) of 0.08 Gy/min. All mice were transplanted 4-6 h after the last TBI fraction. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days. The repair capacity of lung tissue was estimated using the direct analysis method with the probability of reaching the end point described by a logistic formulation of the linear quadratic model. Results. The VR data confirmed the high repair capacity of lung tissue with an α/β ratio of 4.4 Gy though with a wide 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.03-10.5). Giving CTX before fractionated TBI marked reduced the doses needed to cause response in 50% of the animals. The sparing effect of using fractionated TBI was still evident in the combined CTX-TBI schedules. The estimated α/β ratio was 1.6 Gy (CI = 0.01-4.7) which is within the range of values reported after thoracic radiation only. On the other hand, the sparing effect seen in going from single fraction HDR to LDR was completely abolished when CTX was given 24 h before TBI. The same pattern was repeated when lethality between 28-180 days was used. Yet, the use of lethality to estimate lung damage in a TBI model, markedly underestimated the repair capacity. Conclusions. These results confirm the high repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI and emphasize the value of using a specific end point in testing lung damage after TBI. It also shows that there can be a negative

  8. Toxicities of total-body irradiation for pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Rachel H.; Wong, Garrett B.; Kramer, Joel H.; Wara, Diane W.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Swift, Patrick S.; Cowan, Morton J.; Wara, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and late effects, including cognitive function, of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy for bone marrow transplant (BMT) in children with immunodeficiency or hematologic disorders. Methods and Materials: At UCSF, 15 children with immunodeficiency disorders and 58 children with leukemia received chemoradiotherapy between July 1982 and November 1993 and were evaluated for toxicity. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) received 7 Gy TBI while leukemia patients received 12 Gy TBI. Results: Eight immunodeficient patients (53%) are alive at 4 months to 11 years posttransplant. Acute toxicity was limited and treatment well tolerated. Most patients developed mild nausea and vomiting, skin rash, or erythema. Transient fever/chills, oral mucositis, and alopecia were noted in approximately 50% of patients. Seventy-three percent of patients demonstrated acute liver dysfunction, but only four (27%) developed veno-occlusive disease. All children had decreased growth velocity but normal growth hormone levels. Other endocrinologic evaluations including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and thyroid hormones were normal. Only one evaluable girl had delayed puberty with late onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated an intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction between the baseline and 1 year post-BMT, with some recovery at 3 years. Only one patient developed a clinically significant cataract. Thirteen percent of patients had chronic interstitial lung disease. Four children developed exostosis. Only 1 of the 15 children developed a second malignancy (acute myelogenous leukemia) at age 5, 51 months posttransplant for SCID. For patients with leukemia, similar toxicities were observed. Twenty-nine percent disease-free survival was noted with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Twenty-two percent had chronic interstitial lung disease and two patients were diagnosed with cataracts

  9. Total body irradiation with an arc and a gravity-oriented compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, C.-S.; Fontenla, Doracy P.; Mullokandov, Edward; Kapulsky, Alex; Lo, Y.-C.; Lo, C.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To deliver uniform dose distributions for total-body irradiation (TBI) with an arc field and a gravity-oriented compensator. This technique allows the patient to be treated lying on the floor in a small treatment room. Methods and Materials: Through the sweeping motion of the gantry, a continuous arc field can deliver a large field to a patient lying on the floor. The dose profile, however, would not be uniform if no compensator were used, due to the effects of inverse square variation of beam intensity with distance as well as the slanted depth in patient. To solve this problem, a gravity-oriented compensator made of cerrobend alloy was designed. This compensator has a cross-section of an inverted isosceles triangle, with the apex always pointing downward, due to gravity. By properly selecting the thickness of the compensator, the width of the base, and the distance between the pivots to the base, the difference in the path length through the compensator can be made just right to compensate the effects of inverse-square and slanted depth, thus producing a uniform dose profile. Results: Arc fields with a gravity-oriented compensator were used for 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photon beams. The arc field can cover a patient with a height up to 180 cm. The field width was chosen from 32 to 40 cm at the machine isocenter. The optimal thickness of the compensator was found to be 2.5 cm, and its base was 25 cm wide. The distance from the pivot points to the flat surface of the compensator proximal to the beam ranges from 13 to 14 cm for different beam energies. The dose uniformity at a depth of 10 cm is within ±5% for all beam energies used in this study. Conclusion: Highly uniform dose profiles for TBI treatments can be delivered with an arc and a gravity-oriented compensator. The proposed technique is simple and versatile. A single compensator can be used for all energies, because the amount of compensation can be adjusted by changing the distance to the pivot and

  10. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  11. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: paulj.kelly@hse.ie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mannarino, Edward; Lewis, John Henry; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hacker, Fred L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  12. Sixteen adult patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodera, Yoshihisa; Morishima, Yasuo; Morishita, Yoshihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-12-01

    Since 1976, 16 adult patients with acute leukemia have been treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in the medical school hospital and the satellite hospitals of Nagoya University. The first group of 10 patients were given marrow grafts at the time of leukemic relapse and the second group of six patients were given the grafts in the period of remission of their disease. For the first group (ALL/ANLL 2:8, age (median) 33, M/F 8:2), HLA-identical donor cells (25 x 10/sup 7//kg(median)) were infused after the patients were conditioned with NSC D 245382 (ACNU) or daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide (CY) and a single shot of 1000 rad of TBI. For the second group (ALL/ANLL 4:2, age (median) 20, M/F 5:1), HLA-identical donor cells (22 x 10/sup 7//kg(median)) were infused after the patients were conditioned with CY and fractionated (250 rad x 4) TBI. All the patients were isolated in a laminar air flow room (LAF) after gut and skin decontamination. Engraftment of donor cells was confirmed in 15 out of the 16 patients. Febrile periods in LAF and the days required for platelet transfusion were prolonged in the first group. All the patients in the first group died within 12-214 days after BMT because of interstitial pneumonitis (7 patients) or bacterial infection (3 patients). On the other hand, five out of six patients in the second group are alive 84-540 days after BMT. For the surviving patients, the complications of chronic graft versus host disease, viral infections, tuberculosis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic cystitis and recurrence of leukemia are now the problems. It can be stated that the patient's clinical condition at the time of BMT is one of the most essential factors for the success of BMT although the effects of other variables, such as a change in the conditioning regimens or the supportive care, must also be carefully analyzed.

  13. Bone marrow transplantation for girls with aplastic anemia utilizing modified field of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Ryoji; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Akuta, Naoko; Moriwaki, Kohichi; Kato, Shizue; Inaba, Toshiya; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Yamamoto, Keiko

    1990-01-01

    A preparative regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with 750 cGy and cyclophosphamide (CY), was used in five girls with aplastic anemia. All patients received bone marrow from HLA matched/mixed lymphocyte culture negative siblings. In our regimen the 'inverted Y' field to irradiate the pelvic nodes was modified, which did not include the whole pelvic cavity in an attempt to protect the ovaries from irradiation. Although some of the pelvic nodes was supported not to be irradiated in order to protect the ovaries, engraftment occurred in all five patients including four who had been transfused prior to transplantation. All five are alive from 47 days to 1378 days (median 285 days) after transplantation without tranplantation-associated complications. The calculated dose to the ovaries was sixteen percent of the entire dose of the regimen. Both of the two evaluable patients that had received tranplantation just before or during the puberty are developing normal sex maturity including menstruation. This study suggests that our preparative regimen is effective not only for engraftment of the donor marrow but also for protecting the ovaries from irradiation. (author)

  14. Ozone, spectral irradiance and aerosol measurements with the Brewer spectro radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenco, F.; Di Sarra, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this technical report a detailed description of the Brewer spectro radiometer, a widespread instrument for ozone and ultraviolet radiation, is given. The methodologies used to measure these quantities and for instrument calibration are described in detail. Finally a new methodology, developed by ENEA to derive the aerosol optical depth from the Brewer routine total ozone measurements, is described. This methodology is based on Langley extrapolation, on the determination of the transmissivity of the Brewer neutral density filters, and on a statistically significant number of half days of measurements obtained in could-free conditions. Results of this method, obtained with the Brewer of the ENEA station for climate observations Roberto Sarao, located in the island of Lampedusa, are reported. These results confirm the validity of the method, thanks to independent measurements taken in 1999 with a Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer. This methodology allows researchers to obtain an aerosol climatology from ozone measurements obtained at several sites world-wide [it

  15. Trends in total column ozone over Australia and New Zealand and its influence on clear-sky surface erythemal irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodeker, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are two of the countries closest to the Antarctic ozone depletion and may therefore be 'at risk' as a result of the associated increases in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate the possible impact of mid-latitude ozone decreases on surface erythemal irradiances, monthly mean total ozone has been calculated from daily total ozone mapping spectrometer data for 5 Australian cities (Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) and 3 New Zealand cities (Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington) from 1979 to 1992. These values have then been used as inputs to a single layer model to calculate noon clear-sky global UV irradiances and associated erythemal irradiances. In addition, the monthly mean ozone data have been modelled statistically for each location to reveal a long-term linear trend, an annual variation, a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), a solar cycle component and a semi-annual (6 month) signal. Coefficients from these statistical models have been used to estimate monthly mean ozone and noon clear-sky erythemal irradiances to the year 2000 for each city. It is assumed that the rate of increase of stratospheric chlorine over the remainder of the century will remain constant. Given that there is some evidence that the rate of increase is decreasing, the results present here should be regarded as an upper limit. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  17. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated

  18. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  19. The role of total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplantation in acute leukaemia. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    From extrapolation obtained from animal studies and radiation accidents, it is assumed that for man the LD 50 (30) will be between 300-500 rads total body irradiation (TBI) and the LD 100 at least 600 rads TBI. A dose of 1000 rads TBI is generally used in man for conditioning for bone marrow transplantation. In acute leukemia, total body irradiation is usually associated with cytoreductive chemotherapy. In Seattle 110 patients underwent bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in relapse. 15 patients became long term survivors. The main cause of failure were GVH, interstitial pneumonitis and leukemic relapse. New attempts are being made to improve the results: (1) better cytoreductive therapy preceding transplantation, (2) bone marrow transplantation during remission of the disease, (3) prevention of interstitial pneumonitis by modifications of the TBI technique

  20. Comparison of three techniques for skin total irradiation with electrons; Comparacao de tres tecnicas de irradiacao total da pele com eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: dbatista@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bardella, Lucia H. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz A.R. da, E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper compared three techniques of skin total irradiation with electrons: 1) horizontal positioning, 2) vertical positioning - rotatory technique and 3) vertical positioning - six fields technique. For that, a anthropomorphic phantom was positioned according to the recommendation for each technique and was i radiated at the linear accelerator by using the 6 MeV electrons. Radiochromic films were positioned on the surface in various regions of the phantom for measurement of absorbed dose. A ionization chamber was positioned inside of equivalent issue plates for dose evaluation due to the photons produced by electron stopping. The technique 2 and 3 have shown too similar in the results and number or discrepant points (8 and 10 respectively) of prescription lower than the technique 1 (22 points). The total body dose of photons of the 1, 2 and 3 techniques was 2.2%, 5.3% and 5.2% respectively

  1. Tipified conditions for irradiation of equipment and personnel and gamma radiation spectral-angular parameters of radioactively contaminated area of the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, A.B.; Frid, E.S.; Shekhanov, G.A.; Zhitnik, A.K.; Shanenko, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis and calculated-experimental investigations were presented. The tipified conditions for irradiation of the equipment and the personnel as the result of destroys in the Chernobyl' NPP and initial data of spectral-angular parameters of gamma radiated sites were proposed. The results of the investigation may be used in the prediction of radiation effect on the personnel as well as during design and estimation of the effective protection from gamma radiation. 3 refs.; 7 refs

  2. Prospective neurodevelopmental studies of two children treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleita, T.; Tesler, A.; Feig, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Five-year neurodevelopmental studies of two infants with acute leukemia are presented. Both patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI). Neither patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Their outcome is remarkable for normal development of intelligence, language, perception, and motor coordination. These results suggest that TBI and BMT should be considered in future therapeutic studies of infants with acute leukemia, who are at great risk for failure of conventional therapy

  3. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  4. Effect of fractionated versus unfractionated total body irradiation on the growth of the BN acute myelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbeek, A.; Martens, A.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of various total body irradiation (TBI) regimens prior to bone marrow transplantation was evaluated in a rat model for acute myelocytic leukemia (Dq = 85.1 cGy gamma ; N = 3.7). Using high dose rate gamma-irradiation (115 cGy/min), fractionated TBI with large total daily doses (400 to 600 cGy), either given as acute doses or as split doses at 8 hr intervals, was most effective. Split doses (2 fractions per day) offered no additional advantage. At the most, a 4 log leukemic cell kill was induced. No lethal toxicity was observed. Nine-hundred cGy flash TBI had a similar anti-tumor effect, but with this regimen almost half of the rats died from radiation-induced toxicity (lungs and gastro-intestinal tract). The results are explained in terms of differences between normal and leukemic cells as regards (a) repair of sublethal damage; and (b) repopulation. Low dose rate continuous gamma-irradiation (0.26 cGy/min) with total doses ranging from 900 to 2000 cGy was also quite effective. Maximally a 4 log cell kill was obtained. With 2000 cGy, 50% of the rats died from the gastro-intestinal tract-syndrome. In addition to the major role played by chemotherapy, TBI is mainly of importance in sterilizing the various sanctuaries in the body which contain leukemic cells anatomically resistant to most cytostatic agents

  5. Treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation using thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors and their applications in treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation (TBI) technique. Dose measurements of TBI treatment simulation performed with thermoluminescent detectors inserted in the holes of a “Rando anthropomorphic phantom” showed agreement with the prescribed dose. For regions of the upper and lower chest where thermoluminescent detectors received higher doses it was recommended the use of compensating dose in clinic. The results of in vivo entrance dose measurements for three patients are presented. The maximum percentual deviation between the measurements and the prescribed dose was 3.6%, which is consistent with the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), i.e., ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system and of a semiconductor dosimetric system for performing treatment verification and in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques demonstrated the value of these methods and the applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of a semiconductor dosimetric system. • Characterization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system. • Application of the TLDs for treatment verification in total body irradiation treatments. • Application of semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. • Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  6. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow (BM) on islet transplantation in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.R.; Smit, J.A.; Myburgh, M.A.; Bell, P.R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The susceptibility of isolated islet allografts to rejection and the limited success of established immunosuppressive technique in influencing it is well known. However, the recent demonstration of the efficacy of TLI and BM in the induction of transplantation tolerance has been a major advance. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of similar irradiation schedules on the prolongation of islet allograft survival in the same animal model

  7. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties

  8. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) for ionospheric application - history and contemporary state-of-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.; Jacobi, Ch.; Nikutowski, B.; Erhardt, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    After a historical survey of space related EUV measurements in Germany and the role of Karl Rawer in pursuing this work, we describe present developments in EUV spectroscopy and provide a brief outlook on future activities. The group of Karl Rawer has performed the first scientific space project in Western Europe on 19th October 1954. Then it was decided to include the field of solar EUV spectroscopy in ionospheric investigations. Starting in 1957 an intensified development of instrumentation was going on to explore solar EUV radiation, atmospheric airglow and auroral emissions until the institute had to stop space activities in the early nineteen-eighties. EUV spectroscopy was continued outside of the institute during eight years. This area of work was supported again by the institute developing the Auto-Calibrating Spectrometers (SolACES) for a mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After more than six years in space the instrument is still in operation. Meanwhile the work on the primary task also to validate EUV data available from other space missions has made good progress. The first results of validating those data and combine them into one set of EUV solar spectral irradiance are very promising. It will be recommended for using it by the science and application community. Moreover, a new low-cost type of an EUV spectrometer is presented for monitoring the solar EUV radiation. It shall be further developed for providing EUV-TEC data to be applied in ionospheric models replacing the Covington index F10.7. Applying these data for example in the GNSS signal evaluation a more accurate determination of GNSS receiver positions is expected for correcting the propagation delays of navigation signals traveling through the ionosphere from space to earth. - Latest results in the field of solar EUV spectroscopy are discussed, too.

  9. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against spectral modifications in hemoglobin of x-irradiated mice; Proprietes radioprotectrices de certains composes heterocycliques azotes sur les modifications spectrales de l'hemoglobine de souris irradiee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H; Pierotti, T; Polverelli, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Imidazole and benzimidazole are known for their radioprotective action. In this work, authors have studied the radioprotective action of these compounds on visible and ultra-violet hemoglobin absorption spectra obtained from mice after in vivo X-irradiation. Results compared to those obtained with cysteamine show: 1- a possible pharmacological action of the heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds on the {alpha} and {beta} bands (540 and 580 m{mu}). 2 - a significative variation of the ratio of the optical densities (580/540) after irradiation with hemoglobin of non and radio-protected mice. However, following a real drop of absorption maxima, the twenty-fifth day after irradiation, normal optical densities of each band are found again. A physico-chemical study would be necessary to understand the hemoglobin transformation after irradiation and perhaps, its possible radioprotection. (authors) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole et du benzimidazole etant deja connues, les auteurs ont etudie l'action de ces produits sur les spectres d'absorption de l'hemoglobine dans le visible et le proche ultra-violet apres une irradiation in vivo de souris a dose letale. L'action de ces produits comparee a celle de la cysteamine utilisee dans les memes conditions a permis de constater: 1- l'action pharmacologique probable des heterocycles azotes sur les bandes {alpha} et {beta} situees a 540 et 580 m{mu}; 2 - qu'avec et sans radioprotecteurs, les modifications spectrales se traduisaient par des variations du rapport d'intensite d'absorption existant entre les bandes a 540 et 580 m{mu}. Toutefois, apres une chute des maxima d'absorption, ceux-ci retournent aux valeurs normales le vingt-cinquieme jour apres irradiation. Une etude physicochimique complementaire de l'hemoglobine permettrait de definir la nature exacte du changement apres irradiation et peut-etre son eventuelle radioprotection. (auteurs)

  10. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  11. Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow without graft-versus-host disease in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10 9 BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD

  12. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  13. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  14. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalkina, M. V.; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Medvedeva, Yu S.; Saburina, I. N.; Karganov, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 106/mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells.

  15. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  16. Analysis of functional failure mode of commercial deep sub-micron SRAM induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Cui Jiang-Wei; Zhou Hang; Yu De-Zhao; Yu Xue-Feng; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Functional failure mode of commercial deep sub-micron static random access memory (SRAM) induced by total dose irradiation is experimentally analyzed and verified by circuit simulation. We extensively characterize the functional failure mode of the device by testing its electrical parameters and function with test patterns covering different functional failure modes. Experimental results reveal that the functional failure mode of the device is a temporary function interruption caused by peripheral circuits being sensitive to the standby current rising. By including radiation-induced threshold shift and off-state leakage current in memory cell transistors, we simulate the influence of radiation on the functionality of the memory cell. Simulation results reveal that the memory cell is tolerant to irradiation due to its high stability, which agrees with our experimental result. (paper)

  17. Radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp: treatment outcomes of total scalp irradiation with X-rays and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masaharu; Wada, Hidefumi; Ogino, Ichiro; Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi; Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Kasuya, Takeo; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-10-01

    Wide surgical excision is the standard treatment for angiosarcoma of the scalp, but many patients are inoperable. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Seventeen patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp underwent radiation therapy with total scalp irradiation. Four patients had cervical lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases. A median initial dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered to the entire scalp. Subsequently, local radiation boost to the tumor sites achieved a median total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Fourteen of the 17 patients developed recurrences during the median follow-up period of 14 months after radiation therapy; 7 had recurrences in the scalp, including primary tumor progression in 2 patients and new disease in 5, and 12 patients developed distant metastases. The primary progression-free, scalp relapse-free, and distant metastasis-free rates were 86, 67, and 38 % at 1 year and 86, 38, and 16 % at 3 years, respectively. Thirteen patients died; the overall and cause-specific survival rates were both 73 % at 1 year and 23 and 44 % at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 16 months. There were no therapy-related toxicities ≥ grade 3. Total scalp irradiation is safe and effective for local tumor control, but a dose of ≤ 50 Gy in conventional fractions may be insufficient to eradicate microscopic tumors. For gross tumors, a total dose of 70 Gy, and > 70 Gy for tumors with deep invasion, is recommended.

  18. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3"+, CD8"+, and CD4"+ T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4"+ T cells was delayed more than that of CD8"+ T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  19. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  20. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Taheri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.

  1. Solar surface magnetism and irradiance on time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingo, V.; Ermolli, I.; Fox, P.; Fröhlich, C.; Haberreiter, M.; Krivova, N.; Kopp, G.; Schmutz, W.; Solanki, S.K.; Spruit, H.C.; Unruh, Y.C.; Vögler, A.

    2009-01-01

    The uninterrupted measurement of the total solar irradiance during the last three solar cycles and an increasing amount of solar spectral irradiance measurements as well as solar imaging observations (magnetograms and photometric data) have stimulated the development of models attributing irradiance

  2. Alteration of sensitivity of intratumor quiescent and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Takagaki, Masao; Kinashi, Yuko; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Changes in the sensitivity of intratumor quiescent (Q) and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10 B-compound were examined. Methods and Materials: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected to SCC VII tumor-bearing mice intraperitoneally 10 times to label all the proliferating (P) tumor cells. As priming irradiation, thermal neutrons alone or thermal neutrons with 10 B-labeled sodium borocaptate (BSH) or dl-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered. The tumor-bearing mice then received a series of γ-ray radiation doses, 0 through 24 h after the priming irradiation. During this period, no BrdU was administered. Immediately after the second irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. Following incubation of tumor cells with cytokinesis blocker, the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (= Q cells at the time of priming irradiation) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total (P + Q) tumor cells was determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU before the priming irradiation. To determine the BrdU-labeled cell ratios in the tumors at the time of the second irradiation, each group also included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted subcutaneously 5 days before the priming irradiation. Results: In total cells, during the interval between the two irradiations, the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays relative to that immediately after priming irradiation decreased with the priming irradiation ranking in the following order: thermal neutrons only > thermal neutrons with BSH > thermal neutrons with BPA. In contrast, in Q cells, during that time the sensitivity increased in the following order: thermal neutrons only 10 B-compound, especially BPA, in thermal neutron irradiation causes the recruitment from the Q to P population

  3. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  4. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyalkina, M V; Alchinova, I B; Yakovenko, E N; Medvedeva, Yu S; Saburina, I N; Karganov, M Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 10 6 /mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells. (paper)

  5. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  6. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiper, A.D.; Stanhope, R.; Lau, T.; Grant, D.B.; Blacklock, H.; Chessells, J.M.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  7. The modifying effect of ibuprofen on total body irradiation-induced elevation of oxidative reactions in male hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokmeci, D.; Akpolat, M.; Aydogdu, N.; Uzal, C.; Turan, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an important role in curative and palliative treatments of malignant diseases. Because of the lipid component in the membrane, lipid peroxidation has been reported to be particularly susceptible to radiation damage. However, lipid peroxidation is reversed by cellular defense mechanisms, and the use of various antioxidants involved in these mechanisms have recently been suggested to be beneficial. It is known that ibuprofen has antioxidative and/or free radical scavenging activities. Our purpose is to examine the antioxidant capacity of ibuprofen in hamsters undergoing total body irradiation (TBI). Ibuprofen was given by gavage at dose of 10 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. After this period, animals were exposed to TBI 60 Co gamma irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy. After 24 h radiation exposure, the hamsters were killed and samples were taken from blood. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased significantly after radiation exposure, and ibuprofen diminished the amounts of TBARS. Significant protection of the radiation-induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was also recorded in the blood of ibuprofen-treated and -irradiated hamsters. These results suggest that ibuprofen with its antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against cellular damage effected by free radicals induced by TBI. (author)

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  9. In Quest of the Alanine R3 Radical: Multivariate EPR Spectral Analyses of X-Irradiated Alanine in the Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jåstad, Eirik O; Torheim, Turid; Villeneuve, Kathleen M; Kvaal, Knut; Hole, Eli O; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2017-09-28

    The amino acid l-α-alanine is the most commonly used material for solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry, due to the formation of highly stable radicals upon irradiation, with yields proportional to the radiation dose. Two major alanine radical components designated R1 and R2 have previously been uniquely characterized from EPR and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) studies as well as from quantum chemical calculations. There is also convincing experimental evidence of a third minor radical component R3, and a tentative radical structure has been suggested, even though no well-defined spectral signature has been observed experimentally. In the present study, temperature dependent EPR spectra of X-ray irradiated polycrystalline alanine were analyzed using five multivariate methods in further attempts to understand the composite nature of the alanine dosimeter EPR spectrum. Principal component analysis (PCA), maximum likelihood common factor analysis (MLCFA), independent component analysis (ICA), self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA), and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) were used to extract pure radical spectra and their fractional contributions from the experimental EPR spectra. All methods yielded spectral estimates resembling the established R1 spectrum. Furthermore, SMA and MCR consistently predicted both the established R2 spectrum and the shape of the R3 spectrum. The predicted shape of the R3 spectrum corresponded well with the proposed tentative spectrum derived from spectrum simulations. Thus, results from two independent multivariate data analysis techniques strongly support the previous evidence that three radicals are indeed present in irradiated alanine samples.

  10. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral

  11. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  12. Association Mapping of Total Carotenoids in Diverse Soybean Genotypes Based on Leaf Extracts and High-Throughput Canopy Spectral Reflectance Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prabhu Dhanapal

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are organic pigments that are produced predominantly by photosynthetic organisms and provide antioxidant activity to a wide variety of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved in plants and occurs mostly in chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf carotenoids play important photoprotective roles and targeted selection for leaf carotenoids may offer avenues to improve abiotic stress tolerance. A collection of 332 soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] genotypes was grown in two years and total leaf carotenoid content was determined using three different methods. The first method was based on extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carotenoid content (eCaro in leaf tissue, whereas the other two methods were derived from high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance measurements using wavelet transformed reflectance spectra (tCaro and a spectral reflectance index (iCaro. An association mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to identify SNPs associated with total carotenoid content using a mixed linear model based on data from two growing seasons. A total of 28 SNPs showed a significant association with total carotenoid content in at least one of the three approaches. These 28 SNPs likely tagged 14 putative loci for carotenoid content. Six putative loci were identified using eCaro, five loci with tCaro, and nine loci with iCaro. Three of these putative loci were detected by all three carotenoid determination methods. All but four putative loci were located near a known carotenoid-related gene. These results showed that carotenoid markers can be identified in soybean using extract-based as well as by high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance-based approaches, demonstrating the utility of field-based canopy spectral reflectance phenotypes for association mapping.

  13. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology

  14. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  15. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 252-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  16. Incidence of interstitial pneumonia after hyperfractionated total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Wenz, F.; Flentje, M.; Kalle, K. von; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a severe complication after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with incidence rates between 10 % and 40 % in different series. It is a polyetiologic disease that occurs depending on age, graft vs. host disease (GvHD), CMV-status, total body irradiation (TBI) and immunosuppressive therapy after BMT. The effects of fractionation and dose rate are not entirely clear. This study evaluates the incidence of lethal IP after hyperfractionated TBI for autologous BMT or stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods Between 1982 and 1992, 182 patients (60 % male, 40 % female) were treated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) before autologous bone marrow transplantation. Main indications were leukemias and lymphomas (53 % AML, 21 % ALL, 22 % NHL, 4 % others) Median age was 30 ys (15 - 55 ys). A total dose of 14.4 Gy was applied using lung blocks (12 fractions of 1.2 Gy in 4 days, dose rate 7-18 cGy/min, lung dose 9 - 9.5 Gy). TBI was followed by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). 72 % were treated with bone marrow transplantation, 28 % were treated with stem cell transplantation. Interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed clinically, radiologically and by autopsy. Results 4 patients died most likely of interstitial pneumonia. For another 12 patients interstitial pneumonia was not the most likely cause of death but could not be excluded. Thus, the incidence of lethal IP was at least 2.2 % but certainly below 8.8 %. Conclusion Lethal interstitial pneumonia is a rare complication after total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation in this large, homogeously treated series. In the autologous setting, total doses of 14.4 Gy can be applied with a low risk for developing interstitial pneumonia if hyperfractionation and lung blocks are used. This falls in line with data from series with identical twins or t-cell depleted marrow and smaller, less homogeneous autologous transplant studies. Thus

  17. Fractionated total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs: Hemopoietic recovery after various marrow cell doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenburger, U.; Kolb, H.J.; Thierfelder, S.; Netzel, B.; Schaeffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1980-01-01

    Hemopoietic recovery was studied in dogs given 2400 R fractionated total body irradiation within one week and graded doses of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow. Complete hemopoietic recovery including histology was observed after this dose and sufficient doses of marrow cells. Doses of more than 5.5 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight were sufficient for complete recovery in all dogs, 1.5 to 5.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were effective in some of the dogs and less than 1.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were insufficient for complete recovery. Similarly, more than 30000 CFUsub(c)/kg body weight were required for hemopoietic recovery. The optimal marrow cell dose which has been defined as the minimal dose required for the earliest possible recovery of leukocyte and platelet counts was 7-8 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight. It has been concluded that fractionated total body irradiation with 2400 R dose not require greater doses of marrow cells for hemopoietic reconstitution than lower single doses and that the hemopoietic microenvironment is not persistently disturbed after this dose. (author)

  18. The effects of dose rate in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Bodenberger, U.; Holler, E.; Thierfelder, S.; Eckstein, R.

    1986-01-01

    In summary the studies in dogs show that the dose rate or exposure time has a great impact on survival of acute radiation syndromes. In contrast the inactivation of colony forming hemopoietic precursors is less influenced by the dose rate. The potential of hemopoietic recovery is determined by the survival of hemopoietic precursor cells. Therefore in patients with a suspected whole body exposure of more than 1.50 Gy, bacterial and fungal decontamination and reverse isolation in a sterile environment has to be started immediately. Human patients treated with about 10 Gy of TBI frequently developed nausea, elevated temperatures and swelling of the parotic glands at the first and second day. The extent of these changes varies from patient to patient. The temperature is rarely elevated above 38.5 0 C. The swelling of parotics and the nausea subside within 48 hours. The presence of such systemic symptoms may suggest the exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. The disappearance of immature red cells, i.e. reticulocytes, and bandforms of granulocytes within the first 5 days supports this suggestion. HLA typing of the victim and his family should be performed as soon as possible after the accident. An HLA-identical sibling would be a suitable bone marrow donor. Unlike therapeutic TBI accidental exposures bring about uncertainties in the calculation of dose, dose distribution and dose rate. Early after irradiation biological changes are extremely variable. Both biological and physical data have to be considered, when microbiological decontamination, reverse isolation and transplantation of bone marrow are to be decided upon. Obviously these intensive therapeutic efforts are limited to a small number of victims. (orig.)

  19. Busulfan and total body irradiation as antihematopoietic stem cell agents in the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, R.; Rappeport, J.M.; Hellman, S.; Lipton, J.; Smith, B.; Geha, R.; Nathan, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of busulfan and total body irradiation to ablate hematopoietic stem cells as preparation for the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders was studied. Fourteen patients received 18 transplants; busulfan was used in the preparatory regimen of eight transplants and total body irradiation in the regimens of six transplants. Sustained hematopoietic ablation was achieved in six of eight patients prepared with busulfan and in all six patients prepared with total body irradiation. Three patients prepared with total body irradiation died with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, whereas no patients receiving busulfan developed interstitial pneumonitis. The optimal antihematopoietic stem cell agent to be used for the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorder for bone marrow transplantation is not certain

  20. Assessment of changes in plasma total antioxidant status in gamma irradiated rats treated with eugenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. SH.

    2002-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenolic phyto chemical, is a major constituent of clove oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant effect of eugenol on certain lipid metabolites and variations in the antioxidant status. In vitro study (oxidative susceptibility of lipoprotein) revealed that eugenol elongates the lag phase for the induction of conjugated diene and decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation (production of thiobarbituric reactive substances; TBARS) during the propagation phase. In vivo study on rats revealed a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant status after eugenol regime. Furthermore, eugenol water emulsion delivered to rats by garage in a concentration of 1 g/kg body weight for 15 days before and during exposure to fractionated whole body gamma radiation (1.5 Gy every other day) up to a total dose of 7.5 Gy showed that, administration of eugenol reduces significantly the concentration of plasma TBARS and minimize the decrease in plasma antioxidants. Amelioration in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood and liver and the activities of cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver were also observed. Furthermore, the changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were less pronounced. It could be postulated that by minimizing the decrease in antioxidant status, eugenol could prevents the radiation induce alterations in lipid metabolism

  1. Prophylactic action of Alpha-tocopherol against Gamma irradiation changes in total lipid and phospholipid contents of brain cerebral hemispheres in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdy, A M; Helen, N S; Roushdy, H M [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with Gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) at 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, 2 hr, before irradiation exposure. exposure. Rats were then exposed to a whole body dose of gamma irradiation at 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 10 days post irradiation. The two cerebral hemispheres were taken to determine the phospholipids and total lipid contents. whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy caused a significant decrease in the levels of both phospholipids and total lipid contents in the cerebral hemispheres on the 3 rd, 7 Th, and 10 Th days post-irradiation, the decrease was insignificant on the 1 st day post exposure. The variations were less pronounced in rats treated with vitamin E. The results obtained were discussed in view of the relevant literature. 2 tabs.

  2. The evaluation of a modified technique of Total Body Irradiation in respect of treatment results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Dabrowski, R.; Pedziwiatr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a well established part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Numerous different techniques are used and every center elaborates own solutions. The aim of our study to present the method of TBI developed in our department, and to discuss the results of treatment with respect of early and late toxicity. Between 11.2000 and 08.2004, 23 patients were with fractionated TBI at the Department of Radiotherapy of the M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw (MSCMCC). Conditioning chemotherapy and BMT were performed in different hematological departments. All patients were irradiated with a total midline dose of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over 3 consecutive days. Doses to the lung did not exceed 11 Gy. The TBI method used in our department was evaluated over a few years. The following modifications have been introduced to the previously applied technique: change of photon energy 6 MV to 15 MV; increase of lung dose from 9 Gy to 11 Gy; the use of an individual bolus as a lung compensator in lateral fields; more frequent boost irradiation of the mediastinum and legs with small fields; calculations of Monitor Units based on dosimetric data. Boost irradiation of chest wall with electrons been abandoned. Median follow up was 12 months. Up till now, 17/23 patients are alive, of these 16 with no relapse. Immediate toxicity was low. Early complications were observed during the first 6 months after BMT in 11 patients. In the case of 4 patients these complications were fatal. Late complications were observed in 10 patients, including chronic GVHD and hormone disturbance. Only one patient had developed the first symptoms of cataract. In one case Lhermitte's syndrome was observed. One patient died due to liver insufficiency. The results of treatment and the complications rates in patients treated with TBI at our department are consistent with those published in literature. We conclude that

  3. In vivo dosimetry study of semi-conductors EPD-20 in total body irradiation technique; Etude de la dosimetrie in vivo par semi-conducteurs EPD-20 dans les conditions de l'irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, M.; Kochbati, L.; Ben Abdennabi, A.; Abdessaied, S.; Salem, L.; Frikha, H.; Nasr Ben Ammar, C.; Hentati, D.; Gargouri, W.; Messai, T.; Benna, F.; Maalej, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut superieur des technologies medicales de Tunis, Dept. de biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Farhat, L. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work was the study of in vivo dosimetry performed in a series of 54 patients receiving total body irradiation (T.B.I.) at the Salah-Azaiz Institute of Tunis since 2004. In vivo dosimetry measurements were compared to analytically calculated doses from monitor units delivered. Patients and method: The irradiation was conducted by a linear accelerator (Clinac 1800, Varian, Palo Alto, USA) using nominal X-rays energies of 6 MV and 18 MV, depending on the thickness of the patient at the abdomen. The dose was measured by semi-conductors p-type E.P.D.-20. These diodes were calibrated in advance with an ionization chamber 'P.T.W. Farmer' type of 0.6 cm{sup 3} and were placed on the surface of plexiglas phantom in the same T.B.I. conditions. A study of dosimetric characteristics of semi-conductors E.P.D.-20 was carried out as a function of beam direction and temperature. Afterwards, we conducted a comparative analysis of doses measured using these detectors during irradiation to those calculated retrospectively from monitor units delivered to each patient conditioned by T.B.I.. Results: Experience showed that semi-conductors are sensitive to the angle of beam radiation (0-90 degrees) and the temperature (22-40 Celsius degrees). The maximum variation is respectively 5 and 7%, but in our irradiation conditions these correction factors are less than 1%. The analysis of the results of the in vivo dosimetry had shown that the ratio of the average measured doses and analytically calculated doses at the abdomen, mediastinum, right lung and head are 1.005, 1.007, 1.0135 and 1.008 with a standard deviation 'type A' respectively of 3.04, 2.37, 7.09 et 4.15%. Conclusion: In vivo dosimetry by semi-conductors is in perfect agreement with dosimetry by calculation. However, in vivo dosimetry using semiconductors is the only technique that can reflect the dose actually received instantly by the patient during T.B.I. given the many factors

  4. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation; Indicadores bioquimicos y hematologicos en un modelo de irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P; Perez, M R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barboza, M [Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Luchetta, P; Longoni, H; Sorrentino, M; Robison, A [Hospital Naval Pedro Mallo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-07-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de un estudio multiparametrico realizado en pacientes sometidos a irradiacion corporal total (ICT) a fin de evaluar al aplicabilidad de ciertos indicadores bioquimicos y hematologicos en personas accidentalmente sobreexpuestas a radiaciones ionizantes. El trabajo se realizo en pacientes incluidos en un protocolo de irradiacion terapeutica (12 Gy / 4 dias) previo a un transplante de medula osea (TMO). Se tomaron muestras secuenciales de sangre periferica hasta el alta del paciente. Se evaluaron: a

  5. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization

  6. Genistein protects against biomarkers of delayed lung sequelae in mice surviving high-dose total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.M.; Barshishat-Kupper, M.; Mog, S.R.; Mccart, E.A.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60 Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment+Sham (NC), Vehicle+Sham (VC), Genistein+Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle+Radiation (VR), Genistein+Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13-28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. (author)

  7. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  8. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  9. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  10. A pilot study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ondansetron and granisetron in fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Cassoni, A.M. [Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The duration of the antiemetic effect of granisetron was examined in a pilot study of patients (n = 26) undergoing a standard emetogenic stimulus in the form of total body irradiation fractionated over 3-4 days, in a randomized comparison with twice-daily ondansetron. A single intravenous dose of granisetron at the onset of therapy was effective over the entire follow-up period in 50% (6/12) of patients, compared with 77% (10/13) prescribed twice-daily oral ondansetron for 3 or 4 days. The response rate within the first 24 hours from the start of irradiation was 67% (8/12) for granisetron and 77% (10/13) for ondansetron. Granisetron and ondansetron was therefore of similar efficacy within the first 24-hour period, but granisetron was less efficaceous more than 24 hours after the onset of therapy. Patients who required a second dose of granisetron did so at intervals of 12, 42, 47 and 48 hours following the first fraction of radiotherapy. The cost per patient in this study was 48 for granisetron and {sub 1}54 for ondanestron, but the dose scheduling we used cannot be recommended in view of the lower effectiveness of granisetron. (author).

  11. A pilot study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ondansetron and granisetron in fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Cassoni, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The duration of the antiemetic effect of granisetron was examined in a pilot study of patients (n = 26) undergoing a standard emetogenic stimulus in the form of total body irradiation fractionated over 3-4 days, in a randomized comparison with twice-daily ondansetron. A single intravenous dose of granisetron at the onset of therapy was effective over the entire follow-up period in 50% (6/12) of patients, compared with 77% (10/13) prescribed twice-daily oral ondansetron for 3 or 4 days. The response rate within the first 24 hours from the start of irradiation was 67% (8/12) for granisetron and 77% (10/13) for ondansetron. Granisetron and ondansetron was therefore of similar efficacy within the first 24-hour period, but granisetron was less efficaceous more than 24 hours after the onset of therapy. Patients who required a second dose of granisetron did so at intervals of 12, 42, 47 and 48 hours following the first fraction of radiotherapy. The cost per patient in this study was 48 for granisetron and 1 54 for ondanestron, but the dose scheduling we used cannot be recommended in view of the lower effectiveness of granisetron. (author)

  12. Central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation of photons using a Computed Radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Rivero, A.; Caballero Pinelo, R.; Gonzalez Perez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To propose and evaluate a method for the central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of photons using images obtained through a Computed Radiography (CR) system. It was used the Computed Radiography (Fuji) portal imaging cassette readings and correlate with measured of absorbed dose in water using 10 x 10 irradiation fields with ionization chamber in the 60 Co equipment. The analytical and graphic expression is obtained through software 'Origin8', the TBI patient portal verification images were processed using software ImageJ, to obtain the patient dose. To validate the results, the absorbed dose in RW3 models was measured with ionization chamber with different thickness, simulating TBI real conditions. Finally it was performed a retrospective study over the last 4 years obtaining the patients absorbed dose based on the reading in the image and comparing with the planned dose. The analytical equation obtained permits estimate the absorbed dose using image pixel value and the dose measured with ionization chamber and correlated with patient clinical records. Those results are compared with reported evidence obtaining a difference less than 02%, the 3 methods were compared and the results are within 10%. (Author)

  13. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  14. Técnicas de análisis de tendencias en mediciones espectrales y de nivel total de parámetros de diagnóstico // Trend analysis techniques in spectral and total level mensurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Penabad Sanz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestra la implementación del análisis de tendencia, como tecnología predictiva, a través de laestadística matemática y su utilización en mediciones de parámetros de diagnóstico tanto espectral como de nivel total. Elempleo de esta tecnología resulta de gran importancia debido a que permite pronosticar el momento de fallo, según elcomportamiento de los niveles de los parámetros medidos, lo cual facilita la gestión del mantenimiento.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, análisis de tendencia, medición espectral, medición de nivel total, pronósticode fallo, vibraciones.______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article is shown the implementation of the trend analysis, as predictive technology, through the mathematical statisticand its use in spectral and total level mensurations of diagnosis parameters. The use of this technology has a great importancebecause it allows to predict the failure moment, according to the behavior of the levels of measured parameters, that whichfacilitates the administration of the maintenance.Key words: maintenance, tendency analysis, spectral mensuration, total level mensuration, failure presage,vibrations, diagnosis.

  15. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body's lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system's response to the range of body weights (65-160 kg) and body fat distributions (25-60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss. (author)

  16. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  17. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  18. Single dose total lymphoid irradiation combined with cyclophosphamide as immunosuppression for human marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kersey, J.H.; Khan, F.M.; Sewchand, W.; Ramsey, N.; Krivit, W.; Coccia, P.; Nesbit, M.E.; Levitt, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    Six patients with aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation following conditioning with high dose cyclophosphamide and single dose total lymphoid irradiation with 750 rad, 26 rad/min at the midplane of the patient. They all received bone marrow from human leukocyte antigens/mixed lymphocyte culture (HLA/MLC) matched siblings. Five of 6 patients were alive without complications at 12, 11, 7, 4 and 4 months respectively. The remaining patient died from sepis which he had prior to transplantation. There were no graft rejection, graft-vs-Host Disease (GVHD) or interstitial pneumonitis among these patients. The procedure was well tolerated with minimal side effects. The results will be compared with those of groups whose bone marrow was previously transplanted with different immunosuppressive methods

  19. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  20. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  1. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  2. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation for patients with severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, N.K.; Kim, T.H.; McGlave, P.; Goldman, A.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Krivit, W.; Woods, W.G.; Kersey, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A preparative regimen, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide, was utilized in 40 patients with severe aplastic anemia undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation. This regimen was successful in decreasing rejection in these previously transfused patients, as only one patient rejected the marrow graft. Twenty-nine of the 40 transplanted patients are surviving from 1.5 to 59 mo, with a median follow-up of 24 mo. The actuarial survival rate for these heavily transfused patients with aplastic anemia is 72% at 2 yr. This preparative regimen is extremely effective in decreasing rejection following transplantation for severe aplastic anemia. Future efforts in this area must be aimed at the elimination of graft-versus-host disease and control of fatal infections

  4. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  5. Prognosis and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, Diana; Perez, Maria del R.; Gisone, Pablo; Barboza, Marcos; Sorrentino, Miguel; Robinson, Anibal

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipo peroxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increases on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1,83 μM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 μM, range 0.36-1.84) (p<0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipo peroxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 μM, range 0.31-4.50) (p<0.05). Starting from the 3rd. post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 μM (range 0.21-1.48) (p<0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 μM (range 0.11-1.48) for the 4th. week (p<0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p<0.001). An increase of plasma lipo peroxides on days 12-14 post transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. (author)

  6. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung

  7. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI fo